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Organizational Behavior in Indian Army Introduction

This article is about the post-independence Indian Army. For British Indian Army, see British Indian Army. For Indian National Army, see Indian National Army.

Indian Army


New Delhi History and traditions Indian military history British Indian Army Indian National Army Army Day (15th January) Equipment Equipment of the Indian Army Components Regiments Personnel The Indian Army (Bharatiya Thalsena) is one of the armed forces of India and has the responsibility for land-based military operations. Its primary objectives include maintaining the peace and security of the country, patrolling the borders and conducting counter-terrorist operations. It also conducts rescue and Chief of Army Staff Ranks and insignia

humanitarian operations during calamities and disturbances, and has frequently been called upon to maintain the internal security of the country. The Indian Army has a total troop strength of around 2.5 million (1.3 million active and 1.2 million reserve) and is the third largest standing army in the world. It is a completely voluntary service, with a clause that only entry is voluntary - the military draft never having been imposed in India. Indian Army is one of the major contributors to various United Nation missions. The army has rich combat experience in diverse terrains, considering India's diversity on this front, and also has a distinguished history of serving in United Nations peacekeeping operations. The force is headed by the Chief of Army Staff, currently General Deepak Kapoor. The highest rank in the Indian Army is Field Marshal, but it is an honorary rank[1] and appointments are made by the President of India - on the advice of the Union Cabinet of Ministers - only in exceptional circumstances. Late General S.H.F.J. Manekshaw and the late General K.M. Cariappa are the only two officers to have attained this rank. Though a Field Marshal is an honorary rank, the officer is held to 'never retire'. and are entitled to uniform and flag as applicable to serving (active duty) officers throughout life.


One of the key elements to any succes .

This article deals with the modern day Indian Army. For the army before Independence in 1947, please see British Indian Army, Indian National Army. Upon British India Indian gaining Army was
Triservices Crest. Military Man Power Total armed forces 2,414,700 (Ranked 3rd) Active troops Total troops 1,414,000 (Ranked 3rd) 3,773,300 (Ranked 6th) 1,089,700 Emblem

independence in 1947, the divided into two parts to serve the newly created nations of Union of India and Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Most units went to India, four Gurkha regiments

were Paramilitary forces

Indian Army Indian Air Force Indian Navy Indian Coast Guard

transferred to the British Army, and the rest of the Gurkha regiments went to India.


[edit] The First Kashmir Paramilitary forces of India


Strategic Nuclear Command History Military history of India Ranks Air Force ranks and insignia of India Army ranks and insignia of India Naval ranks and insignia of India

Main article: Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 Almost immediately after independence, tensions between India and Pakistan began to boil over. And the first of three full-scale wars between the two nations broke out over the then princely state of Kashmir. Upon the Maharaja of Kashmir's reluctance to accede to either India or Pakistan, an impatient Pakistan sponsored a 'tribal' invasion of parts of Kashmir. The men are alleged by India to have also included Pakistan army regulars. Soon after, Pakistan sent in its troops to annex the state. The Maharaja, Hari Singh, appealed to India, and to Lord Mountbatten -- the Governor General -- for help, but it was pointed out to him that India saw no reason to do so. He signed the Instrument of Accession and Kashmir unilaterally acceded to India (a decision ratified by Britain but never accepted by Pakistan). Immediately after, Indian troops were airlifted into Srinagar and repelled the invaders. This contingent included General Thimayya who distinguished himself in the operation and in the later years became a Chief of the Indian Army. An intense war was waged across the state and former comrades found themselves fighting each other. Both sides made some territorial gains and also suffered significant losses An uneasy UN sponsored peace returned by the end of 1948 with Indian and Pakistani soldiers facing each other directly on the Line of Control, which has since divided Indian from Pakistani-held Kashmir. Tensions between India and Pakistan, largely over Kashmir, have never since been entirely eliminated.

[edit] Indian Army participation in UN peace-keeping operations

Presently, the Indian army has dedicated one brigade of troops to the UN's standby arrangements. The large number of sustained troop commitments India has come in for much praise for taking part in difficult operations for prolonged periods. The Indian Army has participated in several UN peace-keeping operations, including the ones in Angola, Cambodia, Cyprus, Congo, El Salvador, Namibia, Lebanon, Liberia, Mozambique, Rwanda, Somalia & Vietnam. The army also provided a paramedical unit to facilitate the withdrawal of the sick and wounded in Korea.

Indian Army soldiers arrive in Korea in September 1953 for peacekeeping along the neutral buffer zone sful organization is the people in positions of leadership. A survey among Fortune 500 companies revealed some interesting things about people who had been placed in leadership positions. It was discovered that all of the surveyed managers initially possessed the same basic abilities. What was revealing was that those who did not make it to the top rung of the ladder were considered insensitive, aloof, and arrogant by others. It is strange in light of this fact that most companies today still consider front line workers as mindless drones, a disposable resource, and it is not uncommon for the turnover rate to be 100% or higher in many stores, hotels, and restaurants. Such rates makes team building almost impossible to achieve.

[edit] The Kargil Operation in 1999

Main article: Kargil War In mid 1999, Kashmiri insurgents and Pakistan military personnel took control of some deserted, but strategic, Himalayan heights in Indian-administered Kashmir. These had either been vacated by the Indian army during the onset of inhospitable winter and were supposed to come back in spring. The 'Mujahideen' with the help of Pakistani army took control of several key areas before the military personnel would have occupied it. Some of such heights overlooking the vital Srinagar-Leh highway, Batalik, Dras and the strategic Tiger Hill.On further verification ,it was found out that the invaders were mainly part of the Pakistani army . These invaders had their Pakistan army ID which supported these findings. Meanwhile, the Indian Navy also readied itself for an attempted blockade of Pakistani ports to cut off supply routes. Later, the then-Prime Minister of Pakistan Nawaz Sharif disclosed that Pakistan was left with just six days of fuel to sustain itself if a full-fledged war had broken out. Many believed that

Pakistan would employ a nuclear strike. President Clinton asked for a full and complete withdrawal without pre-conditions from Kargil and also warned him that there could be no quid pro quo, no hint that America was rewarding Pakistan for its aggression, nor for threatening its nuclear arsenal at India. Finding Pakistan isolated internationally Nawaz Sharif requested US President Bill Clinton to stop the Indian counter attack. Washington wanted Pakistan to admit its transgression and withdraw behind the LoC.[3] Two months into the conflict, Indian troops had slowly regained virtually all lost territories. Heavy damage was inflicted on Pakistan's army, particularly its Northern light infantry.[4] Following the Washington accord on July 4, where Sharif agreed to withdraw the Pakistan-backed troops, most of the fighting came to a gradual halt. However, some of the militants still holed up did not wish to retreat, and the United Jihad Council - an umbrella for fifteen jihadi groups operating in Kashmir rejected Nawaz Sharif's plan for a climb-down, instead deciding to fight on.[5] The Indian Army doctrine defines the role of the Indian Army as - "The Indian Army is the land component of the Indian Armed Forces which exist to uphold the ideals of the Constitution of India. As a major component of national power, along with the Indian Navy and the Indian Air Force, the roles of the Indian Army are as follows :

Primary Role: Preserve national interests and safeguard sovereignty, territorial integrity and unity of India against any external threats by deterrence or by waging war. Secondary Role: Assist Government agencies to cope with proxy war and other internal threats and provide aid to civil authority when requisitioned for the purpose."[2]

A New Tend of Enlightenment in Management:
Successful leadership is now beginning to recognize that the employee is the most valuable asset they have. Without motivated employees the product or service they have to offer is not going to be very successful in the marketplace. Recent surveys reveal that pay is not the most important thing in "job satisfaction." Personal satisfaction, feeling appreciated, and a feeling of doing something worth while all out rank pay as the reason employees stay in their present job. An example of the new outlook of a company toward it's troops would be that of India's Cadet Uniform Service. Cadet's executives have successfully addressed the problems of employee turnover. Cadet's annual growth for the last 20 years has averaged 22% per year. The customer defection rate is less

than 1%. The employee turnover rate is now at 7%. A spokesman for Cadet said that: "The jobs we do aren't so special. The pay is good, but it's not great. The main thing we have to sell to employees is the culture of the organization."

A. Clear Message to the Guard

In many ways there is a definite advantage in belonging to an all voluntary service. Everyone who joins wants to be there -- at least initially. Our ranks are filled by those who have had Federal or National Guard service or they have had close ties to the military forces with other family members. A quick look at our assets: 1. We are staffed by people who are patriotic and want to express or demonstrate that patriotism through service to the state or community. 2. We are staffed by people who want to be part of a military organization. They like to wear a military uniform. They like the camaraderie, the discipline, and the feeling of order. 3. We are staffed, for the most part, by people who wish to show gratitude for the freedom and liberty that we enjoy as Americans. 4. The basic ingredients are present to make this the greatest conceivable organization of it's kind.

What Kind of Leaders Do Volunteers Deserve to Have?

Our troops are all volunteers to an organization which has a valid mission and they usually volunteer for valid, noble, and legitimate reasons! What should they be able to expect from the leaders of an organization to which they give their time, and in many cases, a considerable amount of money?

WORDS AND BEHAVIOR: Officers should always; A. Praise subordinates for hard work and faithfulness.

As the superior officer you have the opportunity, authority, and duty to praise those who serve under your command when they act in a praiseworthy manner. The key to success in command is giving praise and guidance to others.

B. Commend and reward praiseworthy action in subordinates.

It is a complement to you as well when someone under your command is worthy of a reward. You should rejoice when your subordinates are recognized by others. Petty jealousy or resentment at the good fortune of others is unbecoming in an officer. It may be tough to reward people for hard work and faithfulness if you do not particularly like them -- but you must treat them fairly. If they are good at their jobs, do their duty, and are a credit to the unit -- reward them. Reward their action, not their personality. Remember, the demonstration of power and authority is in giving rewards not in withholding them.

C. Avoid vulgarity and profanity.

The use of such language in the presence of seniors or subordinates leads to a loss of respect. Foul language and lewd jokes are not a sign of good breeding and good manners. You should set the tone of moral, as well as military, leadership. The three basic things which have the most "social" impact, and which should serve as starting points for building trust among subordinates are: following the chain of command, avoiding gossip, and developing true comradeship.

D.Chain of command.
In giving orders, or requesting permission, the jumping of an echelon of command is to he avoided at all times. This holds true whether the information or request is being passed up or down the chain of command. This is a sign of disrespect for the person being skipped. You cannot expect subordinates to follow the chain of command if they observe you going outside of the chain of command yourself.


Avoid being known as a "gossip". Do not strive to be an information merchant. You should be frank and honest in, and about, your communication. It is appropriate to use "I am not at liberty to say," or "I don't know" to requests for information which should be passed along by senior officers. Don't tear the organization down with gossip or rumors!

Style of leadership



THE LEADER TURNS OVER RESPONSIBILITY FOR DECISION-MAKING AND PROBLEMSOLVING TO SUBORDINATES. These leadership styles are very different yet each can be effective with the right target audience. In fact, what will work with one group might not work with another. Leadership and the One Minute Manager also points out that "there is nothing so unequal as the

equal treatment of unequal." We must get across the idea that the performance of our troops does make a difference. People loose their interest and commitment only after they realize that their performance doesn't make a difference.

In an effort to ensure that people can know that their performance does make a difference leadership should work to ensure discipline and morale. Lists two things which are essential for discipline in a military organization. First, the leader must be careful that orders are militarily correct and capable of execution by subordinates. Secondly, the leader must ensure by observation that orders are meticulously complied with by each individual. One of the most difficult things for an officer to do, especially in an organization consisting of volunteers, is to exercise discipline. There are certain things which an officer can and must do if he/she is to maintain order and unit cohesion. It is the duty and responsibility of the commander to insure that discipline is maintained within the unit. That is a part of leadership. Some people may still think of discipline as the old fashion formation where the commander rants and raves for about an hour. I am happy to announce that this concept is now dead and gone in most places. It was ineffective in the past and is now a dangerous practice for many reasons. This is an over simplification of a valid management theory but "it only takes a minute" to give someone praise or a reprimand. If it takes longer than that there is probably something wrong with the "Boss." A careful reading of Putting the One Minute Manager to Work should help solve this problem. The argument of that book is that it should take only a minute to get your point across. The following is a summary of the section dealing with discipline in FM 22-100 (pp. 151-156). As is pointed out in FM 22-100, discipline exists in a unit when the unit is functioning in an orderly, controlled, and dependable way. The forces which drive a disciplined unit come from within that unit. Discipline is based on the character of the leaders and the individual troops. Such a unit deeply values self-discipline. The surest way to develop such a unit is by TRAINING. A leader should be guided by the following principles in order to insure discipline:

1. Ensure that norms which contribute to discipline are established and strengthened. Stress the fact that you must operate on truthfulness and candor. Inform subordinates of the fact that evaluations will be lowered if there is a failure to inform you candidly of a problem which affects unit discipline and cohesion. 2. Set high, yet realistic, standards in all things that relate to the success of your units training. Make sure that these standards are communicated clearly to each individual member.

Consist of.
1. A sustained training program in which every member of his unit knows his job and his place within the organization -- and its importance. 2. The troops must know that the unit as a whole, and each individual within it, will be treated with fairness and objectivity regardless of their role or rank. The senior level officers must know something about human personality, philosophy, and educational methods if he hopes to properly mold "character" in his troops. For example, younger officers must be taught that when one takes an oath to do the "duty" of his commission that duty carries a moral obligation, and the non-performance of that duty is a reflection of a character flaw. Obedience to lawful orders is part of that obligation just as telling the truth on reports and getting them done on time is a part of that duty.

A note about the unavoidable activity called "meetings." As a leader in the State Guard you will spend a considerable amount of time in meetings. A good leader must learn how to conduct an effective meeting. Meetings can serve a very useful purpose and should be used, if used effectively.Expanded on that theme with a check list of principles a leader should adhere to in order to insure having an effective meeting. They are as follows: 1. Write an agenda, with staff input, and stick to it. 2. Have a recorder to write up the minutes.

3. Limit comments by a clear requirement to stick to the subject. 4. Forbid smoking. 5. Start and end the meeting at the announced time. The CO must be on time. That requirement derives from courtesy, but it also saves valuable time. Meetings, in short, should only be held when there is a clear exchange of ideas or information and from which action can be taken.

Leadership and Change: Finding a Starting Point

Most of those who make up our present leadership are excellent people who have had prior military service. They either served as an officer or NCO, or have some sort of supervisory or management jobs in civilian life. Since that is the case they have a great deal to offer in the way of experience. However, everyone assuming a position in a new organization should, to a certain extent, start fresh and be open to the possibility of learning new and better, or more appropriate ways to do things in the new context. It is essential to successful leadership that one learn the ways of the new organization. The "ways of the organization" include, but are not limited to: --- Learning the governing laws and regulations of the organization. --- Learning the people and personalities which have guided the organization to it's present position. --- Learning the reasons for the present laws and regulations and the present position of the organization. --- Learning to be inventive in suggesting ways of improving the organization while living within the rules of the organization. One would expect that the State Guard will be made up of the typical profile of society. In almost any society there will be about ten percent (10%) who are exceptionally hard working, about sixty percent (60%) who will fall in to the average category, and about ten percent (10%) who will fall into the poor achiever category with another twenty percent (20%) who can be molded into the average or low end

of the scale. This will probably be the ratio in which the State Guard receives them. Most people who are willing to belong to a volunteer service will also be willing to follow the rules and regulations of that organization. They just need to be taught what, how, when, and where, however, there are a few people who have no intention of being under authority and must be disciplined before they ruin the morale of the unit as a whole. If they cannot be brought "into the fold" and show a willingness to follow the rules they must be discharged for the good of the whole unit.

Personality In Indian Army introduction

A career as a soldier or an officer requires a special type of personality. The screening tests that the Indian army conducts are primarily designed to check a candidate's personality. More emphasis is laid on the candidate's personality than on his (there is only a Short Service Commission (SSC) for women called the Women's Special Entry Scheme (Officers), all the other posts in the Indian armed forces can only be filled by men) physical abilities. The Services Selection Board (SSB) tries to find out whether a candidate has it in him to handle mental and physical pressure. Since life as a soldier or officer involves combat and the harsh realities of it, there are only a few who can handle such

mental and physical pressure. The tests that the Services Selection Board conducts are not physically very gruelling but are meant to assess the candidate's mental character more than anything else. A successful candidate needs to withstand physical and mental pressure. Even the courses in the National Defence Academy (NDA) or the Indian Military Academy (IMA) test a candidate's ability to handle pressure to an extreme. Punishments (which are the only form of ragging allowed in these institutes) are justified on the basis that they are part of the training - they are meant to build a prospective soldier or officer's ability to withstand and not succumb under physical and mental pressure. . Personality is define as:

External Appearance & Behaviour Or Social Stimulus Value:

Here if we gonna Compare the

concept in terms of army, we can see that the army personnel external appearance is as follows 1. They wear Khakhi clothes a specially designed one for them which is tight fitting 2. We can always fin them in an attention position during their duty

Inner Awareness Of Self As A Permanent Organizing Force :

Here the personnel has a full

awareness about protecting the nation through the assigned duty to him and react according to the post he is being assigned. We find respect, Command following characteristics as we find when they meet their senior officers they salute them.

The Particular Pattern Or Organizational Of Measurable

In this the characteristic of the army we can configure as they are very much active and

Traits, Both Inner And Outer:

posses a strict personality they are very much disciplined and time bound (always in time ) and physically they look strong and bold to take up any challenge to be faced .

So overall we can determine that the army personnel posses a very strict personality and disciplined in their works and coordination is at a maximum level in them. They are very obedient to the orders of their superiors heads give them.

Instructional Objectives.
(a) (b) Organize his thoughts in a logical sequence and express himself Acquire an authentic self-concept thereby to identifying his weakness

systematically in a convincing manner with confidence before an audience. and strong points and working towards overcoming his weakness while reinforcing his strong points. (c) Upgrade his general awareness to acquire a well informed understanding of all matters of general and current interest in the national and international arena. (d) (e) Acquire confidence in the use of reasoning and organizing ability in the Build confidence in facing SSB related tasks. planning and conduct of elementary outdoor tasks and exercises.

The scope of the course covers the following areas:(a) (b) (c) Development of communication skills. Psychological inputs and interaction. Practical and outdoor trg.

(d) (e) (f)


Service ethos, etiquette and social graces. General Knowledge and Current Affairs. Orientation to SSB.

Guidance and Counseling.

Personality test
A personality test aims to describe aspects of a person's character that remain stable throughout that person's lifetime, the individual's character pattern of behavior, thoughts, and feelings. An early model of personality was posited by Greek philosopher/physician Hippocrates. The 20th century heralded a new interest in defining and identifying separate personality types, in close correlation with the emergence of the field of psychology. As such, several distinct tests emerged; some attempt to identify specific characteristics, while others attempt to identify personality as a whole.

example of personality test

The four temperaments as illustrated by Johann Kaspar Lavater Shell shock" redirects here. For other uses, see Shell Shock (disambiguation).

Image from World War I taken in an Australian Dressing Station near Ypres in 1917. The wounded soldier in the lower left of the photo has a dazed, thousand yard stare - a frequent symptom of "shell-shock". Combat stress reaction, in the past commonly known as shell shock or battle fatigue, is a military term used to categorize a range of behaviours resulting from the stress of battle which decrease the combatant's fighting efficiency. The most common symptoms are fatigue, slower reaction times, indecision, disconnection from one's surroundings, and inability to prioritize. Combat stress reaction is generally short-term and should not be confused with acute stress disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, or other long-term disorders attributable to combat stress although any of these may commence as a combat stress reaction. The ratio of stress casualties to battle casualties varies with the intensity of the fighting, but with intense fighting it can be as high as 1:1. In low-level conflicts it can drop to 1:10 (or less). In World War I, shell shock was considered a psychiatric illness resulting from injury to the nerves during combat. The horrors of trench warfare meant that about 10% of the fighting soldiers were killed (compared to 4.5% during World War II) and the total proportion of troops who became casualties (killed or wounded) was 56%. Whether a shell-shock sufferer was considered "wounded" or "sick" depended on the circumstances. The large proportion of World War I veterans in the European population meant that the symptoms were common to the culture, although it may not have become popularly known in the US. Many generals considered those who suffered shell shock to be cowards, and a large number were executed[citation needed]. They were not executed for having shell-shock, they were executed for specific military wartime offenses, such as desertion under fire. The British Army executed a significant number of soldiers for such offenses[citation needed
shape of personality and training
different activities that help to shape and train the personality was given below


White Water Rafting Rappelling, Rock Climbing Artificial rock climbing Valley Crossing Rope Cycling

Lake rafting (building the raft and crossing the river) Treasure hunt (Trekking Day and Night time) Riffle Shooting Pottery Para Sailing Star gazing

Facilities Accommodation in spacious commando tents and AC cottage as well

The debrief sessions made us feel at ease and were facilitated in a non - threatening manner, which made us imbibe the learnings from the O.E.L back to our workplaces. The levels of creativity, enthusiasm, feeling of belonging, supportiveness and empathy were discovered by all the participants. "In our experience of several out bound training, the above through you has been one of the most exciting in terms of variety of events and facilitation."
Outdoor programme is predetermined to meet the set objectives and the activities are designed as per the

composition of the participants. Each participant undergoes activities of intense and real experience under the supervision of outdoor experts of the ZbAC Team, which form the basis of the sharing and the same are powerfully facilitated by OEL trainers using metaphoric transfer technology to derive learnings, which can be applied in their personal and professional spheres.

Enjoy a wide spectrum of adventure sports merely for the love of it. Treks, White Water Rafting, Kayaking, Rappelling, Rock Climbing, Firing, Tenting in Wilderness, Treasure hunts, Stress busters, Adventure Induction programmes and lot more...


Rock Climbing

Valley Crossing

Raft Building

Treasure Hunt

White water rafting

Enjoy memorable business events

Exotic locations Business events amalgamated with quality wilderness experience

Add value to self

Special programmes for kids Childhood learning determines the kind of person and individual shall become

"In our experience of several out bound training, the above through you has been one of the most exciting in terms of variety of events and facilitation."

Z-BAC has a campsite at Sutarwadi village of Kolad, with a perennial lake on one side and a deep valley forest on the other. Accommodation in the jungle campsite is in Spacious Commando Tents with cots and mattresses with attached washrooms. The campsite also has the stone structured conference facility with traditional touch. The experts involved in all the adventure activities are trained. The food and dining facility is very hygienic and homely. Specifically designed stone cottages add color to the serenely peaceful and beautiful camping area. Adventure Possibilities Rappelling, Rock climbing, Valley Crossing, Raft Building, Parasailing, Paragliding Treasure Hunt and White water rafting.


The Army Education Corps (AEC) Training College was initially raised at Belgaum in 1921. It was shifted to its present location at Pachmarhi in 1939. Situate at an altitude of 3400 ft, Pachmarhi is an enchanting hill resort interspersed with streams, lakes, waterfalls and scores of flora fauna. The college is recognized by Barkatullah University, Bhopal and has been granted the status of autonomous college since 1985. The institution imparts training in selected foreign languages to nominated all ranks of the army. It has all the modern facilities and keeps itself abreast with the state of the art technologies and methodologies in conducting such training.

To function as Autonomous college conducting graduate and post-graduate courses and examinations of Barkatullah University, Bhopal. To devise need based educational training packages for the soldiers of the Indian Army and Paramilitary Forces. To create a corpus of able bodied educational and map craft instructors. To be the nodal agency for foreign language training in the Army. To create a corpus of instructors and experts in the field of foreign languages, computer applications and military music.

To function as a nodal centre for Personality Development and Communication Skill enhancement programmers for personnel of the Armed Forces. To create a trainer training facility for optimizing the training import of the trainers of Indian Army. To be the nodal centre for English language training for personnel of Armed Forces from friendly foreign countries.


The Military intelligence School was initially raised on 20 Jan 1941 at Karachi, now in Pakistan, and was later shifted to Pune. The School is responsible for imparting training in intelligence, security, counter intelligence and allied subjects. The school motto Sada Satark, meaning Always Vigilant, is very apt, as is the school's formation sign which signifies the following: The star and the rapier indicate combat intelligence. The black shield represents the security and counter intelligence activities. The silver rays represent the intelligence knowledge concerning the combat intelligence, security, counter intelligence and signal and electronic intelligence.

To impart training in intelligence, counter intelligence and secure

withstand and not succumb under physical and mental pressure.

ty aspects to officers, JCO's and other ranks of all arms. To impart training to selected personnel from the other two Services, Para Military Forces and CPO forces. To impart training on security aspects to personnel from friendly foreign countries

Motivation in Indian army

Motivation gives subordinates the will to do everything they can to accomplish a mission. It results in their acting on their own initiative when they see that something needs to be done. The best military leaders learn the fine art of motivation early on. You have a lot of smart people in the military, and you cant just order them to take a hill. You have to tell them why theyre taking the hill and get them to want to do it, says Col. Patterson. Major Nate Allen says: The military is definitely a different environment, but people are people. They dont want to be managed. They want to be led. They want to understand what theyre doing and why. There are different kind of theory of motivation that was given below:1. Maslow theory 2. Herzberg (two factor theory) 3. theory x 4. theory y 5. theory z 6. vroom expectancy theory of motivation 7. maturity and immaturity theory From the above only few theories were used in Indian army that was given below: In army there exist theory x it given by Douglas McGregor .for example we found that if any mission is declared the soldiers have to kept continues watch on the different situation they have tend to fulfilling his duty even they have no time for their own work. They have to do their work day and night without arguing because there is autocrative leadership in it. For these reason there may came chances of disliking their work, feeling of emotion, leisure, avoiding their work etc. for that the leader take punitive action into consideration to take work from the soldiers. A leader does not take it consideration about their liking, needs, their satisfaction etc.

Different punitive action was given below:

Punitive action like standing for whole days by holding the heavy gun.

Punishment is given for the collection of the paper work Many other like resignation, fire for 5 days, taking 50 round of the ground by holding the gun etc

Here leader guidance is strictly followed because there is centralization in delegation of authority and responsibility. Second theory is used that is theory y that is also given by George in the theory there is decentralization of authority and responsibility. Here work is allotted to the different soldiers according to his ability. As we find in the army that different soldiers have their different work like some one has to stand as a guard outside the office of the military, some person involved in completing the target that is given to them, some involve in secret mission etc . These all work is given according to the ability of the person here there is no forcefully action is taken by the leader, as all the soldiers were able to complete their own task.

Third theory that is used in army that is theory z. these theory said that the person should self motivated from the different situation. For example in the army the soldiers is motivated by their attachment towards the other person, towards their work, their loyalty towards the organization etc. this thing is only possible when the person have positive attitude and have satisfied with their own work.

Forth theory is the theory is the vroom expectancy theory of motivation. In it is said that expectancy is based on the idea that work effort is directed towards the behavior that people believe will lead to the desired outcome. in army every soldiers has make their different efforts to achieve their appropriate result so for that they have to take different situation in the positive manner, their behavior towards the work should be positive then only they get expected result. Today also it is found that many soldiers in the army have their negative approaches towards their work their might be due to heavy burden, leisure, jealousy, fear of loosing their life, fear about their family Etc.. Thus these are the important theory used in the army for the motivational purpose.

There is some Picture Related to Indian Army. These indicate how they motivate, take leadership and also indicate how they work as a team.

Above picture indicate Leadership. One army man take leadership and give task to all soldier. And also give responsibility to all soldiers.

Above picture indicate Team work and Achievement.

Above picture indicate motivation. The person in this picture who received reward he is a motivated person. Give appreciation whatever he done. And this type of appreciation and reward person become self motivate.