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present tense to be

example : I am mario He is my friend It is a book She is a nurse You are my teacher We are students

Present tense to be affirmative form

Long form Singular

I am mario You are my teacher He is my friend She is a nurse It is a book

We are students They are doctors You are carpenters

Contraction Form

Subjet + verb Singular Im Youre Hes Shes Its Plural Were Theyre Youre


Mario my teacher my friend a nurse a book

students doctors carpenters

Contraction Form
singular Im Youre Hes Shes Its plural Were Theyre


Present tense to be negative form

Long form Singular Subjet Verb+not complement I am not sad you are not at home He is not in the classroom She is not a secretary It is not a dictionary Plural subjet verb+not complement We are not at the bank They are not at the garage You are not at the hospital

Contraction form
Singular Im not sad You arent at home He isnt in the classroom she isnt a secretary It isnt a dictionary Plural

We arent at the bank They arent at the garage You arent at the hospital

Exercise 1. It ( isnt , arent) a very big tree. 2. He ( isnt , arent) my friend. 3. The car ( isnt , arent) red. 4. The girls ( isnt , arent) happy. 5. The flags ( isnt , arent) yellow and pink. 6. That dog ( isnt , arent) big and black. 7. The desk ( isnt , arent) old. 8. My mother ( isnt , arent) tall. 9. It ( isnt , arent) a typist. 10. you ( isnt , arent) happy.

change the underlined word, using pronouns and make a sentence afirmative and negative. Example: Sammy is Happy. He is happy. He isnt happy.

The babies are at home. they are at home.

they arent at home.

1. My brothers are in the Garden. They are in the Garden. They arent in the Garden. 2. Susan and Beth are in the car. They are in the car. They arent in the car. 3. The students are in the bookstore. They are in the bookstore. They arent in the bookstore. 4. The book is on the desk. It is on the desk. It isnt on the desk. 5. Danny and Joel are at school. They are at school. They arent at school. 6. Tom Cruise is handsome. He is handsome. He isnt handsome. 7. Ronald is in the hospital. He is in the hospital. He isnt in the hospital 8. The baby is beautiful. He is beautiful.

He isnt beautiful. 9. That lady is my teacher. She is my teacher. She isnt my teacher. 10. Arnold and Stallone are friends. They are Friends. They arent friends.

Short = corto Thin = delgada Little = pequeo Ugly = Feo Yellow = amarillo Three = 3 Small = pequeo Tall = alto Big = grande Long = largo Large = grande, extenso Wide = ancho Square = cuadrado Sharp =afilado Narrow = Estrecho, angosto Bored = aburrido

Tired = cansado Happy = feliz New = nuevo Sick = enfermo Lost = perdido Low = ley Thick = Grueso High = alto, elevado Light = luz Thristy = sediento Beautiful = precioso Clean = limpio Dirty = sucio Dangerous = peligroso Crowded = abarrotado, atestado , lleno de actividades Modern = moderno Safe = seguro Friendly = amigable Paceful = pacifico Poor = pobre Unhappy = infeliz Upset = disgustado Rich = rico Unfriendly = no amigable Old = viejo


Definite and Indefinite Articles

the denite article " THE" means, el, la, los, las, it can be used with a plural or singular noun. example: The bicycle is new. The house is near. The cars are expensive.

The indefinite article is used only with singular nouns. A and AN, means un, una, uno, and A is used if a noun begins with a consonat. Example: a fish a dog a ruler a dictionary a fly

An is used eight with a noun that begins with a vowel. Example: an airplane an egg an ice cream

an orange an umbrella

Exercise Read the noun, then write A or An before it. 1. a pencil 2. a map 3. an egg 4. a pen 5. an hour 6. a notebook 7. an American 8. a door 9. an apple 10. an omelet


A ei B bi C ci D di Ei

F ef G yi H eich I ai J yei K key L el M em N en O ou P pi Q kiu R ar S es T ti U ui V vi W dobliu X ex Y uai Z zid



plural of nouns
to form plural nouns we can: add "s" Singular a shool a book an apple Plural school books apples

Write the plural of the following nouns. 1. a building = buildings 2. a pencil = penscils

3. a table = tables 4. a friend = friends 5. a flower = flowers 6. a student = students 7. an eraser = erasers 8. a teacher = teachers 9. an elephant = elephants 10. a girl = girls

If a noun ends wirh ch, sh, s and X we can add "ES".

a church = churches a wrist watch = weist watches a dish = dishes a box = boxes a bus = buses

If a noun ends in Y we can change the "Y" into "I" an add "ES".

a library = libraries a secretary = secretaries a dictionary = dictionaries

But if a noun ends in "Y" and it is preceded by a vowel,

we can add "S".

a boy = boys a key = keys a trolley = trolleys

if a nooun ends in "O" but is preceded by a consonant we can add "ES".

a hero = heroes a potato = potatoes a mosquito = mosquitoes a volcano = volcanoes

but if a noun ends in "O" but it is proceded by a vowel we can add "S".
a radio = radios a shoe = shoes a zoo = zoos

A noun that ends in "F" or "EF" we can change it into "ves".

a half = halves

a knife = knives a life = lives

sheef = sheeves wolf = wolves hoof = hooves

There are some irregular nouns, we have to learn them because they change their written form when we change into plural.

a child = children a person = people an ox = oxen a man = men a foot = fut a woman = women a goose = geese a tooth = teeth a mouse = mice

Demostrative Adjectives
They are used to indicate if something is near or far away


Afirmative form impersonal THIS THAT Verb is is Complement a pencil a ruler

Plural Impersonal Subject These Those Verb are are Complement books flowers

The demostrative sentences

Example: Negative form This is not a car This isnt a house Interrogative form Is this a car? Are this flowers

Change into negative the following sentences.

1. This is a notebook = this is not a notebook 2. That is a car = that isnt a car 3. These are pens = these are not pens 4. Those are ruler = those arent ruler

5. That is a book = that isnt a book 6. This is an English book = this is not an English book 7. These are erasers = these are not erasers 8. Those are calendars = those are not calendars 9. This is a library = this is not a library 10. that is a school = that isnt a school

Change into interrogative form

1. This is my friend = is this my friend? 2. That is a pen = is that a pen? 3. These are dictionaries = are these dictionaries? 4. Those are libraries = are those libraries? 5. This is a car = is this a car? 6. That is a building = is that a building? 7. These are new car = are these a new car? 8. Those are English books = are those English books? 9. This is a chair = is this a chair? 10. That is a blackboard = is that a blackboard?

Question with what using demonstratives.

To answer the question using this, that, there or those, also you can use this, that, these, and those to answer them.

Answer the following question.

0. What are these? These are oranges 1. What are these? These are flowers 2. What is this? It is my make up 3. What are those? Those are shoes 4. What is that? That is my car 5. What are these? These are potatoes 6. What is this? This is my dog 7. What is that? That is an apple tree 8. What are these? These are my classmates 9. What are those? Those are books 10. What is this? This is my lunch

Practice writing question and answer. 0.

What is this? This is a pencil

1. What is that? That is a pen 2. What is this? This is a flag 3. What are those? Those are airplanes 4. What are these? These are my home works 5. What is this? This is my hair brush

Past tense to be affirmative form