_{E}_{L}_{S}_{E}_{V}_{I}_{E}_{R}
Powder
Technology 84 (1995)
9198
Department of Mechanical Engineering~ University of Wollongong, Wollongon& NSW 2522, Australia
Received 7 December 1994; revised 24 January 1995
Abstract
During low velocity slugflow pneumatic conveying, the wall pressure, that is the pressure that is exerted on the pipe wall by a moving slug of particles, causes a resistance to material flow. Most of the conveying pressure energy is consumed to overcome this resistance force. However, very little information is available for the determination of wall pressure. This paper studies the distribution of wall pressure along the length of a moving slug and then measures on a test rig the total pressure (the sum of the static air pressure and wall pressure) during slugflow pneumatic conveying under different conveying conditions. Various values of the stress transmission coefficient (such as the ratio of radial stress to axial stress) in particle slugs are obtained from the wall pressure measurements and the calculated axial stress of the slug. Based on the principles of particulate mechanics and the experimental values of the stress transmission coefficient, a semiempirical expression of stress transmission coefficient is presented for slugs flowing in pipes with rigid and parallel walls.
Keywords: Wall pressure; Slugflow; Conveying conditions; Stress transmission coefficient
1. Introduction
Granular
solids can
be
transported in the form of
slugs during low velocity pneumatic conveying. In hor izontal flow, there are stationary beds between the slugs, as shown in Fig. 1. While moving forwards, each particle slug is subjected to the air pressure force, wall friction force and resistance force caused by the sta
tionary bed, see Fig. 1. This results in an axial com pressive stress trx in the slug. The axial stress trx causes
a radial
stress trr as the pipe wall prevents the radial
deformation of the particle slug. The ratio
A=
~
O)
is defined as the stress (force) transmission coefficient. It is analogous to the stress ratio of horizontal to vertical stress for the calculation of stresses in silos and hoppers.
Air gap
"5.L~
..
~
........... °J.*,°o
~
... ..
°.
F
_0
P ~
:.~.~5
~.°.° ......
...  ..
~:~
.~° .... '~*~
... '~
~
..
~53:~.2.~
a.° '~*
..
... ..
..... .....
°o *
..
~ ~
Rf
Particle Slug
Ra
.52.3:.~.,.~
.o °~
°
... ...
~°~
°
°
...
e°t ....
.... .....
=
..
,55.
~.°.b
°
..
°o° ..
...
....
~.¢
Stationary bed Fig. 1. Low velocity pneumatic conveying.
00325910/95/$09.50 © 1995 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved
SSD1 00325910(95)029747
In this paper, the radial stress exerted on the pipe wall is designated as the wall pressure trw. It should be noted that for horizontal slugflow, the weight of a particle slug also causes a radial stress on the pipe. For convenience and distinction, this pressure is called the gravity pressure trg. The total radial stress exerted on the pipe wall is referred to as the total wall pressure trt~. Fig. 2 show the total wall pressure and its com ponents. As indicated by previous research [113], it is im portant to determine the wall pressure and stress trans mission coefficient in low velocity pneumatic conveying. Wall pressure also has a direct effect on the wear of
a w
011
O'tw=O'w +~ii
(a)
(b)
(c)
Fig. 2. Total wall pressure and components: (a), radial stress at wall due to axial compressive stress, called wall pressure; (b), radial stress at wall due to weight, called gravity pressure; (c) total wall pressure.
92 B.
Mi, P.W.
Wypych / Powder Technology 84 (1995) 9198
the conveying pipeline. Although numerous investi gations [47] have been carried out to determine the wall pressure and stress transmission coefficient in silos and hoppers, very little information is available world wide for the determination of these parameters during low velocity slugflow. Consequently, research into low velocity pneumatic conveying has been slow to advance in many areas, particularly pipeline pressure drop pre diction. This study undertakes investigations into wall pressure during the particle slugflow of coarse granular (cohesionless) materials through a horizontal pipe. Also, a method to determine the stress transmission coefficient and its influential parameters (for example static internal friction angle) is presented.
2. Wall
pressure
distribution
The interstitial air pressure and stresses acting on an element of a moving particle slug are shown in Fig.
3. Assuming that the axial stress trx and radial stress
tr, are functions of x only (that is, these stresses are
constant in a crosssectional area of slug), then A= trw/ trx . Based on an equilibrium of the forces acting on an elemental section of slug, Konrad et al. [1] developed the following equation for the axial stress in a horizontal slug.
trx =K exp(41~WAX)+(2pbgttw+~)
D
D
_{(}_{2}_{)}
where K is an integration constant and can be deter mined by the boundary conditions: tr~ =trb at x = 0 and trx = trt at x=/s. Also, note the following assumptions made by Konrad et al. [1] in the development of their theory and Eq.
(2).
(a) The particles are conveyed only in the single slug
and in the regions just
in front of and behind
it.
(b) There is a layer of stationary material in front
of and behind the moving slug. (c) The flow pattern resembles that of a gas/liquid system [1].
~lw 

o 
XaxP 
~~ 
p+dp~ 

J 

I 

Fig. 
3. 
Air 
pressure 
and 
stresses 
acting 
on 
a 
particle 
slug 
in 
a 
horizontal 
pipe. 
Us
o
Fig. 4. Distribution
of wall pressure
along slug.
ls
x
Konrad et al. [1] also presented the following equation for the pressure gradient of a single horizontal slug by applying the above boundary conditions to Eq. (2).
Ap
=
13
4~A

D
~r,+ 20ug~w
Rearranging Eq. (3):
(3)
O'f= 
 2pbg~l,w"~ ~ 
4~v /~ 
(4) 

Replacing ( 
)°4tzwA 

 
2p~g~ + ~ 

in 
Eq. 
(2) 
with ef gives 

trx=Kexp( 
4DA ) x+~r, 
(5) 

Applying the boundary condition, ~x =trb at x = 0, again 

to 
Eq. 
(5), then 

K= 
~b 
o', 
(6) 
Substituting Eq. (6) into Eq. (5) and replacing ~rx with
OVw/~,:
Eq. (7) is a distribution function of wall pressure along the length of a moving slug. According to this equation, a wall pressure distribution curve can be drawn as
shown in Fig. 4. It was found [1,8] that the average thickness of stationary bed is approximately equal in
front of and behind
the slug, so that ¢rf= trb. Therefore,
Orw = Ao"t.
3. Measurement
of wall pressure
Numerous experiments are carried out to measure the wall pressure in the low velocity pneumatic conveying test rig in the Bulk Solids Handling Laboratory. Details on the test facility and major items of equipment have
B. Mi, P.tE. Wypych / Powder Technology 84 (1995) 9198 
93 

Table 
1 

Physical properties 
of test materials 

Material 
~ 
d 
Pb 
"/b 
P, 
~b 
~bw 

(mm) 
(kg m 3) 
(kg m 3) 
(°) 
(0) 

Plastic pellets 
0.430 
3.12 
493 
0.49 
865 
44.70 
15.15 

(white) 

Plastic pellets 
0.451 
3.76 
458 
0.46 
834 
43.76 
12.95 

(black) 

Wheat 
0.440 
3.47 
811 
0.81 
1449 
43.73 
16.01 

Barley 
0.465 
3.91 
722 
0.72 
1350 
31.07 
14.20 

Urea 
0.455 
1.88 
722 
0.72 
1326 
35.00 
13.35 
been presented elsewhere [3]. Hence, a brief description only is presented here. The test rig consists of a mild steel pipeline, either
96 or 52 m in length (105
mm i.d.), fitted with flanges,
designed to give a continuous uninterrupted bore. Two wall pressure measuring assemblies are installed in a horizontal section of the pipeline. The details of the wall pressure measuring assemblies also have been presented elsewhere [3]. Each assembly includes two types of pressure transducer [3]: typeA (model BHL 4400 and 3040) and typeB (model AB/HP50G), at the same crosssection of pipe. The typeA transducer measures only the static air pressure in the pipe (via a porous plastic membrane), whereas the typeB trans ducer measures the total wall pressure, which includes the same static air pressure, the gravity pressure (due to material weight) and the radial wall pressure (caused by axial compression along the slug). Hence, the wall pressure is obtained by subtracting the static air pressure and gravity pressure from the total pressure. The cross correlation function of the measured wall pressure signals is used also to determine the slug velocity.
The distance between the two wall pressure measuring assemblies is 2.49 m. The upstream assembly is far from the end of the vertical lift (about 23 m) so that the slugs can reach a stable size. A sight glass is located between the two wall pressure testing points to confirm slugflow through this section of pipe. Also, the slug
flow pattern can
be observed through the sight glass
and photographs of slugs and stationary beds can be taken easily. In order to investigate the effect of different materials on wall pressure, four types of material were selected with the relevant physical properties summarized in Table 1. Note the physical properties of another test material, urea, which is considered in a case study at the end of the paper, are included in Table 1.
4. Experimental results
Using the method described in the previous section, wall pressures are measured over a wide range of low
velocity pneumatic conveying conditions. Fig. 5 shows typical wall pressure and air pressure time records for
the black plastic pellets conveyed through 
the 
52 
m 

long pipeline. Each peak in Fig. 5 indicates a particle 

slug flowing through the pipe. The peaks 
in Fig. 
5(a) 

basically correspond 
to 
the 
peaks 
in Fig. 5(b). 
Fig. 
5 

also shows that the location 
of each peak 
is the 
same 
in the two plots, but that the pressure decay after each
peak is slower in plot (b) than plot (a). The reason is that the peak of wall pressure only appears when a slug passes through the test point, and the wall
pressure 'disappears' 
as soon 
as 
the 
slug leaves the 

test point. However, the air pressure 
still is evident 

until the slug arrives at the end of the pipe or the 

slug collapses. Hence the air pressure peak 
lasts for 
a longer time. It can also be observed clearly from the wall pressure plots that different slugs cause different
3. 

.... 
' .... 
I 
...... 
C'H." 

0 

G 

(I: it_ 2. 

(a) 

to ud . 

0. 

0. 
'00. 

CYCLE TIME (5ECS] 

3~ ..... 
, .... 
i .... 
CH. 

I 

__ 

lac 

E 2~I. 

a: 
(b) 

tr~ 

tAJ 

o: IB. 

¢t= 

ac 

CYCLE TIME ($FC$1 
Fig. 5. Plots of wall pressure and air pressure for black plastic pellets. mf=O.064 kg s~; m,=0.85 kg sL
94 B. Mi, P.W. Wypych / Powder Technology 84 (1995) 9198
values of wall pressure (that is, the wall pressure peaks have different heights), refer to Fig. 5(a). Hence, an average value of wall pressure is used to represent the wall pressure obtained for a given conveying condition. For horizontal slugflow, since the typeB transducer is located on the bottom of the pipe of the lowvelocity pneumatic conveying test rig, that part of the measured 
of 0.572 is calculated for wheat, with all values of A contained in the range 10 to +9%. This indicates that the stress transmission coefficient is a function of the physical properties of the bulk material and pipe. Similar findings are obtained for the other test materials. For example: average A = 0.756 for white plastic pellets (8 to + 9%); 0.806 for black plastic pellets (7 to 

value exceeding the maximum gravity pressure (pbgD) is considered as wall pressure. Otherwise the value is the gravity pressure due to the weight of the slug or 
+ 6%); 0.655 for 
barley (8 
to + 6%). 

stationary bed. Fig. 6 presents the average wall pressure of each 
5. 
Correlation of stress transmission 
coefficient 

test plotted against the mass flow rate of air. It can 
After obtaining 
the experimental 
values 
of stress 

be seen that the wall pressure for each test material appears to increase linearly as the mass flow rate of air increases during low velocity pneumatic conveying, although the slope of each 'line' may not be constant. The stress transmission coefficient A is a parameter 
transmission coefficient, it is necessary to correlate A with the relevant influential factors. Some aspects of material strength need to be considered initially for this purpose. 
relevant to
wall pressure. Since trw ~ Ztrf, and trf = o~pbUs 2
according to a momentum balance, it is possible to obtain the values of A after the data of wall pressure, stationary bed thickness and slug velocity have been obtained. According to the experimental wall pressure results and the data of slug velocity and stationary bed thickness [8,9], values of stress transmission coefficient are calculated. Table 2 lists the values of the stress transmission coefficient and corresponding operating conditions for wheat. From Table 2, it can be seen that for a given granular material, the stress transmission coefficient is approx imately constant. For example, despite the different conveying conditions and pipe lengths an average value
1.6
1.4
1.2
4
A
o
[]
White Plastic Pellets
Black Plastic Pellets
Wheat
Barley
^{~}^{P} []
[]
~ ~l:'+
1.0
0.8
0.6
A
0.4.
A
0.2
0.04
[]
,
0.05
&
9°
&
4
+,
O
O
o
o
o
,
0.06
,
0.07
,
0.08
,
0.09
Mass FlowRate of Air, m f; (kgs l)
Fig.
6.
Wall
pressure
vs.
mass
flow
rate
of
air.
0.10
5.I. Strength of particulate medium
According to particulate mechanics, the strength of the bulk solid prepared to a specific degree of con solidation can be represented on a shearcompressive stress diagram by a yield locus (YL) together with a wall yield locus (WYL), which represent the limiting stress conditions that can be sustained by a plane wall bounding the bulk material, as shown in Fig. 7.
The Mohr circles Co, C1 and C2 in Fig. 7 represent the three different states of an element P within an infinite homogeneous particulate medium. The first is
the static state of the particulate medium,
that
is
all
the particles are stationary. At this time, the Mohr circle with centre Co lies completely under the wall
yield locus. The second state of the particulate medium
is represented by the Mohr circle C1 that intersects
the wall yield locus, but still lies completely under the
yield locus. In this state, shearing occurs at the boundary between the particulate medium and wall, however, due to the Mohr circle C1 being below the yield locus
(or called the Mohr failure envelope), the particles are fixed relative to each other. Hence the particulate
medium will slip as a rigid body along the wall plane.
The points representing the plane of the wall lies at A1 or D~. This state can be referred to as 'en bloc'
movement of the particulate medium. The third state of the particulate medium is represented by the Mohr circle C2 that is tangent to the Mohr failure envelope
YU In this state, relative movement exists between the particles. Note that no state of stress (nor Mohr circle)
can exist above the Mohr failure envelope since the (flowing) failure occurs in the particulate medium. The failure occurring at the active stress state (try< trz) is
called active failure. The failure at the other possible
stress state (%> trz) is called passive failure.
For the
third state of particulate medium, the particles adjacent to the wall plane also slip along the wall and A2 or
B. Mi, P.W. Wypych / Powder Technology 84 (1995) 9198
95
Table 
2 

Experimental 
values of wall pressure 
and stress 
transmission 
coefficient 
for wheat 

52 m pipeline 
96 m pipeline 

mr 
ms O"w 
O'f ~. 
mf 
ms 
o'w 
o'f 

(kg s') 
(kg s 1) (kPa) 
(kPa) 
(kg s') 
(kg s') 
(kPa) 
(kPa) 

0.967 0.334 0.527 
0.0557 
1.159 
0.420 
0.768 
0.547 

0.959 0.671 0.579 
0.0676 
1.157 
0.702 
1.193 
0.588 

0.957
0.726 0.539 
0.0749 
1.161 
0.706 
1.310 
0.539 

0.961 0.896 0.541 
0.0838 
1.168 
0.926 
1.688 
0.601 

0.962 0.978 0.566 
0.0870 
1.162 
0.969 
1.712 
0.587 

1.450 0.341 0.548 
0.0559 
1.494 
0.423 
0.762 
0.555 

1.439 0,639 0.580 
0.0678 
1.494 
0.737 
1.223 
0.603 

0.785
1.439 0.589 
0.0754 
1.496 
0.796 
1.364 
0.584 

1.439 0.892 0.556 
0.0833 
1,497 
0.882 
1.529 
0.577 

1.461 0.997 0.566 
0.0869 
1.493 
1.007 
1.623 
0.622 

1.945 0.442 0.582 
0.0560 
1.960 
0.423 
0.728 
0.515 

1.986 0.711 0.576 
0.0678 
1.957 
0.707 
1.191 
0.594 

1.977 0.746 0.573 
0.0739 
1.968 
0.788 
1.346 
0.585 

1.997 0.814 0.572 
0.0838 
1.969 
0.948 
1.524 
0.622 

1.996 0.909 0.569 
0.0878 
1.964 
1.008 
1.703 
0.592 

2.383 0.663 0.587 
0.0677 
2.402 
0.673 
1.190 
0.566 

2.403 0.780 0.572 
0.0744 
2.374 
0.781 
1.357 
0.576 

0.952
2.388 0.564 
0.0835 
2.373 
0.928 
1.535 
0.605 

2.415 1.028 0.588 
0.0873 
2.375 
0.996 
1.709 
0.583 

5.2. Stress transmission coefficient in a vertical pipe 

't r/,t y~ 
~ 
YL=EYL 
Fig. 8 shows a particle slug flowing in a vertical pipe 

~zy 
with a parallel and rigid wall. The experimental ob servations found that during slugflow almost all the 

,~,WYL 
particles contained in the slug are fixed relative to each other and the slug moves like a rigid body in the one direction (for example downward). This indicates that failure occurs between the boundary of the material and pipe wall, but there is no failure occurring between the particles. As described in the previous section, such 

O 
02 
°l ~ 
O 
a case is the second state of particulate medium. The Mohr circle representing the stresses of a bound ary element P in the second state must be located 
Fig. 7. Possible state of stress on element P, represented by a series of Mohr circles.
D 2 represent the plane of the wall. The state of stress acting at point E in Fig. 7 is the theoretical limiting state of stress on the failure plane at failure. The stress transmission coefficient exhibits the re lationship of normal stress on two mutually vertical planes. Its value is affected by the state, strength and some physical properties of bulk material. The following stress analyses attempt to develop a general expression for A.
Fig. 8. Particles
flowing
in
a vertical
A Single 

Particle 

i 

\i" 

pipe. 
96 B, Mi, P.W. Wypych / Powder Technology 84 (1995) 9198
between the Mohr failure envelope and wall yield locus of the material in the strength diagram, as shown in Fig. 9. The points A or D where the Mohr circle C intersects the wall yield locus of the material represent the wall plane along which the particles slip. If the normal stress at point A represents the horizontal stress (%) of the element P shown in Fig. 9 (the radial stress of the slug), according to the Mohr circle theory, the normal stress at point B will represent the vertical stress (az) of the element P (the axial stress of the slug). Hence, the stress transmission coefficient in the vertical pipe will be %/trz. As try<trz in Fig. 9, the stress state of element P is the active ease, and the stress transmission coefficient is written as AA. The angle between the tangent line OF and the a coordinate (see Fig. 9) is defined as the static internal friction angle ~s. As the bulk material slips along the pipe wall, ~w < ¢~ < ~. Using trigonometry, the stress transmission coefficient at the active case can be de termined as follows [3].
AA = 
~ 
= 
1  
sin 
~b~ cos(to ~b~,) 
(8) 
~rz 
1 + sin 
¢~ cos(to Cw) 

sin to= sin 4w/sin 4s 
(9) 
For the passive case of stress state, the stress trans mission coefficient Zv is
Ap= 
~ 
= 
l+sin ¢s cos(to+¢w) 
(10) 

¢rz 
1  sin ¢~ cos(to + Cw) 

From Eqs. (8) and 
(10), 
it 
can 
be 
found 
that 
for 
a 
given bulk material, the stress transmission coefficient is determined only by its static internal friction angle and wall friction angle while the material flows in the
pipe with a rigid and parallel wall. Obviously, Ap > AA.
Note that 
although 
Eqs. 
(8), 
(9) 
and 
(10) are de 

veloped for the stress transmission 
coefficient in 
a 
vertical pipe, no special nature of the vertical pipe has
YL=EYL
been used during the development of these equations. Hence it is reasonable to assume that the equations are suitable also for the stress transmission coefficient in a horizontal pipe.
6. Static internal friction angle
Equations have been developed in the previous section for the stress transmission coefficient A. However, the value of A is dependent on the static internal friction angle (¢s) as given in Eqs. (8), (9) and (10). Hence, a relationship between ~bs and its influential factors must be developed. As shown in Fig. 10, while a bulk material flows in
the form of slugs in a pipe, there are an infinite number of possible Mohr circles representing the stress state of the slug located between the YL and WYL of the material. For example, the stress states represented by the Mohr circles C1 and C2 both satisfy the criterion of the slug flowing in the pipe, that is the particles of the slug slip along the pipe wall, but there is no relative movement between the particles. By drawing a tangent line OF1 to the Mohr circle C1 and tangent line OF 2 to the Mohr circle (22 through the origin of the coordinate system, two different static internal friction angles are
obtained as ~bsl and ¢s2. It
is difficult to know exactly
the actual static internal friction angle. However, there always exists a unique Mohr circle which represents the actual stress state of the slug. Owing to the un
certainty of the actual 'location' of Mohr circle of the
slug, it is extremely difficult to predict
the internal
static friction angle from theory. Hence, an empirical correlation is sought. From the results of A listed in Table 2, static internal friction angles can be calculated by using Eqs. (8) and (9) or (10) for these test materials. It is also noted that all the stress transmission coefficients for the materials are less than 1. This means that the stress
YL=EYL
FI
P,
Fig. 9. Diagram of strength.
_ o 

"~ 
oz i 
, 
~ 
o 

Fig. 
10. 
Possible 
Mohr 
circles 
representing 
the 
stress 
state 
of 
a 

particle 
slug. 
B. Mi, P.W. Wypych I Powder Technology 84 (1995) 9198
180.
•e~
..
~
.,~
.~
~
140
120
I00
80!
6o .::
40,
20.
0
0.01
4.2
2
Fig.
12.
D=105
Low
ram.
97 

~.2 

1 
4.5 

2.8 

m,. (ta% 

0.08 
0.09 
0.10 
urea• 
L=96 
m; 
Table 
3 

Static 
internal 
friction 
angles 

Material 

Static 
Plastic 

internal 
pellets 

friction 
(white) 

angle 

~b~ (°): 
15.75 

22 

20' 

18 

"~ 
16 

14. 

12 
 
, 

12 
14 

Fig. 
11. Goodness 
of 
fit. 
for 
test 
materials 

Plastic 
Wheat 
Barley 

pellets 

(black) 

13.40 
20.08 
16.81 

 

. 
, 
. 
, 
. 
, 

16 
18 
20 
22 

Observed ~ s 
7.

3
~~
'~~.~~
~8
0.02
0.03
0.04
velocity
0,05
0.06
0.07
Mass flowrate of air, m t, (kgsq)
conveying
characteristics
of
To demonstrate the accuracy of this technique, these parameters were substituted into the pressure drop
model presented by Mi and
Wypych [3] to generate
the conveying characteristics shown in Fig. 12. Note
that the curves of constant ms shown in Fig. 12 were predicted by this pressure drop model [3] using only the physical properties of urea listed in this paper. It
can be seen that there is excellent agreement between the experimental data and the predicted ms curves. This provides confidence in using the model for scale up and design purposes (that is for other capacities and pipeline diameters).
8. 
Conclusions 

The following conclusions and recommendations are based on the experimental and theoretical results pre 

sented in this paper. Wall pressure in a moving slug varies as an exponential 

function along its length and is determined by the stresses acting on the front and back faces of the slug. For a given material, wall pressure appears to increase 

linearly as the 
mass flow rate 
of air increases. 

The stress in a horizontal moving slug appears to 

be 
in 
the active state. 

Values of ~bs and A determined by this technique appear to provide good estimations of pipeline pressure drop for other granular materials (such as urea). How ever, before a unified theory can be developed and confirmed for low velocity slugflow, further experi mental work is needed with different pipe diameters and types of material, particularly powders. 

9. 
List of symbols 

A 
crosssectional area of pipe (m 2) 

C, 
Ca 
Ca, C2 Mohr circle centres 
state in slugs should be in the active stress case during slugflow. Hence, Eq. (10) is not used for this calculation. Table 3 lists the calculated static internal friction angle of each test material. Based on the data listed in Table 3, the following expression for static internal friction angle is regressed by applying the method of
least squares with the limit
of ~bs < ~b.
4
¢~= g 4~wYb'"
(11)
where
Yb is defined
as
the
bulk specific weight with
respect to water at 4 °C. The goodness of fit is shown in Fig. 11. Using Eqs. (8), (9) and (11), the stress transmission coefficient can now be predicted for particle slugs moving through a pipe with rigid and parallel walls, as long as the properties of the material are measured. This procedure is demonstrated by the following case study.
7. Industrial
case
study
An adhesives company requested assistance to design a pneumatic conveying system for urea. It was required to minimize dust generation and hence, low velocity slugflow was selected for this application. Firstly, the physical properties of urea were deter mined. The results are summarized in Table 1. Using Eq. (11), ~bs= 15.97 ° and from Eqs. (8) and (9), A = 0.668.
98 B. Mi, P.W. Wypych / Powder Technology 84 (1995)
9198
d 

D 

g 

mf~ 
m s 
ap 

R 

Rf 

R~ 

us 

Upy, Upz 

Greek letters 

E 

4, 

7b 

h 

hA, hp 

tzw 

Pb, P~ 

o" 
equivalent volume diameter of particle 
%, 
trf 
normal stress at back face or front face 

(m) 
of slug (Pa) 

internal pipe diameter (m) 
% 
gravity pressure (Pa) 

air pressure force (N) 
trr 
radial stress of a particle slug (Pa) 

acceleration due to gravity (ms 2) 
%~, (r,~ 
total wall pressure or wall pressure (Pa) 

length of a 
single slug (m) 
(rx, %, 
trz 
axial stress, horizontal stress or vertical 

mass flow rate 
of air or solids (kg s1) 
stress of a particle element (Pa) 

pressure drop across a single slug (Pa) 
(rl 
major principle stress (Pa) 

inner pipe radius (m) wall friction force (N) 
tr2, (r2', (r2" ~', ~w 
minor principle stresses (Pa) shear stress, shear stress at wall (Pa) 

resistance force 
due to stationary bed 
rye, %y 
shear stresses on particle element (Pa) 

(N) 
angle defined in Fig. 9 (°) 

slug velocity (m s') particle velocity in y direction or rection (m s 1) 
z di 
References 
bulk voidage internal friction angle (°) static internal friction angle (°)
wall friction angle (°) bulk specific weight with respect to water
at
4
°C
stress transmission coefficient A in active stress case, passive stress case
wall friction coefficient bulk density, particle density (kg m 3) normal stress (Pa)
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