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Code No: R05322303 Set No.

1
III B.Tech Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008
HEAT TRANSFER IN BIO PROCESSORS
(Bio-Technology)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
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1. Derive the equation for Steady state one dimensional heat flow through hollow
cylinder from differential equation of heat conduction in cylindrical coordinate.
[16]

2. Engine oil at 220 C flows over a flat plate with a free stream velocity of 27.5 m/s.
Determine the heat transfer rate per unit plate width from the first 16 cm. Surface
temperature is 1320 C. Properties of engine oil at the film temperature of 770 C are:
k = 0.138 W/m 0 C, υ = 0.0000417 m2 /s and P r = 546. [16]

3. A 30 cm long glass plate is hung vertically in the air at 300 K (270 C). The plate
is maintained at 356 K (770 C). Calculate the average heat transfer coefficient for
natural and forced convection.
Data: The properties of air at 325 K (520 C) are:
υ= 18.41 × 10−6 m2 /s, k = 28.5 × 10−3 W/(m.K)
NPr = 0.7, β= 3.077 × 10−3 K−1
Take free steam velocity of air = 4 m/s [16]

4. (a) Discuss in detail various types of boiling for the boiling of liquids.
(b) Discuss various correlations in pool boiling heat transfer? [8+8]

5. (a) What are different methods to get the heat transfer area increased in heat
transfer equipment ?
(b) What is meant by pitch of tubes in a multi-tube heat exchanger? Explain
[8+8]

6. (a) What are various objectives of evaporation ?


(b) How is it different from other unit operations like drying, crystallization and
distillation ? [8+8]

7. The specific death constants of heating and cooling during sterilization of a medium
at 1210 C are 0.1 min−1 and 0.2 min−1 respectively.
theating = 20 min
tholding = 30 min
tcooling = 30 min
The decimal reduction time during holding is 2 min. The initial batch contains
6x1015 m−3 organism at 30 0 C. Find the sterilization effect. [16]

8. A certain fermentation medium was sterilized in a fermenter. The heating-up took


30 min from 1000 to 1210 C and the cooling took 15 min from 1210 to 1000 C. The ∆

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Code No: R05322303 Set No. 1
factor value is ∆10 /min = 12.55. The thermal death constant k1210 C is 2.54 min−1 .
The ∆ for sterilization is 43.5. Find ∆holding and holding period. [16]

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Code No: R05322303 Set No. 2
III B.Tech Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008
HEAT TRANSFER IN BIO PROCESSORS
(Bio-Technology)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. A wall of 0.5 m thickness is constructed using a material having thermal con-


ductivity of 1.4 W/(m.K). The wall is insulated with a material having thermal
conductivity of 0.35 W/(m.K) so that heat loss per m2 is 1500 W. the inner and
outer temperatures are 1273 K (10000 C) and 373 k(1000 C) respectively. Calculate
the thickness of insulation required and temperature of the interface between two
layers.
A cylindrical tube has inner diameter of 20 mm and outer diameter of 30mm. find
out the rate of heat flow from tube of length 5 m if inner surface is at 373 K (1000
C) and outer surface is at 308 K (350 C). Take the thermal conductivity of tube
material as 0.291 W/(m.K). [16]

2. Consider the flow of water over a semi-infinite plate. The free stream velocity is
0.45 m/s and the free stream temperature is 50 C. The plate is maintained at 150 C.
Determine the thermal boundary layer thickness and heat flux at a distance of 40
cm from the leading edge. [16]

3. (a) Air at 293 K (200 C) and 101.325 kPa flows over a flat plate at velocity of 35
m/s. The plate is 75 m long and is maintained at 333 K(600 C) . Assuming
unit depth in the z-direction, estimate the heat transfer from the plate.

Data: Properties of air at the film temperature of 313 K (400 C ) are:


µ= 1.906 × 10−5 kg/(m.s), k = 0.02723W/(m.K)
Cp = 1.007kJ/(kg.K),ρ= 1.129kg/m3 , NPr = 0.70
u∝ = 35 m/s
(b) Air at 101.325 kPa and 300 K (270 C) blows across a 12 mm diameter sphere
at a free stream velocity of 4 m/s. A small heater inside the sphere maintains
the surface temperature at 350 K (770 C). Estimate the heat lost by the sphere.

Data: The properties of air at the free stream temperature 325 K are: υ= 18.23×
10−6 m2 /s, k = 0.02814W/(m.K) [8+8]

4. Water is boiled at atmospheric pressure at a rate of 30Kg/h in a copper pan of


diameter 30 cm. Determine the temperature of bottom surface of pan assuming
nucleate pool boiling. Data: The properties of water at atmospheric pressure are:
Ts = 373K(1000 C), ρl = 957.9kg/m3 .Crl = 4217J(kg.K)
µl = 27.9 × 10−5 kg/(m.s), NPrl = 1.76,
[16]
λ= 2257kJ/kg; σ= 5.89 × 10−2 N/m; ρv = 0.5955kg/m3 and Csf = 0.013

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Code No: R05322303 Set No. 2
5. Describe the working of a 2,4 shell-and-tube heat exchanger with a neat diagram.
What are its applications in bioprocessing ? [16]

6. (a) Describe how a multiple effect evaporator is economical.


(b) Without actually employing multiple effects, what are the other methods to
achieve similar effect ? [8+8]

7. Explain graphical integration procedure for evaluating ∆ during heating period.


[16]

8. (a) Describe how effective is plate heat exchanger for continuous sterilization of
medium.
(b) Is plate heat exchanger useful for Batch sterilization explain? [8+8]

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Code No: R05322303 Set No. 3
III B.Tech Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008
HEAT TRANSFER IN BIO PROCESSORS
(Bio-Technology)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. 88 mm O.D pipe is insulated with a 50 mm thickness of an insulation having, a


mean thermal conductivity of 0.087 W/(m.K) and 30 mm thickness of an insulation,
having mean thermal conductivity of 0.064 W/(m.K). If the temperature of the
outer surface of the pipe is 623 K (3500 C) and, the temperature of the outer
surface of insulation is 313 K (400 C), calculate the heat loss per meter of pipe.
[16]

2. Calculate the inside heat transfer coefficient for fluid flowing at a rate of 300 cm3 /s
through 20 mm inside diameter tube of heat exchanger.
Data:
Viscosity of flowing fluid = 0.8 (N.sec)/ m2
Density of flowing fluid = 1.1 g/cm3
Specific heat of fluid = 1.26 kJ /(kg.K)
Viscosity at wall temperature = 1.0 (N.s)/ m2
Length of heat exchanger = 5 m [16]

3. A horizontal pipe 3.48 cm in diameter is maintained at a temperature of 523K


(2500 C) in a room where the air is at 288K (150 C). Find the heat loss per meter
of length of pipe by free convection.

Data: The properties of air at the film temperature of 405.5 K (132.50 C) are:
k = 0.03406W/(m.K); β= 2.47 × 10−3 K−1 ;
[16]
NPr = 0.687; and υ= 26.54 × 10−6 (m2 /s)
4. What is the difference between film wise condensation and drop wise condensation?
Explain. [16]

5. In an extended surface heat exchanger, the heat transfer area increased by 50%
by putting a sleeve on a cylindrical pipe, and the overall heat transfer coefficient
decreased by 10%. The heat transfer coefficient of the pipe is 0.75 kW/m2 0 C, and
the temperature diference is 500 C. Find the heat transfer rate for the extended
surface heat exchanger for unit area of the cylindrical pipe. [16]

6. Describe a vapour compression evaporator system with a neat diagram. [16]

7. (a) Describe the consequences that occur if the fermentation process is invaded
by foreign microorganisms.
(b) How do you avoid contamination in a fermentation process ? [10+6]

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Code No: R05322303 Set No. 3
8. (a) Compare and contrast the performance of a direct steam injection sterilizers
With plate heat exchangers for continuous sterilization.
(b) Show the time temperature profile of a continuous sterilization using plate
heat exchanger. [8+8]

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Code No: R05322303 Set No. 4
III B.Tech Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008
HEAT TRANSFER IN BIO PROCESSORS
(Bio-Technology)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. Derive the expression for heat flow through thick walled cylinder by conduction.
Take r1 and r2 be the inner and outer radii of cylinder, k as mean thermal conduc-
tivity. Assume T1 as inside temperature and T2 as the outside temperature.
[16]

2. Air at 293K (200 C) flows over a thin plate with velocity of 2 m/s. The plate is
2 m long and 1 m wide. Find the boundary layer thickness at the trailing edge of
the plate. Take kinematic viscosity of air = 15 × 10−6 m2 /s. [16]

3. Air at 101.325 kPa and 308 K (350 C) flows across a 50 mm diameter cylinder at
a velocity of 50 m/s. The cylinder surface is maintained at a temperature of 423K
(1500 C). Estimate the heat loss per unit length of the cylinder.

Data: The physical Properties of air at the film temperature of 365.5 K are:
µ= 2.14 × 10−5 kg/(m.s), ρ= 0.966kg/m3 , k = 0.0312W/(m.K)
[16]
and NPr = 0.695

4. Water is boiled at atmospheric pressure at a rate of 30Kg/h in a copper pan of


diameter 30 cm. Determine the temperature of bottom surface of pan assuming
nucleate pool boiling. Data: The properties of water at atmospheric pressure are:
Ts = 373K(1000 C), ρl = 957.9kg/m3 .Crl = 4217J(kg.K)
µl = 27.9 × 10−5 kg/(m.s), NPrl = 1.76,
[16]
λ= 2257kJ/kg; σ= 5.89 × 10−2 N/m; ρv = 0.5955kg/m3 and Csf = 0.013

5. Sugar syrup is heated in a stirred vessel of diameter 2m with a helical coil inside the
vessel. The diameter of the impeller is 0.67m and rotates at 60rpm.The sugar syrup
solution is maintained at 350 C by passing hot water through the helical coil. The
inlet and outlet temperatures of the heating water are 50o C and 380 C. The heat load
required for the tank is 500kW. The heat transfer coefficient for the heating water
is 10kW/m2 0 C. The helical coil is made up of SS which has thermal conductivity
of 60 W/m 0 C. What length of the cooling coil is required if the outside dia of the
SS pipe is 5cm and the pipe thickness is 3mm. [16]

6. Write energy balance and enthalpy balance equations for a single effect Evaporator.
[16]

7. (a) Describe the effect of sterilization on a mixed culture population


(b) What is a Del factor and write a short notes on Del factor. [10+6]

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Code No: R05322303 Set No. 4
8. (a) A fermenter containing 40 m3 of medium (250 C) is going to be sterilized by the
direct injection of saturated steam. The typical bacterial count of the medium
is about 5 x 1012 m−3 , which needs to be reduced to such an extent that the
chance for a contaminant surviving the sterilization is 1 in 1,000. Calculate ∆
for the same.
(b) Do you think a long tubular double pipe heat exchanger can be used for
continuous sterilization? If so, how? If no why? [8+8]

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