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Men, masculinity and gender in development Andrea Cornwal Historically, gender and development initiatives aim to correct the

effects of gender inequality from the perspective of woman. Men is characterised the as the problem. The male experiences are not taking in account as gender issues, focusing on women as the oppressed. This article argues that is time to move on, taking in account the complexity of gender issues and exploring the differences ways of masculinity. Old feminist theories (1970s and 1980s) pointed the concept of gender as social construct: there was nothing natural about gender inequalities in different cultures. In Development, gender analysis investigates difference between women and men taking sexual difference as the starting point. Not focusing on individual women and men within communities but presuming commonalities. This analysis is simplistic and dont talk about important influences in the perspective of gender such age, status and wealth. New thinking in Development practice By 1980 in the feminist theory it was clear than the concept of Universal Woman was not useful to approach the differences between women (class, sexual orientation, religion, etc.) Recent gender theory explores the fact that men or woman act and behave in different ways depending with whom we interact and this is influenced by what we think is acceptable or convenient. New theoretical tools to explore gender difference: - discourse analysis - deconstruction (not taking in account the assumptions and judgements of being a men or a woman) - gender as a performance (Butler 1990, the identities we have as women or men are not fixed and are variable) Men in gender and development Old style feminist theory classed men as the problem. Focusing on women to claim their rights and pushing the negatives images of masculinity. But men also have gender identities and not all are the same. The theory of masculinity as Hegemonic masculinity (Carrigan, Connell and Lee 1985) outlined that those men who not conform the hegemonic version associate with dominance and power find themselves disadvantaged and discriminated. Some ways of being a man are valued more than others. But not all men have dominant positions and not all who have power are men. Gender and Development work, currently offers little choices for men involvement. Its time to approach the issue in different way. If certain ways of being men are culturally valued, its not reasonable to ask them to abandon this identities without them felling attacked. In addition, those men who act or behave different can also fell powerless. If empowerment means enabling people to have power to make their own choices, this must be applied to men and women. We need to find constructive ways of working with men as well as with women to build the confidence to do things differently.