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BIO 202 Heart Lab Goals for this activity: Identify the principal structures of the heart Identify the great vessels the bring blood to and from the heart Identify principal histological features of heart muscle, vein and artery walls Identify the components of an ECG wave Identify the Following: External Cardiac Anatomy (human & sheep hearts) Pericardium o Double membrane that encases the heart within the thorax. Wall of the heart o Made-up of three layers, you cany see the epicardium on the surface. Epicardium - thin outer layer of the heart Myocardium thick muscular layer Endocardium thin layer lining the interior chambers of the heart Apex - Inferior pointy part of the heart. Base o Flat surface outside of right ventricle, medial to the apex. Pulmonary artery o Artery leaving the right ventricle going to the lungs, anterior to the aorta. Aorta o Artery leaving the left ventricle, its walls are thicker than the pulmonary artery. Superior and Inferior Vena Cava o Veins entering the right atrium, returning blood from the upper and lower body. Pulmonary veins o 4 veins entering the left atrium from the lungs (2 from each lung) Atria and Auricles (right and left) o Small chambers in the superior portion of the heart with flaps on the outside. Ventricles (right and left) o Main pumping portion of the heart, left side is much thicker than the right. Coronary arteries o Arteries on the surface of the heart. Coronary sinus o Enlarged reservoir on the posterior aspect of the heart where coronary veins drain. Interventricular sulcus o Groove between ventricles where the left anterior descending artery travels.

Coronary Arteries (Human Hearts) Main coronary artery o Short segment immediately coming off the aorta. Left circumflex artery o The artery that stays high and circles around to the back. Left anterior descending artery (anterior interventricular artery) o The artery that goes straight down the anterior surface. Right coronary artery o The artery that branches to the right side of the heart.

Internal Cardiac Anatomy (in order of blood flow) Superior and Inferior Vena Cava o Veins entering the right atrium, returning blood from the upper & lower body. Right atrium o Where the blood first returns to the heart from the body. o Musculi pectinati mesh-like musculature lining the right atrium o Fossa ovalis previous location of the foramen ovale (shortcut to left atrium) Tricuspid valve or right atrioventricular valve o Three flaps attached to strings separating the right atrium from right ventricle. o Chordae tendineae - strings that attach the valve to the musculature o Papillary muscles protruding musculature holding on to the strings. Right ventricle o Muscular chamber that receives oxygenated blood from the right atrium and pumps blood to the lungs via the pulmonary trunk and arteries. o Trabeculae carnea web-like musculature lining the chamber o Chordae tendinae strings that attach the valve to the musculature o Papillary muscles protruding musculature holding on to the strings Pulmonary semilunar valve o Three cups separating the right ventricle from the pulmonary artery. Pulmonary trunk splits into R & L pulmonary arteries o Artery leaving the right ventricle going to the lungs. Lungs o These arent on your heart. This is just to keep this list in blood-flow order. Pulmonary veins o 4 veins entering the left atrium from the lungs (2 from each lung) Left atrium o Where the blood returns to the heart from the lungs. Mitral valve or left atrioventricular valve o Two flaps attached to strings separating the left atrium from left ventricle. o Chordae tendineae strings that attach the valve to the musculature o Papillary muscles protruding musculature holding on to the strings.

Left ventricle o Muscular chamber that receives oxygenated blood from the left atrium and pumps blood to the body via the aorta. o Thick myocardium o Septum this is also in the right ventricle, it separates the two ventricles Aortic semilunar valve o Three cups separating the left ventricle from the aorta. Aorta o Artery leaving the left ventricle, it is thicker than the pulmonary artery.

Dissection Procedure 1. Cut the apex off the heart about 1-1 inch from the bottom. This is so you can view the differences between the right and left ventricles in terms of myocardial thickness. 2. Cut upwards toward the atria along the surface of the septum inside the right ventricle (it will be easier cutting on the right side. Do this very carefully so you dont cut the chordae tendinae. . Open up the right ventricle so you can look upward toward the tricuspid valve (right atrioventricular valve). Observe the trabeculation (strappy muscles inside the RV) and the parts of the valve. 3. Cut open the pulmonary artery starting from the outer end and cut toward the right ventricle. Do this carefully because you just want to open the PA enough so you can see the semilunar valve and the 3 little cusps. 4. Carefully open up the right atrium so you can see the inner surface. Do this by cutting from the inferior vena cava and transverse across toward the atrial septum. This should allow for a superior view of the tricuspid valve and the fossa ovalis. 5. Now you have a handle on most parts, cut the left ventricle as you wish to investigate more. Digital Electrocardiogram (ECG) P wave o Electrical indication of activation NOT contraction of atria. Atrial contraction occurs after the P wave, as the P wave is the electrical stimulus which turns on the muscle. QRS complex o Electrical indications of atrial repolarization and ventricular activation (depolarization), NOT muscular contration. This is the stimulus that indicates how the ventricles are being activated and then the ventricles will contract AFTER the QRS complex occurs. o Q initial downward deflection o R large upward spike o S downward deflection after R wave spike T wave o Electrical indication of repolarization or relaxation of the ventricles. The ventricles are relaxing during this time.