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# Code No: R05322303 Set No.

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III B.Tech Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008
HEAT TRANSFER IN BIO PROCESSORS
(Bio-Technology)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
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1. Derive the equation for Steady state one dimensional heat flow through hollow
cylinder from differential equation of heat conduction in cylindrical coordinate.


2. Engine oil at 220 C flows over a flat plate with a free stream velocity of 27.5 m/s.
Determine the heat transfer rate per unit plate width from the first 16 cm. Surface
temperature is 1320 C. Properties of engine oil at the film temperature of 770 C are:
k = 0.138 W/m 0 C, υ = 0.0000417 m2 /s and P r = 546. 

3. A 30 cm long glass plate is hung vertically in the air at 300 K (270 C). The plate
is maintained at 356 K (770 C). Calculate the average heat transfer coefficient for
natural and forced convection.
Data: The properties of air at 325 K (520 C) are:
υ= 18.41 × 10−6 m2 /s, k = 28.5 × 10−3 W/(m.K)
NPr = 0.7, β= 3.077 × 10−3 K−1
Take free steam velocity of air = 4 m/s 

4. (a) Discuss in detail various types of boiling for the boiling of liquids.
(b) Discuss various correlations in pool boiling heat transfer? [8+8]

5. (a) What are different methods to get the heat transfer area increased in heat
transfer equipment ?
(b) What is meant by pitch of tubes in a multi-tube heat exchanger? Explain
[8+8]

## 6. (a) What are various objectives of evaporation ?

(b) How is it different from other unit operations like drying, crystallization and
distillation ? [8+8]

7. The specific death constants of heating and cooling during sterilization of a medium
at 1210 C are 0.1 min−1 and 0.2 min−1 respectively.
theating = 20 min
tholding = 30 min
tcooling = 30 min
The decimal reduction time during holding is 2 min. The initial batch contains
6x1015 m−3 organism at 30 0 C. Find the sterilization effect. 

## 8. A certain fermentation medium was sterilized in a fermenter. The heating-up took

30 min from 1000 to 1210 C and the cooling took 15 min from 1210 to 1000 C. The ∆

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Code No: R05322303 Set No. 1
factor value is ∆10 /min = 12.55. The thermal death constant k1210 C is 2.54 min−1 .
The ∆ for sterilization is 43.5. Find ∆holding and holding period. 

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Code No: R05322303 Set No. 2
III B.Tech Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008
HEAT TRANSFER IN BIO PROCESSORS
(Bio-Technology)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

## 1. A wall of 0.5 m thickness is constructed using a material having thermal con-

ductivity of 1.4 W/(m.K). The wall is insulated with a material having thermal
conductivity of 0.35 W/(m.K) so that heat loss per m2 is 1500 W. the inner and
outer temperatures are 1273 K (10000 C) and 373 k(1000 C) respectively. Calculate
the thickness of insulation required and temperature of the interface between two
layers.
A cylindrical tube has inner diameter of 20 mm and outer diameter of 30mm. find
out the rate of heat flow from tube of length 5 m if inner surface is at 373 K (1000
C) and outer surface is at 308 K (350 C). Take the thermal conductivity of tube
material as 0.291 W/(m.K). 

2. Consider the flow of water over a semi-infinite plate. The free stream velocity is
0.45 m/s and the free stream temperature is 50 C. The plate is maintained at 150 C.
Determine the thermal boundary layer thickness and heat flux at a distance of 40
cm from the leading edge. 

3. (a) Air at 293 K (200 C) and 101.325 kPa flows over a flat plate at velocity of 35
m/s. The plate is 75 m long and is maintained at 333 K(600 C) . Assuming
unit depth in the z-direction, estimate the heat transfer from the plate.

## Data: Properties of air at the film temperature of 313 K (400 C ) are:

µ= 1.906 × 10−5 kg/(m.s), k = 0.02723W/(m.K)
Cp = 1.007kJ/(kg.K),ρ= 1.129kg/m3 , NPr = 0.70
u∝ = 35 m/s
(b) Air at 101.325 kPa and 300 K (270 C) blows across a 12 mm diameter sphere
at a free stream velocity of 4 m/s. A small heater inside the sphere maintains
the surface temperature at 350 K (770 C). Estimate the heat lost by the sphere.

Data: The properties of air at the free stream temperature 325 K are: υ= 18.23×
10−6 m2 /s, k = 0.02814W/(m.K) [8+8]

## 4. Water is boiled at atmospheric pressure at a rate of 30Kg/h in a copper pan of

diameter 30 cm. Determine the temperature of bottom surface of pan assuming
nucleate pool boiling. Data: The properties of water at atmospheric pressure are:
Ts = 373K(1000 C), ρl = 957.9kg/m3 .Crl = 4217J(kg.K)
µl = 27.9 × 10−5 kg/(m.s), NPrl = 1.76,

λ= 2257kJ/kg; σ= 5.89 × 10−2 N/m; ρv = 0.5955kg/m3 and Csf = 0.013

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Code No: R05322303 Set No. 2
5. Describe the working of a 2,4 shell-and-tube heat exchanger with a neat diagram.
What are its applications in bioprocessing ? 

## 6. (a) Describe how a multiple effect evaporator is economical.

(b) Without actually employing multiple effects, what are the other methods to
achieve similar effect ? [8+8]

## 7. Explain graphical integration procedure for evaluating ∆ during heating period.



8. (a) Describe how effective is plate heat exchanger for continuous sterilization of
medium.
(b) Is plate heat exchanger useful for Batch sterilization explain? [8+8]

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Code No: R05322303 Set No. 3
III B.Tech Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008
HEAT TRANSFER IN BIO PROCESSORS
(Bio-Technology)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

## 1. 88 mm O.D pipe is insulated with a 50 mm thickness of an insulation having, a

mean thermal conductivity of 0.087 W/(m.K) and 30 mm thickness of an insulation,
having mean thermal conductivity of 0.064 W/(m.K). If the temperature of the
outer surface of the pipe is 623 K (3500 C) and, the temperature of the outer
surface of insulation is 313 K (400 C), calculate the heat loss per meter of pipe.


2. Calculate the inside heat transfer coefficient for fluid flowing at a rate of 300 cm3 /s
through 20 mm inside diameter tube of heat exchanger.
Data:
Viscosity of flowing fluid = 0.8 (N.sec)/ m2
Density of flowing fluid = 1.1 g/cm3
Specific heat of fluid = 1.26 kJ /(kg.K)
Viscosity at wall temperature = 1.0 (N.s)/ m2
Length of heat exchanger = 5 m 

## 3. A horizontal pipe 3.48 cm in diameter is maintained at a temperature of 523K

(2500 C) in a room where the air is at 288K (150 C). Find the heat loss per meter
of length of pipe by free convection.

Data: The properties of air at the film temperature of 405.5 K (132.50 C) are:
k = 0.03406W/(m.K); β= 2.47 × 10−3 K−1 ;

NPr = 0.687; and υ= 26.54 × 10−6 (m2 /s)
4. What is the difference between film wise condensation and drop wise condensation?
Explain. 

5. In an extended surface heat exchanger, the heat transfer area increased by 50%
by putting a sleeve on a cylindrical pipe, and the overall heat transfer coefficient
decreased by 10%. The heat transfer coefficient of the pipe is 0.75 kW/m2 0 C, and
the temperature diference is 500 C. Find the heat transfer rate for the extended
surface heat exchanger for unit area of the cylindrical pipe. 

## 6. Describe a vapour compression evaporator system with a neat diagram. 

7. (a) Describe the consequences that occur if the fermentation process is invaded
by foreign microorganisms.
(b) How do you avoid contamination in a fermentation process ? [10+6]

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Code No: R05322303 Set No. 3
8. (a) Compare and contrast the performance of a direct steam injection sterilizers
With plate heat exchangers for continuous sterilization.
(b) Show the time temperature profile of a continuous sterilization using plate
heat exchanger. [8+8]

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Code No: R05322303 Set No. 4
III B.Tech Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008
HEAT TRANSFER IN BIO PROCESSORS
(Bio-Technology)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. Derive the expression for heat flow through thick walled cylinder by conduction.
Take r1 and r2 be the inner and outer radii of cylinder, k as mean thermal conduc-
tivity. Assume T1 as inside temperature and T2 as the outside temperature.


2. Air at 293K (200 C) flows over a thin plate with velocity of 2 m/s. The plate is
2 m long and 1 m wide. Find the boundary layer thickness at the trailing edge of
the plate. Take kinematic viscosity of air = 15 × 10−6 m2 /s. 

3. Air at 101.325 kPa and 308 K (350 C) flows across a 50 mm diameter cylinder at
a velocity of 50 m/s. The cylinder surface is maintained at a temperature of 423K
(1500 C). Estimate the heat loss per unit length of the cylinder.

Data: The physical Properties of air at the film temperature of 365.5 K are:
µ= 2.14 × 10−5 kg/(m.s), ρ= 0.966kg/m3 , k = 0.0312W/(m.K)

and NPr = 0.695

## 4. Water is boiled at atmospheric pressure at a rate of 30Kg/h in a copper pan of

diameter 30 cm. Determine the temperature of bottom surface of pan assuming
nucleate pool boiling. Data: The properties of water at atmospheric pressure are:
Ts = 373K(1000 C), ρl = 957.9kg/m3 .Crl = 4217J(kg.K)
µl = 27.9 × 10−5 kg/(m.s), NPrl = 1.76,

λ= 2257kJ/kg; σ= 5.89 × 10−2 N/m; ρv = 0.5955kg/m3 and Csf = 0.013

5. Sugar syrup is heated in a stirred vessel of diameter 2m with a helical coil inside the
vessel. The diameter of the impeller is 0.67m and rotates at 60rpm.The sugar syrup
solution is maintained at 350 C by passing hot water through the helical coil. The
inlet and outlet temperatures of the heating water are 50o C and 380 C. The heat load
required for the tank is 500kW. The heat transfer coefficient for the heating water
is 10kW/m2 0 C. The helical coil is made up of SS which has thermal conductivity
of 60 W/m 0 C. What length of the cooling coil is required if the outside dia of the
SS pipe is 5cm and the pipe thickness is 3mm. 

6. Write energy balance and enthalpy balance equations for a single effect Evaporator.


## 7. (a) Describe the effect of sterilization on a mixed culture population

(b) What is a Del factor and write a short notes on Del factor. [10+6]

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Code No: R05322303 Set No. 4
8. (a) A fermenter containing 40 m3 of medium (250 C) is going to be sterilized by the
direct injection of saturated steam. The typical bacterial count of the medium
is about 5 x 1012 m−3 , which needs to be reduced to such an extent that the
chance for a contaminant surviving the sterilization is 1 in 1,000. Calculate ∆
for the same.
(b) Do you think a long tubular double pipe heat exchanger can be used for
continuous sterilization? If so, how? If no why? [8+8]

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