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# Introductory Mathematics.

## Introduction to Engineering Mathematics

Introductory Mathematics.

This online course has been designed to take students who have not studied mathematics for a number of years, from the basics up to a stage where they can participate in the Level 7 degree programs. In the time allocation I wont be able to cover all the topics that students cover in two years of full time study, so only the topics that are necessary to understand the Level 7 maths will be covered. The course is designed so that the student does a certain amount of study on their own in preparation for the online tutorials. There will be a quiz most weeks to keep you studying the course on a consistent basis. The quiz will be the continuous assessment and will account for 20% of the marks for the course. Questions and any communications should be through the forums on moodle, as we have seen that students tend to have the same queries and multiple emails on the same topic is a waste of time. I will try to make the course interesting, but there is an expectation that you will do some work on your own.

Declan Sheridan

## Page 2 Revision 0 Introductory Section

Introductory Mathematics.

Section 1: Manipulating formulae: ..................................................................................................... 6 Introduction:.................................................................................................................................... 6 Precedence: ..................................................................................................................................... 6 Brackets; ......................................................................................................................................... 7 Division:.......................................................................................................................................... 7 Trigonometry terms ........................................................................................................................ 8 Cross Multiplication: ...................................................................................................................... 9 Powers:............................................................................................................................................ 9 Applications: ................................................................................................................................. 10 Examples to be covered in class: .................................................................................................. 10 Section 2: Functions and Graphs: ..................................................................................................... 11 Introduction:.................................................................................................................................. 11 Straight line:.................................................................................................................................. 12 Calculating values:........................................................................................................................ 13 Curves, quadratic equations:......................................................................................................... 14 Applications: ................................................................................................................................. 17 Section 3: Trigonometry: measuring angles. .................................................................................... 18 Degrees: ........................................................................................................................................ 18 Trigonometry: ............................................................................................................................... 18 Pythagoras Theorem: .................................................................................................................... 21 Radians:......................................................................................................................................... 21 Applications: ................................................................................................................................. 22 Section 4: Differentiation:................................................................................................................. 23 Introduction:.................................................................................................................................. 23 Standard differentials:................................................................................................................... 23 y = k, where k is a constant....................................................................................................... 23 y = mx + c; a straight line: ........................................................................................................ 24 Table of standard differentials ...................................................................................................... 24 Some hints to note:........................................................................................................................ 25 Addition: ................................................................................................................................... 25 Multiplication or division by a constant: .................................................................................. 26 Examples to be covered in class: .................................................................................................. 26 Section 4: The Substitution rule........................................................................................................ 27 Applications. ................................................................................................................................. 28 Examples to be covered in class: .................................................................................................. 28 Section 5: The Product Rule ............................................................................................................. 29 Section 6: The Quotient Rule............................................................................................................ 31 Section 7: Local minimum and maximum points ............................................................................. 32 Introduction;.................................................................................................................................. 32 Graphs of functions....................................................................................................................... 32 Slopes or differentiation and minimum and maximum points...................................................... 33 Examples:.................................................................................................................................. 35 Section 8: Logarithmic Differentiation............................................................................................. 42 Introduction:.................................................................................................................................. 42 Logs and Powers ........................................................................................................................... 42 Rules of powers and logs .............................................................................................................. 42 Natural logarithms (logs) .............................................................................................................. 43

Declan Sheridan

## Page 3 Revision 0 Introductory Section

Introductory Mathematics. Logarithmic differentiation........................................................................................................... 44 Section 9: Differentiation of Parametric Functions .......................................................................... 47 Introduction:.................................................................................................................................. 47 Theory:.......................................................................................................................................... 47 Examples:...................................................................................................................................... 47 Section 10: Differentiation of Implicit Functions............................................................................. 50 Introduction:.................................................................................................................................. 50 Examples:...................................................................................................................................... 50 Section 11: Partial Differentiation .................................................................................................... 51 Introduction:.................................................................................................................................. 51 Theory:.......................................................................................................................................... 51 Partial differentiation: ................................................................................................................... 51 Applications .................................................................................................................................. 51 Examples:...................................................................................................................................... 52 Further examples from the 1st class: ............................................................................................. 52 Actual changes:............................................................................................................................. 52 Examples:...................................................................................................................................... 53 Section 12: Remainder Theorem and Factor Theorems ................................................................... 57 Introduction:.................................................................................................................................. 57 Long division of polynomials: ...................................................................................................... 57 Remainder Theorem...................................................................................................................... 58 Factor Theorem............................................................................................................................. 58 Generalised Factor & Remainder Theorems................................................................................. 60 Section 13: Integration...................................................................................................................... 61 Introduction:.................................................................................................................................. 61 Integration the basics .................................................................................................................... 61 Applications .............................................................................................................................. 61 Standard Integrals ......................................................................................................................... 62 Hints:............................................................................................................................................. 63 Section 14: The Substitution Rule .................................................................................................... 64 Introduction:.................................................................................................................................. 64 Section 15: Integration by Partial Fractions...................................................................................... 66 Introduction:................................................................................................................................. 66 Technique:..................................................................................................................................... 66 Section 16: Integration by Parts........................................................................................................ 69 Introduction:.................................................................................................................................. 69 Technique:..................................................................................................................................... 69 Examples:...................................................................................................................................... 70 Applications .................................................................................................................................. 72 Section 17: Complex Numbers ......................................................................................................... 73 Introduction................................................................................................................................... 73 i Square root of -1 ...................................................................................................................... 73 Vector Quantities .......................................................................................................................... 74 Cartesian Form.............................................................................................................................. 74 Argand Diagrams .......................................................................................................................... 74 Polar Form .................................................................................................................................... 76 Modulus .................................................................................................................................... 76 Argument .................................................................................................................................. 77

Declan Sheridan

## Page 4 Revision 0 Introductory Section

Introductory Mathematics. Quadrants ...................................................................................................................................... 78 Conversion: Cartesian to Polar ..................................................................................................... 78 Conversion: Polar to Cartesian ..................................................................................................... 79 Addition and Subtraction of Complex Numbers .......................................................................... 80 Conjugate of a Complex Number ................................................................................................. 80 Section 18: Complex Numbers 2: Multiplication and division. ....................................................... 81 Introduction................................................................................................................................... 81 Multiplication of Cartesian Complex Number ............................................................................. 81 Powers of i ................................................................................................................................ 81 Division of a Cartesian Complex Number.................................................................................... 82 Multiplication of a Polar Complex Number ................................................................................. 83 Division of a Polar Complex Number .......................................................................................... 84 Applications .................................................................................................................................. 84

Declan Sheridan

## Page 5 Revision 0 Introductory Section

Introductory Mathematics.

## Section 1: Manipulating formulae:

Introduction:
Frequently we find that we have a formula that has some variable, say y, as the subject of the equation, but we actually want to get a value for the variable on the other side, e.g. x. We have for example, y = 2x + 7. And we want to know what x is. What we need to do is isolate x, so take 7 away from both sides, or bring 7 over to the other side. This gives us: y 7 = 2x. We dont want 2x we want x, so if we divide both sides by 2 we will be left with 1x or x on its own. x = (y 7). We have now manipulated the formula to give us an equation for x.

Precedence:
In primary school, we learned that multiplication and division, take precedence over addition and subtraction. This means that when you are manipulating formulae you must also take this precedence into account, BUT you must consider what is being multiplied. So for example, if y = x + 7 then x = y 7. Simple. As above, if y = 2x 7 ; the 2 is multiplied by x, and so we bring over the 7, then divide. Example:

2x + 7 4 In this case the 4 underneath the line is divided into both the 2x and the + 7 so multiplying both sides by 4 is the 1st step 4y = 2x + 7 Now take 7 away from both sides, 4y - 7 = 2x Finally to get x on its own, divide both sides by 2 y= 2y 7 =x 2

Declan Sheridan

## Page 6 Revision 0 Manipulating formulae Section

Introductory Mathematics.

Brackets;
Brackets are used a lot in maths to clarify what one is multiplying by, or getting the function of, e.g. 2(2x + 7) reads as 2 multiplied by all of 2x + 7 = 4x + 14. Another example might be Sin(2x + 7) , which is quite different to Sin 2x + 7 Sin(2x + 7) means evaluate 2x + 7, then get the Sin of your answer Sin 2x + 7 means evaluate 2x, get the Sin of 2x, then add 7 to your answer Another area where some people misunderstand brackets is when two brackets are multiplied by each other, e.g. (a + b)(c + d); In this case, each term in one of the brackets is multiplied by the other bracket. (a + b)(c + d) = a(c + d) + b(c + d) = ac + ad + bc + bd or (a + b)(c + d) = c(a + b) + d(a + b) = ac + ad + bc + bd The order doesnt matter in this case. 2(2x + 7y) = 4x + 14y (2x + 7y)(3x 4y) = 2x(3x 4y) + 7y(3x 4y) = 6x 8xy + 21xy 28y = 6x + 13xy 28y Evaluate the Sin(2x + 7) when x = 10 = Sin(20 + 7) = Sin (27) Then using your calculator Sin(27) = 0.45399 But Sin 2x + 7 when x = 10 Can be rewritten as 7 + Sin 2x = 7 + Sin 20 = 7 + 0.342 = 7.342

Division:
Division can be a bit tricky. When there is addition or subtraction on top, they can be split out,

2x + 7 2 2x 7 = + = x + 3.5 2 2

Declan Sheridan

## Page 7 Revision 0 Manipulating formulae Section

Introductory Mathematics. But if the addition or subtraction are underneath the line then you must do the addition or subtraction before you can split them out.

2 you cannot do anything with this unless 2x + 7 1 this is not really a simplification = x + 3.5 Example : 3x + 4y 3 3x 4y = + 3 3 4 = x+ y 3 = x + 1.33 y

Example : 3 3 will divide into all the numbers top and bottom 6x + 9y 1 = 2x + 3y
Trigonometry terms
We will be looking at trigonometry later in the course, but Sin x, Cos x, and Tan x, can be used to describe an angle. Sin x is a number between -1 and +1, so is Cos x, but they are out of phase with one another. See the diagram below. Tan x on the other hand goes from - to +. From infinity to + infinity. The inverse of Sin x = y is got by x = Sin-1 y This reads that x = Sin inverse y, which means that x is the angle whose Sin is = y. Again, one must be careful when brackets are used for the angle, e.g. Sin (A + B), in this case A and B are added first and then the Sin of the result is obtained. Example: y = Sin (x + z), and you want to know what x equals Sin-1 y = x + z

Declan Sheridan

## Page 8 Revision 0 Manipulating formulae Section

Introductory Mathematics. x = Sin-1 (y) z : Note that I used brackets to clarify that we only get Sin-1 y and then take z from the result.

Cross Multiplication:
Cross multiplication comes in when one has a fraction. Rather than cross multiplying, I like to consider multiplying both sides of the equation by the denominator to get rid of the fraction. With fractions, the numerator is on top and the denominator in underneath the fraction. Example:

y=

## Sin x ; if we multiply both sides by y 2 + 1 2 y +1

y(y2 + 1) = Sin x x = Sin -1 (y3 + y) Example 1 1 1 = + R1 R 2 R 3 1 1 1 = R1 R 3 R 2 And you want to make R 2 the subject

This one I would treat slightly differently Need to use common denominator here

1 R 3 1 R1 1 = R1 R 3 R 3 R1 R 2 R 3 R1 1 = R 1R 3 R2 R 1R 3 = R2 R3 - R 1
Powers:
We need to look at some rules of powers xa xb = xa+b e.g. 102 x 103 = 100 x 1000 = 100,000 = 102+3 = 105 (xa)b = xab e.g. (102)3 = (100)3 = 100 x 100 x 100 = 1,000,000 = 106 = 102x3

Declan Sheridan

## Page 9 Revision 0 Manipulating formulae Section

Introductory Mathematics. xa + xb = xa + xb we cannot do much here. e.g. 102 + 103 = 100 + 1000 = 1100 = 103.04 If y = x4
1

x = 4 y = y4 So when one sees a fraction as a power you have roots What about x 4 = (x 3 )4 so this means the 4 th root of x 3
1 3

Applications:
The techniques from this section are used in everyday applications where one needs to determine values for a variable which is not usually the subject of the equation. For example, what pressure do we need to apply to get a certain dimension.

g=

x y Sin w 2z

## Make x, then y, then w, finally z the subject of the equation

Sin A = 2b + 3c :- make A the subject Sin (A+B) = c :- make A the subject (2x + 3y)(2w + 3z) = 0 :- Make x, then y, then w, then z the subject (x 3) = 0, find values for x If stress = L/A and max stress is 250MN/m, what size shaft would you need for a load of 150kN If t = wg/xy, make y the subject. Given 1 km = 5/8 miles, convert 80 mph into m/s. Given that you have an isosceles triangle with side lengths x, x, and y, determine a formula for its area in terms of its side length Given that you have a square, determine a formula for its area in terms of (a) its perimeter (b) its diagonal Given that

5 W l4 384 E I

Declan Sheridan

## Page 10 Revision 0 Manipulating formulae Section

Introductory Mathematics.

## Section 2: Functions and Graphs:

Introduction:
Maths is about trying to model the real world using numbers, equations and formulae, so that we can understand what is happening to a system and make predictions into the future as what will occur. If we can do that accurately, we will fully understand what the system is doing and what it will do, and understand how changes affect the system. This all sounds very high brow, but think, why did you spend so much time drawing graphs etc. It was so that you knew what the result was at various stages. Also, you could tell whether the result was increasing or decreasing, and if it was increasing or decreasing at a fast or slow rate. So if we have an equation that describes a function, how do we translate that into a graph. In school you would have been looking at y = function of some variable x, y = f(x) I will initially be doing this, but will move on to real life equations, e.g. power, speed, force, etc. One important thing to note, is that for each value of x, there is one and only one value for y. Otherwise we do not have a function. But for each value of y there may be a number of values for x. Lets look at the simplest equation, y = a constant, e.g. y = 4. This means that no matter what value x has, y always is 4.
y=4 5 3 1 -6 -4 -2 -1 0 -3 -5 y 2 4 6

Declan Sheridan

## Page 11 Revision 0 Manipulating formulae Section

Introductory Mathematics. So y = 4 is the result no matter where you are. y never changes so there is no rate of change of y.

Straight line:
The next simplest equation, you may remember from school was a straight line involving x. y = mx + x So as x increases so to does y, as long as m is positive. If m is negative, then y decreases as x increases. Let us look at some examples. y = 2x
y = 2x 5 3 1 -6 -4 -2 -1 0 -3 -5 y 2 4 6

y = - 2x
y = -2x 5 3 1 -6 -4 -2 -1 0 -3 -5 y 2 4 6

Declan Sheridan

## Page 12 Revision 0 Manipulating formulae Section

Introductory Mathematics. Notice, as x increases, y is decreasing. Also as there is no constant term, when x = 0, y = 0. y = 3x + 4
y = 3x + 4 25 20 15 10 5 -6 -4 -2 0 -5 0 -10 -15 y 2 4 6

m is positive, so as x increases y increases. Constant = 4, so when x = 0, y = constant = 4 We know that when x = 100, y = 3(100) + 4 = 304 y = 4x 2
y = -4x-2 20 15 10 5 -6 0 -1-5 -10 -15 -20 -25 y 4

## m is negative, so as x increases, y decreases, and when x = 0, y = constant = - 2

Calculating values:
So how did I get the values for y? You simply choose a value for x, say x = 0, then put 0 in for x and solve the equation, then when x = 0, y = solution. Look at the example above, y = 4x 2 I tend to do out a table, especially when we get to higher powers of x.

Declan Sheridan

## Page 13 Revision 0 Manipulating formulae Section

Introductory Mathematics.

x -4x -2 y = - 4x - 2

-5 20 -2 18

-4 16 -2 14

-3 12 -2 10

-2 8 -2 6

-1 4 -2 2

0 0 -2 -2

1 -4 -2 -6

2 -8 -2 -10

3 -12 -2 -14

4 -16 -2 -18

5 -20 -2 -22

## If we look at the previous example: y = 3x + 4

x 3x +4 y = 3x + 4 -5 -15 4 -11 -4 -12 4 -8 -3 -9 4 -5 -2 -6 4 -2 -1 -3 4 1 0 0 4 4 1 3 4 7 2 6 4 10 3 9 4 13 4 12 4 16 5 15 4 19

For higher powers of x, you no longer have a straight line, you end up with a number of turns. The actual number of turns is 1 less than the highest power of x. So if x is the highest power there is 1 turn.

Declan Sheridan

## Page 14 Revision 0 Manipulating formulae Section

Introductory Mathematics. And so on, if the highest power of x is x4, then there are 3 turns, and so on.

Some hints: With quadratic equations, i.e. where the highest power of x is x, if the number in front of the x is positive, then it looks like a smiley face positive and being happy

## and if it is negative, negative being sad, so an unhappy face

Go back to your tables to get the actual values, so when x = 0 y = a certain value, and when x = 1 y = another value. Example: y = 2x + 3x 4
x x 2x +3x -4 y = 2x + 3x - 4 -5 25 50 -15 -4 31 -4 16 32 -12 -4 16 -3 9 18 -9 -4 5 -2 4 8 -6 -4 -2 -1 1 2 -3 -4 -5 0 0 0 0 -4 -4 1 1 2 3 -4 1 2 4 8 6 -4 10 3 9 18 9 -4 23 4 16 32 12 -4 40 5 25 50 15 -4 61

Declan Sheridan

## Page 15 Revision 0 Manipulating formulae Section

Introductory Mathematics.

## y = 2x +3x - 4 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 -6 -4 -2 0 -10 0 y = 2x+3x-4 2 4 6

As predicted, it looks like a smiley-face, it comes down to a minimum, and turns to go off to infinity. Note also that it crosses the x-axis at two points, these are called the roots of the equation and will be dealt with later. Example 2: y = 2x + 3x 4
x x 2x +3x -4 y = 2x + 3x - 4 -5 25 -50 -15 -4 -69 -4 16 -32 -12 -4 -48 -3 9 -18 -9 -4 -31 -2 4 -8 -6 -4 -18 -1 1 -2 -3 -4 -9 0 0 0 0 -4 -4 1 1 -2 3 -4 -3 2 4 -8 6 -4 -6 3 9 -18 9 -4 -13 4 16 -32 12 -4 -24 5 25 -50 15 -4 -39

## y = -2x +3x - 4 20 0 -6 -4 -2 -20 -40 -60 -80 y = -2x+3x-4 0 2 4 6

Again, as predicted it looks like an unhappy (negative) face. Note also that it doesnt actually cross the x-axis, which means that there arent roots, or at least roots that are real. We will be dealing with imaginary roots when we get to complex numbers at the end of the course.

Declan Sheridan

## Page 16 Revision 0 Manipulating formulae Section

Introductory Mathematics.

Applications:
It can be useful to graph a function so that we understand what is happening to the function at certain points. Is it increasing, decreasing, or staying constant. If changing, is it changing swiftly or slowly. If one can predict what is happening at certain points in time, or at certain settings then one can control the output etc.

Declan Sheridan

## Page 17 Revision 0 Manipulating formulae Section

Introductory Mathematics.

## Section 3: Trigonometry: measuring angles.

In engineering applications, it is sometimes necessary to be able to measure angles. There are many ways available to engineers to do so. The most common being degrees, but also of use is trigonometry Sin Cos and Tan, and also when looking at speed of rotation are radians.

Degrees:
The use of 60 instead of 10 as the basis of a number system was used by the Babylonians, and this is why we have 60 seconds in a minute, and 360 degrees in a circle. The measurement of an angle is taken from the positive x-axis and goes in an anticlockwise direction. This will be important when we get to complex numbers later on in the course. This makes 90 and its multiples important for engineers, especially so when we look at Sine (Sin), Cosine (Cos) and Tangent (Tan) of the angles.

Trigonometry:
The larger any angle is, the larger will be the area it covers. If we take a right angle (90) from one of the legs of the angle and bring it up to the other leg, we will be left with a right angled triangle. In this triangle, the will be a side opposite or facing the angle, a side adjacent or beside the angle, and a third side called the hypotenuse, which will be the longest of the three sides and is opposite the 90 angle.

Declan Sheridan

## Page 18 Revision 0 Introduction to Differentiation Section

Introductory Mathematics. Therefore, these side lengths, or more importantly the ratio of the side lengths also describes the angle, and this leads us to trigonometry. The reason the ratio is important, and constant, is that as seen in the 3rd line below, it doesnt matter how far out one goes with the right angle, the side lengths have all grown proportionately, so the ratios remain constant.

Sin =

Opposite for a right angled triangle Hypoteneuse Adjacent Cos = for a right angled triangle Hypoteneuse Sin Opposite Tan = = for a right angled triangle Cos Adjacent But once one knows the Sin, Cos or Tan of the angle, then the angle is known as if Sin = x ; then = Sin -1 x

Looking at the above, one can see that at 0 the Sin 0 = 0, and at 90, Cos 90 = 0. Sin will go from a maximum of +1 to a minimum of -1, as will Cos , but for Tan, sometimes you will be dividing by 0, so Tan goes from + (infinity) to -, but as Sin 0 = 0, then Tan 0 = 0.

Declan Sheridan

## Page 19 Revision 0 Introduction to Differentiation Section

Introductory Mathematics.

1.5 1 0.5 0 0 -0.5 -1 -1.5 Sin Cos Tan 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400

This means that if we know the angle we can get its Sin, Cos or Tan using a calculator, and if we know its Sin, Cos, or Tan we can get the angle. One needs to be careful as the calculator will always assume that the angle is between +90 and -90. As you see from the above graph, the trigonometry terms are cyclical, so Sin 150 = Sin 30 = 0.5, so you need to be aware of which quadrant you are in, 0 to 90, 90 to 180, 180 to 270, and 270 to 360.

Declan Sheridan

## Page 20 Revision 0 Introduction to Differentiation Section

Introductory Mathematics.

Pythagoras Theorem:
Pythagoras was a Greek mathematician, who developed a famous and well used theorem about right angled triangles, in a right angled triangle, the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the square of the other two sides This leads us to the fact that Sin2 + Cos2 = 1

While degrees are the most commonly used means of measuring angles, they dont lend themselves to speed of rotation. We are familiar with the term RPM, which means revolutions per minute. When looking at speed of rotation you are interested in how quickly the angle changes per unit time. A term angular velocity is used in applied maths, and is equal to the radians covered per second. So what are radians? You will have used radians in maths without realising it up to now. Remember talking about Sin /2, and so on. What did /2 actually mean. We were led to believe that it is equal to 90, but why? A radian is the angle described when in a circle of radius r, an arc length of 1 radius is drawn.

As the circumference of a circle is 2r, this means that there are 2r / r radians in a circle, which means that a circle has 2 radians in it and also 360 So 360 = 2 radians. Dividing both sides by 2, gives us 1 radian = 360 / 2 = 57.3 Declan Sheridan Page 21 Revision 0 Introduction to Differentiation Section

Introductory Mathematics. Or divide both sides by 360, gives 1 = 2 / 360 = 0.0175 radians. So how to convert from RPM to radians per second? For each revolution, you cover 2 radians, and there are 60 seconds in a minute. Therefore, multiply RPM by 2 and divide by 60. Example: Convert 4000 RPM to radians per second 4000 x 2 / 60 = 418.88 radians per second.

Applications:
This can then be used in various equations to do with rotation, such as the stress set up due to centrifugal forces in a rotating ring is got by rotation = 2 r2 where is the density of the material in kg / m3 is the angular velocity in radians per second r is the mean radius of the rotating ring Trigonometry is used a lot not only in maths but in lots of engineering applications, such as mechanics.

Declan Sheridan

## Page 22 Revision 0 Introduction to Differentiation Section

Introductory Mathematics.

Section 4: Differentiation:
Introduction:
Differentiation is a much used and important function in engineering applications. It is not as well understood as it should be. So what does differentiation actually mean? It means how much does one variable change as the other increases by 1 unit, e.g. dy/dx means how much does y change as x increases by 1 unit. If dy/dx is positive and large, then y increases a lot as x increases by 1 unit, while if it is positive but small y increases as x increases but only a little, while as dy/dx is negative and large this means that as x increases by 1 unit y decreases a lot, and if dy/dx is negative and small, then y decreases but only by a small amount. So in our graphs previously, the differential, dy/dx, actually refers to the slope of the curve. This means that if we get any ratio, e.g. rate of change of distance with time, speed, is the differential of distance travelled per unit time. And if we know the differential at any point we know what is happening to our function, is it increasing or decreasing, and is the rate of change slow or fast. We will initially be looking at dy/dx, the rate of change of y as x increases by one unit, including quite complex functions that need to be differentiated, and then moving on to real life differentials.

Standard differentials:
y = k, where k is a constant
Remember that dy/dx means the rate of change of y as x increases by one unit, so if y = k, where k is some arbitrary constant, then as x increases by one unit, y remains unchanged, so the rate of change is 0 if y = k.
y=3
3.5 3 2.5 2 y 1.5 1 0.5 0 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6

Declan Sheridan

## Page 23 Revision 0 Introduction to Differentiation Section

Introductory Mathematics.

y = mx + c; a straight line:
y = 2x + 3
15 10 5 y 0 -6 -4 -2 -5 -10 0 2 4 6

Here in this graph of y = 2x + 3, as x increases by 1 unit, y increases by 2 units, so the differential dy/dx = 2. Which is the number in front of x.

Declan Sheridan

## dy dx 0 nx n -1 1 x Cos x - Sin x Sec 2 x ex aeax du dv v +u dx dx du dv v -u dx dx 2 v

Page 24 Revision 0 Introduction to Differentiation Section

Introductory Mathematics. These are listed in the log tables, but you have to know how to use them, and what method to use to get back to a standard differential in order so we can carry out the differentiation. So if y = k, dy/dx = 0

## Some hints to note:

There are a couple of things that may be useful in solving slightly more complicated functions.

If there is an addition or subtraction between functions that are being differentiated, then one may differentiate each of the functions in turn and then add or subtract the differentials. Example:

If y = x 2 + x + 3

## dy d 2 d d = (x ) + (x ) + (3) dx dx dx dx 2 -1 11 = 2x + 1x + 0 As anything to the power of 0 = 1 dy = 2x + 1 dx

So what does this actually mean? To understand fully, first you must realise what the function y = x2 + x + 3.
y = x^2 + x + 3
120 100 80 60 40 20 0 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 y

Declan Sheridan

## Page 25 Revision 0 Introduction to Differentiation Section

Introductory Mathematics. As you can see, the slope, or differential of this graph depends on where you are on the graph, it is constantly changing. Before the minimum point, i.e. to the left of the minimum point, as x increases by 1 unit, y decreases in value so the slope (or the differential) is negative, and after the minimum point, as x increases by 1 unit, y increases, so the slope (or differential) is positive. Also worth noting is that the further away from the minimum point you go, the steeper the slope (or larger the differential) is.

## Multiplication or division by a constant:

The second point to note with differentiation is that if you have a function of x which is multiplied by a number, simply differentiate as if the number wasnt there and then multiply by that number.

## If y = 3x 2 2x + 3 dy d d d = (3x 2 ) (2x ) + (3) dx dx dx dx d d d = 3 (x 2 ) 2 (x ) + (3) dx dx dx 2 -1 11 = 3(2x ) 2(1x ) + 0 dy = 3(2x ) 2(1) = 6x 2 dx

Examples to be covered in class:
1. y = 4 2. y = 4x 3 3. y = 2x Sin x 4. y = 3x 2x + 5 5. y = 2/x 6. y = 2e^x 7. y = Sin 2x (this one requires a new technique called the substitution rule)

Declan Sheridan

## Page 26 Revision 0 Introduction to Differentiation Section

Introductory Mathematics.

## Section 4: The Substitution rule.

This is used when y = f(g(x)), a function of a function of x. Some of you may have used the chain rule to solve this differential, such as the example above y = Sin (2x). My advice is to avoid the chain rule unless you are very comfortable with it. The chain rule says differentiate inside the brackets, then differentiate outside the brackets and multiply one by the other to get the differential. The substitution rule is a long-hand version of the chain rule and if you stick to the steps you should not make the type of error that is frequently seen with the chain rule. If y = f(g(x)) The technique involves letting another variable, say u, equal what is inside the brackets. Let u = g(x) We can get a du/dx Now y = f(u) [as u = g(x)] We calculate dy/du Finally dy/dx = (dy/du) (du/dx) Example: y = Cos (2x + 1) Let u = 2x + 1 du/dx = 2 y = Cos (u) dy/du = - Sin (u) dy/dx = dy/du du/dx = (- Sin u)(2) = -2 Sin u [but u = 2x + 1] = - 2 Sin (2x + 1) Example: (2x 2 + 3x + 1)

y=e

2

+ 3x + 1

Declan Sheridan

## Page 27 Revision 0 Differentiation: The substitution rule Section

Introductory Mathematics.

Applications.
With differentiation one must remember that in differentiating we are looking to understand what is happening to one variable as another is being increased by one unit. So looking for applications under each of the topics under differentiation is not sensible as the objective for each is the same, namely to get the rate of change of one variable as another increases by one unit.

## Examples to be covered in class:

y = (3x + 4)6 2 (2x + 4) 2 y = Cos (3x + 4) y= y = 2 Cos (3x - 1) y = 2 Cos (3x - 1 ) + Sin (3x + 7) y = 2x Cox x [this is the product rule - next section

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## Page 28 Revision 0 Differentiation: The substitution rule Section

Introductory Mathematics.

## Section 5: The Product Rule

This technique is to be used when one is trying to differentiate a variable when it is equal to two functions multiplied by each other. If there are more than two functions being multiplied or divided, or a mixture, then one cannot use this method. See example at end of previous section, if y = (2x) (Cos x)

If y = u v dv du dy =v +u then dx dx dx In other words, If y = f(x) g(x) dy d f(x) d g(x) = g(x) + f(x) dx dx dx du =2 u = 2x ; so dx dv = - Sin x v = Cos x ; so dx dy = (Cos x )(2 ) + (2 x )(- Sin x ) dx = 2 Cos x - 2x Sin x = 2 (Cos x - x Sin x )
Be careful, sometimes one will have to use the substitution rule within the product rule. Example: y = 2x Sin 2x, find dy/dx

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## Page 29 Revision 0 Differentiation: Minimum & Maximum Section

Introductory Mathematics.

If y = u v dy du dv then =v +u dx dx dx du =2 u = 2x ; so dx v = Sin 2x ; Let w = 2x dw =2 dx v = Sin w dv = Cos w dw dv dv dw so = = (Cos w )2 = 2 Cos 2x dx dw dx dy du dv =v +u dx dx dx (Sin 2x )(2) + (2x )(2Cos 2x ) = 2 Sin 2x + 4x Cos 2x = 2 (Sin 2x + 2x Cos 2x )

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## Page 30 Revision 0 Differentiation: Minimum & Maximum Section

Introductory Mathematics.

## Section 6: The Quotient Rule

This technique is to be used when one is trying to differentiate a variable when it is equal to two functions divided by each other. If there are more than two functions being multiplied or divided, or a mixture, then one cannot use this method.

y=

y=

dy = dx

## d f(x) d g(x) - f(x) dx dx 2 (g(x))

If y =

2x Cos x

u = 2x du =2 dx v = Cos x dv = - Sin x dx dy (Cos x )(2 ) - (2x )( Sin x ) = dx (Cos x )2 2(Cos x + x Sin x ) = Cos 2 x 2 Sin x 1 = +x Cos x Cos x Cos x 1 [2 + x Tan x ] = Cos x = Sec x (2 + x Tan x )

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Introductory Mathematics.

## Section 7: Local minimum and maximum points

Introduction;
It is seldom important in real life that one wants to know how to get a maximum (or minimum) value that a variable y can achieve. But it can be important when one wants to calculate the maximum power, or maximum voltage, minimum distance, minimum cost, minimum price, etc. When a maximum or minimum is required the differential can be important.

Graphs of functions.
We saw earlier, that if y = k, a constant, then y does not change, so the maximum and minimum value is k.
y=4 5 3 1 -6 -4 -2 -1 0 -3 -5 y 2 4 6

Also when y is a straight line with slope = m, it goes off to + and , so the minimum and maximum value for y are both infinity, not much use.
y = 2x 5 3 1 -6 -4 -2 -1 0 -3 -5 y 2 4 6

Once we have higher powers of x, then the function will have at least one turning point, which will be a local maximum or minimum point. If one takes 1 away from the highest power of x you will get the number of turning points in the graph.

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Introductory Mathematics.

## y = -2x+3x-4 0 -15 -10 -5 -50 -100 y = -2x+3x-4 -150 -200 -250 0 5 10 15

y = x+20x+3x-4 1500 1000 500 0 -30 -20 -10 -500 -1000 -1500 -2000 0 10 y = x+20x+3x-4

## Slopes or differentiation and minimum and maximum points

One thing to note, if you have a quadratic equation, i.e. the highest power is 2, there is 1 turning point and to decide whether it is a minimum or maximum point, you should differentiate a

Declan Sheridan

## Page 33 Revision 0 Differentiation: Minimum & Maximum Section

Introductory Mathematics. second time to give you the rate of change of the rate of change. To differentiate a second time gives you

## dy which is pronounced d 2 y d x 2. An example of this would be acceleration. Speed dx

is the rate of change of distance travelled per unit time, while acceleration is the rate of change of speed per unit time. In the case of a quadratic equation, if the sign is front of the x is positive, then it looks like a smile, so goes to a minimum point, and if the sign in front of the x is negative, then it looks like a sad mouth, so it goes up to a maximum point and drops off. If you look at the graphs as the function approaches a maximum point the slope is positive and as you move away from the maximum it is negative, so at the maximum point the slope or

dy is 0. dx

Also when you look at the graphs as the function approaches a minimum point the slope is negative and as you move away from the minimum it is positive, so at the minimum point the slope or

dy is also 0. dx

This is the case no matter how high the powers go, for a local minimum or maximum point the differential is = 0. This is the case also no matter what you are looking for, maximum power minimum cost, etc, etc. If y = 2x + 3x + 4, as we have seen above the minimum value for y from the graph looks to be just negative, but what is it actually? And what value of x will give us this minimum value for y, looks to be around x = -1.

y = 2x + 3x 4 dy = 4x + 3 dx dy dy = 0 but = 4x + 3 dx dx for a minimum point 4x + 3 = 0 4x = - 3 -3 x = = - 0.75 4 If we put in - 0.75 for x in the original equation we will get the minimum value for y y = 2(-0.75) + 3(-0.75) 4 = 2(0.5625) - 3(.75) - 4 = 1.125 - 2.25 - 4 y = - 5.125 For a minimum,
Similarly, if we try to calculate the maximum value for y = -2x + 3x - 4,

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## Page 34 Revision 0 Differentiation: Minimum & Maximum Section

Introductory Mathematics.

y = - 2x + 3x 4 dy = - 4x + 3 dx For a maximum, dy dy 3 = 0 but = - 4x + 3 = 0 4x = 3 x = = 0.75 dx dx 4 If we put in 0.75 for x in the equation we will get the maximum value for y y = - 2(0.75) + 3(0.75) 4 = - 2(0.5625) + 3(.75) - 4 = - 1.125 + 2.25 - 4 y = - 2.875
Examples:
Taken from Foundation Mathematics for Engineers by John berry and Patrick Wainwright

1. An open rectangular box (no top) is to be made form a 600mm x 800mm sheet of metal. What should the dimensions be to contain the maximum possible volume?

Solution: The sides of the box are done by cutting out a square x mm from each corner, and bending up the sides to form the box. This means that the length of the box will be 800 2x, while the width will be 600 2x and the height of the box will be x mm. The volume V = l x b x h = (800 2x)(600 2x)(x) = (800 2x)(600x 2x) V = 800(600x 2x) 2x(600x 2x) V = 480,000x 1600x 1200x + 4x = 480,000x 2800x + 4x

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## Page 35 Revision 0 Differentiation: Minimum & Maximum Section

Introductory Mathematics.

dV = 480,000 - 5600x + 12x = 0 for a maximum volume dx 5600 (-5600) - 4(12)(480000) - b b - 4ac we get that x = Using x = 2a 2(12) 5600 31360000 - 23040000 5600 8320000 = 24 24 5600 2884.4 8484.4 2715.6 or x= = 24 24 24 x = 353.5 mm or 113.2 mm; but x cannot equal 353.5 as 2x = 707mm which is x= greater than side lenght of 600mm. So answer is x = 113.2 mm Dimensions would then be 573.6 mm x 373.6 mm x 113.2 mm
2. A cylindrical fuel storage tank must hold 12000 litres. Find its dimensions if its surface area is to be minimised. What is the area of metal used in constructing the tank. Solution: In this case we are putting a top on the tank. One must know how to convert between litres and mm 1000 litres = 1 m 12000 litres = 12 m 1000 mm = 1 m 1000 x 1000 mm = 1,000,000 mm = 1 m 1000 x 1000 x 1000 mm = 1,000,000,000 mm = 1 m 12,000 litres = 12 m = 12,000,000,000 mm V = r h = 1.2 x 1010 mm h = 1.2 x 1010 / r Surface area s = area of top and bottom + area of side = r + r + 2 r h There are two variables on the right hand side so we put in that h = 1.2 x 1010 / r s = 2 r + 2 r 1.2 x 1010 / r

Declan Sheridan

## Page 36 Revision 0 Differentiation: Minimum & Maximum Section

Introductory Mathematics.

2.4 x 10 10 r s = 2 r + r 2 r + 2.4 x 10 10 r -1 ds = 4 r - 2.4 x 10 10 r - 2 dr ds For minimum = 0 dr 4 r - 2.4 x 10 10 r - 2 = 0 4 r = 2.4 x 10 10 r - 2 Multiply both sides by r 2 4 r 3 = 2.4 x 10 10 2.4 x 10 10 r = = 1,909,859,317 4 r = 1240.7 mm
3

## 1.2 x 10 10 h= = 2481.4 mm 2 (1240.7 ) s = 2 r 2 + 2 r h = 2 r (r + h) = 2 (1240.7)(1240.7 + 2481.4) s min = 29,015,809.25 mm 2 = 29.0 m 2

3. A 3m beam AB carries a point load 2m from A. At a distance x from A, the deflection in mm is given by the equation y = 0.25x (8 x2) Find the maximum deflection of the beam and how far it is away from A 4. The power dissipated in an electric current is given by P = I2R watts, where I is the current in amps flowing, and R is the resistance in . A circuit consists of two resistors R1 and R2 in parallel. The sum of their resistances is 100 k and a constant current of 2 mA flows in the circuit. Find the values of R1 and R2 which maximise the power in the circuit. What is the maximum power? You will need to use the fact that the total resistance in a parallel circuit is given by

1 R Total

1 1 + R1 R 2

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## Page 37 Revision 0 Differentiation: Minimum & Maximum Section

Introductory Mathematics.

1 R Total =

1 1 + R1 R 2 = R 2 + R1 R 1R 2

1 R 2 1 R1 + R1 R 2 R 2 R1 R 1R 2 R1 + R 2

R Total =

2

-6

P = I R Total

## 100,000 R 1 - R 12 = 4 x 10 = 4 x 10-6 R 1 - 4 x 10-11 R 12 100,000

dP = 4 x 10-6 - 8 x 10-11 R 1 dR 1 dP = 0 for maximum power dR 1 4 x 10-6 - 8 x 10-11 R 1 = 0 8 x 10-11 R 1 = 4 x 10-6 4 x 10-6 R1 = = 50,000 8 x 10-11 R 2 = 50,000 1 R Total 1 1 + 50,000 50,000

= =

## 2 50000 50,000 R Total = = 25,000 2 PMax = I 2 R Total = 4 x 10-6 (25000 ) = 0.1 W

4. The fuel economy E of a car in miles per gallon is

## E = 35 + 2.07 x 10-2 v 2 - 3.85 x 10-6 v 4

where v is the speed in miles per hour (5 v 70). What is the most economical fuel consumption, and at what speed is it achieved?

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## Page 38 Revision 0 Differentiation: Minimum & Maximum Section

Introductory Mathematics. Answer: 61.8 mpg at 51.8 mph 5. A contractor has 150m of security fencing and wishes to enclose a rectangular area, see picture below. The area is divided into two parts with fencing. The areas A1 and A2 are such that A1 = 2A2. What are the dimensions so that the total area enclosed is a maximum.

Answer: 37.5 m x 25 m 6. A window is in the shape of a rectangle with a semicircle on top of it. Lead beading is applied around its edges, and also as framing, see picture below. If 7000 mm of lead beading is available, what are the dimensions of the window such that its area is a maximum, you may assume the beading is of negligible width.

Declan Sheridan

## Page 39 Revision 0 Differentiation: Minimum & Maximum Section

Introductory Mathematics.

3h = 7000 - (8 + ) r 7000 - (8 + ) r h= 3 1 A = 2 r h + r2 2 7000 - (8 + ) r 1 2 =2r + 2 r 3 14000 (16 + 2 ) 2 1 = r r + r2 3 3 2 dA 14000 (32 + 4 ) r + r = 0 for maximum area = dr 3 3 14000 (32 + 4 ) r + r = 0 3 3 14000 (32 + 4 ) r r = 3 3 14000 = (32 + 4 - 3 ) r 14000 r= = 398.4 mm 32 + 7000 - (8 + ) r 7000 - 4438.8 h= = = 853.7 mm 3 3
7. Two oil pipes with circular cross-sections are such that the sum of their diameters must not exceed 1m. What should their diameters be to give the maximum combined cross-sectional area. (When you have differentiated, formally identify your answer as a maximum or minimum. If you cannot obtain the answer by differentiation, try a sketch graph.) Answer: First 1 m diameter, second zero diameter. Solution: 1 + 2 = 1 m 1 = 1 2

+ = + 4 4 4 4A = ( 1 - 2 2 + 2 ) + 2 2 2 2 2 - 2 2 + 2 A= 4

A=

12

2 2

(1 - 2 )

2 2
4

Declan Sheridan

## Page 40 Revision 0 Differentiation: Minimum & Maximum Section

Introductory Mathematics.

## dA = 2 = 0 for minimum or maximum cross - sectional area d 2 2

1 2 = ; this actually gives minimum cross - sectional area 2 2
A = A1 + A2

2 =

0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

Cross section

The reason for this not showing the maximum points is that the function has not reached a turning point, it comes to a minimum and is then is held to an artificial maximum by the boundary condition that the sum of the diameters is 1 m.

Declan Sheridan

## Page 41 Revision 0 Differentiation: Minimum & Maximum Section

Introductory Mathematics.

## Section 8: Logarithmic Differentiation

Introduction:
We said that the product and quotient rules can only used when there are at most two functions either multiplied or divided by each other. What do we do when we have more than two functions multiplied, divided, or a combination of multiplication or division. That is where the technique of logarithmic differentiation is used.

## Logs and Powers

To understand logarithmic differentiation properly one must understand logs (short for logarithms). They are another means for writing powers. In our maths we use base 10, but could have used any base, e.g. the Babylonians used 60, hence 60 seconds in a minute, 60 minutes in an hour, 360 in a circle. 100 = 102 can be rewritten as Log10100 = 2 This can be done for any number, e.g. Log1050 = 1.69 ; so 101.69 = 50.

## Rules of powers and logs

102 x 103 = 100 x 1000 = 100,000 = 105 = 102+3 (xa) (xb) = xa+b So when multiplying powers, add the powers.

1 = 10-2 so when dividing, you bring the power up top and make it negative 2 10 Therfore, when dividing you subtract the powers. When you have a fraction as a power, this means that square or cube etc roots are needed. e.g.100 2 = 100 = 10 What does x mean? = (x ) = 4 x 3 This comes from the rule that if (x a )b = x ab e.g. (1 02 )3 = (100)3 = 106 = 1,000,000
3 4 1 3 4 1

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## Page 42 Revision 0 Differentiation: Logarithmic Differentiation Section

Introductory Mathematics.

## Natural logarithms (logs)

We saw in the list of standard differentials that if y = ex ; then dy/dx = ex. We also saw that if y = ln x ; then dy/dx = 1 / x. But what are ex and ln x? e is called the exponential function
y = e^x
25000 20000 15000 Series1 10000 5000 0 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15

The exponential function grows or decays at a rate proportional to its current value. So it has a minimum of zero and grows quickly to infinity. ln x or natural log, on the other hand is the log taking e as a base rather than 10. y = ln x => Loge y = x
y = ln x
3.5 3 2.5 2 Series1 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30

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## Page 43 Revision 0 Differentiation: Logarithmic Differentiation Section

Introductory Mathematics.

Logarithmic differentiation
So how can we make use of these facts? If there are more than two functions that are either multiplied or divided by each other, we take the log of both sides which makes it addition and subtraction. If y = (2ex)(Sin x)(x3) ; we cannot use the product rule as there are too many functions of x. The standard differentials include if y = ln x then dy/dx = 1 / x. If we get the natural log of both sides it gives us in this case ln y = ln 2ex + ln Sin x + ln x3 On the right hand side we have functions of functions, but there are pluses, or minuses, between them so we can use the substitution rule get the differential of each term. Remember that if we differentiate y we get dy/dx, so if we differentiate ln y ; we will get

Let u = 2e x

du = 2e x dx

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## Page 44 Revision 0 Differentiation: Logarithmic Differentiation Section

Introductory Mathematics.

y = ln u

dy 1 = du u 2e x 1 dy dy du x = = (2e ) = =1 2e x u dx du dx

3 x

Declan Sheridan

## Introductory Mathematics. Example 2:

(x 2 + 1) e 2x y= Cos 2x As this involves 3 functions of x eithe multiplied or divided by each other we must use logarithmic differentiation. Get natural logs of each side

ln y = ln (x 2 + 1) + ln (e 2x ) - ln (Cos 2x) Differentiate both sides 2e 2x - Sin 2x 2x 1 dy = 2 + - x + 1 e 2x Cos 2x y dx dy 2x = (y ) 2 + 2 + Tan 2x dx x +1 (x 2 + 1) e 2x 2x + 2 + Tan 2x = 2 Cos 2x x + 1

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## Page 46 Revision 0 Differentiation: Logarithmic Differentiation Section

Introductory Mathematics.

## Section 9: Differentiation of Parametric Functions

Introduction:
Quite often we end up with y being expressed as a function of some other variable, such as time, and x is also expressed as a function of this other variable. This third variable we call a parameter. If y is on the left hand side of the equation and this parameter, say t, is on the right hand side then we cannot get a dy/dx directly, but we can get a dy/dt. As x is on the left hand side of the other equation, and t is on the right hand side, then we can get a dx/dt, which if we invert, we get a dt/dx. If, as we have seen previously, we multiply dy/dt by dt/dx we will be left with dy/dx.

Theory:

dy dt dx If x = g(t) we can get a dt dt dx we get If we now invert dx dt dy dy dt we get And if we multiply dx dt dx If y = f(t) we can get a
Be careful, quite often you will have to use the substitution, product, quotient or other rules to get the differentials with respect to the parameter.

Examples:
1. y = 5t + (9.81) t2 and x = Sin (2t) Determine dy/dx

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## Page 47 Revision 0 Differentiation: Differentiation of Parametric Functions Section

Introductory Mathematics.

9.81 t 2 dy If y = 5t + then = 5 + 9.81 t 2 dt dx If x = Sin (2t) then = - 2Cos 2t [using substitution rule] dt dx dt -1 Invert we get = dt dx 2 Cos 2t dy dy dt - 1 - 1(5 + 9.81 t ) = = (5 + 9.81 t ) = dx dt dx 2 Cos 2t 2 Cos 2t
Example 2.

3t + 4 2t 2 + 1 dy y= and x = find t +1 t +1 dx Need to use the quotient rule on both 3t + 4 u = t +1 v du u = 3t + 4 =3 dt dv v = t +1 =1 dt du dv v -u dy (t + 1)(3) - (3t + 4)(1) = 3t + 3 - 3t - 4 = - 1 = dt 2 dt = dt v ( t + 1) 2 ( t + 1) 2 (t + 1) 2 y= 2t 2 + 1 u x= = t +1 v du u = 2t 2 + 1 = 4t dt dv v = t +1 =1 dt du dv v -u 2 2 2 2 dx dt dt = (t + 1)(4 t) - (2t + 1)(1) = 4t + 4t - 2t - 1 = 2t + 4t 1 = dt v2 (t + 1) 2 (t + 1) 2 (t + 1)2

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## Page 48 Revision 0 Differentiation: Differentiation of Parametric Functions Section

Introductory Mathematics.

dt (t + 1) 2 = dx 2t 2 + 4t 1 dy dy dt -1 (t + 1) 2 -1 = = = 2 2 2 dx dt dx (t + 1) 2t + 4t 1 2t + 4t - 1
Examples from the class y = 2x Sinx lnx y = 2x / (Sinx lnx) y = x Cosx / Sin2x

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## Page 49 Revision 0 Differentiation: Differentiation of Parametric Functions Section

Introductory Mathematics.

## Section 10: Differentiation of Implicit Functions

Introduction:
Up to now we have been differentiating explicit or fully defined functions of y, by this I mean we have y = f (x), so y was got on the left hand side on its own. Implicit means implied or not explicitly defined. This means that we cannot simplify the expression so that we have y on its own on the right hand side of the equation. This happens sometimes in maths, e.g. y2 + y = 2x + 1. This cannot be broken down to y = f (x). So we will differentiate as it is, and this means that y will appear in our solution for dy/dx. Remember that if we differentiate a function of y we will get a dy/dx.

Examples:
y2 + y = 2x + 1

2y

dy dy + =2 dx dx

dy (2y + 1) = 2 dx dy 2 = dx 2y + 1 2y 2 + 3xy - x 2 + x = 23 4y dy dy + 3x + 3y - 2x + 1 = 0 dx dx

dy (4y + 3x) = 2x - 3y - 1 dx dy 2x - 3y - 1 = dx 4y + 3x
Examples from the class y - y = Cos x xy + Sin y = 2 x + y = 25 x + y = 25 x + y + 3xy = 8

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## Page 50 Revision 0 Differentiation: Differentiation of Implicit Functions Section

Introductory Mathematics.

## Section 11: Partial Differentiation

Introduction:
This section is very important for those going on to do the Level 7 maths course. Up to now we have been looking at y being equal to a function of one variable x. As engineers we know that this is rarely the case, there are a number of variables, (settings) that give the final outcome. For example with injection moulding, the size of the component may be altered by altering the injection pressure, temperature of the cooling water, etc.

Theory:
So y is expressed as a function of one variable x and another variable z. y = f (x) + g (z) There is no interdependence between x and z. So one time we work it out and get a certain differential, dy/dx, but if we do it again we may get a completely different result, because z is completely independent of x, and it affects how y varies also. We cater for this by using the technique of partial differentiation.

Partial differentiation:
Partial differentiation as the name suggests sets some conditions and does not cater for every value x and z can be. It is impossible to be able to get a differential that will cater for all eventualities. What we actually do is get the differential with respect to one variable, keeping all other variables constant. This is a bit of a mouthful, so we use y/x. This reads as the rate of change of y as x changes by one unit keeping all other variables constant. We also probably need to get a dy/dz keeping x constant. So this would be written as y/z.

Applications
One place where this technique is used is in calculating errors in readings when there are errors or tolerances in the variables that constitute the result we are looking for. This can then be used for confidence levels, or a range within which the result should lie. E.g. the length will be 1 m plus or minus 1 mm with a confidence level of 90%, which means that 90% of the time the outcome will be between 999 mm and 1001 mm.

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## Page 51 Revision 0 Differentiation: Partial Differentiation Section

Introductory Mathematics.

Examples:

If y = 2x - Sin z

get

y = 2 As z is constant, - Sin z is constant, so there is no change in y x y = - Cos z As x is constant, 2x is constant, so there is no change in y z
If y = 3z 2x + 4xz 5x z get 3 -1 zx 5

y y and x z

y y and x z

y = 2xz -1 + 4xz -

y 2 3z 2 3 = + 4z - z (-x -2 ) = + 4z + 2 x z 5x z 5 y 3 - 2x 3 = 2x (- z -2 ) + 4x = 2 + 4x z 5x z 5x
Further examples from the 1st class:
V = r h y = (Sin x) + z y = Sin (x + z2) y = zSin x y = (Sin x) / z y = (2x z) (x + 3z) y = (2x z) / (x + 3z) y = Sin (3x +2z)

Actual changes:
Remember what the differential actually means. E.g. dy/dx means the rate of change of y as x increases by 1 unit. What if x changes by unit, or by 3 units, how does the rate of change of y be affected. This is another area where partial differentiation is used. How does the length of the component be changed if the temperature is raised by 1 degree, and the pressure is dropped by 1

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## Page 52 Revision 0 Differentiation: Partial Differentiation Section

Introductory Mathematics. bar. We could try and work it out by calculating the length with one set of conditions and then with the second set of conditions, and getting the difference, but partial differentiation gives us another method. What we can calculate is the change due to each variable, by multiplying its partial differential by the actual change in that variable. So if y/x = 2, and x increases by 0.5, then the change in y due to that change in x, is got by (2)(0.5) = 1 unit increase, whereas if x had decreased by 3 units, the change in y would be (2)(-3) = -6. y = f (x) + g (z)

y =

y y x + z x z ,

So if given the initial conditions, and the change in the variables we can work out the actual change in y due to certain changes in x and z. If y = 2x2 + 7z3, and initially x = 7; and z = 10, and x decreases by 0.3, and z increases by 0.02, what is the change in y?

Examples:

y = 2x 2 + 7z 3

Declan Sheridan

## Page 53 Revision 0 Differentiation: Partial Differentiation Section

Introductory Mathematics.

## The total resistance R of two resistors in parallel, is given by

1 1 1 = + R R1 R 2

If initially R 1 was 100 and increases by 1 , while R 2 was 750 and decreases by 5 , what is the change in total resistance? 1 1 1 R + R2 = + = 1 R 1R 2 R R1 R 2 R= = R 1R 2 R1 + R 2

## (R1 + R 2 )(R 2 ) - (R1R 2 )(1) R using product rule = (R1 + R 2 )2 R 1

(100 + 750)(750) - (100)(750)(1) 850(750) - 75000 562500 = == - 0.7785 2 2 (100 + 750) 850 722500

## (R 1 + R 2 )(R 1 ) - (R 1R 2 )(1) R using product rule = R 2 (R 1 + R 2 )2

(100 + 750)(100) - (100)(750)(1) 85000 - 75000 10000 = = = 0.0138 2 2 (100 + 750) 850 722500 R R R = R 1 + R = (-0.7785)(+1) + (0.0138)(-5) = - 0.7785 - 0.069 R 1 R 2 2 R = - 0.8475

Declan Sheridan

## Page 54 Revision 0 Differentiation: Partial Differentiation Section

Introductory Mathematics.

The surface area of a cylinder including the top and bottom is given by S = 2 r 2 + 2 r h ; if initially diameter = 8 m and h = 12 m what would the change in surface area be if the diameter was only 7.92 m and the height was 12.01 m S S S = r + h r h S = 4 r + 2 h = 4 (4) + 2 (12) = 40 = 125.66 r r = - 0.04 S = 2 r = 2 (4) = 8 = 25.13 h h = + 0.01 S S S = r + h = (125.66)(-0.04) + (25.13)(0.01) = - 5.0264 + 0.2513 r h S = - 4.7751 m 2
Example:

The power delivered into the load X of a class A amplifier of output V 2X resistance R is given by P = (X + R) 2 If initiallyV was 240 Volts, X was 300 , and R was 700 and V drops by 2 Volts, X increases by 6 and R drops by 4 What is the change in power delivered?

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## Page 55 Revision 0 Differentiation: Partial Differentiation Section

Introductory Mathematics.

P =

P P P X + V + R R X V

V2X P= (X + R) 2

## P (X + R) 2 (V 2 ) - (V 2 X )2(X + R ) (X + R)(V 2 ) - 2(V 2 X ) = = X (X + R) 4 (X + R)3

(300 +700)(2402 ) - 2(2402 )(300) 57600000 - 34560000 = = = 0.02304 W/ (300 + 700)3 10003 X = + 6 V 2X X P= V2 = 2 2 (X + R) (X +R) P 2XV 2(300)(240) 144000 = = = = 0.144 W/V 2 V (X + R) (300 + 700) 2 1000000 V = - 2 V V2X P= = V 2 X (X + R) -2 2 (X + R)

P - 2(2402 )(300) 34560000 2 -3 = - 2V X (X + R) = == - 0.03456 W/ 3 R (300 + 700) 1000000000 R = - 4 P P P P = X + V + R X V R P = (0.02304)(6) + (0.144)(-2) + (-0.03456)(-4) = 0.13824 - 0.288 + 0.13824
= - 0.01152 W i.e. decreases by 0.01152 W.
This is a difficult one, and one this difficult will not appear in the exam.

Declan Sheridan

## Page 56 Revision 0 Differentiation: Partial Differentiation Section

Introductory Mathematics.

## Section 12: Remainder Theorem and Factor Theorems

Introduction:
We have seen that factors can be important in solving equations. A factor divides evenly into the number we are looking for, and when multiplied by the other factor gives us the number, e.g. the factors of 90 are 90 and 1, 45 and 2, 30 and 3, 18 and 5, 15 and 6, 9 and 10 How do we determine whether a (x 2) is a factor of some polynomial of x, say 3x2+2x-4? To do this using long division can be time-consuming. The Remainder and Factor theorems lead us to short cuts in the process.

## Long division of polynomials:

This uses the same technique of long division that we learned in primary school. Example, divide 1000 by 9

142 7 1000 7 30 28 20 14 6
This means that 7 divides 142 times into 1000 with a remainder of 6, or 6 / 7 extra. We can do the same with polynomials of x.

3x + 8 x - 2 3x 2 + 2x - 4 3x 2 6x 8x - 4 8x - 16 Remain 12

Declan Sheridan

## Page 57 Revision 0 Differentiation: Remainder & Factor Theorems Section

Introductory Mathematics.

Remainder Theorem
To short cut the process, the remainder theorem says that if a polynomial P(x) is divided by (x a), then the remainder R = P(a). In laymans terms, this means that if x a = 0, then x = a. If we now put in a instead of x in the polynomial we can calculate what the remainder will be after the long division. This should shorten things a lot in terms of time. Example: Look at the one above. (x 2) into 3x2 + 2x 4. x 2 = 0 => x = 2 => 3(2)2 + 2(2) 4 = R => 3(4) + 4 4 = 12 = R, which is the remainder we got above Example: Find the remainder, when 5x3 + 2x2 4x + 3 is divided by x + 2 x + 2 = 0 => x = - 2 5(-2)3 + 2(-2)2 4(-2) + 3 = R R = 5(-8) + 2(4) + 8 + 3 = - 40 + 8 + 8 + 3 = - 21 Lets prove this using long division.

5x 2 - 8x + 12 x + 2 5x 3 + 2x 2 - 4x + 3 5x 3 + 10 x 2 - 8x 2 - 4x

## - 8x 2 - 16x + 12x + 3 + 12x + 24 Remainder - 21

Factor Theorem
We said previously that a factor divides evenly into the polynomial with no remainder or remainder equal to 0. This means that if the remainder is 0, when x + a is divided into the polynomial, then x + a is a factor. The factor theorem is a corollary of the remainder theorem which says that if P(a) = 0, then x a is a factor.

Declan Sheridan

## Page 58 Revision 0 Differentiation: Remainder & Factor Theorems Section

Introductory Mathematics. Examples: Is x 2 a factor of x4 16? x 2 = 0 => x = 2 P(2) = 24 16 = 16 16 = 0 x = 2 is a root of the x4 16 ; so x 2 is a factor. Check using long division

x 3 + 2x 2 + 4x + 8 x 2 x4 - 16 x 4 2x 3 2x 3 2x 3 - 4x 2 4x 2

4x 2 8x 8x - 16 8x - 16 Remainder 0
Examples: Is x + 3 a factor of 2x3 + 5x2 + x + 6? x + 3 = 0 => x = -3 P(-3) = 2(-3)3 + 5(-3)2 + (-3) + 6 = 2(-27) + 5(9) 3 + 6 = - 54 + 45 -3 + 6 = - 6 x = - 3 is not a root of 2x3 + 5x2 + x + 6 ; so x + 3 is not a factor. Check using long division

2x 2 - x + 4 x + 3 2x 3 + 5x 2 + x + 6 2x 3 + 6x 2 - x2 + x - x 2 - 3x 4x + 6 4x + 12 Remainder - 6

Declan Sheridan

## Page 59 Revision 0 Differentiation: Remainder & Factor Theorems Section

Introductory Mathematics.

## Generalised Factor & Remainder Theorems

The generalised form of the factor and remainder theorems allows us to include factors of the form (ax + b), e.g. 4x + 1. What it actually does is 4x = -1 ; so x = -1/4, and put -1/4 in for x. What it says is that when a polynomial of x P(x) is divided by (ax + b) the remainder is equal to P(b/a) and then if P(b/a) = 0, then (ax + b) is a factor. Example: Find the remainder when x3 2x2 + x 3 is divided by 2x -1 2x 1 = 0 => 2x = 1 => x = P( ) = ( )3 2( )2 + ( ) 3 = 1/8 2(1/4) + 3 = 1/8 + 3 = 2.875

0.5x 2 - 0.75x + 0.875 2x 1 x 3 2.0 x 2 + x 3 x 3 0.5x 2 - 1.5x 2 + x - 1.5x 2 + 0 .75x 0.25x 3 0.125x 0.125 Remainder 2.875

Example: Is 4x + 1 a factor of 4x3 3x2 + 3x + 1? 4x + 1 = 0 => 4x = 1 => x = 1/4 = 0.25 4(- 0.25)3 3(-0.25)2 + 3(-0.25) + 1 = 0.0625 0.1875 0.75 + 1 = 0 4x + 1 is a factor of 4x3 3x2 + 3x + 1 Check using long division.

x2 x +1 4x + 1 4x 3 3x 2 + 3x + 1 4x 3 + x 2 4x 2 + 3x 4x 2 - x 4x + 1 4x + 1 Remainder 0

Declan Sheridan

## Page 60 Revision 0 Differentiation: Remainder & Factor Theorems Section

Introductory Mathematics.

## Section 13: Integration

Introduction:
We have spent a significant amount of time working out the differentials of various equations which gave us the rate of change of 1 variable as another increased by 1 unit. Examples of this are speed which is the rate of change of distance per unit time, or acceleration which is the rate of change of speed per unit time. So what if we know the differential and want to get back to the original equation, which is a feasible proposition. We know the speed so what is the distance travelled. That is where integration comes in. So if we have an equation for y = f(x) and we differentiate, we get dy/dx. To get back to y = f(x) we go through a reverse process called integration.

## Integration the basics

So we know that integration is the reverse process of differentiation, but what does integration actually signify. It will give one the area bounded by the xaxis and the graph of the function.

y = 2x^2 + 3x -100
500 400 300 200 y = 2x^2 + 3x -100 100 0 -15 -10 -5 -100 -200 0 5 10 15

Applications
As integration is the reverse process of differentiation, it can be used for determining the relationships between variables, when one knows the rate of change or differential. It can also be used for determining the area bounded by the x axis and the curve. It can be used for determining areas when the sides are curved. It can be used to determine centroids of area, or moments of inertia. And so on.

Declan Sheridan

## Page 61 Revision 0 Integration: Introductory Integration Section

Introductory Mathematics.

Standard Integrals
As with differentiation, there is a list of standard integrals.

Integration is written as y = f(x) dx Where is called the Integral f(x) is the Integrand dx is the differential. This equation says y is equal to the integral of a function of x with respect to x
One must be careful with the differential, you cannot integrate a function of z with respect to x, so that is why the differential dx is at the end. It tells us that we must integrate with respect to this differential, and if we dont have a function of that differential, then we cannot perform the integration.

f(x) x [n -1]
n

f(x)dx
x n +1 +C n +1
ln( x) + C

1 = x -1 x Sin x Cos x ex

## ex + C 1 ax e +C eax a ax x +C a lna Integration by parts [Product rule for integration]

u dv = uv - v du
What is this C that has been added to every integral? This is called the constant of integration. The reason it is there is when one differentiates a constant, you get 0. How do you reverse from 0 to the constant that was originally present without being given some extra information. So if integration is the reverse process and we start with

Declan Sheridan

## Page 62 Revision 0 Integration: Introductory Integration Section

Introductory Mathematics. So in this case C = 1, but we had no way of knowing that, so we always have to add on C the constant of integration whenever we integrate. If we are given boundary conditions or some more information then we can determine a value for C.

Hints:
Before we get into integrating, there are a couple of tips that may be useful. 1. When one has a constant times a function of x, you can bring that constant outside, integrate and then multiply by that constant

k f(x) dx = k f(x) dx
x2 e.g. 2x dx = 2 x dx = 2 + C = x 2 + C 2
2. When one has a function of x plus or minus another function of x, we can split them and integrate each separately and them either add or subtract based on the plus or minus that was present.

## f(x) + g(x) dx = f(x) dx + g(x) dx

x2 e.g. 2x + Sin x dx = 2x dx + Sin x dx = 2 - Cos x + C = x 2 - Cos x + C 2

3x + 4x - 3x + 7 - Sin x dx = 3 x dx + 4 x dx - 3 x dx + 7 dx - Sin x dx
3 2 3 2

Declan Sheridan

## Page 63 Revision 0 Integration: Introductory Integration Section

Introductory Mathematics.

## Section 14: The Substitution Rule

Introduction:
In differentiation, when we had a function of a function of x, f (g(x)), e.g. if y = (2x + 4)6, we had to use the substitution rule to be able to differentiate it. We must do the same for integration, and the technique is very similar. 1. 2. 3. 4. Let u = what is inside the brackets. From this we can get du/dx From this we get what du is Then we integrate with respect to u, providing there is no x in the function.

Example:

(2x + 4)

dx

Let u = 2x + 4 du =2 dx du = 2 dx dx = 1 du 2

(2x + 4) =
14
Example:

1 1 du = u 6 du 2 2 1 u7 u7 = +C = +C 2 7 14

+C

Sin (2x) dx
Let u = 2x du =2 dx dx = 1 du 2

Declan Sheridan

## Page 64 Revision 0 Integration: The substitution rule Section

Introductory Mathematics.

Sin (u) 2 du
1 Sin u du 2 1 1 = (- Cos u ) + C = - Cos u + C 2 2 1 = - Cos 2x + C 2 =

Declan Sheridan

## Page 65 Revision 0 Integration: The substitution rule Section

Introductory Mathematics.

## Section 15: Integration by Partial Fractions

Introduction:
Partial fractions are used to simplify when one has a polynomial of x divided by another polynomial of x. This is especially useful when one is trying to integrate a polynomial of x divided by another polynomial of x. It is made much easier when the denominator of the fraction, i.e. the polynomial underneath can be split into its factors.

Technique:
Let the fraction equal to A over one factor plus B over the other factor. Then we use simultaneous equations to work out what A and B are equal to. When we now have two fractions with a constant as numerator i.e. on top, we can integrate. Example:

## 3x + 9 dx 2 + 7x + 10 We need to go through the partial fraction technique 3x + 9 A B = + x + 7x + 10 Factor 1 Factor 2

2

Let Use

- b b2 - 4 a c to get the roots, and then the factors 2a Factors of x 2 + 7x + 10 = (x + 5)(x + 2) B A 3x + 9 = + x + 7x + 10 (x + 5) (x + 2) Ax + 2A A(x + 2) (x + 2) A = to give by Multiply (x + 2)(x + 5) (x + 2)(x + 5) (x + 2) (x + 5)
2

(x + 5) B(x + 5) Bx + 5B B by to give = (x + 5) (x + 2)(x + 5) (x + 2)(x + 5) (x + 2) 3x + 9 Ax + 2A Bx + 5B 2 = + x + 7x + 10 (x + 2)(x + 5) (x + 2)(x + 5) Since the denominators are the same on both sides Multiply 3x + 9 = Ax + 2A + Bx + 5B 3x + 9 = (A + B)x + (2A + 5B)

Declan Sheridan

## Page 66 Revision 0 Integration: Partial fractions Section

Introductory Mathematics.

[1]

3=A + B

and [2] 9 = 2A + 5B If we multiply [1] by - 2 we get - 6 = - 2A - 2B 9 = 2A + 5B 3 = 3B B =1 [1] 3 = A + 1 A=2 1 2 3x + 9 + dx dx = 2 + 7x + 10 x+5 x+2 1 1 =2 dx dx + x+2 x+5 Use substitution rule to solve these add [2]

= 2 ln(x + 5) + ln(x + 2) + C
If we have a numerator which has a higher power of x than the denominator, we initially do our long division and then divide the remainder by the numerator, of which we use partial fractions. Example:

2x 3 + 4x 2 - 3x - 6 dx x2 + x - 6 As the numerator has a higher power of x than th e denominato r divide 2x + 2 2 3 2 x + x - 6 2x + 4x - 3x - 6 2x 3 + 2x 2 - 12x 2x 2 + 9x - 6 Remainder 2x 2 + 2x - 12 7x + 6

2x 3 + 4x 2 - 3x - 6 7x + 6 dx = 2x + 2 + 2 dx 2 x + x -6 x + x -6 7x + 6 = 2 x dx + 2 dx + 2 dx x + x -6

Declan Sheridan

## Page 67 Revision 0 Integration: Partial fractions Section

Introductory Mathematics.

## [1] [2] [1] [1] x 2 [2]

4 3 2x 3 + 4x 2 - 3x - 6 x 2 + x - 6 dx = 2x + 2 + x + 3 + x - 2 dx = x 2 + 2x + 3 ln (x + 3) + 4 ln (x - 2) + C

Declan Sheridan

## Page 68 Revision 0 Integration: Partial fractions Section

Introductory Mathematics.

## Section 16: Integration by Parts

Introduction:
With differentiation, we used the product rule when we had a function of x multiplied by another function of x. We have to have some technique for dealing with integration of the product of two functions. Integration by parts is the technique for coping with this. It is not a straight product rule.

Technique:
The rule says that

## u dv = uv - v du so we have to choose one of the functions as being

our u, using differentiation get what du is equal to. We use L.A.I.T.E to choose u, where L is log, A is algebra, I is inverse, T is trigonometry, and E is exponential. The other function times dx is then equal to dv, and using integration we can obtain what v is. Therefore we have u and du, v and dv so we put them in to the equation and solve. N.B. we may have to use integration by parts again within integration by parts.

f(x) g(x) dx
Let u = f(x) du = f ' (x) dx du = f ' (x) dx dv = g(x) dx

dv = g(x) dx

v=

g(x) dx

u dv = uv - v du

Declan Sheridan

## Page 69 Revision 0 Integration: Integration by parts Section

Introductory Mathematics.

Examples:

x Sin x dx
L.A.I.T.E. u=x du =1 dx du = dx dv = Sin x dx dv = Sin x dx v = - Cos x [We wont add C until the very end.] v - v du

u dv x Sin x dx

=u

Declan Sheridan

## Page 70 Revision 0 Integration: Integration by parts Section

Introductory Mathematics.

x e

dx

## L.A.I.T.E. u = x du = 2x dx du = 2x dx dv = e x dx dv = e x dx v = ex [We wont add C until the very end.] = u v -v du

u x

dv

e x dx = x e x - e x 2x dx = x e x - 2 x e x dx

Declan Sheridan

## Page 71 Revision 0 Integration: Integration by parts Section

Introductory Mathematics.

## - 2 x e x dx L.A.I.T.E. u=x du =1 dx du = dx dv = e x dx dv = e x dx v = ex 2 u 2 x e x dx [We wont add C until the very end.] dv = - 2 u v - v du

x

[ = - 2 [x e

- e x dx

= - 2 x ex + 2 ex + C

e x dx = x e x - e x 2x dx = x e x - 2 x e x dx

= x e x - 2 x e x + 2 e x + C Note that the power of x reduces in each term until it is no longer there This means that if you have x n as the highest power you will do n integration by parts e.g x 4 will need to do integration buy parts four times.
Applications
Integration by parts is used in important engineering mathematical applications such as the Laplace and Fourier transforms which are used in signal processing. It will be used in the degree maths and maybe in control systems.

Declan Sheridan

## Page 72 Revision 0 Integration: Integration by parts Section

Introductory Mathematics.

## Section 17: Complex Numbers

Introduction
Sometimes when we do out a problem such as the equation for the roots of an equation, e.g.

## - b b - 4 a c we end up with a negative number 2a

under the square root, which is an impossibility. There is no number which when multiplied by itself will give a negative answer. If it is positive and you square it, the answer is positive, if it is negative and you square it is will be positive. In the case of roots, this means that the graph does not actually cross the x axis.
y = 3x + 4x+ 20 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 -10 -5 -20 0 -40 5 10 y = 3x + 4x+ 20

There are other places which we end up with a negative number underneath a square root such as in threephase power. We have seen that due to a three phase motor being out of phase with the electrical feed it takes in more power from the grid than it actually uses and the remaining power is simply lost. You will be charged for it but have got no benefit from it. Some companies install power factor correctors to minimize the losses.

i Square root of -1
In order to be able to deal with this phenomenon where we get a negative number under the square root, a branch of maths called complex numbers or imaginary numbers has been developed. It is based on i called iota, and i =

-1 .

Declan Sheridan

## Page 73 Revision 0 Complex numbers: Introduction Section

Introductory Mathematics.

- 25 =

25 - 1 = 5 i

Vector Quantities
Complex numbers are a vector quantity which means that not only do you need to define its size [magnitude], but also need to define its direction. Other vector quantities include force, velocity, etc.

Cartesian Form
We have two ways of representing a complex number. The first is called the Cartesian form, which comes from cartography or map-making. With Cartesian form, one must give a real part and an imaginary part, a + b i. If we go back to our x y axes, we put the real numbers on the x axis and the imaginary part on the y axis. Therefore we go over a units on the x axis and then up or down y units on the y axis. N.B. remember that these are vector quantities so it is not correct to just specify a point, there must be length and direction. So this leads us to the next section Argand Diagrams.

Argand Diagrams
As was said in the previous paragraph we must specify length and direction. The a and b will give us a point on the x y plane and the vector begins at the origin, (0,0) and finishes at (a,bi). You must put an arrow head at the a + bi to define the direction.

Declan Sheridan

## Page 74 Revision 0 Complex numbers: Introduction Section

Introductory Mathematics.

Declan Sheridan

## Page 75 Revision 0 Complex numbers: Introduction Section

Introductory Mathematics.

Polar Form
Any vector can also be fully described by giving the direction in which it acts, plus the magnitude (or size) of the vector in that direction. So if we work out the angle, using trigonometry, and the length using Pythagoras theorem, we can fully describe the complex number in what is called polar form. a + bi = a + bi (Cos + i Sin )

Modulus
a + bi is called the modulus, and is the length or magnitude of the complex number. Length is always positive hence z, where z is the complex number. If you look at any complex number, the imaginary part is at right angles to the real part.

Therefore using Pythagoras theorem we get that the modulus (length or magnitude), the blue line above is got by

a + bi = a 2 + b 2 So in the case of 5 + 3i z = 52 + 32 = - 6 + 2i - 6 + 2i = - 5 - 3i - 5 3i = 4 - 5i 4 - 5i = 42 + (5) 2 = 16 + 25 = 41 = 6.4 (-5)2 + (3) 2 = 25 + 9 = 34 = 5.8 (-6)2 + 22 = 36 + 4 = 40 = 6.3 25 + 9 = 34 = 5.8

Declan Sheridan

## Page 76 Revision 0 Complex numbers: Introduction Section

Introductory Mathematics.

Argument
The term used for the angle that the complex number goes off at is the argument. Typically we use to refer to the angle.

We can use trigonometry to work out what the value of is. N.B. you need to be aware of which quadrant you are in, otherwise you may get a positive number when it should be negative and vice versa. The angle should be taken from the positive x axis and so then you will always get the correct sign, positive or negative. So for angle , we have the opposite side b, and the adjacent side a. Therefore we can get Tan =

## Opposite b b = = Tan -1 Adjacent a a

b a So in the case of = Tan -1 5 + 3i = Tan -1 - 6 + 2i = Tan -1 - 5 - 3i = Tan -1 4 - 5i = Tan -1 4 b = Tan -1 = Tan -1 - 0.8 = - 38.67 0 which is fine or use 321.330 a 5 3 b = Tan -1 = Tan -1 0.6 = 30.960 , but in 3rd quadrant = 180 + 30.96 = 210.960 5 a b 2 = Tan -1 = Tan -1 - 0.333 = - 18.40 , but in 2nd quadrant = 180 18.4 = 161.60 6 a b 3 = Tan -1 = Tan -1 0.6 = 30.960 a 5

Declan Sheridan

## Page 77 Revision 0 Complex numbers: Introduction Section

Introductory Mathematics.

So as you can see it is important to know which quadrant one is in. The main reason is that the calculator will assume that the angle you are looking for is between -90 and +90.

So as we saw above, Tan -18.4 = -0.333 = Tan 161.6. The calculator will assume the -18.4. Also we saw that the Tan 30.96 = 0.6 = Tan 210.96. The calculator will assume the 30.96. And we saw that the Tan -38.67 = -0.8 = Tan 321.33. The calculator will assume the -38.67

## Conversion: Cartesian to Polar

So once we have the modulus and the argument we can express a Cartesian form of a complex number in polar form.

Declan Sheridan

## Page 78 Revision 0 Complex numbers: Introduction Section

Introductory Mathematics.

z = z (Cos + i Sin ) So in the case of 5 + 3i 5 + 3i = 5.8 and = 30.960 5 + 3i = 5.8 (Cos 30.96 + i Sin 30.96 ) - 6 + 2i 6 + 2i = 6.3 and = 161.60 6 + 2i = 6.3 (Cos 161.6 + i Sin 161.6 ) - 5 - 3i 5 3i = 5.8 and = 210.960 5 3i = 5.8 (Cos 210.96 + i Sin 210.96 ) 4 - 5i 4 5i = 6.4 and = 308.660 or - 51.340 4 5i = 6.4 (Cos 308.66 + i Sin 308.66 )

## Conversion: Polar to Cartesian

If one has the polar form of a complex number it is a simple matter to convert into Cartesian. All you need do is using your calculator, get Cos and Sin . Multiply by the modulus and you will get the real and imaginary parts of the Cartesian form.

z = z (Cos + i Sin ) = a + bi

So in the case of

5.8 (Cos 30.96 + i Sin 30.96 ) and Cos 30.96 = 0.8575 ; Sin 30.96 = 0.5144 5.8(0.8575 + i 0.5144) = 5 + 3i 6.3 (Cos 161.6 + i Sin 161.6 ) and Cos 161.6 = - 0.9489 ; Sin 161.6 = 0.3156 6.3 (-0.9489 + i 0.3156) = - 6 + 2i

5.8 (Cos 210.96 + i Sin 210.96 ) and Cos 210.96 = - 0.8575 ; Sin 210.96 = - 0.5144 5.8 (-0.8575 + i (-0.5144) = - 5 - 3i 6.4 (Cos 308.66 + i Sin 308.66 ) and Cos 308.66 = 0.6247 ; Sin 308.66 = - 0.7809

Declan Sheridan

## Page 79 Revision 0 Complex numbers: Introduction Section

Introductory Mathematics.

## Addition and Subtraction of Complex Numbers

We can only add complex numbers that are in Cartesian form. It simply involves adding the real part and adding the imaginary parts. (a + bi) + (c + di) = a + c + (c + d)i Example: 5 + 3i + (6 + 2i) = 5 6 + ( 3 + 2)i = 1 + 5i 5 + 3i + (5 3i) = 5 5 + (5 5)i = 0 + 0i = 0 5 3i + (4 5i) = (5 + 4) + (3 5)i = 1 8i What about 5 + 3i added to 6.4 (Cos 321.33 + i Sin 321.33). In this case we must convert 6.4 (Cos 321.33 + i Sin 321.33) into Cartesian and then add.

## Conjugate of a Complex Number

Before we progress on to multiplication and division, which is easier in polar form than it is in Cartesian form, we will explain what the conjugate of a complex number is, and why it may be useful. The conjugate of a + bi = a bi. So all one does is change the sign of the imaginary part. The reason this is useful for us will be when we have completed multiplication in Cartesian form and move onto division of complex numbers in Cartesian form. We use the fact that when a complex number is multiplied by its conjugate, the result is the real part squared + the imaginary part squared. (a + bi)(a - bi) = a2 + b2 When we do multiplication, the reason for this will become apparent. (5 + 3i)(5 3i) = 52 + 32 = 25 + 9 = 34

Declan Sheridan

## Page 80 Revision 0 Complex numbers: Introduction Section

Introductory Mathematics.

## Section 18: Complex Numbers 2: Multiplication and division.

Introduction
As with any numbers we must be able to multiply and divide complex numbers. It is possible to multiply and divide in Cartesian form but it is much easier to do so in polar form. So to add and subtract it can only be done in Cartesian form, and to multiply and divide it is much easier in Polar form. Cartesian division as you will see is even more difficult as we will use conjugates to change it into a multiplication.

## Multiplication of Cartesian Complex Number

To multiply in Cartesian, it is the same as multiplying using brackets. The real part of one number is multiplied by the entire other number and then the imaginary part is multiplied by the entire other number. (a + bi)(c + di) = a(c + di) + bi (c + di) = ac + adi + bci + bdi2

Powers of i

## i = -1 i2 = 1 1 = -1 i3 = i 2 i = - i i 4 = i 3 i = - i i = - i 2 = - ( - 1) = + 1 And this continues in a cycle

So i 2 = - 1 ac + adi + bci + bdi2 = ac bd + (ad + bc)i Examples:

Declan Sheridan

## Page 81 Revision 0 Complex numbers: Multiplication & Division Section

Introductory Mathematics.

## (5 3i )(4 5i ) = 5(4 5i ) 3i (4 5i ) = 20 + 25i 12i + 15i 2 = 35 + 13i

Division of a Cartesian Complex Number
We cannot actually divide in Cartesian form, but we use the fact that any complex number multiplied by its conjugate gives us a real number. So if we multiply the fraction top and bottom by the conjugate of the bottom we convert the division into a multiplication.

a + bi c + di a + bi c di ; if we multiply c + di by c di we get c 2 + d 2 = c + di c di a(c di ) + bi (c di ) = c(c di ) + di (c di ) ac - adi + cbi - bdi 2 = 2 c cdi + cdi + d 2 ac + bd + (cb - ad)i = c2 + d 2

Example

5 + 3i 6 + 2i 5 + 3i 6 2i = 6 + 2i 6 2i 5(-6 2i ) + 3i (6 2i ) = 6(6 2i ) + 2i (6 2i ) 30 10i 18i 6i 2 = (6) 2 + 12i 12i + (2) 2 24 28i = 36 + 4 24 28 = i 40 40 = 0.6 0.7i

Declan Sheridan

## Page 82 Revision 0 Complex numbers: Multiplication & Division Section

Introductory Mathematics. This is very long and easy to make a mistake. Example:

4 5i 5 3i 4 5i 5 + 3i = 5 3i 5 + 3i 4(5 + 3i ) 5i (5 + 3i ) = 5(5 + 3i ) 3i (5 + 3i )

20 + 12i + 25i 15i 2 (5) 2 15i + 15i + (3) 2 5 + 27i = 25 + 9 5 37 = + i 34 34 = 0.147 + 1.09i =
Multiplication of a Polar Complex Number
When in polar form it is much easier to multiply and divide. With multiplication, you simply multiply the modulus (lengths) and add the arguments (angles). So to simplify multiplication, convert into polar form and multiply the lengths and add the angles. Then if needs be convert back to Cartesian. (5 + 3i)( - 6 + 2i) = {5.8 ( Cos 31 + i Sin 31 )} {6.3 ( Cos 161.6 + i Sin 161.6 )} = (5.8)(6.3) { Cos (31 + 161.6) + i Sin (31 + 161.6) } = 36.54 ( Cos 192.6 + i Sin 192.6 ) = 36.54 ( 0.9759 0.2181 ) = 35.6 7.97 i Previously we got 36 8i ( 5 3i)( 4 5i) = {5.8 ( Cos 211 + i Sin 211 )} {6.4 ( Cos 308.66 + i Sin 308.66 )} = (5.8)(6.4) { Cos (211 + 308.66) + i Sin (211 + 308.66) } = 37.12 ( Cos 519.66 + i Sin 519.66 ) = 37.12 ( Cos 159.66 + i Sin 159.66) = 37.12 ( 0.9376 + 0.3476 ) = 34.8 + 12.9 i Previously we got 35 + 13i

Declan Sheridan

## Page 83 Revision 0 Complex numbers: Multiplication & Division Section

Introductory Mathematics.

## Division of a Polar Complex Number

When in polar form it is much easier to divide than it is in Cartesian. With division, you simply divide the modulus (lengths) and subtract the arguments (angles). So to simplify division, convert into polar form and divide the lengths and subtract the angles. Then if needs be convert back to Cartesian.

5 + 3i 6 + 2i (5.8) ( Cos 31 + i Sin 31) = (6.3)( Cos 161.6 + i Sin 161.6) = (0.9206) (Cos (31 - 161.6) + i Sin (31 - 161.6) ) = (0.9206) (Cos - 130.6 + i Sin - 130.6) = (0.9206)(-0.6508 0.7593 i ) = 0.6 0.7i Previously we got 0.6 0.7i 4 5i 5 3i 6.4 (Cos 308.7 + i Sin 308.7) = 5.8 (Cos 211 + i Sin 211) = 1.103 (Cos (308.7 - 211) + i Sin (308.7 - 211) ) = 1.103 ( Cos 97.7 + i Sin 97.7) = 1.103 (0.13399 + 0.99098 i ) = 0.148 + 1.093i Previously we got 0.147 + 1.09i
Applications
Complex numbers is used in control systems, in Laplace Transforms, Fourier transforms, signal analysis, 3 electrical power, etc.

Declan Sheridan