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Nov. 2009, Volume 6, No.11 (Serial No.60)

Journal of Communication and Computer, ISSN 1548-7709, USA

Journal of Communication and Computer, ISSN 1548-7709, USA Application of data warehouse in power transformer diagnosis

Application of data warehouse in power transformer diagnosis system *

ZHAO Wen-qing, ZHANG Yan-fang, WANG Xiao-hui

(School of Computer Science and Technology, North China Electric Power University, Baoding 071003, China)

Abstract: Electric power companies have accumulated huge amounts of historical fault data of power transformer after many years operation, but the decision-makers have not been greatly supported because of the limitation of knowledge and can not make decision for transformer condition assessment. A real power corporation is selected as the research background. Based

on analyzing and reorganizing the various existing data sources, the power transformer fault information data warehouse is constructed and snowflake mode cubes for multi-dimension data are established. By using OLAP(On-Line Analysis Processing) and data mining technology, forecasting load, analyzing and inquiring data warehouse are realized from different point view and multi-layers, including rolling up,

Moreover, this

paper proposes a novel transformer fault data mining system based on data warehouse. Finally, bayes network of fault patterns are obtained, which can greatly help the decision-making for the system operating and management. The results show that transformer fault diagnosing system based on data warehouse technology can provide efficient decision supporting.

drilling down, slicing , dicing and rotating etc

Key words: transformer; data warehouse; data mining; fault diagnosis; OLAP; bayesian network

1. Introduction

Power transformer is an important equipment to ensure the safe operation of power grid. During its operation, testing and maintenance staff need a variety of tests and analysis, including transformer preventive test, transformer performance analysis, transformer

* Acknowledgment: Project supported by National Natural Foundation of Hebei Province (E2009001392); Project supported by North China Electric Power University Campus Foundation (200811014) Corresponding author: ZHAO Wen-qing, Ph.D., associate professor; research field: data mining. ZHANG Yan-fang, postgraduate student; research field:

artificial intelligence. WANG Xiao-hui, master, lecturer; research field: data mining.

historical analysis, on-line monitoring analysis, and the parameters of various themes for testing are quantity. In this way, after years of running, the power companies have accumulated massive history of the transformer fault information. But only relying on traditional means of data processing, data can only be a preliminary analysis. Lots of useful knowledge can not be mined from mass data. The data collected not only to make full use of, but more and more serious about the surplus data. The decision-makers have not been greatly supported because of the limitation of knowledge and can not make decision for transformer condition assessment. Compared with traditional databases, data warehouses can be a comprehensive historical data for analysis. A lot of parameters of transformer change in a development process, according to analysis at different stages, the transformer state can be accurately predicted and diagnosed. At present, data warehouse and data mining technology are applied in power grid dispatching [1,2] , load forecasting [3,4] , power network planning [5,6] , and so on [7-9] , and data mining for the mass historical fault data has not yet been carried out in-depth study. In this paper, a system framework for transformer fault information data mining is designed, a data warehouse for transformer fault information is built. Finally, fault diagnosis and fault forecast for transformer are carried out using data mining technology.

2.

Power

transformers

OLAP

data

warehouse system design

17

Application of data warehouse in power transformer diagnosis system

Data Warehouse is a subject-oriented, integrated, stable and the ever-changing over time data set. To support management decision-making process [10] . The basic architecture of data warehouse includes data source, data integration, data warehousing and other components. In this paper, fault information is analyzed and extracted first, and then the extracted fault features are stored into the data warehouse as well as other information needed to be integration.

2.1 The system structure

The overall structure of transformer’s state fault diagnosis system is shown in Figure 1. Building
The overall structure of transformer’s state fault
diagnosis system is shown in Figure 1. Building a data
warehouse is a vital link.
MIS
database
Fault
diagnose
Maintenance
Fault
Data
DB
prediction
ETL
Warehouse
service
Condition
Operation
assessment
DB
OLAP
Meta
analysis
data
Other data
assessment DB OLAP Meta analysis data Other data Fig. 1 The transformer fault diagnose system architecture

Fig. 1

The transformer fault diagnose system architecture based on DW

The transformer-related data which exists in the original power supply enterprise management information systems and data acquisition system is extracted and converted according to certain rules, and the data are loaded into the data warehouse fact tables and dimension tables. Using on-line analytical processing (OLAP) tool and these tables, data dimensions and data cubes are established.

2.2 Source data

The data of transformer fault diagnosis system in power companies is usually stored in different systems,

including a variety of management information

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databases, maintenance database, operation databases and other data sources.

2.3 Data preprocessing

As the raw data from a number of different power companies or database applications, collection and processing methods are different, the description of the data format also varies, and sometime, the data is incomplete and noisy data. So data preprocessing must be done according to certain rules, including data collecting, converting, cleaning and integration.

2.4 Data model of data warehouse

This article carries out transformer fault information data warehouse design and analysis using multi-dimensional model. In this model, the oil chromatography test data sheets act as a fact table to record the basic information of oil chromatography testing, such as the transformer id, testing time, content of dissolved gas in oil, relative rate of gas production and so on. There are a number of dimension tables associated with the fact sheet, and dimension table records related information, for example, the oil chromatography test schedule, the conclusions of the test table, and transformers basic parameters. Each table has its own dimension attribute, dimension tables and fact sheet associated with each other through the keywords.

2.5 Data mining

Data mining technology uses artificial intelligence methods to gain the knowledge of the process [11] , the valuable information hidden in a number of important factors can be extracted. Based on data mining technology, this paper is to build an integrated transformer fault diagnosis model, to carry out OLAP analyzing for various parameters of transformer.

3. OLAP analyzing

3.1 The definition of cube

There are three storage methods for OLAP data warehouse, which are based the relational database

Application of data warehouse in power transformer diagnosis system

OLAP (ROLAP), based multidimensional database (MOLAP) and based hybrid OLAP (HOLAP), respectively. This paper uses MOLAP storage method to build data warehouse. Figure 2 is the data cube of DGA in transformer. The cube contains Voltage (voltage level), Unit (substation), and Manufacturers (factory name) dimension.

Substation Voltage
Substation
Voltage

Fig. 2

Manufacturers

Data cube of DGA in transformer

3.2 Multi-dimensional analysis in OLAP OLAP analyzing for transformer fault information data warehouse can organize multi-dimensional data which be taken by slicing, cutting, drilling and rotating analysis, complete information sharing and rapid analysis on multi-dimensional information. Users can observe the data in data warehouse from different angles and sides. (1) Roll-up and drill-down The roll-up operation performs aggregation on a data cube, either by climbing up a concept hierarchy for a dimension or by dimension reduction. Drill-down is the reverse of roll-up. It navigates from less detailed data to more detailed data. Users can observe on any level by rolling-up and drilling-down. Table 1 shows the corresponding data view of cube in Figure 2. Numbers represents the numbers that the total hydrocarbon gas production exceeds attention value. Table 2 shows the results of a roll-up operation performed on the central cube. By climbing up the

concept hierarchy for bestow time given in table 1. Also drill-down operation can be performed on the central cube by stepping down a concept hierarchy for substation defined as substation< substation locality city< substation locality province.

Table 1

The original view of data cube

Voltage

Substation

Manufacturers

Numbers

110kv

AP

Changzhou

19

220kv

AB

Changzhou

26

110kv

HS

Baoding

16

220kv

AP

Baoding

30

35kv

AB

Baoding

21

35kv

HS

Baoding

32

Table 2

The results of roll-up operation

Bestow time

Transformer ID

Substation

Year

11

HS

Quarter

12

AP

Month

25

YC

(2) Slice and dice The slice operation performs a selection on one dimension of the given cube, resulting a sub cube. The dice operation defines a sub cube by performing a selection on two or more dimensions. For example, we can perform slice and dice operation on the original records set as shown in Table 1. Table 3 shows a slice operation where the transformer data are selected from the central cube from the dimension factory name. Table 4 shows a dice operation on the central cube based on the dimension factory name and dimension time.

It’s favorable for transformer staff to carry out historical data query and analysis using slice and dice operation.

Table 3

The results of slice operation

Voltage

Substation

Manufacturers

Numbers

110kv

HS

Baoding

16

35kv

HS

Baoding

32

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Application of data warehouse in power transformer diagnosis system

Table 4

The results of dice operation

Substation and

Testing time

transformer

ID

numbers

2000-11-30

HS(16)

12

2000-12-29

HS(16)

16

……

HS(16)

22

2005-10-10

HS(16)

26

(3) Rotate Rotate is a visualization operation that rotates the data axes in view in order to provide an alternative presentation of the data. Table 5 shows a rotate operation where the voltage level and factory name axes in a 2-D slice are rotated.

Table 5

The results of rotate operation

Manufacturers

voltage

Changzhou

Baoding

220kv

26

30

110kv

19

16

35kv

21

32

4. Data mining

This paper carries out data mining on transformer fault information using Bayesian network [12] . In April 2007, #1 main transformer of a certain electric power corporation went wrong. Through the analyzing for dissolved gas in oil, this paper draws a conclusion that the transformer led a high-energy discharge failure. After hanging cover, it is found that the oil in tank-load switch leaked to bulk fuel tanks. The results of analysis by this software are matching with actual fault.

5. Conclusions

Aiming to electric power companies which have accumulated huge amounts of historical fault data of power transformer after many years operation, this paper select a real power corporation as the research background. Based on analyzing and reorganizing the various existing data sources, the power transformer fault information data warehouse is constructed and snowflake mode cubes for multi-dimension data are

20

established. By using OLAP and data mining technology, forecasting load, analyzing and inquiring data warehouse are realized from different point view. Moreover, this paper proposes a novel transformer fault data mining system based on data warehouse. In this paper, the main point is to propose a transformer fault information data warehouse and data mining system architecture as well as design technology, the technology realization will be included in other articles.

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(Edited by Jane, Sang)