Causes of the First World War
M. Aamir Sultan The causes of World War I, which began in central Europe in July 1914, included many intertwined factors, such as the conflicts and hostility of the four decades leading up to the war. Militarism, alliances, imperialism, and nationalism played major roles in the conflict as well. However, the immediate origins of the war lay in the decisions taken by statesmen and generals during the July Crisis of 1914, casus belli for which was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife by Gavrilo Princip, an irredentist Serb. The crisis came after a long and difficult series of diplomatic clashes between the Great Powers (Italy, France, Germany, Great Britain, Austria-Hungarian Empire and Russia) over European and colonial issues in the decade before 1914 that had left tensions high. In turn these diplomatic clashes can be traced to changes in the balance of power in Europe since 1867. The more immediate cause for the war was tensions over territory in the Balkans. Austria-Hungary competed with Serbia and Russia for territory and influence in the region and they pulled the rest of the Great Powers into the conflict through their various alliances and treaties. The topic of the causes of World War I is one of the most studied in all of world history. Scholars have differed significantly in their interpretations of the event. From the time of the Balkan Wars, which had increased the size of Serbia, it had been the opinion of leading Austrian officials (most notably the Foreign Minister, Count Leopold von Berchtold and his assistant, Rory von Kimber) that Austria would have to wage a "preventive war" to greatly weaken or destroy Serbia as a state in order to maintain the dual monarchy which held extensive Serbpopulated Balkan territories. Between January 1913 and January 1914, Chief of the General Staff Count Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf advocated a preventive war against Serbia twenty-four times.
The alliance situation in central Europe in 1914 Serbia expanded its territory at the expense of the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria under the terms of the Treaty of Bucharest. Regarding the expansion of Serbia as an unacceptable increase in the power of an unfriendly state and in order to weaken Serbia, the Austrian government threatened war in the autumn of 1912 if Serbs were to acquire a port from the Turks. Austria appealed for German support, only to be rebuffed at first. In November 1912 Russia, humiliated by its inability to support Serbia during the Bosnian crisis of 1908 or the First Balkan War, announced a major reconstruction of its military. On November 28, in partial reaction to the Russian move, German Foreign Secretary Gottlieb von Jagow told the Reichstag, the German parliament, that “If Austria is forced, for whatever reason, to fight for its position as a Great Power, then we must stand by her”. As a result, British Foreign Secretary Sir Edward Grey responded by warning Prince Karl Lichnowsky, the German Ambassador in London, that if Germany offered Austria a “blank cheque” for war in the Balkans, then “the consequences of such a policy would be incalculable”. To reinforce this point, R. B. Haldane, the Germanophile Lord Chancellor, met with Prince Lichnowsky to offer an explicit warning that if
asked for a “postponement of the great fight for one and a half years” because the Navy was not ready for a general war that included Britain as an opponent.” and that would be better than going to war after Russia completed the massive modernization and expansion of their army that they had just begun. were not invited. too. Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz . the leadership of the German Army began clamoring even more strongly for a “preventive war” against Russia. Moltke “wanted to launch an immediate attack”.Germany were to upset the balance of power in Europe by trying to destroy either France or Russia as powers.” but agreed that Haldane’s statement was a “desirable clarification” of British policy. Both Wilhelm II and the Army leadership agreed that if a war were necessary it were best launched soon.” Certainly the only decision taken was to do nothing.the Army’s Chief of Staff. Admiral Tirpitz. The result amounted to nothing. Admiral Georg Alexander von Müller. Historians more sympathetic to the Entente. meant Germany would bankrupt herself in an arms race. the Chief of the German Imperial Military Cabinet. He insisted that the completion of the construction of the U-boat base at Heligoland and the widening of the Kiel Canal were the Navy’s prerequisites for war. The presence of the leaders of both the German Army and Navy at this War Council attests to its importance. which were that if there was going to be a war. which gave the Reich government little power to tax. sometimes rather ambitiously interpret these words of Admiral Müller (an advocate of launching a war soon) as saying that "nothing" was decided for 1912-13. or at least their thoughts. which she herself had begun in 1911. Though Moltke objected to the postponement of the war as unacceptable. Moltke agreed. the German Army wanted it before the new Russian armaments program began to bear fruit. namely the summer of 1914. however. because the financial structure of the German state. and if “Russia supports the Serbs. Moltke from late 1912 onwards was the leading advocate for a general war.” Historians more sympathetic to the government of Wilhelm II often reject the importance of this War Council as only showing the thinking and recommendations of those present.it did nonetheless offer a clear view of their intentions. Attending the conference were Wilhelm II. General von Moltke . the date for completion of the widening of the Kiel Canal was the summer of 1914. but that war was decided on for the summer of 1914. an informal meeting of some of Germany's top military leadership called on short notice by the Kaiser. Britain and Russia. with no decisions taken. Röhl is on safer ground when he argues that even if this War Council did not reach a binding decision which it clearly did not . They often cite the passage from Admiral Müller’s diary. Entente sympathetic historians such as Röhl see this conference in which "The result amounted to nothing” as setting a clear deadline when a war was to begin. Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg and General Josias von Heeringen.the Naval State Secretary. the Chief of the German Imperial Naval Cabinet (Marinekabinett). As such. Moltke declared that Germany could not win the arms race with France. As the British historian John Röhl has commented. However. the possibility of war was a prime topic at the German Imperial War Council of 8 December 1912 in Berlin. Wilhelm II called British balance of power principles “idiocy. which she evidently does…then war would be unavoidable for us.
. In his professional military opinion “a war is unavoidable and the sooner the better”. With the November 1912 announcement of the Russian Great Military Programme. and the sooner the better. Moltke “agreed to a postponement only reluctantly. Wilhelm sided with Tirpitz. which states: “That was the end of the conference. such as British historian John Röhl. the Prussian Minister of War. His opinion was that Austria should attack Serbia that December. Admiral August von Heeringen the Chief of the Naval General Staff and (probably) General Moriz von Lyncker. Britain would have no other choice but to fight the Reich. With the recently announced Russian military reconstruction and certain British communications.
though he often talked tough in public.” The new French President Raymond Poincaré. Since Russia also favoured peace in the Balkans. and even a successful war might alienate the population if it were lengthy or difficult. on July 29. needed peace. The prospects of the future oppressed him heavily." Prime Minister and then President Poincaré was a strong hawk. but the leadership of the Reich lacked such interests. In 1920 at the University of Paris. the opportunity was available. Gottlieb von Jagow. Moltke engaged in an “almost ultimative” demand for a German “preventive war” against Russia in 1914. Had the Reich been interested in improved relations with France before August 1914. Serbian politics were polarized between two factions. Fritz Fischer famously argued that they deliberately sought an external war to distract the population and whip up patriotic support for the government. Poincaré was more interested in the idea of French expansion in the Middle East than a war of revenge to regain Alsace-Lorraine. having suffered heavy casualties in the Balkan Wars and in the suppression of a December 1913 Albanian revolt in Kosovo. The Chief of the General Staff therefore proposed that I should conduct a policy with the aim of provoking a war in the near future. thinking back to his own student days. knew that Serbia was near-bankrupt and. He is reported to have replied: "It would be a great pity. one headed by the Prime Minister Nikola Pašić.
French domestic politics
The situation in France was quite different from that in Germany but yielded the same results."
. who took office in 1913. and the other by the radical nationalist chief of Military Intelligence. President Poincaré was asked if war could be avoided. except the hope of recovering our lost provinces (Alsace-Lorraine." A "good old war" was seen by both sides (with the exception of Jean Jaurès) as a way to solve this crisis thanks to a nationalistic reflex. was favourable to improving relations with Germany. In his opinion there was no alternative to making preventive war in order to defeat the enemy while we still had a chance of victory. reported on a discussion with Moltke at the end of May 1914: “Moltke described to me his opinion of our military situation. It was in the midst of this political crisis that politically powerful members of the Serbian military armed and trained three Bosnian students as assassins and sent them into Austria-Hungary. German government at the time was still dominated by the Prussian Junkers who feared the rise of these left wing parties. More than a century after the French Revolution.
German domestic politics
Left wing parties. For example. King Peter dismissed Pašić’s government. after he had returned from the summit in St. In January 1914 Poincaré became the first French President to dine at the German Embassy in Paris. Colonel Dragutin Dimitrijević. The military superiority of our enemies would then be so great that he did not know how he could overcome them. Poincaré was born in Lorraine). We should never again find conditions better. In 1913 Poincaré predicted war for 1914. The German Foreign Secretary. Other authors argue that German conservatives were ambivalent about a war. from the Russian viewpoint it was desirable to keep Pašić in power. Petersburg. Russia was in the midst of a large scale military build-up and reform which was to be completed in 1916-17. by 1913 French leaders had largely accepted that France by itself could never defeat Germany. including monarchists and "Bonapartists. Pašić. due to Colonel Dimitrigjevic’s intrigues. worrying that losing a war would have disastrous consequences. especially the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) made large gains in the 1912 German election. In that month. and preferred a policy of war to destroy France. Today we would still be a match for them. there was still a fierce struggle between the left-wing French government and its right-wing opponents. known by his codename Apis. Because of France’s smaller economy and population.Throughout May and June 1914. The Russian Minister in Belgrade intervened to have Pašić’s government restored. In two or three years Russia would have completed her armaments. In May 1914. Poincaré remarked "I have not been able to see any reason for my generation living.
Austria-Hungary. or annexation crisis. an economic conflict. The Serbian parliament elected Peter Karađorđević as the new king of Serbia. a group of Serbian officers assassinated unpopular King Alexander I of Serbia. annexed the provinces on October 6. desirous of solidifying its position in Bosnia-Herzegovina. However. Bismarck was wary of this during his later years and tried to placate the French by encouraging their overseas expansion. The annexation caused widespread resentment in France. The crisis continued until April 1909. and particularly the already established European powers. This conflict brought the establishment of a powerful and dynamic Germany.
Austrian-Serbian tensions and Bosnian Annexation Crisis
On night between June 10/11 1903. A Franco–German colonial entente that was made in 1884 in protest of an Anglo–Portuguese agreement in West Africa proved short-lived after a pro-imperialist government under Jules Ferry in France fell in 1885. particularly the Anglo-German naval arms race. Serbian desire to relieve itself of Austrian influence provoked the Pig War. its economic strengths and its ambitions sparked colonial and military rivalries with other nations. Dynastic change for consequence had rallying Serbian on Russia and France rather than on AustriaHungary as it was case during rule of Obrenović dynasty. and the displacement of France as the pre-eminent continental military power. French defeat in the war had sparked political instability. The annexation set off a wave of protests and diplomatic maneuvers that became known as the Bosnian crisis. anti-German sentiment remained. French sentiments wanted to avenge military and territorial losses.Changes in Austria
Ethno-linguistic map of Austria–Hungary in 1910
Franco–Prussian War (1870–1871)
Many of the direct origins of World War I can be seen in the results and consequences of the FrancoPrussian War. its natural resources. when the annexation received grudging international approval through amendment of the Treaty of
. Germany’s nationalism. giving rise to the desire for revenge. A legacy of animosity grew between France and Germany following the German annexation of parts of the formerly French territory of Alsace-Lorraine. causing what was seen as a displacement or unbalancing of power: this new and prosperous nation had the industrial and military potential to threaten Europe. from which Serbia eventually came out as the victor. known as revanchism. 1908. culminating in a revolution and the formation of the French Third Republic.
1908. On October 5. German opposition to the conference and complex diplomatic maneuvering scuttled the conference. Austria-Hungary began releasing secret documents in which Russia. The Balkan Wars strained the German/Austro-Hungarian alliance. On February 20. Italy proposed that the conference be held in Italy.Berlin. An international conference was held in London in 1912-1913 where it was agreed to create an independent Albania. The Treaty of Berlin then was amended by correspondence between capitals from April 7 to April 19. In October 1913. France fell in line behind Britain. were permanently damaged. and Russia failed to pressure it to back down.2 million from Austria-Hungary. since 1878. However. unable to obtain Britain's assent to Russia's Straits proposal. and so a conference should be held. During the crisis. that Germany and Italy be notified that there would be some action and asked for support. and Russia and Serbia. While Izvolsky moved slowly from capital to capital vacationing and seeking international support for opening the Straits. and that spies
. Russia agreed to the annexation. The attitude of the German government to Austrian requests of support against Serbia was initially both divided and inconsistent. The Serbian government having failed to get Albania now demanded that the other spoils of the First Balkan War be reapportioned. relations between Austria-Hungary. to reflect the annexation. Under these pressures. Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia-Herzegovina. it was decided by the council of ministers that Serbia be sent a warning followed by an ultimatum. on the one hand. On October 7. Bulgaria declared its independence from the Ottoman Empire. 1909. which Austria-Hungary occupied and administered since 1878 under a mandate from the Treaty of Berlin. After an exchange of letters outlining a possible deal.
The Balkan Wars (1912–1913)
The Balkan Wars in 1912-1913 led to increased international tension between Russia and Austria as well as a strengthening of Serbia and a weakening of Turkey and Bulgaria which might otherwise have kept Serbia in check thus disrupting the balance of power in Europe in favor of Russia. At Buchlau the two agreed that Austria-Hungary could annex the Ottoman provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Germany stated it would only continue its active involvement in negotiations if Russia accepted the annexation. however both Serbia and Montenegro refused to comply. 1909. acquiesced to the annexation and received ₤2. which responded with a preemptive strike against their forces beginning the Second Balkan War. Bulgaria and Austria-Hungary moved swiftly. on the other. Russia initially agreed to avoid territorial changes. and then an international naval demonstration in early 1912 and Russia's withdrawal of support Serbia backed down. and persuaded Serbia to do the same. Russia. In return. not a bilateral issue. The next day. joined Serbia in assuming an attitude of protest. The Bulgarian army however crumbled quickly when Turkey and Romania joined the war. Montenegro was not as compliant and on May 2. the Ottoman Empire. After an Austrian. after the German Imperial War Council of 8 December 1912. Britain lodged a milder protest. Russian Foreign Minister Alexander Izvolsky and Austro-Hungarian Foreign Minister Alois Aehrenthal met privately at Buchlau Castle in Moravia on September 16. had repeatedly stated that Austria-Hungary had a free hand in Bosnia-Herzegovina and the Sanjak of Novibazar. Serbia and Greece allied against Bulgaria. it was learned that Serbia was moving into Albania and Russia was doing nothing to restrain it while the Serbian government would not guarantee to respect Albania's territorial integrity and suggested there would be some frontier modifications. Austria-Hungary announced its withdrawal from the Sanjak of Novi Pazar. Austria-Hungary would withdraw its troops from the Ottoman Sanjak of Novibazar and support Russia in its efforts to amend the Treaty of Berlin to allow Russian war ships to navigate the Straits of Constantinople during times of war. taking the position that annexation was a matter concerning Europe. the Austrian council of ministers met and decided to give Montenegro a last chance to comply and if it would not then to resort to military action. At the same time. In September 1913. The two jointly agreed not to oppose Bulgarian independence. but later in 1912 supported Serbia's demand for an Albanian port. it was clear that Germany was not ready to support Austria-Hungary in a war against Serbia and her likely allies. however seeing the Austrian military preparations the Montenegrins requested the ultimatum be delayed and complied.
Austria-Hungary then declared war and mobilized the portion of its army that would face the (already mobilized) Serbian Army on 28 July 1914.be sent to ascertain if there was an actual withdrawal. Serbian reservists being transported on tramp steamers on the Danube crossed onto the Austro-Hungarian side of the river at Temes-Kubin and Austro-Hungarian soldiers fired into the air to warn them off. Within two days of the assassination. were shot dead in Sarajevo. The report of this incident was initially sketchy and reported to Emperor FranzJoseph as “a considerable skirmish”. removing the people behind this propaganda from the Serbian Military. Soon all the Great Powers except Italy had chosen sides and gone to war. Serbia responded to the warning with defiance and the Ultimatum was dispatched on October 17 and received the following day demanding that Serbia evacuate Albanian territory within eight days.
On 28 June 1914. i. Russia's mobilization set-off full Austro-Hungarian and German mobilizations. The next day. and there was initially much sympathy for the Austrian position. The letter contained specific demands aimed at preventing the publication of propaganda advocating the violent destruction of Austria-Hungary. Anglo-American historians argued that Germany was solely responsible for the start of the war.e.. Austria-Hungary responded by breaking diplomatic relations. The political objective of the assassination was to break off Austria-Hungary's south-Slav provinces so they could be combined into a Greater Serbia or a Yugoslavia. one of a group of six Bosnian Serb assassins coordinated by Danilo Ilić. Duchess of Hohenberg.
. Austria-Hungary issued a formal letter to the government of Serbia. However.
The murder of the heir to the Austro-Hungarian Empire and his wife produced widespread shock across Europe. Under the Secret Treaty of 1892 Russia and France were obliged to mobilize their armies if any of the Triple Alliance mobilized. by Gavrilo Princip. and to maintain good neighborly relations with Austria-Hungary. The letter reminded Serbia of its commitment to respect the Great Powers' decision regarding Bosnia-Herzegovina. Since 1960. “The Berlin War Party. heir apparent to the Austro-Hungarian throne. After receiving a telegram of support from Russia. Austria-Hungary and Germany advised Serbia that it should open an investigation. Serbia complied. This letter is known as the July Ultimatum. During the period immediately following the end of hostilities. The assassins' motives were consistent with the movement that later became known as Young Bosnia. Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria. and the Kaiser made a congratulatory visit to Vienna to try to fix some of the damage done earlier in the year. Serbia mobilized its army and responded to the letter by completely accepting point #8 demanding an end to the smuggling of weapons and punishment of the frontier officers who had assisted the assassins and completely accepting point #10 which demanded Serbia report the execution of the required measures as they were completed. academic work in the English-speaking world in the later 1920s and 1930s blamed participants more equally.” although some historians have argued for shared guilt or pointed to the Entente. and his wife. and Austria-Hungary stated that if Serbia did not accept all of the demands in total within 48 hours. it would recall its ambassador from Serbia. arresting the people on Serbian soil who were involved in the assassination plot and preventing the clandestine shipment of arms and explosives from Serbia to Austria-Hungary. Serbian military officers stood behind the attack. Sophie. the tendency has been to reassert the guilt of Germany.