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EXPERIMENT IV IMPEDANCE MEASUREMENT Abstract: Impedance measurement methods are introduced and impedances of several electrical components are measured. Preliminary Work

1) Consider the circuit in Fig.1. Propose a method to find the i vs. v characteristics of a resistive element R using the given circuit configuration and CRO. Decide on the probe connections and mode of operation for a grounded output signal source and a floating output signal source.

1 K R

+ v -

Figure 1 2) The Wheatstone bridge circuit shown in Fig.2 is used to measure an unknown resistance R. a i1 R1 i2 R2

vin (t)

b iD i R

D

i3 R3 d Figure 2

The detector D, used to check whether the bridge is balanced, can be an ammeter, a voltmeter or a CRO. When the bridge is balanced, the detector current iD is zero (the balance situation is achieved by adjusting R3). Thus, vab = vac R1 i1 = R2 i2 vbd = vcd R i = R3 i3 i1 = i, i2 = i3

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which yield,

R= R1 R3 R2

3) Consider the circuit of Fig.3. Find the capacitance of the capacitor C in terms of the measured current and voltage values (rms values) and the angular frequency w. +

A Rs +

vin (t) = Vi sin(wt)

Figure 3 4) The capacitance comparison bridge circuit shown in Fig.4 is used to measure an unknown capacitance C and its associated resistance R. a i2 i1 R2 R1 vin (t) = Vi sin(wt) b R3 i3 C3 Figure 4

d

iD

D

R i C

Derive the given expressions for C and R when the bridge is balanced:

C=

R1 C3 , R2

R=

R2 R3 R1

5) Consider the circuit of Fig.5. Find the charge q and the capacitance of the capacitor C in terms of K, R, v2 and vc.

v2 (t ) = K

v ( ) d

t 1

15

iI = 0 + vin (t) R v1 - vc + Figure 5 6) Replace C in Fig.3 by an inductor L whose practical equivalent model is shown in Fig.6 where r is the resistance of turns. Find L in terms of the measured current and voltage values, the angular frequency and the resistance r. L r INTEGRATOR + v2 -

Figure 6 7) The Maxwell bridge circuit shown in Fig.7 is used to measure an unknown inductance L and its resistance of turns. Derive the given expressions for L and r when the bridge is balanced: L = C1 R2 R3 , r= i1 R1 C1 vin (t) b i3 R3 d Figure 7 8) Consider the circuit given in Fig.8. Find the flux and the inductance of the inductor L in terms of K, R, v2 and vR. L, r iD D i c R2 R3 R1 a i2 R2

16

v2 (t ) = K

iI = 0 +

v ( ) d

t 1

vin (t) R - vR +

v1 -

INTEGRATOR

v2 -

Figure 8 9) Consider the circuit given in Fig.9. Propose two methods to obtain the magnitude and the phase of unknown impedance, Z, using DSO. (Hint: Use X-Y and Y-T (time) modes of DSO. Assume that the magnitude of the unknown impedance is much larger than 10 and that the signal generator is grounded output).

1) Adjust the signal generator to 500 Hz, 6 Vpeak and apply this signal to a capacitor C of 1Fnominal capacitance value. Measure the current through and voltage across C using a multimeter and determine its capacitance. 2) Set up the circuit of Fig.11 for vin (t) =10 sin(2ft) volts, f = 100 Hz. Obtain and plot the q vs. v characteristics of the capacitor C and determine its capacitance. its capacitance.

v 2 (t ) =

1 R1C1

v ( )d

t 1

17

R1 100 K Y + vin (t) 100 - vc + 220 F X Figure 11 3) Repeat Part 1 for an inductor L of 0.1 H nominal inductance value, to determine its inductance. Note that the resistance of turns should be measured using a multimeter. 4) Set up the Maxwell bridge circuit shown in Fig.7 with capacitance and resistance decade boxes as C1 and R1, R2 = R3 = 1.2 K and vin(t) = 10 sin (2000t) volts. Calculate L and r (use voltmeter as detector D ). 5) Find the impedance Z shown in Fig.12 for f = 1.5 kHz using a DSO. A A C = 0.1 F R = 1 K L = 0.1 H v1 C1 0.1F + v2 Gx,y

B Figure 12

Equipment List

DSO, Signal Generator, Multimeter, Capacitance Decade Box, Resistance Decade Box, Capacitors (0.1F, 1 F, 220 F), Inductor (0.1 H), Resistors (10, 2.2 Kpot, 100 , 21 K, 21.2 K, 100 K).

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