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5.

Pavement Materials
CONTENTS 5.1 Fundamental Material Behaviour 5.2 Natural gravels 5.3 Graded Crushed Stone 5.4 Cemented Materials (cement and lime stabilisers) 5.5 Bituminous Materials (rheology of bitumen, modified bitumen) 5.6 Seal design 5.7 Concrete

Hitchhikers Guide to Pavement Engineering: Prof Kim Jenkins

5.1 Fundamental Material Behaviour Introduction


Materials play a fundamental role in pavement engineering. Most of the materials used are bulk materials i.e. produced or available in large quantities. The vast majority of materials that are used for road construction can be categorised into 3 fundamental types: Granular or unbound materials (whether natural gravels or crushed rock), Cemented materials (whether concrete or light cemented gravels), and Bituminous (whether hot mix asphalt or surface seals).

An understanding of fundamental material behaviour is necessary before performance models can be developed for pavement materials. There are three fundamental types of material behaviour that are relevant to the understanding of road building materials, namely: Elasticity, Plasticity, and Viscosity

These behavioural types will be discussed in this section. There are very few road building materials that follow one discrete mode of material behaviour. The behavioural types often need to be combined to model material behaviour more accurately, as shown in the examples below: elastic material behaviour (cement/concrete), elasto-plastic material behaviour (granular materials), visco-elastic material behaviour (bituminous materials), and visco-elasto-plastic material behaviour (asphalt).

Each of the fundamental material types will first be explained. Thereafter, the application of models for granular, cemented and bituminous materials will be explained. ELASTICITY Before elasticity can be explained, a clear concept of stress and strain is necessary. Normal stress and normal strain Consider an element of material as shown in Figure 5.1 with a normal tensile force F applied to it. The force F divided by the cross-sectional area A is defined as the stress , called sigma, (in this case tensile stress), as shown in Equation 5.1.

F A

[N/m2 or Pascal]

Equation 5.1

Hitchhikers Guide to Pavement Engineering: Prof Kim Jenkins

It can be seen that the units of stress are the same as the units of pressure. In other words, the element of material is experiencing an internal pressure when a force is applied to it. Normal stresses can either be tensile (causing extension) or compressive (causing shortening of the element). The applied stress will result in some elongation of the block. In this case the total elongation is L. This elongation is represented as strain , called epsilon, which is defined as the unit linear change in length, and is calculated in the manner shown in Equation 5.2.

L L

[-]

Equation 5.2

L/2

L/2

A
Figure 5.1 Normal Tensile Force Applied to an Element of Material According to Hooke's Law, a simple relationship exists between stress and strain for linear elastic behaviour. This law states that the slope of the stress-strain relationship reflects the material stiffness or Elastic Modulus, also known as Youngs Modulus, see Figure 5.2. Normal Stress [MPa] Yield Stress

Elastic Limit

Yield Limit

E = Elastic Modulus [MPa] 1

Normal Strain [-]

Figure 5.2 Elastic Modulus as a function of Stress and Strain

Hitchhikers Guide to Pavement Engineering: Prof Kim Jenkins

E=

[MPa]

Equation 5.3

By definition, linear elastic behaviour implies that the relationship between stress and strain is linear. The point at which this relationship deviates from the linear form for a specific material, is called the elastic limit. If loading is removed before the elastic limit is reached, the strain is recoverable or elastic i.e. the relationship returns to the origin. If loading continues beyond the elastic limit, some materials experience a reduction in stiffness up to the yield limit. The maximum stress that a material can withstand is also known as a yield stress. This is a measure of the materials strength (either compressive or tensile, depending on the nature of the stress). Up to this point, we have only considered strain in one direction. The real-life situation in a pavement is more complex, however, with stress distributed in three dimensions. In order to understand how three dimensional strain occurs in a material as a result of three dimensional stresses, we need to know the Poissons Ratio () of that material. Figure 5.3 illustrates how Poissons Ratio is determined. The ratio of resultant strain perpendicular to an applied stress relative to the strain in the direction of the stress, is the Poissons Ratio of that material.

D/2

D/2 L/2

L = L/L D = D/D = D/L


P
Figure 5.3 Poissons Ratio

L
L/2

Strongly bound materials will have less perpendicular strain relative to the parallel strain, due to the inhibiting bonds created by the binder. Table 5.1 provides typical values for the Poisson Ratios of different materials. Table 5.1 Typical Poisson Ratio Values Material Poisson Ratio Steel 0.25 to 0.30 Aluminium 0.33 Concrete 0.15 to 0.25 Asphalt 0.35 cold to 0.45 warm Crushed stone 0.35 to 0.50 Soils (fine) 0.35 to 0.45 Poissons Ratio can be used to analyse three dimensional strain accumulations. In order to do this, let us begin with a two dimensional case as shown below.

Hitchhikers Guide to Pavement Engineering: Prof Kim Jenkins

x Y Y

Rules: E=/ =Y/x or x=.Y

x
The two dimensional stress state can be unpacked in 2 one dimensional cases.

x Y Y

x Y Y

=
x

x x=

x/E

.Y/E

Figure 5.4 Two dimensional Strain determination From this, a two dimension case can be determined for strain calculation:

x =

1 x .( y ) E

] ]
]

Equation 5.4

The two dimensional case can be extrapolated to the generalised three dimensional cases provided below:

x =

1 x .( y + z ) E 1 y = y .( x + z ) E 1 z = z .( y + x ) E

Equation 5.5 Equation 5.6 Equation 5.7

Shear stress and shear strain Unlike normal forces, shear forces act parallel to the surfaces of an element of material causing deformation that results in the formation of a parallelogram, as shown in the figure below.

Hitchhikers Guide to Pavement Engineering: Prof Kim Jenkins

F
w

Ao

F
Figure 5.5 Shear Stress and Strains The shear stress () is calculated as the ratio of shear force F to the area A0 that it is acting upon.

F A0

[N/m2 or Pascal]

Equation 5.8

The shear strain () is determined from the shear displacement w divided by gap h over which the shearing takes place. As with normal strain, shear strain is a dimensionless parameter.

w h

[-]

Equation 5.9

The shear modulus G is calculated as the ratio of shear stress to shear strain for a particular material, as shown in the equation below. G is also referred to as the shear stiffness of a material.

G=

[MPa]

Equation 5.10

Shear Stress [MPa]

G = Shear Modulus [MPa] 1

Shear Strain [-] Figure 5.6 Shear Modulus as a function of Shear Stress and Shear Strain

Hitchhikers Guide to Pavement Engineering: Prof Kim Jenkins

PLASTICITY Plastic behaviour describes materials that accumulate non-recoverable deformation or plastic strain (p) when a load is applied to them. Sometimes the plastic behaviour only commences when the applied stress reaches a certain magnitude, as with a Bingham material. Loading that extends beyond the elastic limit and extends into plastic behaviour, as shown below, results in accumulation of non-recoverable or plastic strain. This is called elasto-plastic behaviour and is used to model granular materials under repeated loading. With each load cycle some plastic strain accumulates, resulting in permanent deformation in the material after repeated load cycles. Normal Stress [MPa]

Elastic Limit Unloading cycle

Loading 1

Mr = Resilient Modulus [MPa]

Plastic Strain E (non-recoverable) Elastic Strain E Normal Strain [-]

Figure 5.7 Elasto-plastic behaviour and Resilient Modulus Granular materials cannot withstand significant amounts of tensile stress, as their behaviour can be effectively modelled using triaxial testing that applies three dimensional compressive stresses. This will be explained later together with the rules of soil mechanics that are applicable to the modelling of granular materials. VISCOSITY In order to describe the behaviour of materials such as bitumen, an understanding of viscosity is required. Bitumen is very stiff (glassy) and elastic at low temperatures and becomes a fluid at higher temperatures. Rheology the science of deformation and flow in materials and is required to model such materials. Viscosity is measured either dynamically (by applying a shear stress to the viscous material) or kinetically (by measuring the flow of the viscous substance through known apertures. The units of the different measures of viscosity are the following respectively: dynamic (Pascal seconds [Pa.s] or Poise [P] where 1 Pa.s = 10P) or kinematic (mm2 per second [mm2/s] or centistokes [CSt] where 1 mm2/s = 1Cst).

Hitchhikers Guide to Pavement Engineering: Prof Kim Jenkins

The measurement of dynamic viscosity requires the application of a shear stress and measuring the strain and time response. The fundamentals of dynamic viscosity are described using the procedure outlined below. The time response is the added dimension that is required for viscous materials compared to elastic materials (temperature considerations are also required). If a constant shear stress is applied to a viscous material, the shear strain at time t1 is 1 and at time t2 the shear strain has grown to 2. If the testing is carried out within the linear response region, the plot of the shear strain versus time will be as shown in Figure 5.8.

w2 w1

F Ao

= F/Ao

t1: 1 = w1/h t2: 2 = w2/h


F

Figure 5.8 Viscous behaviour Shear Strain [-]

high low

d dt

. d/dt =

Time [s] Figure 5.9 Shear strain rate d/dt If this test is repeated at a higher applied shear stress, then a higher strain rate (steeper line) is yielded, as shown by the dashed line in Figure 5.9. Now, instead of plotting shear stress against shear strain, as is done with elastic materials, the shear stress needs to plotted against rate of shear strain. The slope of this relationship eata () yields the viscosity of the materials.

Hitchhikers Guide to Pavement Engineering: Prof Kim Jenkins

Shear Stress [Pa]

. Viscosity = / 1

Rate of shear strain [d/dt]

Figure 5.9 Determination of viscosity Shell developed some very useful ways to get a reliable measure of viscosity of straight run bitumen from simple testing. This includes the use of the penetration and softening point testing. The penetration test entails the measurement of depth of penetration in tenths of a millimetre [dmm] of a standard needle with a mass of 100 grams into a pot of bitumen at 25 C for the standard test (although different temperatures can also be used).
After 5 seconds

100g

100g 9 mm

Figure 5.9 Penetration test The softening point test entails pouring a sample of bitumen into a ring, letting it cool, placing a ball-bearing on top and immersing it in water. The water is then heated slowly and the temperature at which the ball bearing forces the bitumen to flow down 25.4mm

Hitchhikers Guide to Pavement Engineering: Prof Kim Jenkins

Figure 5.9 Softening point (Ring and ball) test By combining the two test results in a two dimensional plot of temperature versus viscosity (known also as the Shell Bitumen Test Data Chart or Shell BTDC), a measure of the temperature susceptibility of the bitumen can be obtained. This known as the Penetration Index or PI. A line joining the penetration value and the softening point coordinate on the BTDC is transferred through the focal point on the graph to read off the PI value, see Figure 5.10.

Figure 5.10 Bitumen Test Data Chart (Shell) The importance of the viscosity versus temperature relationship is apparent from this graph, as it provides a reliable indication of the temperatures required for pumping, good mixing, coating and compaction of asphalt mixes that incorporate the binder in question. It should be noted that the BTDC was developed for straight run bitumen and is not applicable to modified binders. Equations can also be used for the calculation of the Penetration Index of a binder, as shown below. (20-PI)/(10+PI) = 50A Where, A = (log pen at T1-log pen T2)/(T1-T2) Equation 5.11

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And, PI = (1952 - 500 log pen - 20 Tr&b)/ (50 log pen - Tr&b - 120) Equation 5.12

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5.2 Natural Gravels


The term "natural gravels" is used to indicate that weathering produces materials that decomposed, disintegrated or abraded during transportation to resemble partially crushed material. These materials are natural and can often be utilised without any artificial crushing operation. In some cases, however, some processing, such as ripping, screening, blending and/or grid rolling, even some crushing of oversize material may be necessary. Terms such as processed', 'screened', 'mechanically stabilised' and 'crushed' are sometimes used for such materials, which can sometimes cause confusion.
Pedogenic materials P Transported soil (sediment) L W W W M M Metamorphic rock A Magma C
A Crystallization Weathering Mass wasting Erosion Transportation Deposition Pedogenesis Lithifaction (or diagenesis) Metamorphism Anatexis (regeneration of magma by fluxing of pre-existing rocks)

P D T E MW

W MW

Residual soil

E T D P L M

Sedimentary rock

Igneous rock

Figure 5.11 The Geological Cycle for the Formation of Weathered Gravels (after Brink and Williams, 1964) As can be seen from the concept of the geological cycle, there are 3 types of weathered materials: RESIDUAL SOILS Soils that are produced from in situ weathering are termed residual soils. These soils usually retain their original structure and therefore reflect that of the parent rock type. The soil properties usually vary with depth as a result of greater weathering taking place higher in the profile with moisture and environmental influences, and less weathering taking place with depth. The residual soil usually incorporated weathered minerals. The depth of a weathered soil can vary from shallow to very deep. This will depend on the climatic conditions of the region (rainfall and temperature) as well as topography, drainage, erosion etc. In the Northern Hemisphere the glacial activity of the Quaternary Ice Ages (last 2 million years) resulted in much of the residual soil being eroded and transported away or covered with glacial drift. As a result, clean, hard, river gravels with low plasticity fines were produced and are generally used for road construction. By comparison, the Southern Hemisphere did not experience this

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glacial activity leaving deeper profiles of residual soil that are commonly used for road construction. The top of residual material profiles is sometimes demarcated by a pebble marker i.e. a layer of transported pebbles below the transported material but above the residual material. Table 5.2 Summary of a residual material profile Laterite (Fe and Al oxides) Residual soils Weather rocks Fresh rocks TRANSPORTED SOILS Soils that result from the erosion and transportation of usually residual soils are classified as transported soils. This includes colluvium e.g. talus or scree, that is transported down a slope by gravity, which can produce gravel that is useful for road construction. Soils transported by rivers and deposited are classified as alluvium. A variety of particle sizes and gradings can be produced. The transportation usually results in a smooth surface and rounded particle shape. As a result, these materials are not ideal for road construction as they behave like marbles without much shear capacity. Crushing of alluvial gravels can improve their angularity and shear capacity. Aeolian sands, which have been transported by wind also tend to have single sized gradations and rounded particles due to abrasion during transportation. In general, the inherent aggregate strength of transported gravels is usually good and the plasticity is low, but the particle shape and angularity is not ideal for providing structural capacity in road pavement layers. Table 5.3 Summary of transported materials TYPE AGENT or DEPOSIT ZONE Colluvial Slopes Alluvial Rivers Galcial Glaciers Lacustrine Lakes Aeolian Wind Marine Seas PEDOGENIC SOILS Pedogenic soils result from some cementation of soils caused by weathered or transported minerals or agents. Pedocretes are the result and may occur in all forms of particle sizes and matrices, ranging from loose, powdery deposits the cementing or replacing mineral, weakly cemented soils, nodular gravel rock and boulders. Table 5.4 Summary of pedogenic materials TYPE CEMENTING AGENT Calcrete CaCO3 Ferricrete Fe Oxides Silcrete Silica Laterite Fe and Al Oxides Of the pedocretes, silcrete is the only material that provides potential aggregate for use as surfacing stone. Ferricrete, calcrete and gypcrete can be used as wearing

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courses for unpaved roads. Ferricrete, calcrete and silcrete are widely used in southern Africa as base layers for lightly and moderately trafficked roads. The South African classification system for natural gravels is outlined in the TRH14 Manual. Typically the natural gravels classify as G7, G6 and G5 materials. Slightly weathered rock (also called first brown rock) can be crushed to produce G4 quality material.

Classification of Gravels
Climate The Weinert N value is a useful index for determining the type of weathering that will occur in a specific region of South Africa. The N value is calculated as: N = 12 x Ej / MAP = (12 x evaporation in January) / Mean Annual Precipitation The N values are useful in pavement engineering. The following border values are proposed by Weinert for different types of weathering: N<2 2< N<5 10>N > 5 N>10 Wet region, Decomposition of Rock, Montmorillonite (fine) Clay Moderate region, Decomposition of Rock, Kaolinite Clay Dry region, Disintegration of Rock, Very little clay Very arid region, Disintegration of Rock

Another method of classifying climatic conditions was developed by Thornthwaite called the Thornthwaite Moisture Index. This index Im is classified as follows: Thornthwaite Im Im > 100 20 < Im < 100 0 < Im < 20 -20 < Im < 0 -40 < Im < -20 Im < -40 Climatic Region Peri-humid Humid Moist sub-humid Dry sub-humid Semi-arid Arid

Thornthwaites Moisture Index (Im) is calculated as follows:

(100s 60d ) PET Where, s = maximum moisture surplus d = moisture deficit PET = potential evapotranspiration
Im =
This relationship has been used to decide whether it is necessary to carry out soaking of a granular specimen before testing for bearing capacity using the CBR test. Emery defined some limits for Im values depending on the type of material. His work was based on Equilibrium Moisture Content (EMC) that a material reaches in service after several years, as a function of the Optimum Moisture Content (OMC) of that material based on Modified AASHTO compaction (denoted OMCM in the equations).

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Unbound subgrade: EMC/OMCM = 0.0084(LL0.7)(P.4250.3)+0.34(loge(100+Im) +0.11(P75/OMCM)-0.0036(P.425)-0.89 Equation 5.13 Non-plastic subgrade: EMC/OMCM = 0.19(P75/OMCM)+0.0040(Im)-0.0036(P.425)+0.53 Eqn 5.14 Unsoaked CBR : If EMC/ OMCM < 1.7 then use unsoaked CBR for subgrade design. Eqn 5.15 Grading Natural gravels are manufactured by mother nature. Due to the variable nature of these gravels i.e their mineralogy, weathering processes, climate, moisture content, structure and fabric etc, it is not possible to apply strict grading requirements. Artificially created materials such as graded crushed rock are either controlled by crusher settings or proportional blending, so the gradation is more strictly controlled. Several methods are employed to assess the grading. A rudimentary approach that Netterberg advocates is shown below. Table 5.5 Gravel Classification according to Grading (after Netterberg) Gravel Deficient in Gravel with just enough Gravel with Excess Fines fines for Maximum Density Fines Grain to grain contact in Grain to grain contact with No grain to grain contact, skeletal matrix increased resistance to aggregate floats in fines deformation Variable density Increased density Decreased density Pervious Almost impervious Almost impervious Non-frost susceptible Frost susceptible Frost susceptible Confined: high stability Confined or unconfined: Confined or unconfined: Unconfined: low stability High stability Low stability Not moisture sensitive Not moisture sensitive Very moisture sensitive Very difficult to compact Moderately difficult to Not difficult to compact compact Normally the boundary between the second and third groups is at about 30-45% fines by mass i.e. that material passing the 0.425mm sieve for sand-clays and 2.0mm sieve for coarser materials. However, the extreme limits for calcrete can extend to 50 %. Crushing of the larger aggregate can be protected by more fines. Classification of natural gravel The classification systems for gravels used in road construction are generally reliant on some measure of grading, maximum particle size, plasticity and bearing capacity. A system used extensively in South Africa is outlined in the Technical Recommendations for Highways No 14 (TRH14). Some of the properties outlined in TRH14 are summarised below.

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Table 5.6 Gravel Classification according to TRH14 Gravel Code G4 G5 G6 G7 G8 G9 Min. Grading *see 1.5 1.2 0.75 Modulus GM below 2 Max. Particle 53mm 63mm 63mm /3 hlayer 2 2 Size (mm) or /3 or /3 hlr hlr Max. Plasticity 6 10 12 or 12 or Index [%] 3GM+10 3GM+10 Max. Liquid Limit 25 30 [%] Min. CBR [%] 80 45 25 15 10 9 Min. Compac 98 95 93 93 90 90 [%ModAASHTO] Max. CBR Swell 0.2 0.5 1.0 1.5 1.5 1.5 [% at 100%Mod] *Grading of G4 material Sieve (mm) 53 37.5 19.0 4.75 2.0 0.425 % Passing 100 85-100 60-90 30-65 20-50 10-30

G10 3 90 1.5 0.075 5-15

GradingModulus = GM =
Where,

300 [P2.0 P0.425 P0.075 ] 100


[%]

Equation 5.16

Px = Percentage passing sieve size x (mm)

Summary Generally, the use of natural gravels is decreasing in the developed areas, but is increasing in less developed areas. Economics and available technology play an important role in the decisions. Savings that result from the use of natural gravels instead of crushed stone can be significant. Environmental issues around the use of non-renewable resources such as weathered gravels are becoming more important in developing economies and have been important for a long time in the developed world. The very best calcretes and laterites perform almost as well as graded crushed stone, and can be used up to high traffic levels. However, natural gravels are always more variable than crushed stone. As a consequence the quality control must be very tight. The relationship between specifications for natural gravels and performance is often not well defined due to the fact that most specifications are based on experience with local materials. Density and CBR are parameters that play an important role in specifications with these materials, because the structural behaviour is probably the most important function of these layers, being subbase and base layer applications in pavement structures. Globally more fundamental measures such as shear parameters from triaxial testing are being used to classify these granular materials.

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5.3 Crushed Stone


DEFINITION
Graded crushed stone is an artificial product based on natural materials. It is produced in a quarry using a whole process of different activities from blasting to several crushing operations. Crushed stone makes use of the interaction between the particles to produce stiffness and strength of the material. Through crushing and sieving one can produce any possible grading, so this aspect is strictly controlled. Cost is an important factor in the process of requiring certain gradations for special applications.

USE OF CRUSHED STONE


Without crushed stone, pavement engineering as we know it would not exist. Crushed stone forms the skeleton of the pavement, giving it its structure. This material may be application in a variety of pavement types. Crushed stone is used in sub-bases, bases, bituminous layers, seals, and concrete layers. The granular materials (including crushed stone and its by-products) cover most of the volume of a material: up to 90% of the volume is stone, fine aggregate (sand) and filler. A typical South African development is the granular (crushed stone) base with a very high quality crushed stone, surfaced with a seal or a thin asphalt layer. This most exciting SA development has been a great success and many countries in the world where it has been studied and imitated.

BASIC PROPERTIES
The quality and grading of the aggregate is important for the properties of the pavement. Quality control is very important with these materials, because natural materials can vary considerably when used in bulk, and properties may vary according to production location. In cases where material properties do not satisfy the specifications, experience and laboratory testing is necessary to verify use of the material. Some typical requirements related to crushed stone are: adhesion between stone and bitumen must be very good for application with bituminous materials (no dust at the surface of the stone); stockpiles must be separate for each material type; no contamination with dust or mud; segregation should be prevented, etc. The grading of crushed stone materials can be controlled and is therefore specified. In order to achieve the best packing of different particle sizes, the Fuller grading can be followed (using n=0.5). Nijboer, who worked for Shell in The Netherlands, also followed this approach and showed that the maximum density (minimum voids) can be achieved when n=0.45. P = 100*(d/Dmax)n [% ] Equation 5.17

P = percentage [%] passing through sieve size d [mm] Dmax = maximum grain (sieve) size [mm] n = exponent of the power function (between 0.1 and 1) The requirements for compaction of crushed-stone granular materials are extremely important. The strict grading requirements of these materials allow for high levels of compaction to be achieved. Instead of specifying relative compaction e.g. 95% of
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Modified AASHTO density, in South Africa special methods have been developed to control compaction. These methods are absolute and are based on the specific gravity of the aggregate that the material is comprised of e.g. 88% of Apparent Density.

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES FOR DESIGN


Crushed stone bases are placed high in the pavement structure and play an important role in spreading the wheel loads to the underlying layers. Their position in the structure places high demands on the materials mechanical properties. So, the relatively high stress levels in the base make it necessary to place high requirements on the relevant mechanical properties. In order to be able to make reliable designs that accurately estimate the performance of a pavement with crushed stone layers, it is necessary to have information on the following mechanical properties: Shear strength Resilient modulus Permanent deformation Shear properties (C and ) Using triaxial testing the shear properties of crushed stone road building materials can be obtained. This requires (at least) 3 different specimens of the same material to be tested at different confining pressures in a triaxial cell. Only 2 examples are provided in the figure below. Vertical 1,H Stress [MPa] 1,L

2 = 3= High

2 = 3= Low

3 2

Vertical Strain [-] Figure 5.12 Monotonic Triaxial Tests on Granular Material The monotonic triaxial test results can be plotted in the Mohr Coulomb representation, as shown. The tangent to the Mohr Coulomb circles is known as the failure envelope as stress states above this line cannot exist. The slope of this line is known as the angle of internal friction [in degrees] and the y intercept is known as the cohesion C [in kPa].

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Shear stress
Friction angle

C Cohesion

3,L

3,H

1,L

1,H

Normal stress

Figure 5.13 Mohr Coulomb Plots of Monotonic Triaxial Test Results Crushed stone and gravel material can be classified according to their Friction Angle and Cohesion. Maree carried out many triaxial tests on different materials and developed Table 5.7. Table 5.7 Shear Properties of Granular Materials (after Maree and Freeme) Material Moisture state Cohesion C [kPa] Internal Friction [] High density Dry 65 55 crushed stone G1 Wet 45 55 Moderate density Dry 55 52 crushed stone G2 Wet 40 52 Crushed stone and Dry 50 50 soil binder G3 Wet 35 50 Base quality gravel Dry 45 48 Wet 35 48 G4 Subbase quality Moderate 40 43 gravel G5 Wet 30 43 Low quality Moderate 30 40 subbase gravel G6 Wet 25 40 Good Selected Dry 25 35 subgrade G7 Wet 20 35 Moderate selected Dry 30 30 subgrade G8 Wet 20 30 Weaker selected Dry 30 28 subgrade G9 Wet 20 28 Soil fill G10 Dry 35 25 Wet 20 25 Resilient modulus The load spreading ability of granular layers is a function of the stiffness of the layer. This stiffness or resilient modulus under dynamic loading of a granular material is not a single discrete value because this material is stress dependent. In addition, the

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behaviour of granular materials is non-linear elastic, but rather elasto-plastic see Figure 5.7. Triaxial testing using dynamic loading at applied vertical different stress levels and at different deviator stresses, can be used to determine the resilient modulus of granular material. This is explained below.

Vertical Stress 1

3
Vertical Strain

Figure 5.14 Loading Configuration for Dynamic Triaxial Testing The results of the dynamic triaxial tests can be analysed best by plotting Resilient Modulus versus the total stress, both on a logarithmic scale. Log Resilient Modulus Mr [MPa]

K2 1 K1

Mr = k1k2

Log of Bulk Stress = 1+2+3 [kPa] Figure 5.15 Mr- Model of Resilient Modulus for Coarse Grained Granular Materials

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Stress dependency implies that the stiffness of the layer increases as the magnitude of the stresses increases (for coarse grained granular materials). A simple model that can be used for Resilient Modulus is (Mr- Model):

Mr = k1. k2
Where Mr = Resilient Modulus [MPa] k1 and k2 = material coefficients [-] = bulk stress = 1+2+3 [kPa]

Equation 5.18

In the triaxial testing, the influence of basic material characteristics such as grading, sharpness, texture, and moisture content are not directly apparent. These parameters are very important as performance considerations, however. If relationships can be found from correlation between triaxial tests and simple tests, then a reasonable estimate of, for example, the resilient modulus can be made using simple tests without the need for triaxial tests. So, the material coefficients k1 and k2 can therefore be derived from triaxial testing. But, because this is expensive and time consuming, Huurman developed a simple relationship to determine k1 and k2 for Dutch base materials using more simple grading tests. One such relationship is given below:

k2 = -2.02 + 1.93 (D60/D10)0.066 k1 = 2.73 (k2)-2.83

Equation 5.19 Equation 5.20

Maree reported that for South African high quality crushed stone bases, the applicable values are: k1 = 9.7 k2 = 0.66 Through experimentation, this relative simple relationship between Mr and has been shown, however, to be inaccurate. This can be explained easily by keeping the confinement stress constant and increasing the vertical principal stress in a triaxial test. A straight line relationship on a log-log plot of Mr versus , does not result. For this reason many other models have been developed in order to simulate the test results more accurately. See some graphs are provided with equations
1350

Resilient Modulus Mr (MPa)

1150 950 750 550 350 150 0.0 200.0 400.0 600.0 800.0 1000.0

12kPa 24kPa 48kPa 72kPa

Sum of Principal Stresses (kPa)

Figure 5.16 Resilient Modulus Granular Material Treated with 2% Foamed Bitumen (Jenkins)

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In order to account for the decrease in resilient stiffness noticed as the vertical stress ratio 1/1,f approaches a critical value, the relationship in Equation 5.20Equation was developed by van Niekerk and Huurman (Mr- 3-1/1,f Model). This model works well for sandy granular materials that yield fairly constant Mr at one 3 level.

k = k ( 3 ) 6 (1 k 7 ( 1 ) k 8 ) r 5
30 1, f

Equation 5.21

In addition, the Mr- -1/1,f Model, utilises a function of the total stress on a granular material to express the resilient modulus, as shown below.

M Where,

k = k ( ) 6 (1 k 7 ( 1 ) k 8 ) r 5
0 1, f

Equation 5.22

. Jenkins modified these equations to use the deviator stress ratio (d/d,f) as opposed to the principal stress ratio (1/1,f) to account for the damage that occurs in a granular or cold mix material that is stressed relatively close to the failure stresses. This accounted more accurately for the relative stress conditions i.e. deviator stress that is applied to the material divided by the maximum deviator stress that the material can withstand.

= Resilient Modulus (MPa) = sum of principal stresses (kPa) = 1 + 2. 3= c + s + 3.3 + d.w. 3 = minor principal stress (kPa) = deviator stress (1 - 3) (kPa) d 0, 3,0,d,0 = reference values (= 1 kPa) k1, k3, k5= regression coefficients (MPa) k2, k4, k6-8 = regression coefficients (-)

Mr

Shear stress

Deviator stress ratio = d/d,f

Friction angle

d= 1- 3
C Cohesion

d,f= 1,f- 3

1,f

Normal stress

Figure 5.17 Concept of Deviator Stress Ratio


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A formula that is of importance in the determination of the stress ratio, is provided below. It is apparent that the Cohesion and Friction Angle are important parameters in determining this ratio.

1, f =

(1 + sin ). 3 + 2.C. cos (1 sin )

Equation 5.23

Fine grained materials do not respond in the same manner as coarse grained materials to dynamic loading. The fine grained materials can experience alignment of particles or platelets, loss of shear strength and reduction in resilient modulus at higher stresses, as shown in Figure 5.18. Log Resilient Modulus Mr [MPa]

K4 K3 1

Mr = k3dk4

Log of Deviator Stress d = 1-3 [kPa] Figure 5.18 Mr-d Model of Resilient Modulus for Fine Grained Granular Materials Permanent deformation (N-p) The third type of triaxial test that is important for modelling granular materials is the permanent deformation triaxial. This is a dynamic triaxial test that is carried out on several separate specimens at different applied deviator stress levels. The permanent deformation experienced by the specimen is monitored over an extended period, sometimes to more than 1 million load repetitions. At sufficiently low deviator stress ratios, the permanent deformation or plastic strain p stabilises with number of load repetitions. This occurs because the material densifies during loading and becomes more resilient. However, when a critical deviator stress ratio is exceeded, the steady state of plastic strain p becomes unstable and accelerated deformation occurs. South African research (Maree) indicated that in order to limit the permanent deformation in granular materials, the applied stresses should remain below some 70% of the stress at failure i.e. the critical stress ratio.

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Vertical Strain v

Time

Figure 5.19 N-p Permanent Deformation Triaxial Test Result for Granular Material

p = aNb Vertical Strain v

d/d,f = 60%

d/d,f = 50%

d/d,f = 40%

Time or Load Reps (N)


5.19 N-p Family of Permanent Deformation Curves from Triaxial Tests Research by van Niekerk of TU Delft showed that the critical deviator stress ratio for coarse grained materials varied between 45% and 60%, whilst the critical deviator stress ratio of sands could be as high as 80% to 90%. It is recognised that materials that yield the same failure test parameters can differ significantly in a repeated load test at a lower stress level. The same applies to the Resilient Modulus. Triaxial tests have indicated that there can be a significant difference between two materials with the same Resilient Modulus in their permanent deformation behaviour. In addition, moisture content and the number of load repetitions (because of the difference in permanent deformation development with load repetitions) are of paramount importance. A general formula for the permanent deformation is (Huurman, Jenkins, van Nielerk):

p = A*NB
N = number of load repetitions 24

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A,B = material constants A graphical representation of the formula is given in the figure. The formula can be rewritten as:

logp = logA + B.logN logp

logN
Figure 5.20 N-p Permanent Deformation Model

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5.3 Cementitious Stabilizers


INTRODUCTION
Cemented materials are used extensively in southern Africa, particularly as subbase materials. For this reason a stabilisation guideline has been established in South Africa, namely TRH13. Why are materials being treated with stabilisers? Natural gravels and some graded crushed stone have their limitations, which can be negative to the performance of the road in certain circumstances. In addition, subgrade materials and other layers are regularly treated with stabilisers. Treatment of those materials can give one or more of the following advantages: The compressive and tensile strength of the material increases (UCS and ITS); The stiffness (Mr) of the material increases; Durability (mostly resistance against effects of moisture) can improve strongly; Workability of clay material can be improved; and In situ moisture content can be reduced.

MODIFICATION AND CEMENTATION


It is important to distinguish between modification and cementation because these terms are used extensively in South Africa. The terms are used to describe the type and degree of treatment. Figure 12 from TRH13 gives a good overview of how the function of cement and lime can overlap each other.

Cement Lime

Soil

Modified Soil

Cemented Soil
UCS>750kPa

Lean Mix

UCS<750kPa

Increasing stiffness Mr
Figure 5.21 Different types and degrees of treatment (TRH13) Modification: the addition of lime to a soil results in an early reaction accompanied by a change in the soil properties, provided that suitable clay minerals or other pozzolans are available in the soil. The most significant changes are a reduction in plasticity and in increase in CBR value. There may be no significant improvement in compressive and tensile strength as a result of this rapid reaction. These changes in soil properties are referred to as modification. In the case where a very small quantity of cement is added to the soil, the properties may also be modified without much hardening or the development of significant compressive and tensile strength i.e. cement can also be used for modification.

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The need for modification stems usually from plasticity of a material being out of specification. The suitability of modification as a method of treatment depends on the ICL (Initial Consumption of Lime) value of a material. The ICL is a measure of the material pH by determining the amount of stabilizer necessary to achieve a pH = 12.4 If a higher percentage of binder is needed to achieve this, then stabilization is inefficient, as binder is wasted just in neutralising the material. Cementation: when a material has developed a significant tensile strength it can be regarded as a cemented material. There is no clearly defined boundary between cementation and modification. The one state overlaps the other. Modification requires compliance with CBR and plasticity requirements. Cementation requires compliance with compressive or tensile strength requirements. Table 5.8 Comparison of Modification and Stabilisation Modification Stabilisation (Cementation) bound material formed unbound material formed Reaction takes time (similar to Early reaction 28 days strength for concrete) Change to soil properties (with Hydration (water required) clay minerals & pozzolans) Chemical cementation or Reduce plasticity bonding of particles (crystalline) Increase CBR Significant compressive and No significant compressive or tensile strength generated tensile strength generated

ACTIVE FILLER TYPES AND REACTIONS


Lime: Various types of lime exist:

Hydrated lime, Ca(OH)2; Calcitic quick lime, CaO; Dolomite lime, CaO and MgO; Agricultural lime, CaCO3 (limestone, not for stabilising).

The reactions between soil and lime are complex and not yet fully understood. However, the following form part of the reactions in soil-lime reaction:

Rapid reactions (modification): o Cation exchange; o Flocculation; Long term reactions (cementation) o Pozzolanic reactions; o Carbonation.

Cation exchange can take place between the added lime and the clay particles in the mineral aggregate. The calcium (Ca2+) ion (and to a lesser extent the Magnesium (Mg2+) ion) from the lime can replace hydrogen (H+), sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) ions from the clay particles. The replacing ions (calcium and magnesium) can hold substantially less water molecules than the ions being replaced. This results in a reduction of the thickness of the bound water layer around the clay particle, which promotes the development of flocculent structures.

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The rapid reactions result in reduction of the liquid limit and plasticity index, because of the reduction of bound water (the soil changes from hydrophilic to hydrophobic as a result of ion exchange) and improve the workability of the soil. Reduction in plasticity results in an increase in shear strength. The long term reactions take place when there is sufficient lime added in order to have free lime available in the soil for the pozzolanic reactions after the rapid reaction (ion exchange) has completed. Silicious and aluminous materials in the soil react with lime to produce a gel of calcium silicates and aluminates, which cements the soil particles together in a way similar to hydrated cement. The lime-cementing action takes considerable more time than similar action with addition of Portland cement. When hydrated lime reacts with CO2 in air carbonates are formed: CaO + CO2 CaCO3 Equation 5.24

Carbonation results in a reduction of the pH, increased in volume of new products resulting in lower density and higher permeability and reduced strength. Carbonation is therefore an undesired chemical reaction Cement: Cement when mixed with soil produces the similar cementing action and chemical reactions as described above for lime. However, where lime is more a soil-stabilizer (chemical reactions in the soil), cement is mainly a cementing material. The pozzolanic reactions are the main chemical reactions in a soil-cement mixture. Cement consists mainly of Ca3SiO5 ( C3S) and Ca2SiO4 ( C2S), tricalcium silicate and dicalcium silicate respectively. Hydration takes places as follows: 2 C3S + 6 H20 C3S2H3 + 3 CH C2S + 4 H20 C3S2H3 + CH Equation 5.25 Equation 5.26

Where C3S2H3 stands for calcium silicate hydrate, also referred to as cement gel or paste and CH is the definition for calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2). Both of the above reactions generate heat. The CSH gel crystallizes or sets into an interlocking matrix causing the soil-cement mixture to harden. CH is hydrated lime that comes free with the hydration of the calcium silicates and can enter into reaction with the soil as described above. Cement can also be used to modify the granular materials (reduce PI, liquid limit, etc) when applied in small quantities. However, with increasing cement application the increase in stiffness (forming of CSH gel and cementing action) rapidly starts to take effect. Strength of cemented granular materials is usually measured in terms of UCS (C3 material has a UCS between 1.5 and 3.0 MPa. Heavier cemented materials (C2 and C1) with UCS up to 12.0 MPa are not commonly used anymore because of the negative effects of shrinkage cracking. Lime is usually a better soil modifier than cement, whereas cement is a much better binding agent (quick setting of CSH gel, whereas with lime the production of such gel takes much longer and only if sufficient lime is available after the rapid reaction have been completed).

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Factors influencing the reactions: Soils with a high clay content and high PI are difficult to mix and a large application rate is required to establish the sought effects. Nevertheless one could first use lime to modify the soils and subsequently use cement as stabilising agent. Organic matter and a high sulphate content in the soil can negatively affect the reaction process by retarding the chemical reactions. The presence of pozzolans in the soil available for reaction with the calcium hydroxide is required for the forming of cement gel. It needs no further explanation that high degree of pulverization and high degree and uniformity of mixing and compaction are important factors that positively influence the stabilising effect of the soil-cement or soil-lime mixture. Curing conditions are also of crucial importance in the same manner as for concrete. It is therefore required to keep stabilised layer wet after mixing and compacting for a certain period of time. Proper curing increases the strength development within the stabilised layer.

DURABILITY
Durability of stabilised materials is very important. How long will the effects of stabilisation last? Has sufficient stabiliser been added? What can be done to ensure that the stabilised material performs well for a sufficiently long period? All of these questions need to be answered. An example of how carbonation impacts on the durability of lime stabilised materials is outlined with the equations below. Lime production CaCO3 (agric lime) + heat (1200C) CaO (unslaked) + CO2 Slaking CaO (unslaked) + H2O =(550C) Ca(OH)2 (slaked lime) + heat Carbonation H2O (rain water) + CO2 H2CO3 (carbonic acid) H2CO3 + Ca(OH)2 (slaked) CaCO3 (agric lime) + 2H2O Equation 5.27 Equation 5.28 Equation 5.29 Equation 5.30

The problem that the carbonation causes is that it reverses the process for the production of CaO, reverting it to agricultural lime (CaCO3). Unlike Calcium Oxide (unslaked lime), the agricultural lime can only change the pH of the soil and NOT the plasticity (PI) of the soil. Durability of natural aggregate (before stabilisation) is as important as that of the stabilised aggregate. The next section discussed some of the shortcomings of previous tests and newly developed tests. The durability of natural aggregates is mainly related to issues like weathering and degradation of the aggregate particles under the influences of climate and traffic loading. Criteria are set for 10% FACT and maximum ACT, durability mill index and polishing values (surfacing aggregate). The loss in durability is a slow process and the material properties can remain fairly constant over a period of years. An additional aspect that needs to be taken into account with stabilised materials that
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does not play a role for natural (unstabilised) aggregates is the strength development and durability of the cemented material. Under certain conditions these properties can change over a relative short period of time due to carbonation and climatic influences. For unstabilised materials the CBR test is used to give and indication of the strength, however, this test cannot be used for cemented materials because it is not sensitive enough for high-strength materials. The UCS test is therefore used in evaluating stabilised materials. This tests and its limits are widely accepted and used in South Africa. The durability of stabilised materials can be tested by means of the hand-brushing method (A19 TMH1) and can be performed after a number of wet/dry cycles or freeze/thaw cycles. Limits are based on the AASHTO material classification (after12 wet/dry cycles) and relate to the percentage loss of material. These limits are believed to be very strict by some South African Road Authorities. In COLTO (SA road specification) no limits are given for this test and limits in regard to durability of stabilised materials are left to the requirements in the project specifications. Controversy about the brushing test, the limits and its repeatability made that testing stabilised material on durability is rather exception than rule. However, stabilised material passing the UCS strength requirements might still have considerable potential for disintegration and deterioration. In other words, when the UCS criteria are satisfied, stabiliser content might still be insufficient to ensure adequate durability. Changes have been recommended to the existing tests (UCS and durability tests) as well as the introduction of an additional test (initial consumption of lime / cement test, ICL / ICC) [CSIR, PR88/032]. Part of the brushing test can be mechanised and a test method with increased repeatability in this regard has been proposed by Sampson (1988). Also it has been found that an increased correlation between the UCS and brushing test exists when the UCS is performed on specimens after wetting and drying or carbonation (residual strength, RUCS). Probably the most important recommended change is the introduction of the Gravel ICL / ICC. Addition of small amounts of modifier may change the properties of the soil and when tested immediately the soil may pass all tests. However, exposure to carbonation or wetting and drying cycles can result in loss of agglomeration of the clay particles (reverse flocculation) and reversion to the original soil properties (high PI etc.). As discussed under question 2, when sufficient lime is added to complete all rapid reaction, free lime becomes available in the soil (resulting in sufficient high pH values, >11) to start the cementation reaction (long term reaction), which is irreversible. Once this point has been reached the material is much less susceptible to the disintegration and deterioration processes described above. It is therefore important to add sufficient quantities of stabilising agent to satisfy the initial stabilising agent consumption in order for the physico-chemical changes (ion exchange and flocculation) to complete. Limits of initial consumption + 1% have been recommended. When these recommended methods are implemented one will probably find that materials that were previously considered suitable based on the UCS test are now found unsuitable, either because they are not meeting the RUCS limit or the durability limit. One can also find the ICL / ICC + 1% is so high that modification will be considered economically not viable. An example of an ICL test is provided in Figure 5.22.
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13 12 pH value 11 10 9 8

1 hour test 12.4 spec 28 day test

ICL = 1.9 + (4.0-1.9)/3 = 2.6%

Test at 25C

7 0 2 4 6 Lime demand (%)


Figure 5.22 Example of Initial Consumption of Lime (ICL) Test Ways to reduction carbonation problems with lime treated layers include: Cover the stabilized layer with an overlying layer soon after treatment i.e. seal the treated layer, Apply a prime coat of bituminous material to seal the stabilized layer, and Apply water to the treated layer from a water tanker to cure the stabilized layer until the next layer is constructed.

10

12

ENGINEERING PROPERTIES
The engineering properties of stabilized materials are predominantly based on strength. The Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) and Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS) is used to classifiy stabilized materials in South Africa (TRH13 and TRH14). A mix design is carried out in a laboratory to establish the required stabilizer content to achieve the strengths outlined below, before the pavement design can commence. Table 5.9 Specifications for Stabilised Materials (TRH13 and 14) Classification UCS @ 7 days at UCS @ 7 days at 100% Mod AASHTO 97% Mod AASHTO compaction [MPa] compaction [MPa} C1 C2 C3 C4 6-12 3-6 1.5-3 0.75-1.5 4-8 2-4 1-2 0.5-1

Minimum ITS [kPa] C3 C4 200 120

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CONSTRUCTION
The construction of stabilized layers requires due consideration being given to the time allocated to compaction, in particular. In order to reduce the impact of compaction on the crystalline bonds that are beginning to form during stabilization, the compaction time should be limited to a maximum of 4 to 6 hours after the cement has been exposed to the aggregate and water. For lime, a more lenient compaction time of 24 hours is allowable. The effect of compaction time on the resultant material density is shown below:

1800 Dry density (kg/m3) 1750 1700 1650 1600 1550 1500 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Delay between mixing and compaction (hours)
Figure 5.23 Influence of Time Delays on Achievable Density Where low active filler contents are required for modifications purposes e.g. 0.5% or 0.75%, from a practical construction perspective it is more accurate to use lime than cement as lime is almost half of the specific mass of cement i.e. it can be more accurately applied in low dosages.

8% cement stabilised granite Constant compaction energy

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5.4 Rheology of Bitumen and Modified Bitumen


Rheology Of Materials
Besides cement and lime, it is also possible to use bitumen in one or other form as a stabilizer. Bitumen is a so-called visco-elastic material and to understand the behaviour of bitumen and materials with bitumen as a binder, it is important to study the science of rheology. Rheology is the study of deformation and flow in materials. The basics of rheology and application for bitumen and asphalt are outlined in the extensive notes by Dr. L Francken

Bitumen
In the VL344 lecture notes information was provided on the testing of bitumen. A practical in the laboratory was used to support the theory and to show the students the specific behaviour of this type of material. This information will be briefly repeated in class for refreshment. As addition to the VL344 notes on bitumen, extra notes are added, discussing bitumen emulsions. Bitumen emulsions are very important in a country such as SA, because with emulsions one is not dependent on applying the bitumen hot, both for mixes and seals. Cold emulsion mix doesnt require a hot mix asphalt plant, for mix manufacture. The notes will be discussed in class.

Modified Bitumen
Although bitumen modifiers have been used for more than 50 years, the requirements imposed on present asphalt layers and surface treatments in terms of resistance to rutting, fatigue, adhesion, etc., are reaching the limits of what can be achieved with conventional binders. Increasing traffic, higher axle loads and higher tyre pressures make modified binders an important subject in the modern pavement engineering field. Also newly developed materials like Porous Asphalt and Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA) have created additional opportunities for the use of modified binders. It should be notified that modification is not a means to correct poor quality bitumen, but rather an enhancement of the engineering properties of acceptable bitumen. The increased interest in bitumen modification can be attributed to factors like: Increased demand on asphalt pavements in terms of traffic volumes and wheel loads. Specifically during very hot summers this is often associated with a premature rutting problem; Normal binders have difficulty in meeting the requirements in regions with extreme climatic conditions, or in special areas of application that experience extreme loading conditions (approaches to intersections, long and/or steep slopes, traffic circles, stationary traffic, etc.); In many cases, regular maintenance has not been done and there is a need to provide an economically viable solution to the poor road condition; Environmental and economic considerations to reuse old asphalt and some waste materials (tyres) as additives in bitumen and asphalt; The availability of high performance binders, The possibilities with specifically polymers to modify bitumen for asphalt layer and seal applications. Public agencies are willing to pay a higher initial cost for pavements with a longer service life i.e. less maintenance and road user delays. Life cycle cost analysis can be used to justify this.

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It is interesting to see how certain factors can influence the pavement engineering requirements. For example: Economic incentives and environmental considerations stimulate higher axle loads and the use of so-called Super Singles. The result is higher wheel loads, calling for high stability asphalt mixes. As a result of the onerous requirements, in a number of such cases it will be necessary to make use of modified binders with specific performance properties. Common modes of failure: Hot mixes Rutting Cracking (fatigue and thermal) Loss of adhesion (stripping)

Seals Chippings loss Bleeding and fatting up

Based on failures, but also manufacturing aspects, a number of technical reasons for using additives/modifiers in asphalt are: Create stiffer mixes at high service temperature to minimize rutting. Create softer mixes at low service temperatures to minimize non-load associated thermal cracking. Improvement of the fatigue resistance of mixes. Improvement of the bitumen-aggregate bonding to reduce stripping or moisture susceptibility. Improvement of the abrasion resistance to reduce ravelling. Minimize tender mix problems during construction. Rejuvenation of the binder in recycled asphalt. Replacement of bitumen as extender. Thicker bitumen films on aggregate for increased durability. Prevention of run-off during transport/construction. Reduce flushing or bleeding. Improve resistance to ageing or oxidation.

In general bitumen modification is used quite commonly in many countries over the world. Some countries in Europe have been using modified binders for many years, and especially the development in polymer modified binders has impacted significantly. In Europe the development of modified binders was specifically stimulated in some countries where the clients (Road Authority) require the contractor to give performance guarantees for several years. The same trend can be observed in South Africa at the moment. Modified binders always increase the initial construction cost and in countries where low initial cost is the governing factor in awarding contracts, this will discourage the use of modified binders. One could easily draw the line for an ideal binder in relation to the so-called S type bitumen (BTDC by Heukelom, see notes VL344) The following remarks can be made: At very high temperatures (mixing, transport, paving, compaction) the consistency need be low enough to facilitate pumping, mixing, compaction. At high service temperatures (hot summer) the consistency need be as high as possible to reduce rutting. At low service temperatures/aged conditions the consistency need to be lower with good relaxation behaviour to reduce thermal cracking. In all cases: increased adhesion between the binder and the aggregate in the presence of moisture to reduce stripping.

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Modified binders must not be used without careful consideration. Improvements in the mix behaviour through changes in the mix design would be the preferred way to go. In cases where improvements in the mix design are no longer possible, it is necessary to look at other possibilities and one of them is to modify the binder as an important component. Modifiers also have their problems and special areas where they can function. An example to support a careful approach is when one property of the mix is improved but another is compromised. For example: some liquid anti-stripping agents reduce moisture damage but have a tendency to soften the binder thus compromising the rut resistance of the mix. Many questions should be asked in relation to modified binders before they are used. Important questions that can be asked are: What improvement is needed? How should the binder be specified? (interpretation of routine test results on these materials). How should the modifier be added? Is there a compatibility problem and how is storage a factor in this? What are the possibilities with regard to recycling? What are the Health, Safety and Environment aspects (HSE) ? Probably the most important question is: What is the effect on life cycle costing? Can the initial cost be justified as a benefit in terms of long-term performance and suitability?

Classification of modifiers
Many classification systems for additives/modifiers have been proposed in literature. One such attempt at a classification is given in the Table below. Table. Classification of Bitumen Additives/Modifiers. Type/Group Examples Fillers Mineral fillers (crusher fines, lime, portland cement, fly ash) Carbon black Fibres Natural (asbestos) Man-made (polypropylene, polyester, fiberglass, mineral, cellulose) Extenders Sulphur Lignin Polymers Thermoplastic (PE, PP, EVA..)) Thermosetting (Epoxy,..) Elastomer: Natural latex, synthetic latex (SBR), block copolymer (SBS, SIS), Reclaimed rubber (crumb rubber modifier) Hydrocarbons Recycling and rejuvenating oils Hard and natural bitumen (Gilsonite, TLA) Surface active agents Emulsifiers Anti-stripping agents (Amines, lime) Waste material Roofing shingles Recycling tyres Miscellaneous Oxidants Antioxidant Silicones Viscosity decrease at Emulsions ambient temperature Cutbacks

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The table is far from an exhaustive overview and should rather be seen as a summary. An example of an additional item is the modification of penetration grade bitumens for application in seals in South Africa in order to accommodate most of the temperature conditions, by being cut-back in the field e.g. power paraffin reduces the bitumen viscosity. Aspects like this are not visible in the table. Polymers are beginning to impact more and more. For this reason, it is necessary for specialist pavement engineers to have a sound knowledge of the range of modifiers available and their main purpose of application. Detailed coverage of modifiers will be carried out during post-graduate courses offered in pavement engineering.

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5.5 Hot Mix Asphalt Design


Mix Design
Distinction must be made between cold and hot mixes. Cold mixes are prepared with emulsions or other types of binders. The design of cold mixes will not be discussed here. A general introduction into hot mix design will be given and a practical is also part of the VL414 course. A general flow chart for mix design is given in the figure below taken from TRH8. There are a number of different methods for designing a Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) mix. All these methods have been developed to assist the asphalt technologist in selecting an appropriate bitumen content for an aggregate structure. Most HMA produced since the 1940s was designed using the Marshall method. Specific regions also used other methods e.g. the Hveem method. The emphasis in this introduction will be on the Marshall method. The service conditions for which a mix is being designed plays an important role in establishing criteria. So it is clear that the user of a design method must understand the limitations of that method and make individual decisions regarding his/her local situation. Knowledge of nomenclature (terms) that used regionally is also very important. In the USA all aggregate-bitumen mixtures are referred to as asphaltconcrete, while in Britain the term asphalt normally is reserved for dense, impervious mixes with a relatively high binder content. In Southern Africa the term asphalt is a generic one for asphalt mixtures. Specific mixtures are clearly named, such as Porous asphalt, Continuously Graded Asphalt, etc. In addition, to increase confusion, the Americans use the term asphalt for the binder South Africans call bitumen. The history of asphalt mix design goes back to the middle of the nineteenth century. Tar was used as a binder and the importance of aggregate proportioning was not understood at that time. Also the mixing process was not yet mechanised. The first bituminous surfacings were laid in Paris (France) in the eighteen-fifties. They consisted of natural rock, impregnated with asphalt, which was ground to powder and consolidated with hot compacting irons. This process spread to England in the eighteen-seventies and subsequently to New York and other major American cities. Already at that time in the USA, tar was in competition with Trinidad Lake asphalt, still used as modifier in bitumen today. Clifford Richardson (USA, 1905) was one of the first to understand the importance of material selection, especially the significant role of fine aggregate fractions. He studied and documented the important principles of HMA design including the Voids in the Mineral Aggregate (VMA) and air void content. Also from the early nineties the first plant-mixed materials using tar and bitumen binders are reported. Until the nineteen-thirties, city and local-authority engineers developed their own specifications for bituminous materials largely on the basis of full-scale trials on their own road systems. Since then the responsibility of producing standard specifications has passed on to organisations such as: Asphalt Institute, ASTM, AASHTO (USA) LCPC (France) British Standards Institution (UK) Etc.

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Two different trends can be distinguished looking from the past: Recipe-type specifications: in Europe these specifications have been favoured, in which aggregate type, binder content, binder stiffness, mixing temperature, laying temperature and compaction procedure are all specified for mixes intended to fulfil particular requirements. Laboratory design procedures: in the USA this trend originates from the Second World War when airfield surfacings had to be designed for heavy wheel loads under a wide range of environmental conditions. The procedures aim at producing specific stability properties in the mixes. It is important to note that most traditional mix design methods are a combination of recipe and laboratory design procedures. Because of the enormous impact that the Marshall method has made all over the world during the last 50 years, it's historical development is described here.

Marshall mix design procedure


The earliest version of the Marshall method was developed at the Mississippi Highway Department (USA) by Bruce Marshall around 1939. In 1943, during the Second World War, a study to develop a simple portable apparatus for designing asphalt mixtures for airfield pavements was started. Tyre pressures increased, warranting a suitable mix design method. Both laboratory (with Marshall's apparatus) and field experiments were done. The laboratory compaction research involved different drop hammer weights, different combinations of numbers of blows per side, different compactor foot designs, different mould base shapes and materials. The goals were: A laboratory compaction procedure that would involve minimum effort and time, but would provide a basis for selecting the proper optimum bitumen content To develop a method that was portable and which could be taken to the field for quality control purposes.

Using the results from tests conducted on field-secured specimens, limits were established based on 50 blow Marshall criteria for surface mixes. These mix design criteria were used for the Air Force Aircraft during the Second World War, see Table 1. In the early 1950s, new research was necessary due to increase in aircraft size and weight. This resulted in tyre pressures up to 1380 kPa in order to keep aircraft gear and tyre sizes about the same. Table 1. 50 Blow Marshall criteria for surface mixes. Test Property Bitumen content Selection Stability (N) Flow (mm) Voids in Total Mix (%) Voids Filled with Bitumen (%) HMA Peak 4 80 Sand Asphalt Peak 6 70

Limiting HMA 2220 min 5 max 3-5 75-85

Criteria Sand asphalt 2220 min 5 max 5-7 65-75

The increase in tyre pressure increased the near surface compactive effort by traffic. Using the data from field and laboratory compaction study, new criteria were adopted for the high tyre pressures, which included:

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Adjustments in stability and flow based on test data from the trafficked surface Modification of the laboratory compaction effort (75 blows).

It is interesting to note that at the same time performance problems on a number of projects were noted, specifically rutting. Investigations revealed that large quantities of natural sand were present in those mixes experiencing rutting problems. Attempts to control the use of natural sands resulted in raising the Marshall Stability (change in minimum) as given in Table 2. Table 2. Changes in Marshall Stability Specification (due to increased aircraft size and weight). Changes No. blows Min.Stability (N) Original 50 2220 First change 75 4440 Second change 75 8000 The final result was a limit on natural sand of a maximum of 15 percent of the total aggregate. The development and evolution of the Marshall method has resulted in two variables that stand out in the design and performance of HMA: Bitumen content Density

In reviewing the development of the Marshall method, it is apparent that a controlling factor is the correspondence between the density achieved in the field under traffic and that produced in the laboratory with the specified compactive effort (number of blows). When field conditions changed due to changes in traffic, the mix designers monitored the field conditions and adjusted the laboratory procedures to produce densities similar to those being achieved in the field under traffic. The driving force for change in the Marshall procedure was changes in the field density brought about by changes in traffic!!!!!! This development of the mix design procedure was all done empirically!!!! Applying this principle of empirical design to highway practise, shows the importance of determining density induced by traffic before making changes in laboratory procedures. Only by knowing field conditions, can proper adjustments be made in the laboratory, since the laboratory conditions must replicate field conditions. In addition, it must be realised that there are a number of factors that significantly affect the test results obtained from specimens prepared with different types of hammers and tested with breaking heads with different bevel geometry on the lower inside corner of the breaking head segment. It is very important to note that since the beginning of these methods in the early forties, the volumetrics have played an important role. Both Voids in Total Mix (VTM) and Voids Filled with Bitumen (VFB) are specified.

Classification of mix design methods


RILEM presented a classification of mix design methods. The literature was consulted regarding: Existing standardised and non-standardised mix design methods New mix design methods which are in development

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Methods which are still in the experimental phase.

Bituminous mix design methods, with particular reference to asphalt concrete, were divided into six categories: Recipe Empirical Analytical Volumetric Performance-related Performance-based

In the lecture notes a contribution on compaction and the volumetric models that play a role in asphalt mix design has been added. These notes will be explained in class. Further study into hot mix design will be carried out during the practical exercise (S1 and S2). With SUPERPAVE inspired mix design as a background (the latest approach in the USA), a volumetric exercise and the mechanical testing involved in mix design will be covered.

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5.6 Seal Design


For a road to perform optimally (functionally and structurally), a durable, waterproof, skid-resistant and all-weather dust-free surfacing is required to provide the road user with an acceptable level of service and to protect the structural layers of the pavement from the abrasive forces of traffic as well as from the effects of the environment. In SA, bituminous seals and slurries are commonly used for new construction and for the resealing of existing bituminous roads because they are relatively inexpensive and have proved to be successful on highways, rural roads and urban streets under traffic conditions varying from light to heavy. The main functions of a surfacing seal are to: Provide a waterproof cover to the underlying pavement Provide a safe riding surface under all conditions Protect the underlying layer from the direct abrasive/destructive forces of traffic and environment.

Since seals are thin layers and contain pure bitumen, they are not used as a load distribution layer in structural design for the underlying layers. The following page is taken from TRH3 and gives an illustration of seal types and their structure. The additional notes include a paper by Van Zyl et al., discussing the rationalisation of seal selection and single seal design methods in SA. It is important to consolidate the different seal design methods used in the various regions of SA, so as to explain why approaches are different and rationalise the influencing factors including climate, binder, aggregate shape etc. In this paper all the important parameters that play a role in seal design are discussed, together with a seal design method as used in TRH3.

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5.7 Concrete
Requirements for the material (cement) concrete can be found in TRH14. The normal requirements for course and fine aggregate, cement, water, additives, will be discussed according to TRH 14. For economic reasons the coarsest possible aggregate grading should be chosen (only requirement is that Dmax may not exceed a quarter of the thickness of the concrete slab (Dmax<1/4.H). Grading requirements are very similar to asphalt concrete, except the fines content, because of the cement in the mix. The mechanical properties of the concrete are dominant in determining the layer thickness of the concrete slab (more important than the underlying layers), so it is important to have knowledge of: Tensile strength (why not compressive strength???) Stiffness Fatigue Strength requirements: TRH14, Minimum 28 days bending-strength > 3.9 MPa. This value can be related to the compressive strength for most types of concrete. The bending strength and compressive strength must be characterized in a statistically way. At least a number of 6 tests will be required to get some statistical sensitivity. Based on the tensile strength and research in other parts of the world, the fatigue behaviour in the bending mode of a specific concrete type, can be determined. Stiffness: The stiffness value to be used for a concrete layer in a pavement design can be taken from a relation of the stiffness with the compressive strength of the concrete as given in the concrete handbooks. Based on this characterization of concrete material, a pavement design can be initiated. In the pavement design notes, the structural design of concrete pavements will be discussed further.

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