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This is to certify that Saurabh kumar, student of B.Tech. Electrical and Electronic Engineering from M.A..I.T, Rohini has successfully completed her industrial Training in NORTHERN RAILWAYS at New delhi, from 1st June to 13th July, 2010. He has completed the

whole training as per the training report submitted by him.

With profound respect and gratitude, I take the opportunity to convey my thanks to complete the training here. I do extend my heartfelt thanks to all my teachers for providing me this opportunity to be a part of this esteemed organisation. I am extremely grateful to all the technical staff RAILWAYS for their cooperation and guidance that has helped me a lot during the course of training. I have learnt a lot working under them and I will always be indebted of them for this value addition in me.

SAURABH KUMAR B.Tech (Electrical & Electronics engg.) M.A.I.T, Rohini.


The novel plan for the introduction of a rail system, transformed the whole history of India. This innovative plan was first proposed in 1832; however no auxiliary actions were taken for over a decade. In the year 1844, private entrepreneurs were allowed to launch a rail system by Lord Hardinge, who was the Governor-General of India. By the year 1845, two companies were formed and the East India Company was requested to support them in the matter. The credit from the UK investors led to the hasty construction of a rail system over the next few years. On 22nd Dec' 1851, the first train came on the track to carry the construction material at Roorkee in India. With a passage of one and a half years, the first passenger train service was introduced between Bori Bunder, Bombay and Thana on the providential date 16th Apr' 1853. This rail track covered a distance of 34 kms (21 miles). Ever since its origin, the rail service in India never turned back. The British Government approached private investors and persuaded them to join the race with a system that would promise an annual return of 5% during the early years of operation. Once finished, the company would be transferred under the Government ownership, yet the operational control will be enjoyed by the original company. In 1880, the rail network acquired a route mileage of about 14,500 km (9,000 miles), mostly working through Bombay, Madras and Calcutta (three major port cities).

By 1895, India had started manufacturing its own locomotives. In no time, different kingdoms assembled their independent rail systems and the network extended to the regions including Assam, Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh. In 1901, a Railway Board was formed though the administrative power was reserved for the Viceroy, Lord Curzon. The Railway Board worked under the guidance of the Deptt of Commerce and Industry. It was comprised of three members - a Chairman, a Railway Manager and an Agent respectively. For the very first time in its history, the Railways instigated to draw a neat profit. In 1907, most of the rail companies were came under the government control. Subsequently, the first electric locomotive emerged in the next year. During the First World War, the railways were exclusively used by the British. In view of the War, the condition of railways became miserable. In 1920, the Government captured the administration of the Railways and the linkage between the funding of the Railways and other governmental revenues was detached. With the Second World War, the railways got incapacitated since the trains were diverted to the Middle East. On the occasion of India's Independence in 1947, the maximum share of the railways went under the terrain of Pakistan. On the whole, 42 independent railway systems with thirty-two lines were merged in a single unit and were acknowledged as Indian Railways. The existing rail networks were forfeited for zones in 1951 and 6 zones were formed in 1952. With 1985, the diesel and electric locomotives took the place of steam locomotives. In 1995, the whole railway reservation system was rationalized with computerization.

Indian Railway Zones

Indian Railways has sprawled a huge network of rail tracks throughout the

country. Whether it is a remote village or developed metropolitans, Indian Railway serve the rail users in each and every part of the country. This widespread network is classified into sixteen zones for administrative purposes. Each and every zonal railway further comprises several divisions. Calcutta Metro is exclusively operated by Indian Railways, yet it doesn't form the part of any zone. Konkan Railway is the recent addition to the listed railway zones of India that is controlled by the Railway Ministry and the Railway Board. The list embracing the names of seventeen railway zones, abbreviations, headquarters and date of establishment is given here.

S.No Name 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. Northern Railway North Eastern Railway

Abbr. Headquarters NR Delhi

Date of Establishment April 14, 1952 1952

NER Gorakhpur

Northeast Frontier Railway NFR Maligaon (Guwahati) 1958 Eastern Railway South Eastern Railway South Central Railway Southern Railway Central Railway Western Railway South Western Railway North Western Railway West Central Railway North Central Railway ER Kolkata April 14, 1952 1955 Oct' 2, 1966 April 14, 1951 Nov' 5, 1951 Nov' 5, 1951 April 1, 2003 Oct' 1, 2002 April 1, 2003 April 1, 2003 April 1, 2003 April 1, 2003 Oct' 1, 2002 Jan' 26, 1998

SER Kolkata SCR Secunderabad SR CR WR Chennai Mumbai Mumbai

SWR Hubli NWR Jaipur WCR Jabalpur NCR Allahabad

South East Central Railway SECR Bilaspur, CG East Coast Railway East Central Railway Konkan Railway ECoR Bhubaneswar ECR Hajipur KR Navi Mumbai

The major railway zones that have been covered here are as follows:

Central Indian Railway The Central Railway (CR) is perhaps the oldest railway zone of Indian Railways. This is one amongst the largest of the sixteen zones bifurcated by Indian Railways.

Eastern Indian Railway The Eastern Railway is one of the major zones of Indian Railways. Fairley Place in Kolkata being its headquarters, the Eastern zone is segregated into four divisions including Howrah, Malda, Sealdah, and Asansol for better administration.

Northern Indian Railway The Northern Railway (NR) is one amongst the nine older zones of Indian Railways. Delhi, the capital city of India, serves as the headquarters of Northern Railway.

Southern Indian Railway Southern Railway (SR) is credited to be the first railway zone that sought establishment in liberated India. On April 14th 1951, Southern Railway was established by combining three state railways including Madras and Southern Mahratta Railway, South Indian Railway and Mysore State Railway.

Western Indian Railway The Western Railway (WR) is one amongst the most hustling rail networks in India. Along with headquarters of Central Railway, Mumbai enjoys the authority over this railway network too, being the headquarters sited at Churchgate (Mumbai). POWER HOUSE OF NEW DELHI RAILWAY STATION:-


MRS receives supply from BSES and NDMC at 33kV. This is stepped down to 11kV with the help of two 750kVA transformer. The 33kV feeder is transformed into two 11kV feeders with a bus-coupler in between them. Three transformers are used such that one is kept as standby at a time. According to load, capacity is increased or decreased.

The MRS follows a ring type distribution system for supplying power to NDLS. Advantage of ring system is that each sub-station is fed from two sides. If in case one line is faulty then the sub-station is fed from the other line. But the major disadvantage of the ring system is that it is too costly. This disadvantage is eliminated in radial system but in this system no reliability is assured i.e. supply can not be resumed till the breakdown is cleared.


Transformer The transformers are used to step down 33kV to 11kV. Two transformers each of capacity 1000kVA are used. Transformers are protected from short circuit and overheating. For low rating transformers protection over current relays are used. The transformers are also provided with protective relay, which is gas actuated. Under fault conditions the temperature of the oil increases resulting in decomposition of the oil. This gas is trapped in glass window. Moisture is one of the vital factors in proper working of transformers and is adsorbed from transformer oil through silica gel, if excessive moisture is present. If winding temperature gets increased then alarming system consists of mercury floating system is used to decrease burden on load. This is facilitated through trip arrangement. Other protection devices like Schulz relay and Explosion Diaphragm (mechanical system arrangement) are also used.

Isolators Whenever maintenance and repair work is to be done on equipment in a sub-station transformer is disconnected from the supply using isolators. They are operated on no load. Isolators are generally interlocked with CBs and earthing switches.

Current and Potential Transformers

A current transformer steps down the line current for the purpose of metering and relaying. The line or conductor passes through the core and acts as primary. The secondary having large no. of turns is wound on the core. The instrument or the relay is connected to the secondary. This current is fed to the ammeter that is calibrated to show actual current in the line. A potential transformer is used to step down the system voltage to low voltage for metering and relaying. It may be iron core type or capacitive type transformer. The secondary rated voltage is 110V to line.

CT and PT are generally used for: Metering and measuring. Safety devices like over voltage and over current relays.

Capacitor Bank

They supply the reactive power to the loads and thus help in improving the power factor. They are switched on during peak load conditions and switched off during off pack condition. There are following capacity banks available. 1)600 KVAR 2)1200 KVAR 3)1800 KVAR It can be operated up to 800 operation hours continuously at a time.

The rating of 850 KW DG set is as follows:

Voltage Amperes KVA rating P.F

11000V 56 Amp 10625 kVA 0.8

Auxiliary excitation

160V, 266 Hz

This one can be operated up to 1200 operations continuously at a time. The 1750 KW DG set produces a voltage of 440 V, which is strapped up to 11 kV with the help of transformer while the 850 KW DG set produces electricity directly at 11 kV.

Circuit Breakers

Circuit breakers play an important role in power system protection. The circuit breaker disconnects and isolates the faulty section. Following type of circuit breakers are used HV (33 kV) side: Gang operating circuit breakers (GO) Vacuum circuit breakers (VCB) Bulk oil breakers Mini oil circuit breakers (MOBC)

In VCB since air is pumped out so no sparking problem exists. Also since VCB are expensive so in LT side they are not used. Instead Air Circuit Breaker or Bulk Oil Circuit Breaker is used in its place. Minimum oil circuit breakers are remotely controllable. Gang operating switches are used to switch all three phases of supply on/off simultaneously. PTs are installed in line to tell voltage while CTs and MOCB are installed in every phase.

Usually off load tap changing arrangement is used however on load tap-changing system is also available.

The rating of OCB is as follows:

Service voltage Normal ampere Frequency Breaking capacity

400/450 V 1200 A 50 Hz 38 kA

Making capacity

72 kA

Rating of VCB is as follows:

Service voltage Making current Insulation

11 kV 33.4 kA 28/75 kA

These are installed in HV side the power factor is continuously maintained 0.98 or 0.99.

We know that,

Power, p = 1.732VIpf

Since power and voltage both are constant hence, current is inversely proportional to the power factor. Hence if the pf is low, the current would be high and it would result in increase of diameter of conductor. Hence it is necessary to maintain the pf within the specified range. Protective Relays

Whenever the fault occurs, the protective relay operates and sends a trip signal to the CB. The relay is mounted in the panels in the control room. MRS has a trailed to the over current relay. The typical ratings of the relays used are as follows:

Definite time reversed power relay type 5A, 50-110V, 0.14 ohm. Over current relay 2.5-10A, 50V, 0.12 ohm. Earth fault relay 0.5-2A, 50V, 0.16 ohm.

Auxiliary power supply

When power supply from BSES is interrupted, three DG sets are installed in MRS are started to give supply to DLW. One DG set has capacity of 250 KVA, another has capacity of 500 KVA and the third one has capacity of 500 KVA.

The ratings of 250 KVA DG set: Voltage Amperes KVA ratings Power factor AC 11000 V, star connected 348 A 250 KVA 0.8 50 Hz, 3-phase

The ratings of 500 KVA DG set: Voltage Amperes KVA ratings Power factor A.C. 425/245 +/- 10% 790 A 500 KVA 0.8 50 Hz, 3-phase

The ratings of 500 KVA DG set: Voltage Amperes KVA ratings Power factor A.C. 11000 V, star connected 790 A 500 KVA 0.8 50 Hz, 3-phase




(Auxiliary excitation)

The DG set was composed of three segments viz. main alternator, excitation and auxiliary windings. The auxiliary winding serves the purpose of field excitation for the excitation segment and starts it as alternator and as soon as current develops in the excitation it moves the main alternator. This type of arrangement provides super fine control over the speed of the alternator and thus over voltage and frequency.

The alternator is started initially with the help of an air motor. Air motor is an air powered motor which moves on the pressure of the air which is created in a compressor. This provides the DG set an initial drive so as it continues to move further. Due to friction between moving parts and due to various losses in alternator the heating occurs in the generator so, proper cooling arrangement is done. Due to heat the resistance of armature winding gets increased and the losses become even higher. And the efficiency gets reduced. Cooling is mainly done by means of lubricating oil or by means of chromate water


Public services such as electric, gas and water utilities, railways require continuous adjustment to user demand, non stop availability, stringent quality control and safe operation. These services also require a continuing reduction of operating cost to affect ever-increasing expenses of procurement of resources.

Supervisory control and data Acquisition (SCADA) achieves this requirement collecting reliable field data through remote terminal units (RTUs) Intelligent Electric Devices (IEDs) and presenting them to user requirement. The user interface or the man machine interface (MMI) provides various options of data presentation according to specific application and user needs.

Nelco has been developing and supplying SCADA systems for industries such as electrical utilities, railways, water distribution, steelplants, oil and gas industries since 1982. It has evolved and delivered customer specific solutions by adding and adopting the latest in technology without losing sight of flexibility of growth and easy interface capabilities to systems of other vendors.

The SCADA Software

NELCO SCADA software is one of the most advanced master station software available in the market. The unique features of the system are :

MMI Functions System security Zoning Downloading of database from master to RTU Safety Tagging Periodic data update Auto fault isolation: Online reporting of I/O module failure Event logging at RTU Time stamping of events at RTU Calc programming

Ladder logic implementation.

FOR RAILWAY APPLICATIONS: The NELCO SCADA system has all the features to control and monitor various substation parameters, the various device status, the voltage and current parameters and maximum demand in a section can be monitored and controlled by the system. The system consists of master station in dual redundant mode configured on ethernet (LAN). It communicates with the remote terminal units through telephone, microwave or fiber optic cables over long distances. Features Auto fault isolation Under voltage tripping Fault localization program Maximum demand calculations Safety tagging Pioneers in Railway SCADA: NELCO is one of the few organizations who have been supplying telemetry / SCADA system to the railways, since the past 15 years with more than 17 successful installations. Virtually any requirement of SCADA system in railways is synonymous with NELCO. Beginning with hardwired logic system, NELCO has progressively offered the railways, a SCADA system that is technologically up to date with the best in the world. The various systems under installations at present reflect our commitment to the industry

Meeting railways standard:

The NELCO SCADA system fully meets the RDSO specs, besides meeting many standards. The system is field-proven and time-tested and has several successful installations in the field. A typical SCADA system for railway traction control is depicted in the figure above

Electric Traction Supply System on Indian Railways

Nothern Inidan Railways, Allahabad

Introduction Indian Railways is the largest government institutional costumer and purchaser from various Electricity boards and other Electric Supply Authorities. Out of total RKM 19000 RKM is electrified which carries 60% of total freight as well as passenger traffic across India. Annually, approximately 30 billion units of electricity is consumed by Railways, out of which 10.4 billion units are used for electric traction purpose. Railway is paying approximate Rs. 5000 crores every year on account of traction energy charges which constitutes about 20% of total revenue budget of Railways.

Traction Power Supply Scheme

Indian Railway has adopted 25 KV industrial frequency ( 50 Hz) A.C supply system for traction purposes. The power supplies are derived from 220 KV / 132 KV 3 phase transmission system from the various grids. The typical schematic of power supply arrangement is shown in fig. 3.1 The basic arrangement constitutes incoming supply to Railway traction sub station at a voltage level of 220 KV / 132 KV , which normally feeds power along the track for 35-40 Km.

Adjacent traction sub station are fed from different phases in rotation in order to balance the 3 phase load in its entirety. Neutral sections are provided in between two adjacent sub station to prevent the bridging of different phases while passing the electric locomotive. Level of voltage is reduced to 25 KV for the end use of locomotives by 21.6 MVA signal phase power transformers placed at traction sub stations which are located at every 30-35 Kms distance along the track.

Locomotive Power Schematic

25 KV input voltage, fed to the locomotive through over head wires running parallel to track, is transformed to low voltage through loco transformer equipped with on-load tap changing facility. This alternating voltage is converted into D.C. voltage by the rectifier and smoothing reactor circuitry before being fed to set of six D.C. series traction motors placed at the underframe of a conventional loco motive. However, in modern 3 Phase locomotives, the rectified D.C. output is fed to the 3 Phase induction motors through 3 Phase invertors.

Details of TSS

2 Phase (R-Y) incoming 220/132 KV supply from Power supply authorities is fed to traction transformer through double pole isolators and circuit breakers with relevant protection scheme. Out put voltage at 25 KV is fed to overhead wire running along the track through single pole circuit breaker and remote controlled interrupters. Overhead lines are separated at periodic intervals through sectioning post(SP) and sub sectioning post (SSP) for isolation of faulty section through remote control. Sub sector are further sub divided into different elementary section through manual isolators in order to reduce the faulty section to the bare minimum and carry out smooth train operation the advancement healthy section.

Protection Scheme

A number of protection equipments are provided at traction sub station as well in the locomotive for protection of traction equipments. Following protective device are provided at traction sub-station:-

i) Differential protection

ii) Restricted earth fault protection

iii) Buchholz relay

iv) Oil temperature indicator

v) Winding temperature indicator

The following further protective relays are provided for protection of overhead line against any fault

i) Mho relay for distance protection

ii) Wrong coupling relays between two sub station

iii) Over current relays for fault closure to sub station.

iv) Panto flash over protection

With the emerging digital technology, old electromechanically and solid-state type relays are being replaced by microprocessor based numeric 2 relays in a phased manner. These relays are having parallelogram characteristic instead of circular characterstices with feature of inbuilt fault locator.

Traction Power Control

Supervisory control and data acquisition system ( SCADA) is in place for operation and control of traction power supply. All the switching operations required for maintenance as well as segregation of fault is being performed from Remote Control Center through SCADA. Remote Control System constitutes standard SCADA software and remote terminal units provided at TSS/SP/SSP. SCADA system is so designed that RTU at various switching posts shall be able to communicate as standard communication media, which may be optical fiber cable , chord cable or through microwave, VHF radio patch. The typical schematic block diagram of complete SCADA is shown at fig 7.1 . The communication protocol is employed for present SCADA system has been standardized and based on IEC- 870. Remote control center are provided with operator works station, based on Pentium IV processor, Main server & stand by server and window based communication processor. The data from Remote Control Center is communicated through 600/1200 BPS, FSK, modem and sent to remote terminal unit via communication media which interact with various controlled and protective equipments provided at the controlled posts.

Power Quality aspects of Electric Traction The term power quality is used to describe the extent of variation of the voltage, current and frequency on the power system . The variation of voltage and current can either be in terms of magnitude or waveform shape/ distortion.

Power Quality Standards While IEEE 519, IEC 61000-3-2/4 describes current distortion limits at PCC for different power system voltages & fault levels and for different equipments respectively, IEEE 1159 describes recommended practices for monitoring of power quality. Performance standards like EN 50160 describe limits of voltage un balance, harmonic distortion that have been fixed for utilities.

Effects of harmonics in the system

Form factor deterioration, i.e. ratio between the RMS and the Average value of the rectified traction voltage. Increase of form factor means reduction in ability of loco to absorb power from system. Harmonics are also non useful reactive energy and cause poor PF. Increase in line current and losses. Limitations of signaling track circuits. Interference to telecommunication. Limitations of harmonic injections into public utility.

Controlling Harmonic currents

Shunt filters are tuned series L-C circuits. On IR presently HT capacitor with 13% reactor acts as harmonic filter. Harmonic compensation or injection using voltage source converters or active filters. Phase multiplication. The basic 3- Phase converter is a six pulse unit. Phase shifting transformers are used to combine 6 pulse bridges to construct 12/24 pulse converters.

Main features of Traction Load

Traction load is inductive in nature with a poor power factor in the range of 0.7 to 0.8. Because of presence of nonlinear components like thyristors, power-diodes etc, locomotive is nonlinear and prominent source of generation of odd current harmonics ( 16-20%) THD). Moreover, wide variation of load in a very short duration leads to voltage flickers and fluctuations (swell and sags in power quality terminology) and also results into poor voltage regulation. Although conventional locomotives do not have elaborate provision for containing harmonics, advanced locomotives which are equipped with three phase technology do have extensive circuits for harmonic filtrations as well as voltage regulation.

Effort taken by Indian Railways for improving power quality

Compensation of reactive power in order to improve power factor is being done by series parallel combination of LC circuits. Compensation or elimination of harmonics in the system, for improvement 4 in voltage form factor and reduction of line losses is achieved by using passive filters (LC circuits) at RTSS. Reduction in voltage imbalance in 3 phase supply system of Grid is being achieved by balancing the traction load over a bigger geographical arena by alternatively changing the pair of incoming phases taken from the grid for supplying successive RTSS. Monitoring of short duration voltage disturbances i.e. sag, swell and flickers is not being done by the railways, at present.

Compensation of reactive power to improve power factor

Reactive power compensation Methods of improve PF

Using HT capacitors with 13% detuned reactors. It also act as passive filters for filtering of harmonics. Static VAR compensators ( SVC ) : It uses switching devices to control capacitive or inductive energy into the system. Available SVC configurations are Thyristor switched capacitors ( TSC). Thyristor controlled reactors with passive filters ( TCR). Self commutated VAR generators: The fast switching power electric devices are used to act either as voltage or current fed inverter to inject required amount of leading / lagging reactive KVAR into the system.

Northern Railways Traction Power Monitoring & Control

Indian Railways uses SCADA system for monitoring and control of Traction Power system which is responsible for providing power to the electric trains. Power is directly tapped from the grid at Traction Sub Stations(TSS) located along the railway line.

The 230 km long Delhi-Ambala Section of Northern Railways is controlled from a control room located near New Delhi Railway Station. Northern Railways entrusted Synergy Systems and Solutions with the task of Upgrading the SCADA system (originally installed by SIEMENS)retaining existing Remote Terminal Units (RTUs) and the MIMIC hardware. The challenge lied in developing the interfaces to the RTUs and the MIMIC Controller as the details of the interfaces were unavailable.

Traction Power data is presented using Single Line Diagrams(SLD) of each of the 18 posts separately using Circuit Breakers(CB), Breaker Mains(BM), Transformer Tap Positions. The status is also displayed on the Wall MIMIC.

...18 RTUs on 600 baud, 1500 I/O, MIMIC Board with 500 I/O...

Reports & Trends: Trends of selected analog parameters is shown with 1 second resolution. The following additional information is also displayed ! Maximum, Minimum & Average Value ! Precise Values for all the curves

The following reports have been provided: ! CB Tripping: Records the daily trippings along with the reason.

! Analog Report: Voltage and Current of all the 18 posts. The operator can select the post as well as parameters for display

Historical Events: Events can be filtered on time, text and post.

...Power Block, Auto Fault Localization (AFL), Maximum Demand, Time Sync, Reports...

Data synchronization is achieved between the servers in real-time over Local Area Network.

The following railways specific applications were implemented:

Power Block: For day to day maintenance, Power Block is granted on a section or sub-section that cuts off the power of the section. The command automatically opens the associated BMs of the section and starts monitoring. An alarm is generated on the expiry of power block period.

Auto Fault Localization: AFL process automatically segregates the faulty section in the Event of tripping of associated CB at TSS. The process, disconnects all subsections by opening the associated BMs and then connects each sub section one by one to the TSS by operating the BMs. When the CB trips again, then the last subsection connected is the one having the fault. Maximum Demand: The Railways is given a predetermined power it can draw from the grid. Railways is not allowed to exceed this limit for more than 15 minutes. The SCADA system alerts the operator by raising an alarm in case the current demand remains higher than the Maximum Demand. The project scope included design, engineering and supply of redundant SIRIUS SCADA Software licenses, SCADA Servers, Communication Servers and Printers. The project was successfully commissioned in August, 2004.

New Delhi: Industry chamber Assocham has mooted a proposal for introduction of End on Generation (EOG) system initially in about 1500 trains in a bid to make railways more efficient

in energy savings and to increase their speed. This will enable the railways to save Rs234 lakh per train annually and usher in a second phase of modernization. In its pre-railway budget memorandum submitted to Ministry of Railways, Assocham president, Venugopal N. Dhoot said that railways currently use self generation system in a number of trains, which need to be replaced with efficient EOG systems. End on Generation (EOG) is the system used on fully air conditioned Rajdhani and Shatabdi trains. The system comprises two power cars per train. Each power car has two DG sets and each DG set is rated at 300 kW. These are mounted inside the power car or the entire power car coach which is dedicated for these power plants. The power generated by these DG sets is utilized for hotel load of the train.

EOG concept to step up energy efficiency According to estimates EOG concepts bring in multiple advantages to railways and release hauling capacity of locomotives while saving energy efficiency by over 90%. Economic benefits for railways on a conservative estimate with introduction of EOG system can be savings in capital investments with building new trains to the tune of Rs93 lakh per train. Recurring returns in energy savings due to increased operational efficiency can be to the tune of Rs130 lakh per train per annum. Reduction of over all rate of the train can bring in savings of Rs11 lakh per train per annum. Release of traction hauled loads can improve average speed of coaches. There will be no infringement in revenue earning space of SLR coach as DG sets will be mounted under the coach. Indian railways runs about 1500 passenger trains and if this gets applied to all trains, returns will be substantial.

Introduce lighter EOG system in all locomotive hauled mail/express trains All mail/ express trains would work on the following lines: each SLR coach to be equipped with 1 unit of underslung diesel generator set. Each DG set will be rated between 300 KW to 400 KW depending on the need.

EOG concept will eliminate axle mounted generator and corresponding battery bank and inverter on each coach and replace it with one unit of DG set under the SLR. A 100% back up in the form of second DG set will be used on the second SLR of the train. SG coaches need an axle mounted generator (1x4.5 kw per standard coach and 2x25 kw per AC coach), corresponding batteries, inverters, pulley, belts, regulator and battery box. The energy to turn the axle mounted generator comes from locomotive.

The conversion ratio of usable hotel load to locomotive energy is approximately 1:2. I.E., the system has an efficiency of 50%. This is a huge and recurring wastage and is used on all conventional mail, express and passenger trains.

Basic Refrigeration Cy


Types of compressors

The main types of gas compressors are illustrated and discussed below:


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It does always

Air passing over the condens

The condenser often looks li

Condensers used on R-12 and R-134 has a different molecular structure a