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K.G.R.L College Of P.G courses Bhimavaram
A.V.V.Satyanarayan a II M.C.A – IV semester Regd.no: 50908046
Cloud computing logical diagram A technical definition is "a computing capability that provides an abstraction between the computing resource and its underlying technical architecture (e. These services are broadly divided into three categories: Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS). The term cloud is used as a metaphor for the Internet..Cloud computing ABSTRACT Cloud computing is a general term for anything that involves delivering hosted services over the Internet. servers.. software and information are provided to computers and other devices on-demand. . and it typically involves the provision of dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources as a service over the Internet. as well as improved access to high-speed Internet and a weak economy.a user can have as much or as little of a service as they want at any given time.g. expertise in. The name cloud computing was inspired by the cloud symbol that's often used to represent the Internet in flow charts and diagrams. have accelerated interest in cloud computing. typically by the minute or the hour.Cloud computing describes a new supplement. It is a paradigm shift following the mainframe and client-server shifts that preceded it. Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS). Typical cloud computing providers deliver common business applications online which are accessed from a web browser. while the software and data are stored on servers. consumption and delivery model for IT services based on the Internet. enabling convenient. It is sold on demand. networks). and the service is fully managed by the provider (the consumer needs nothing but a personal computer and Internet access). A cloud service has three distinct characteristics that differentiate it from traditional hosting. storage. based on the cloud drawing used in the past to represent the telephone network . Introduction: Cloud computing is Internet-based computing. whereby shared resources. Significant innovations in virtualization and distributed computing. like electricity. or control over the technology infrastructure "in the cloud" that supports them. It is a byproduct and consequence of the ease-of-access to remote computing sites provided by the Internet. it is elastic -. and later to depict the Internet in computer network diagrams as an abstraction of the underlying infrastructure it represents. Details are abstracted from the users who no longer have need of.
industry and consumer statistics. loosely coupled computers acting in concert to perform very large tasks" • Mainframe — powerful computers used mainly by large organizations for critical applications. He argues that the cloud computing paradigm shift is similar to the displacement of electricity generators by electricity grids early in the 20th century. but should not be confused with: • Autonomic computing — "computer systems capable of self-management". and financial transaction processing. whereas others bill on a subscription basis. A side-effect of this approach is that overall computer usage rises dramatically. like electricity) or subscription (time-based. Other benefits of this time sharing-style approach are low barriers to entry. . "increased high-speed bandwidth" makes it possible to receive the same response times from centralized infrastructure at other sites. as servers are not unnecessarily left idle (which can reduce costs significantly while increasing the speed of application development). and the services are often covered by service level agreements (SLAs) with financial penalties. Commercial offerings are generally expected to meet quality of service (QoS) requirements of customers and typically offer SLAs. They consume resources as a service and pay only for resources that they use.Economics: Cloud computing users can avoid capital expenditure (CapEx) on hardware. Sharing "perishable and intangible" computing power among multiple tenants can improve utilization rates. Consumption is usually billed on a utility (resources consumed. 3. enterprise resource planning. and immediate access to a broad range of applications.Comparisons: Cloud computing derives characteristics from. such as electricity". the strategic importance of information technology is diminishing as it becomes standardized and less expensive.on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. In general."This definition states that clouds have five essential characteristics: on-demand self-service. • Utility computing — the "packaging of computing resources. as customers do not have to engineer for peak load limits. 1. software. which is analogous to how traditional utility services (such as electricity) are consumed. The majority of cloud computing infrastructure. like a newspaper) basis with little or no upfront cost. Clouds often appear as single points of access for all consumers' computing needs. • Client-server – Client-server computing refers broadly to any distributed application that distinguishes between service providers (servers) and service requesters (clients). resource pooling. as of 2009. 2. Many cloud-computing offerings employ the utility computing model. • Grid computing — "a form of distributed computing and parallel computing. such as computation and storage.Characteristics: In general. low management overhead. users can terminate the contract at any time (thereby avoiding return on investment risk and uncertainty). typically bulk data processing such as census. whereby a 'super and virtual computer' is composed of a cluster of networked. broad network access. as a metered service similar to a traditional public utility. consists of reliable services delivered through data centers and built on servers. According to Nicholas Carr. cloud computing customers do not own the physical infrastructure. In addition. rapid elasticity. and measured service. and services when they pay a provider only for what they use. instead avoiding capital expenditure by renting usage from a third-party provider. shared infrastructure and costs.
Architecture: Cloud computing sample architecture Cloud architecture. usually web services. Amazon played a key role in the development of cloud computing by modernizing their data centers after the dot-com bubble. like most computer networks. the company's existing operating costs. and the type of functionality being hosted in the cloud. Other factors impacting the scale of any potential cost savings include the efficiency of a company’s data center as compared to the cloud vendor’s. fast-moving "two-pizza teams" could add new features faster and easier. began offering Virtual Private Network (VPN) services with comparable quality of service but at a much lower cost. who until the 1990s primarily offered dedicated point-to-point data circuits. when John McCarthy opined that "computation may someday be organized as a public utility". the cloud model might not make great fiscal sense. which. they might not save much and might actually pay more for operating expenses. were using as little as 10% of their capacity at any one time just to leave room for occasional spikes. 4. the level of adoption of cloud computing. The actual term "cloud" borrows from telephony in that telecommunications companies. By switching traffic to balance utilization as they saw fit they were able to utilise their overall network bandwidth more effectively.Although companies might be able to save on upfront capital expenditures. Having found that the new cloud architecture resulted in significant internal efficiency improvements whereby small. Complexity is controlled and the resulting systems are more manageable than their monolithic counterparts. the systems architecture of the software systems involved in the delivery of cloud computing. In situations where the capital expense would be relatively small. The cloud symbol was used to denote the demarcation point between that which was the responsibility of the provider from that of the user. Amazon started providing access to their systems through Amazon Web Services on a utility computing basis in 2005. or where the organization has more flexibility in their capital budget than their operating budget. . indeed it shares characteristics with service bureaus that date back to the 1960s. Cloud computing extends this boundary to cover servers as well as the network infrastructure.History: The underlying concept of cloud computing dates back to 1960. This closely resembles the Unix philosophy of having multiple programs each doing one thing well and working together over universal interfaces. 5. typically involves multiple cloud components communicating with each other over application programming interfaces.
In 2007. and consistent and loosely-coupled architectures are constructed using web services as the system interface. Google.g.. etc. Device and location independence enable users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they are using (e. Providers typically log accesses. which makes cloud computing suitable for business continuity and disaster recovery... many major cloud computing services have suffered outages. users can connect from anywhere. As infrastructure is off-site (typically provided by a third-party) and accessed via the Internet. self-service basis near real-time. IBM. and annual basis. Multi-tenancy enables sharing of resources and costs across a large pool of users thus allowing for: Centralization of infrastructure in locations with lower costs (such as real estate. weekly. etc. Furthermore. Reliability improves through the use of multiple redundant sites. and the lack of security for stored kernels. This ostensibly lowers barriers to entry. as infrastructure is typically provided by a third-party and does not need to be purchased for one-time or infrequent intensive computing tasks." 6.. This will enable clients on choosing the vendor cloud on cost and reliability (QoS). Gartner saw an opportunity for cloud computing "to shape the relationship among consumers of IT services. increased security-focused resources. Nonetheless. Maintenance cloud computing applications are easier to maintain.) Peak-load capacity increases (users need not engineer for highest possible load-levels) Utilization and efficiency improvements for systems that are often only 10–20% utilized. without users having to engineer for peak loads. PC. Cost is claimed to be greatly reduced and capital expenditure is converted to operational expenditure. those who use IT services and those who sell them". and a number of universities embarked on a large scale cloud computing research project. mobile). By mid-2008. electricity. Pricing on a utility computing basis is fine-grained with usage-based options and fewer IT skills are required for implementation (in-house). in part because providers are able to devote resources to solving security issues that many customers cannot afford. monthly. Metering cloud computing resources usage should be measurable and should be metered per client and application on daily. Security is often as good as or better than under traditional systems. and IT and business managers can at times do little when they are affected Scalability via dynamic ("on-demand") provisioning of resources on a fine-grained.Layers: . but accessing the audit logs themselves can be difficult or impossible. and observed that " organisations are switching from company-owned hardware and software assets to per-use service-based models" so that the "projected shift to cloud computing . will result in dramatic growth in IT products in some areas and in significant reductions in other areas. One of the most important new methods for overcoming performance bottlenecks for a large class of applications is data parallel programming on a distributed data grid. They are easier to support and to improve since the changes reach the clients instantly.Key features Agility improves with users' ability to rapidly and inexpensively re-provision technological infrastructure resources. 7. but concerns can persist about loss of control over certain sensitive data. since they don't have to be installed on each user's computer. the complexity of security is greatly increased when data is distributed over a wider area and / or number of devices. Performance is monitored. Security could improve due to centralization of data.
in either case. including multi-core processors. software. or that is specifically designed for delivery of cloud services and that. The service is typically billed on a utility computing basis and amount of resources consumed (and therefore the cost) will typically reflect the level of activity. clients instead buy those resources as a fully outsourced service. including architecture. Rather than purchasing servers. It facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers. partnering. as a service. pricing. and management of. often consuming cloud infrastructure and sustaining cloud applications. and management characteristics Centralized feature updating. Deployment models: . operating systems and browsers. Infrastructure Cloud infrastructure services or "Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)" delivers computer infrastructure. 8. not custom) software Activities that are managed from central locations rather than at each customer's site. phones and other devices. commercially available (i. Server The servers layer consists of computer hardware and/or computer software products that are specifically designed for the delivery of cloud services.. Key characteristics include: Network-based access to. Application Cloud application services or "Software as a Service (SaaS)" deliver software as a service over the Internet. Examples include some computers. eliminating the need to install and run the application on the customer's own computers and simplifying maintenance and support. which obviates the need for downloadable patches and upgrades.Client A cloud client consists of computer hardware and/or computer software that relies on cloud computing for application delivery. typically a platform virtualization environment.e. cloud-specific operating systems and combined offerings. multi-tenant architecture) than to a one-to-one model. It is an evolution of virtual private server offerings. Platform Cloud platform services or "Platform as a Service (PaaS)" deliver a computing platform and/or solution stack as a service. enabling customers to access applications remotely via the Web Application delivery that typically is closer to a one-to-many model (single instance. is essentially useless without it. data center space or network equipment.
and thus. They have been criticized on the basis that users "still have to buy. corporate governance. 9. and reliability concerns. can monitor at will. build. Hybrid cloud A hybrid cloud environment consisting of multiple internal and/or external providers "will be typical for most enterprises". and manage them" and as such do not benefit from lower up-front capital costs and less hands-on management. essentially "[lacking] the economic model that makes cloud computing such an intriguing concept". self-service basis over the Internet. Another perspective on deploying a web application in the cloud is using Hybrid Web Hosting. whereby resources are dynamically provisioned on a fine-grained. security and/or policy compliance.Issues Privacy The Cloud model has been criticized by privacy advocates for the greater ease in which the companies hosting the Cloud services control. lawfully or unlawfully. With the costs spread over fewer users than a public cloud (but more than a single tenant) this option is more expensive but may offer a higher level of privacy. via web applications/web services. from an off-site third-party provider who shares resources and bills on a finegrained utility computing basis.Cloud computing types Public cloud Public cloud or external cloud describes cloud computing in the traditional mainstream sense. the . capitalising on data security. By integrating multiple cloud services users may be able to ease the transition to public cloud services while avoiding issues such as PCI compliance. where the hosting infrastructure is a mix between Cloud Hosting for the web server. Examples of community cloud include Google's "Gov Cloud". Community cloud A community cloud may be established where several organizations have similar requirements and seek to share infrastructure so as to realize some of the benefits of cloud computing. Private cloud Private cloud and internal cloud are neologisms that some vendors have recently used to describe offerings that emulate cloud computing on private networks. and Managed dedicated server for the database server. These (typically virtualisation automation) products claim to "deliver some benefits of cloud computing without the pitfalls".
S. the Free Software Foundation released the Affero General Public License. causes uncertainty among privacy advocates. working with AT&T. Instances such as the secret NSA program. resulting in a formal rejection of the trademark application less than a week later. providers such as Amazon still cater to major markets (typically the United States and the European Union) by deploying local infrastructure and allowing customers to select "availability zones. Department of m. In November 2007. Google and Microsoft). HIPAA and SOX in the US. Providers typically make this information available on request. users may have to adopt community or hybrid deployment modes which are typically more expensive and may offer restricted benefits. Amazon.g. Many providers also obtain SAS 70 Type II certification (e. but this has been criticised on the grounds that the hand-picked set of goals and standards determined by the auditor and the auditee are often not disclosed and can vary widely.139. Security The relative security of cloud computing services is a contentious issue which may be delaying its adoption.082) in the United States.communication and data stored between the user and the host company. While there have been efforts (such as US-EU Safe Harbor) to "harmonise" the legal environment. and the greater powers it gives to telecommunication companies to monitor user activity. Verizon and BellSouth. Sustainability Although cloud computing is often assumed to be a form of "green computing". while others argue that cloud providers have a strong incentive to maintain trust and as such employ a higher level of security. Some argue that customer data is more secure when managed internally." Compliance In order to obtain compliance with regulations including FISMA. and open source software has provided the foundation for many cloud computing implementations. which recorded over 10 million phone calls between American citizens.c. The "Notice of Allowance" the company received in July 2008 was cancelled in August. under non-disclosure agreement. Dell applied to trademark the term "cloud computing" (U. Legal In March 2007.a Classwork Seminar . This is how Google are able to "manage and meet additional government policy requirements beyond FISMA" and Rackspace Cloud are able to claim PCI compliance. there is as of yet no published study to substantiate this assumption. the Data Protection Directive in the EU and the credit card industry's PCI DSS. Open source Open standards are critical to the growth of cloud computing. Trademark 77. a version of GPLv3 intended to close a perceived legal loophole associated with free software designed to be run over a network.
no: 50908045 .S.R.K.Satyanarayana II M.C.L College Of P.V.G.G courses Bhimavaram Topic: G.A – IV semester Regd.M Submitted by… A.