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REPORT ON

VOICE OVER INTERNET PROTOCOL (VoIP)

INDEX Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Topic


Introduction Rise of voip Telephone and ip technology Voip History of voip Circuit switching versus packet switching Voip phone versus traditional phone service What kind equipment do we need? Voip technologies and implementations Voip connections Working of voip VOIP: codecs Advantages of voip Disadvantages of VOIP Voip phone features Voip cell phones Application of voip Conclusion Bibliography

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INTRODUCTION
Internet protocol is a type of computer language that allows computers to share information over a network. VOIP is a technology that allows user to make phone calls using your Broadband Internet connection instead of your regular phone service. It is also referred to as Voice over IP, broadband phone and Internet phone service. VoIP, or Voice over Internet Protocol, is a method for taking analog audio signals, like the kind you hear when you talk on the phone, and turning them into digital data that can be transmitted over the Internet. How is this useful? VoIP can turn a standard Internet connection into a way to place free phone calls. It does not matter if the network is connecting computers in your office or around the world. This is what your PC uses to connect to all those wonderful websites out there. Since the internet explosion back in the mid- 1990's there has been a rapid change from the networking methods of the past to IP. That being the case it was only natural that businesses started looking at ways to maximize their use of the data network to carry not only data but voice as well. So now rather than dial over the regular "Bell" network you call over your computer connection. You still simply pick up your regular phone, dial a number and talk. VOIP is simple and is for everyone. It doesn't matter if the person you are calling has VOIP or not, this is all taken care of by your VOIP service provider.

RISE OF VOIP
Primarily, the public-switched telephone system was used for voice and little bit of data traffic. In 1996, data traffic grew tremendously. Voice applications generated 90% of the revenue in this industry. Voice market is growing at 3% to 4% per year, whereas data traffic grows at 30% per year. As a result many packetswitching network operators became interested in carrying voice over the data networks. The data networks saw Telephony as a way to earn large amount of money without having to put any new fiber in the ground. Thus Internet Telephony (VOIP) was born.

Cisco VoIP phone

TELEPHONE AND IP TECHNOLOGY


There are two fundamental technologies that are necessary for the existence of VoIP. The first, and most widely used, is the telephone. The telephone was as direct result of the work of Alexander Gram Bell in the 1870s. He was Scottish Scientist and inventor he had a great contribution in telecommunication. The second technology is the Internet. IP technology is a technology that uses the Internet and Internet Protocol (IP) networks to deliver voice communication. It have the potential to reduce costs, support innovation & improve access to communication services within developing countries & around the world.

VOIP
VOIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) is simply the transmission of voice

traffic over IP based network. Other terms frequently encountered and synonymous with VoIP are IP telephony, Internet telephony, voice over broadband (VoBB), broadband telephony, and broadband phone. Voice over Internet Protocol (VOIP) is a technology that allows you to make telephone calls using a broadband Internet connection instead of a regular (or analog) phone line. Some services using VOIP may only allow you to call other people using the same service, but other may allow you to call anyone who has a telephone number- including local, long distance, mobile and international numbers. Also, while some services only work over your computer or a special VOIP phone, other services allow you to use a traditional phone through an adapter. There are three methods of connecting to a VOIP Networks Using IP Phones

These specialized phones look just like normal phones with a handset, cradle and buttons. But instead of having the standard RJ-11 phone connectors, IP phones have an RJ-45 Ethernet connector. IP phones connect directly to your router and have all the hardware and software necessary right onboard to handle the IP call. Using a normal telephone with VOIP adapter

The simplest and most common way is through the use of a device called an ATA (analog telephone adaptor). The ATA allows you to connect a standard phone to your computer or your Internet connection for use with VoIP. The ATA is an analog-to-digital converter. It takes the analog signal from your traditional phone and converts it into digital data for transmission over the Internet.

Using a with speakers and a microphone This is certainly the easiest way to use VoIP. You don't even have to pay for longdistance calls. There are several companies offering free or very low-cost software that you can use for this type of VoIP. All you need is the software, a microphone, speakers, a sound card and an Internet connection, preferably a fast one like you would get through a cable or DSL modem. Except for your normal monthly ISP fee, there is usually no charge for computer-to-computer calls, no matter the distance.

VoIP Setup

HISTORY OF VOIP
The first VOIP application was introduced in 1995 - an "Internet Phone". An Israeli company by the name of "VocalTec" was the one developing this application. The application was designed to run on a basic PC. This "first generation" VoIP application suffered from delays, disconnections, low quality and incompatibility. On March 1996, the company has developed the Internet Telephony Gateway. It enables real time conversations for telephone users through the internet to communicate with another telephone. September 1996 was the development of Internet Voice Mail application. It has added voice mail capabilities to existing email program. Sending voice messages over the internet was then allowed. In October 1996, VocalTec announced the use of ITU H.323, it has given way for the standards of future versions of Internet Phone. This is the standard that we use until now. The term VoIP was used by VocalTec on November 1996; they become the founders of the VoIP forum. Its main purpose is to help the coalition of Internet, telephony, hardware, software and networking companies, to establish a set of standards for the compatibility of the Internet telephony products. Cisco System and Dialogic Corporation are parts of the 40 initial members in the VoIP forum. On 1998, a former VocalTec employee saw the potential of VoIP traffic making in the United States and made his own company, the WhichVoIP.com. They created software that enables PC to phone and phone to phone connections. Ever since 2000, the VoIP industry usage has expanded. Companies switch to VoIP to save on both long distance and infrastructure costs. The service has also been

extended to residential users. After a short period of time, VoIP has changed its role as a less important development to what it is today. A major development starting in 2004 has been the introduction of mass-market VoIP services over broadband Internet access services, in which subscribers make and receive calls as they would over the PSTN. Full phone service VoIP phone companies provide inbound and outbound calling with Direct Inbound Dialing. Many offer unlimited domestic calling and some to other countries as well, for a flat monthly fee as well as free calling between subscribers using the same provider.

CIRCUIT SWITCHING VERSUS PACKET SWITCHING


Existing phone systems are driven by a very reliable but somewhat inefficient method for connecting calls called circuit switching. In circuit switching, when a call is made between two parties, the connection is maintained for the duration of the call. Because you're connecting two points in both directions, the connection is called a circuit. This is the foundation of the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). VOIP uses packet switching. A packet-switched phone network is the alternative to circuit switching. It works like this: While you're talking, the other party is listening, which means that only half of the connection is in use at any given time. Based on that, we can surmise that we could cut the file in half for efficiency. Plus, a significant amount of the time in most conversations is dead air -- for seconds at a time, neither party is talking. If we could remove these silent intervals, the file would be even smaller. Then, instead of sending a continuous stream of bytes (both silent and noisy), what if we sent just the packets of noisy bytes when you created them? Data networks simply send and retrieve data. And, instead of routing the data over a dedicated line, the data packets flow through a chaotic network along thousands of possible paths. This is called packet switching. While circuit switching keeps the connection open and constant, packet switching opens a brief connection -- just long enough to send a small chunk of data, called a packet, from one system to another.

VOIP PHONE VERSUS TRADITIONAL PHONE SERVICE


Following are some of the basic differences between VOIP phones and traditional phones VOIP phone It is based on Packet-Switching. Low monthly cost for local &long distance calls. Additional services & features are free. Higher broadband internet connection required. Area code is of your choice. Must have area code where you reside. Traditional phone It is based on Circuit-Switching. Cost is typically higher including taxes.

Must pay extra charges for such services. Internet connection is not required.

WHAT KIND EQUIPMENT DO WE NEED?


Following equipments are needed for VOIP

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1. A broadband (high speed Internet) connection is required. This can be through a cable modem, or high speed services such as DSL or local area networks. 2. IP phones 3. If we want to use the normal phones then we need an Analog Telephone Adaptor (ATA) which is supplied by VoIP service provider. 4. You can hook up an inexpensive microphone to your computer and send your voice through a cable modem.

VOIP TECHNOLOGIES AND IMPLEMENTATIONS


Voice over IP has been implemented in various ways using both proprietary and open protocols and standards. 11

Examples of technologies used to implement Voice over Internet Protocol include:

H.323 The H.323 standard addresses call signaling and control, multimedia transport and control, and bandwidth control for point-to-point and multi-point conferences.

IMS The IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) is an architectural framework for delivering Internet Protocol (IP) multimedia services.

SIP The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is a signaling protocol, widely used for controlling multimedia communication sessions such as voice and video calls over Internet Protocol (IP).

RTP The Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) defines a standardized packet format for delivering audio and video over the Internet.

A notable proprietary implementation is the Skype network.

VOIP CONNECTIONS
VOIP converts the voice signal from your telephone into a digital signal that travels over the Internet. If you are calling a regular phone number, the signal is then converted back at the other end. 12

VOIP can allow you to make a call directly from a computer, or a traditional phone using an adapter. In addition, new wireless hot spots in public locations such as airports, parks and cafes allow you to connect to the Internet and may enable you to use VOIP service wirelessly. Using VoIP we can call from PC to PC and PC to phones and from phone to phone. If you make a call using a phone with an adapter, youll be able to dial just as you always have, and the service provider may also provide a dial tone. If your service assigns you a regular phone number, then a person can call you from his or her regular phone without using special equipments.

VoIP Setup

WORKING OF VOIP
VOIP converts the voice signal from your telephone into a digital signal that travels over the Internet.

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If you are calling a regular phone number, the signal is then converted back at the other end. Essentially when you speak into a VoIP phone or headset your voice is converted into digital packets. It is then compressed to help your Internet connection run efficiently & then transferred down the connection much like an email. Once it reaches the destination the digital packets are converted back to original voice information.

Processing of packets

VOIP: CODECS

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A codec, which stands for coder-decoder, converts an audio signal into compressed digital form for transmission and then back into an uncompressed audio signal for replay. It's the essence of VoIP. Codecs accomplish the conversion by sampling the audio signal several thousand times per second. For instance, a G.711 codec samples the audio at 64,000 times a second. It converts each tiny sample into digitized data and compresses it for transmission. When the 64,000 samples are reassembled, the pieces of audio missing between each sample are so small that to the human ear, it sounds like one continuous second of audio signal. There are different sampling rates in VoIP depending on the codec being used:

64,000 times per second 32,000 times per second 8,000 times per second A G.729A codec has a sampling rate of 8,000 times per second and is the most

commonly used codec in VoIP. Codecs use advanced algorithms to help sample, sort, compress and packetize audio data. The CS-ACELP algorithm (CS-ACELP = conjugate-structure algebraiccode-excited linear prediction) is one of the most prevalent algorithms in VoIP. CSACELP organizes and streamlines the available bandwidth. Annex B is an aspect of CS-ACELP that creates the transmission rule, which basically states "if no one is talking, don't send any data." The efficiency created by this rule is one of the greatest ways in which packet switching is superior to circuit switching. It's Annex B in the CS-ACELP algorithm that's responsible for that aspect of the VoIP call.

ADVANTAGES OF VOIP

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Telecommunications carriers around the world have already introduced IP into their networks because it provides economic benefits over traditional telecommunications networks.

Greater Efficiency: The conventional circuit-switched technology of the PSTN requires a circuit between the telephone companys switch and the customers premise to be open and occupied for the entire duration of a call, regardless of the amount of information transmitted. In contrast, on IP networks, all content -- whether voice, text, video, computer programs, or numerous other forms of information -- travels through the network in packets that are directed to their destination by diverse routes, sharing the same facilities most efficiently.

Lower Cost: IP systems will offer a more economical means for providing communication connections. Internet technology makes available to anyone with a personal computer and modems the ability to bypass the long distance PSTN.

Higher Reliability: In some respects, IP networks also offer the potential for higher reliability than the circuit-switched network because IP networks automatically re-route packets around problems such as malfunctioning routers or damaged lines.

Supporting Innovation:

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IP is a nonproprietary standard agreed on by hardware and software developers, and is free to be used by anyone. This open architecture allows entrepreneurial firms to develop new hardware and software that can seamlessly fit into the network. In contrast, the circuit switched network operates as a closed system, thus making it more difficult for innovative developers to build and implement new applications.

DISADVANTAGES OF VOIP
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If electricity has a power out then you will not be able to make any calls, so make sure that your service provider provides with these services. The quality of the call via VOIP can be slightly less than your current analogue phone, but the technology is steadily improving. VOIP relies on having a broadband connection so if that goes down so does your Internet phone service. VoIP is susceptible to worms, viruses and hacking, although this is very rare and VoIP developers are working on VoIP encryption to counter this.

VOIP PHONE FEATURES


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Call Forwarding: It allows you to re-route or forward calls to a different phone number. Caller ID: It allows the dialed party to see who is calling them before the call is answered. Call Waiting: This feature is provided with your caller ID. Having this feature makes it very easy to filter the calls.

Call Hunting: It creates a path for unanswered calls when you are not at home. Simultaneous Ringing: It allows several phones to ring at once when your phone number is called. Do not disturb: It allows you to set a specific time when you would not like to receive phone calls.

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VOIP CELL PHONES


There are growing arrays of cell phones that take advantage of (VoIP) technology. VoIP-enabled cell phones are just entering the consumer market. In fact, there are already mobile phones that work through VoIP. The Zyxel Prestige 2000W Wi-Fi Phone is one of them. In the United States, only T-Mobile's HotSpot@Home service allows customers to make cell phone calls over a VoIP network. HotSpot@Home relies on a device called a dual-mode cell phone. Dual-mode cell phones contain both a regular cellular radio and a Wi-Fi radio. The Wi-Fi radio enables the cell phone to connect to a wireless Internet network through a wireless router. If you have a wireless Internet router in your home, or if you're sitting with wireless Internet access, you can use your cell phone to make VoIP calls.

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Zyxel Prestige 2000W

T-Mobile

APPLICATION OF VOIP
AUDIO CONFERENCING: It is similar to your traditional conference using analog telephones. In such a call, callers connect to the conference bridge, a server that allows multiple people to talk to one another. VOIP audio conferencing is based on same principle & is held by the use of phones & PCs.These calls are connected to the conferencing bridge via PBX (Private Branch Exchange).

VIDEO CONFERENCING VOIP Video Conferencing brings everyone face-to-face, which results in saves time and money. Video Conferencing allows you to communicate in real time with one or more people at different locations via video.

What you need


A computer A broadband Internet connection A microphone and speakers A webcam (optional, for video conferencing) Eg. The most common VoIP software is Skype which is free to download and to make VoIP calls to other Skype users anywhere in the world.

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CONCLUSION
VoIP is a quickly growing industry; it is still a very new type of service. The promise Internet telephony offers is to enable to communicate with others around the country and around the world at affordable rates. In another five years, we may have VOIP system being more common than conventional phone networks we rely on so heavily today. Over the next few years expect to be grew by the advancements that are made in the way that telephone calls are made. Many developing countries are looking forward to provide VOIP services to remote areas.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
www.voip.com www.wikipedia.com www.voipusa.com www.howstuffworks.com

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