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BIO202 HandoutsLymphaticSystem LymphaticSystem Consistsofthreeparts o Anetworkoflymphaticvessels(lymphatics) o Lymph o Lymphnodes Returnsinterstitialfluidandleakedplasmaproteinsbacktotheblood o Onceinterstitialfluidenterslymphatics,itiscalledlymph Togetherwithlymphoidorgansandtissues,providethestructuralbasisoftheimmunesystem LymphaticVessels Onewaysystem,lymphflowstowardtheheart Lymphvessels(lymphatics)include: o Lymphaticcapillaries o Lymphaticcollectingvessels

aticcollectingvessels o Lymphatictrunksandducts LymphaticCapillaries Similartobloodcapillaries,except o Verypermeable(takeupcelldebris,pathogens,andcancercells) o Endothelialcellsoverlaptoformonewayminivalves,andareanchoredbycollagenfilaments, preventingcollapseofcapillaries Absentfrombones,teeth,bonemarrowandtheCNS Lacteals:specializedlymphcapillariespresentinintestinalmucosa o Absorbdigestedfatanddeliverfattylymphtotheblood

LymphaticCollectingVessels Similartoveins,except o Havethinnerwalls,withmoreinternalvalves o Anastomosemorefrequently Collectingvesselsintheskintravelwithsuperficialveins Deepvesselstravelwitharteries Nutrientsaresuppliedfrombranchingvasavasorum LymphaticTrunks Formedbytheunionofthelargest collectingducts o Pairedlumbar o Pairedbronchomediastinal o Pairedsubclavian o Pairedjugulartrunks o Asingleintestinaltrunk LymphaticDucts Lymphisdeliveredintooneoftwo largeducts o Rightlymphaticductdrains therightupperarmandthe rightsideoftheheadand thorax o Thoracicductarisesfrom thecisternachylianddrains therestofthebody Eachemptieslymphintovenouscirculationatthejunctionoftheinternaljugularandsubclavianveinsonits ownsideofthebody Lymphispropelledby o Pulsationsofnearbyarteries o Contractionsofsmoothmuscleinthewallsofthelymphatics

LymphoidCells Lymphocytesthemainwarriorsoftheimmunesystem Twomainvarieties o Tcells(Tlymphocytes) o Bcells(Blymphocytes) TcellsandBcellsprotectagainstantigens o Anythingthebodyperceivesasforeign Bacteriaandtheirtoxins;viruses MismatchedRBCsorcancercells Tcells o Managetheimmuneresponse o Attackanddestroyforeigncells Bcells o Produceplasmacells,whichsecreteantibodies OtherLymphoidCells MacrophagesphagocytizeforeignsubstancesandhelpactivateTcells Dendriticcellscaptureantigensanddeliverthemtolymphnodes Reticularcellsproducestromathatsupportsothercellsinlymphoidorgans LymphoidTissue Housesandprovidesaproliferationsiteforlymphocytes Furnishesasurveillancevantagepoint Twomaintypes o Diffuselymphatictissuecomprisesscatteredreticulartissueelementsineverybodyorgan Largercollectionsinthelaminapropriaofmucousmembranesandlymphoidorgans o Lymphaticfollicles(nodules/nodes)aresolid,sphericalbodiesoftightlypackedreticularelementsand cells GerminalcentercomposedofdendriticandBcells Mayformpartoflargerlymphoidorgans LymphNodes Principallymphoidorgansofthebody Embeddedinconnectivetissue,inclustersalonglymphaticvessels Nearthebodysurfaceininguinal,axillary,andcervicalregionsofthebody Functions o Filterlymphmacrophages destroymicroorganismsand debris o Immunesystemlymphocytesare activatedandmountanattack againstantigens StructureofaLymphNode Beanshaped Externalfibrouscapsule Trabeculaeextendinwardanddividethe nodeintocompartments Twohistologicallydistinctregions o Cortex o Medulla

Cortexcontainsfollicleswithgerminalcenters,heavywithdividingBcells Dendriticcellsnearlyencapsulatethefollicles DeepcortexhousesTcellsintransit Tcellscirculatecontinuouslyamongtheblood,lymphnodes,andlymphaticstream StructureofaLymphNode MedullarycordsextendinwardfromthecortexandcontainBcells,Tcells,andplasmacells Lymphsinusescontainmacrophages

CirculationintheLymphNodes Lymph o Entersviaafferentlymphaticvessels o Travelsthroughlargesubcapsularsinus andsmallersinuses o Exitsthenodeatthehilusviaefferent vessels Fewerefferentvessels,causingflowoflymphto stagnate,allowinglymphocytesandmacrophages timetocarryoutfunctions Spleen Largestlymphoidorgan Servedbysplenicarteryandvein,whichenterand exitatthehilus Functions o Siteoflymphocyteproliferationandimmune surveillanceandresponse o Cleansesthebloodofagedcellsandplatelets anddebris Spleen StoresbreakdownproductsofRBCs(e.g.,iron)forlater reuse Storesbloodplatelets Siteoffetalerythrocyteproduction(normallyceases afterbirth) Hasafibrouscapsuleandtrabeculae Containslymphocytes,macrophages,andhuge numbersoferythrocytes

StructureoftheSpleen Twodistinctareas o Whitepulparoundcentralarteries o Mostlylymphocytesonreticularfibersand involvedinimmunefunctions o Redpulpinvenoussinusesandspleniccords Richinmacrophagesfordisposalof wornoutRBCsandbloodborne pathogens Thymus Sizewithage o Ininfants,itisfoundintheinferiorneckandextends intothemediastinum,whereitpartiallyoverliesthe heart o Increasesinsizeandismostactiveduringchildhood o Stopsgrowingduringadolescenceandthengradually atrophies Thymiclobescontainanoutercortexandinnermedulla Cortexcontainsdenselypackedlymphocytesandscattered macrophages Medullacontainsfewerlymphocytesandthymic(Hassalls) corpusclesinvolvedinregulatoryTcelldevelopment

Thymus Differsfromotherlymphoidorgansinimportant ways o ItfunctionsstrictlyinTlymphocyte maturation o Itdoesnotdirectlyfightantigens Thestromaofthethymusconsistsofstarshaped epithelialcells(notreticularfibers) Thesethymocytesprovidetheenvironmentinwhich Tlymphocytesbecomeimmunocompetent Tonsils Simplestlymphoidorgans Formaringoflymphatictissuearoundthepharynx o Palatinetonsilsatposteriorendoftheoral cavity o Lingualtonsilsgroupedatthebaseofthe tongue o Pharyngealtonsilinposteriorwallofthe nasopharynx o Tubaltonsilssurroundingtheopeningsofthe auditorytubesintothepharynx Containfollicleswithgerminalcenters Arenotfullyencapsulated Epithelialtissueoverlyingtonsilmassesinvaginates, formingtonsillarcrypts Cryptstrapanddestroybacteriaandparticulatematter MALT Mucosaassociatedlymphatictissue o Peyerspatches,tonsils,andtheappendix(digestivetract) o Lymphoidnodulesinthewallsofthebronchi(respiratorytract) Protectsthedigestiveandrespiratorysystemsfromforeignmatter AggregatesofLymphoidFollicles Peyerspatches o Clustersoflymphoidfollicles o Inthewallofthedistalportionofthesmall intestine o Similarstructuresarealsofoundintheappendix Peyerspatchesandtheappendix o Destroybacteria,preventingthemfrombreaching theintestinalwall o Generatememorylymphocytes PeyersPatches

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