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C. C.





Quum prorepserunt primis animalia tern's, Mutum et turpe pecus, glandem atque cubilia


Unguibus et pugnis, dein fastibus atque ita porro Pugnabant armis quae post fabricaverat usus."
Horace, Sat
I. ih.




[Reprinted from Stereotype plates.]







. . .



Arms Arms

in chipped flint of polished flint

. .


Indian arms in bronze and iron American arms

Assyrian arms,


85 88 92

. Egyptian arms Greek and Etruscan arms . Roman, Samnite, and Dacian arms



. .





.101 .106 .117


Germanic arms in bronze Kei to-Gallic, Gallic, and Lower-Britannic arms British arms in bronze Scandinavian arms in bronze . Bronze arms of various countries





133 136







.139 .141


Germanic arms of the iron age Scandinavian arms of the iron age Arms of the iron age of various nations

. . .


.158 .159






Complete equipments of the Middle Ages . . Complete equipments of the Renaissance . Complete equipments of the seventeenth and eighteenth
. ,




197 218 222 239 287 309 328 331 337 342 349 355 361 366 369 400 414 420 422 424

Description of suits of armour, excepting the helmet


The helmet The shield
Coats and cuirasses

The arm-guard The gauntlet

Greaves and hose



Horse armour

....... ........

The saddle The stirrup

\Thebridle The sword
The dagger, poniard, etc The lance, pike, and stake The mace The morgenstern or morning- star The flail The war-scythe The scythe-knife The gisarme
Thevoulge The war-hammer


The war-hatchet



The ranseur The partizan The bayonet The spontoon The military fork Arms and utensils

428 430 433 435 438 443 445 446 448
452 454 455 466


war and chase




Machines of war and siege weapons The sling and the staff sling




. armourers Monograms and names Monograms. and name* of armourers . initials.. ADVICE AND RECEIPTS FOR COLLECTORS OF s . ARMS OF THE CHRISTIAN MIDDLE AGES.. . INITIALS. The blow-pipe Bows and arrows The cross-bow | . .. . Tho pistol Accessories for fire-arras 520 529 534 VIII.. arquebus... muskets. VI. . . . 468 468 473 VII..Contents. etc. Monograms and names of German armourers German armourers of later years of the eighteenth and ... Monograms and names of Italian armourers Monograms and names of Spanish and Portuguese . . ARMS . Monograms and unknown .. AND SIGNS OF THE FREE Jn><. . MONOGRAMS.. XI.. 540 beginning of the nineteenth centuries.537 IX. marks. of which is X.. celebrated for their fire- and air-guns . of French armourers .. AND NAMES OF ARMOURERS... FIRE-ARMS. THE ART OF THE ARMOURER AND ARQUEBUSIER. vii PACK ETC. 560 563 565 573 574 575 576 576 577 578 583 . Monograms and names of Swiss armourers Monograms and names of Flemish and Dutc armourers Monograms. THE AIR-GUN . CROSSES.. ARMS. li and towns found on Oriental arms . hackbuss. signatures the origin . and names of English armourers. initials. Heavy artillery The mortar The cannon Portable fire-arms 485 488 490 511 The hand cannon.. continued.


on the progressive march and the successive development of the arms of various nations in the past centuries. It would have been useless to describe the historical development of each kind of arm. so as to spare the reader the trouble of looking through the whole history every time that he is desirous of information on only one point. This chronological system is found to be the best for a book which is destined to be at the same time a guide to the people at large. and even the ordinary observer.juges). the historian. are to be seen as headings to the subdivisions. parts. among which the most important treat of the arms of .A HISTOEY OF ASMS AND ARMOUR INTRODUCTION. that can interest the archaeologist. more or less modified. as these will be found in the different special chapters where these arms are described in chronologic order. B . the soldier. has been condensed in the first chapter of this book in the " Abridged ALL History of Ancient Arms. and gives all the armourers' signs and marks which it has been possible to collect another chapter treats of the arms and alphabets which have been used in the tribunals of the free-judges The whole work is divided into six principal (francs. and a scientific encyclopaedia to collectors. the artist. In addition to this a special chapter describes the progressive march of the armourer's art." of which several extracts. for such repetitions as must inevitably result will contribute to facilitate study.

Notwithstanding the present decided taste for retrospective knowledge. Several of these collections of armour exhibit specimens. and on ancient monuments. as also some armour of the same date. work has as yet existed. which having rapidly become traditional have thus The faulty classiperpetuated lamentable historical errors. in 1476. and the most important collections of amateurs. sculptures. The gymnasium of Morat " taken exhibits war-harness of the seventeenth century. at first sight of a sword. on coins of the period. and mural paintings have actually transformed our galleries of painting and sculpture into public schools for instruction in anachro nisms. has thus been enabled to gather enough authentic materials to dispense with referring As to the kinds of arms which to any books of compilation. these have been studied in manuscripts. the shape of which declares immediately the end of the sixteenth and even the beginning of the seventeenth century. said to have been worn at the battle of Sempach. of the Kenaissance. as from the Burgundians killed in the battle. fication of a large number of museums and arsenals has particularly contributed to the diffusion of these popular errors. in miniatures. to nation and period to which its wearer belonged. as also to more important works. the alleged dates of which are centuries earlier than the true It is more particularly in the Swiss museums and ones. fix the The uncertainty on this head has given rise to many mistakes. where sculpture has preserved forms. a helmet. the exactitude of which can rarely be disputed. his military . which have by degrees crept into historical treatises . of the seventeenth and The author. the majority of guide-books. no complete.? 1 Introduction. number of swords ascribed to the time of Charles the Bold." where under the walls of the city the terrible duke lost. the middle ages. all the museums and arsenals of Europe. which has given birth to a perfect torrent of local and special treatises. on the subject of ancient armour. either in France or Nevertheless elsewhere. who has visited for years eighteenth centuries. there are few things more indispensable to an artist than the knowledge which enables him. There we find a large arsenals that these errors abound. a shield. no longer exist. or any other piece of armour.

suit of armour.Introduction. in 1487. All the personages of the celebrated group. are clad in armour of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. has sometimes erroneously attributed dates whose errors have to be measured by centuries. Meyrick. attributed Good (1419). still figure there as precious relics of the middle ages. after 3 all having lost at Granson his treasures. and also a French cuirassier's breastplate tion. a fact at which the merchant who sold them to the arsenal. honour. the lobster-tailed cuishes. and accompanied by a learned dissertaThis object. and the breastplate. the valiant chief of the fifteen hundred Bernese who defended Morat for ten days against the artillery of the archduke. John Hewett had showed . has been attributed to Adrian of Bubenberg. Dr. in which an unskilful armourer has awkwardly hammered out two receptacles for a female bust. and tive catalogue. all Another equally announce the seventeenth century. and is meant to represent the reconciliation of the confederates at the Diet of Stanz. by the intercession of the venerable Nicolaus Yon der Vlue. which is composed after a design of Disteli. of the First Empire. has been engraved in a Swiss publication. in spite of the round targets with which the knights in relief are armed. At the armoury of Madrid will be found such gross errors as the assigned dates differing by more than four and even five hundred years from tho real ones. In the arsenal of Soleure the blunders are still greater. whose burgonet. In the arsenal of Zurich fluted all the bossed breastplates of ! armour are rated as cuirasses for women. as though the female bosom occupied the lower portion of the chest In England even. JThe famous iron shield of modern fabrication. likewise in the dra wing-up the catalogue of his own celebrated collection. no doubt enjoys many a hearty to Philip the laugh in his sleeve. and these monstrous blunders are reprinted in preserved a Mr. who has long been considered profoundly learned on the subject of ancient armour. with its shade and ear-pieces. and who is still living at Soleure. the armoury of the Tower of London had large quantity of fantastic attributions until their faultiness in a descripIn the classification of this museum. a country famed for its archaeological researches.

published recently at Paris (headed. the halbard a partisan. where the small helmet figures under the name of morion. Schrenk. There may be seen in a small illustrated treatise.4 Introduction.. for which frequent. The collection of Ambras at Vienna. which are shown to " as Germans fighting against Romans . before M. 1868). Hachette. a collar of a buff coat. a description in Latin. but which belonged to ancient troopers of the seventeenth In the national museum of Brunswick there is a century. the texts which accompany published representations of the Even in learned Germany these errors are not less arms. the large bassineted helmet of the fourteenth century is called a "mezail. have been carried on into books. afterwards translated into German by Engelbertus Moyse van Campenhouten. which is attributed in the museum to the Roman King Eobert. exhibits at this moment a suit of armour of the end of the sixteenth century. The museum of Cassel also shows among ancient armour a morion and a small helmet. who died in 1410. as being exceedingly rusty. a suit of armour of the end of the reign of Henri IV. similar morion. de Hefner Alteneck had been named him it." great number of these mistakes made by French and Italian museums might be All these anachronisms quoted. and illustrated by numerous engravings. but we may as well refrain. has been labelled "twelfth century. each one more fantastic than another. labelled as armour of Charles the Bold. who died in 1610. of England. the long pistol of the seventeenth . par Lacombe." and similarly he may admire at the Dresden Museum a suit of armour and a helmet of the seventeenth century attributed to Edward IV. which are certainly much rusted. of the time of the Thirty Years' War. There was also to be seen at the national museum of Bavaria at Munich. had published. who had nevertheless ceased to reign in 1483." a word which signifies the defensive armour worn only over the eye and forehead. which. who died in 1477. In the armoury of the same city the observer may have the satisfaction of seeing a fight between lay figures attired in armour of the beginning of the seventeenth century. of Notzing. Arrnes et Armures. the " u francisque is called a defensive weapon.century a petronel. director of A . attached as a shoulder-piece to the much -valued doublet with cuishes and hose of the fourteenth century. in 1601.

The errors which are so frequent in the chronological classification. and whose stamp is not to be found in the works either of the ancients or of their imitators? Titles so often conjecturally.Introduction. genealogies and titles. and falsely. all these involuntary errors. &c. the band of compilers continue to manufacture books out of old books. or of any other artistic work. and whose existence must have equalled that of Methuselah in order to produce only the half of what is attributed to them. with evidence in their hands. too often extolled with an idolatrous faith. As in museums of keramic ware and mosaics. and to the crowd among whom these gigantic errors are When will the world begin to see circulated and preserved. which. shown by the archaeological imprint. being affirmed by tradition. so the museums of ancient . and those of France in collections of enamelling on metals and of sumptuous pieces of furniture. copying afresh that which has already been copied without examination. the productions of Italian art are generally most numerous. painting. that though archaeological investigators in vain turn over the dust of centuries and pass their lives in pointing out. and in the histories ascribed to armour. are extolled to the detriment of really great artists. tlie 5 gisarme a fauchard. discreditable barde. are even more numerous as regards their nationality and manufacture. writing about subjects with which they are acquainted only through books. It is a sad thing to say. these childish jugglings. have at last become gospel truths to the keepers. and in the style of its epoch. now faded away with Gothic art. Many armourers without merit. needs no other title than that which the critic finds in its execution. chasing. whose masterpieces figure under the name of some favourite workman. the spontoon of and partisan hal- " historical" curiosities has exhibiting to accept and even to construct for their objects. that n beautiful specimen of sculpture. ascribed serve but to throw discredit as much on the collector as on the keeper. and so going on from father to son. The desire tempted many museums to men whose real duty is to plant landmarks to histories based upon substantial evidences which happily are beyond the reach of mutilation.

and similarly the armour made by such men as Peter Pah. needed a fictitious reputation. is still counted as Spanish. patricians. had recognised at the Dresden Museum. incontestable proofs of German workmanship. nor brought to such a pitch of excellence. at Munich and Augsburg. by simple . for the most There is uo country where part." that the Editors of these treatises are but slightly acquainted with art criticisms and recent archaBolofor to them. Colombo. decorated with borrowed plumes. and Peter (Pedro). men as Antonio Picmino. Wultf. for when the author of this book. and breastplates are marked. with the art of so widely spread as in Germany. are armour German work. Kolmann. in several fine pieces of armour. Even in Germany the depreciation of national art has insinuated itself into public collections. and many other celebrated armourers. he met . not ten years ago. who. of these same cities. and at that time handled the sword as well as the clothyard. Mutto. and notwithstanding the design of the figures and ornaments which indicate a German school of art. have furnished during the middle ages and Renaissance a wide field for the artist to display great beauty in the gorgeous armour and arms of that period the precious work of which was often paid to him at its weight in gold. Andrea di Ferrara. Francino. like Fugger and others. were rich merchants. Badile. in the manufacture of plate armour. artists. the laminated joints of which covered even the legs Her numerous towns and princely of the war-horse. a magnificent undertaking. Notwithstanding the monograms with which the handsome arquebuses. as well as the greater part of the free cities. Lazarino Caminazzi. ascribed to Italian . Berselli. armoury was everywhere filled. still remain Italian. Benisolo. Giocatane. armours made for the kings gical discoveries of France. residences.6 Introduction. or the money bag. They persist in ignoring the fact that Seusenhofer of Innsbruck was charged with the forging of the armour of the sons of Francis the First. helmets. and required to be productions of Italian art. As if Italy. swords. the greater part of these arms continues to figure in catalogues and treatises as the country of such Ventura Cani. which nevertheless retains an Italian label. " of the It will be seen in the chapter which treats armourer's art.

Fire arms even more than side arms and plate armour their perfection to the German armourers. At present his statement is no longer contradicted. in the museum of Dresden. the iron ramrod (the trigger (Stecher in German) in 1543 use of which contributed to the Prussian victory at Mollwitz) in 1730. the reader should visit the Imperial Arsenal. in German) are of a massiveness that leaves far behind similar works of Spain and the hammered work is equal to that of Italy. which have been photographed and published by and the Ambras collection at Vienna. it will be seen (as also on the buckler of the Ambras collection. they are always graceful and . 7 with no reply but shrugs and incredulous smiles. which are preserved in the Cabinet of Engravings. is likewise German. Van Achen.. which gives us the at Munich. and The niello. the counterfeit of which is in France) that its execution has been scrupulously based upon these models. incrustation in gold and silver (Taucher-arbeiten. As to the forms of the armour. To have an idea of what the German armourers were able to do in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. by the that painters Schwarz. . the famed needle-gun. de Hefner Alteneck. notes of reference have been entirely dispensed with in the Historical Chapter. who discovered them in the cabinet of engravings It is particularly PL. or according to others. in 1500 the the arqucbuse in 1551 . who invented the air-gun in 1560 the rifled barrel (called in German Biichsenlauf) in 1440. noble. xvn. . As the archaeological and special character of the matter treated of in this book might easily lead to useless digressions and to the use of technicalities which are too often employed to hide the absence of real knowledge and well-digested study. is compared with the designs composed for the studios of Munich. in 1827.Introduction. at the Louvre. and lastly. most striking proof. who for one single suit The celeof armour was paid fourteen thousand dollars. When the armour of Henri II. and it is well known many of these pieces of armour are the work of the celebrated Kellermann of Augsburg. Brockbergen and Jean Milich. the double wheel-lock in 1515 owe . in this city. . and names which every one can . brated piece of armour ornamented with embossed (repousse) figures representing the labours of Hercules.

one of the finest in Europe. Spanish. so as to afford means of criticism. of several other Christian nations. Before beginning the work itself. Arabs and savage nations. which contains upwards of sixty thousand pieces. and Mons. is nevertheless the real founder of the present museum. understand. in the Library of Charts. and not for ordinary use. in 1502. Bell and Daldy. that Louis XII. had formed.. Hungarian and Bohemian. which I had seen in past days in Rome. a cabinet of arms at Amboise. does not appear to date earlier than the sixteenth or end of the fifteenth century. whether monuments.8 Introduction. Leroux de Lancy in 1848. Moors. so as to enable the reader to judge by their formation in what chronological order the taste for ancient armour has developed itself in Europe since the Renaissance. as the tions in English As soon Semann respectively. The celebrated museum of historical armour at Dresden. But what was most beautiful to behold were the . owes its origin to Henry the Pious. German and English. The first gathering together of arms and armour as a collection. translaand in German will be published in London and Leipsic by Messrs. or armour. and in arms. manuscripts. in and his arms were of all sorts. French edition leaves the press. Italian. who died in 1558. It will be seen by the catalogue published by M. for he had a large hall and two rooms. E. as well as of information for this special study. and also armour belonging to Turks. and briefly. . German. exactly quoting the sources. A. and of all countries. but few of the pieces of armour and arms date farther back than the end of the fifteenth century. from which he has derived his knowledge. who was a collector of armour during thirtythree years (from 1553 to 1586). as his palace in the Borgo much for horse as for foot-soldiers. French. it will be useful to pass in review the more important collections of armour. The Marshal Strozzi. left a cabinet of armour of which Brantome speaks very fully : u If the Marshal Strozzi was tasteful in fine books he was equally so in armour. and is especially rich in swords. printed in French. are employed for the designation of the objects spoken of in the The author nevertheless could not refrain from work. Augustus I.

marine horses. I may possibly have been too long and tedious in speaking of this cabinet of arms. bridges. Among the other rare things which I noticed was a shield made from the entire shell of a turtle. Strozzi. and also saw that they were not kept so carefully as they had been at Rome. the whole. whither the last M. in short. for they were very valuable." The fine Ambras collection. and use it at . it is a very great pity. where the prince had collected a hundred and fifty complete suits of armour. in his castle of Ambras. for he would take a hundred crowns for a thing which was worth more than a thousand. and a large number of offensive and defensive arms. longest. and a king could not have done better than buy them. of machines. near the town of Innsbruck. had transferred them. his son. of the old Roman soldiers and All this was so beautiful that one knew not legionaries. of which the greater number are now in the Armoury at Vienna. was commenced in 1570. and war harness. so large that it would have covered the tallest man from head to foot. which to admire most. now in Vienna at the Belvedere. but certainly had I wished to amuse myself in telling over its curiosities. Count of Tyrol (son of the Emperor Ferdinand I. of . the whole formed and imitated in wood so cleverly and truly. I have since seen all these cabinets at Lyons. I noticed that they were confused and spoiled. the handsomest. by the Archduke Ferdinand. 9 arms in antique fashion. the armour itself. all would have taken pleasure in reading them. that any one had only to take the pattern in full size. or the curiosity And to complete of the person who had placed it there. and husband of the beautiful Philippine Welser of Augsburg).. it was but slightly heavy. more than nine hundred historical portraits. There were also the tails of two . and only a small part still remains at Ambras. need. of all artifices and instruments inventions for offensive and defensive warfare. at which I mourned in my heart . and so hard that an arquebuse would have pierced it with difficulty from a distance. and yet withal. thickest and whitest that I have ever seen. composed only of choice pieces. there was a separate chamber filled with all sorts and ingenious of engines of war. but M. fortifications. A cabinet of curiosities and art-objects. Strozzi disordered and sold everything this I therefore represented to him one clay.Introduction. ladders.

Vienna also possesses the celebrated collection of the emperor at the Arsenal of The Artillery. which dates from the end of the fifteenth century. a slight work. which has nevertheless been translated into German by Engelbertus Moyse de Compenhouten. and contains one of the richest collections of armour in Europe. The main body of this collection.10 small artistic merit. le Baron de Sacken has published another work. in which the best pieces of the collection have been reproduced by means of photography. and a large quantity of cut-and-thrust weapons. M. derived from the private cabinets belonging to the emperors of Austria. yet has forty large shields or Setz" schilde of the end of the fifteenth century. was erected about 1732. which had lost only ten handsome suits of armour. and who is engaged on a publication (Waffensammlung dcs osterreichischen Kaiserhauses im Artillerie Arsenal Vienna. Placed in a building which is one of the most successful and beautiful of our time (the work of the Counsellor Hansen). Introduction. . among which may still be seen the three celebrated volumes of water-colour drawings. which few cities could equal. . and that of the "Arsenal of the City. . who has classified it perfectly. by Jacob Schrenk of Notzing. five hundred medals and coins. 1868) intended to furnish reproductions of the most remarkable pieces of armour in the museum. carried off by the French army. by Glockenthon. containing the exact fac-similes of the arms and armour of the three arsenals of the Emperor Maximilian all these at that time formed a whole. this collection contains more than seven hundred specimens it is at present under the superintendence of Captain Querin Leitner. which will contribute to diffuse a taste for ancient armour. in 1862. The arsenal of the city of Vienna. though worse than insignificant. it is a collection of two thousand and several thousand engravings a library of four thousand printed volumes and five hundred manuscripts. was transferred to Vienna in 1806. and whose construction. executed true . The first work containing representations and descriptions of these treasures was published in the seventeenth century in Latin. contains " but little good armour." Arsenal of Imperial Artillery at Vienna is an immense pile of buildings close to the terminus of the Southern railway. .

the real nucleus of the collection was commenced at Greenwich. Paul Hentzner. comprises more than five thousand eight hundred objects. beginning from the comto our own times. are shockingly bedaubed with black p. is not rich in either ancient armour or arms. an archaeologist. and is principally composed of guns. London we must also mention the celebrated Llewellyn Meyrick collection at Goodrich Court. in Herefordshire. augmented by different purchases. in 1598. and of trophies taken in the wars which Prussia has sustained it is placed in the building to which the masks of Schluter have given an European celebrity. There is no keeper. and twentyfive for that of iron. In 1630. has been able to publish an official catalogue of the arsenal. a hundred and twenty for the age of bronze. towards the end of the seventeenth century. was formed. divided into twenty classes.Introduction. where there is a complete absence of classification. nevertheless Mr. both with flint-locks and with pistons. as . and with what remained from the pillages of the civil wars. . one of the most perfect in Europe. The fire of 1841 deprived them only of a few cannons. John Hewett. of the fine armours of the Tower of London. which contains a small quantity of armour belonging to the Electors. number about five thousand seven hundred. which were completely destroyed. and a large number of objects ridiculously misnamed. the actual gallery. in the Monbijou Palace. a certain amount of historical armour and arms. The arsenal of Berlin. though at that time they were rather an arsenal than a gallery. the cruel monster to whom the sultan sent the bowstring. in which thirteen objects represent ancient armour.dnt. There is also at Berlin. therefore. after his defeat beneath the walls of Vienna. a German traveller. The whole collection. and in an order of 1578. also speaks. The mencement of the middle ages down arms. Meyrick afterwards Since 1820. forty stand for the stone age. whose classification Dr. the oriental division of which is remarkably well In addition to the collection of the Tower of represented. 11 There may also be seen the head of the Grand Vizir Mustafa. The first mention of a collection of armour in the Tower of London is to be found in an inventory of 1547. in 1(384. the collection has been directed. The best suits of armour of this museum.

cannon. In 1852. this museum was rearranged in the convent of the Dominican Jacobins of St. In 1795. Penguilly 1'Haridon. and in 1804. and the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Thomas Aquinas in 1799 it was enriched by the celebrated collection of the arsenal of Strasbourg. six hundred and twenty fire-arms. by the Count Francis. but lost only a few of its treasures. and divers other objects. M. classic. the greater part of which were brought back after the days of July. and iron ages. which is due to the knowledge of the keeper'. a hundred and fifty for those of the bronze age and for ancient armour. . . The commencement of the Museum of Artillery at Paris collection of armour and machinery had dates from 1788. been commenced. The museum contains four hundred and sixty offensive and defensive weapons.12 Introduction. comprising in all five thousand and two hundred numbers catalogued with much care. There are fifty objects for leaves but little to be desired. Another old and important collection of weapons and armour belongs to the Counts of Erbach. an enthusiastic collector. three thousand for oriental and modern weapons. which was pillaged on the 14th of July. conspicuous among which are those made by Napoleon III. and the Baron des Mazis. well as tlie handsome collection of Prince Charles of Prussia. a thing of worth which unfortunately lacks space enough to be properly exhibited and classed chronologically. the weapons of the flint age. by the gallery which the Dukes of The museum was Bouillon had already formed at Sedan. bronze. It was begun at the in Hesse-Darmstadt. near Oppenheim. nineteen hundred and seventy for the armour and weapons of the middle ages. ]789. At present it is the richest and one of the best organised of collections for its excellent classification. again pillaged in 1830. Since then many gifts A . end of the eighteenth and beginning of the nineteenth century. twenty of the richest and most curious objects were transferred from the Museum of Artillery to be placed in that of the Sovereigns at the Louvre. which presented to the Museum of Artillery the valuable arms belonging to the library of the Eue de Richelieu. thirty for the iron age. machines. a loss which was in part repaired by an imperial decree. at Erbach Castle. the Renaissance. have been made to this beautiful collection. and a few hundred weapons of the flint.

which will in themselves repay a journey to Sigmaringen.H. three stories high. . like those of Munich and Turin. in which we recognise the habitual exactness of this careful describer. Eefner-Alteneck has also published a work on these museums. natural history and natural philosophy. occupies fifty-nine halls of a vast building. Keltic. which contains fifteen hundred and fifty-four specimens of ancient and modern weapons. M. and with publishing fac-similes of the most remarkable The collection of weapons objects by means of photography. both rare and artistic. among which are some exceedingly valuable in an historic and artistic point of view. and which have also been largely augmented by the recent purchase of the collection of the Baron of Mayenfisch. The national museum of Bavaria. with two exceptions. at this time one of the richest in art-objects of the Gothic and Kenaissance styles. lished in 1840 the catalogue. and to the solid knowledge of the director. founder. among which are a great number of defensive arms. the Prince of Hohenzollern has brought together in his residence. in different series. The building. and armour numbers more than three thousand pieces. Lehner is keeper and librarian. de Hefner. will be found an especial chapter. grandson drawn up the catalogue. in the reign of King Maximilian II.Alteneck. a modern creation. has himself 13 of the The Count Eberhard. a place where the traveller may find museums of every kind. The Armeria at Turin was founded by the King Charles The Count Vittorio Seyssel of Aix pubAlbert. in 1833. superintendent of fine arts to the prince. are a work of art. is designed by Kriiger of Diisseldorf. The Counsellor Dr. It is to the energetic activity of the late Baron Aretin." by the present writer. &c. for the first gathering together of art objects dates no farther back than the year 1842. It originated in 1853. which gives summarily a description of the numerous collections which H. The fresco paintings. which the prince has had erected in the Anglo-Gothic style. The museum of Sigmaringen is. and is graceful in form and worthy of its contents.R. and has been entrusted with the chronological arrangement of the catalogue. by Professor Miiller of Diisseldorf.Introduction. German. In the " Artistic Guide for Germany. M.

The King of Sweden. both for the horse and rider. and four machines for ancient warfare. Happily the new director is engaged in rendering the classification more available for study by a The large number and. and the classification of the contents faulty. only from 1866. grouped together in their different epochs. among which will be found a great many oriental weapons. the historic and artistic value of the objects exhibited. M. Kaspar Braun. chronologic and generic catalogue. and which is placed in the castle of Pierrefonds. composed for the most part of the Soldinska collection from Nuremberg. All is arranged there in chronological order so as to show the armour worn by the lower orders. in 1866. We also find at Munich a collection of ancient arms. two Greek authors. The arsenal of the city of Munich. that Germany owes the rapid collection of so many treasures. and intended to shoot arrows. It comprises more than a thousand specimens. dating as far back as the fourBut the organisation of this collection dates teenth century. at Paris. 0. The construction of the build- ding is defective in all respects. is already one of the richest in the empire. commenced only a few years back. in the arsenal of the city these are objects which have belonged to the different corporations. most part... of which the two balistae. A series of fac-similes of this beautiful collection has been published by Lahure. Charles XV. erroneously called catapults. of which the keeper. the last of which cornes down to the end of the Thirty Years' War. it contains five hundred and twenty -five ancient weapons and suits of armour. Penguilly 1'Haridon. has also commenced a cabinet of ancient armour. place the National Museum of Bavaria among the first of these instructive establishments. especially so in fine German tilting armour of the best periods. are constructed after the designs of Hiero and Philo. According to the catalogue published by M. for the .14 Introduction. and a large number of western arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. contains in all about fourteen hundred ancient weapons and pieces of armour. brought thence about 1856. among which may be counted more than a thousand weapons and pieces of ancient armour. contemporaneous with the successors ot . has published. The cabinet of armour of the Emperor Napoleon III. a descriptive catalogue.

1 5 Alexander and Vitruvius. Zurich. Some photographic representations. and Christy's Ethnographic collection at London. of which M. is that of the Senator Count of Nieuwerkerke. been taken. also constructed after These four machines of warfare have the designs of Hiero.Introduction. but are not sold to the public. Saint Germain. of which a portion is modern. which possess what can be called a collection of ancient weapons Morat. le Bel (1285 to 1314).. All travellers know the museums of armour at Madrid. We may also point out in France the museum of Chartres. Another fine collection of armour and weapons but recently begun. private collections are rare. entirely formed of choice pieces. Holland does not possess a museum of ancient arms. nor has she any in her arsenals. and of Tzarskoe-Selo at St. to many different periods. maining of their armour or weapons of offence. . in 1867. by Chevalier. have been published by Claye. are those which offer the greatest amount of resources. where the bassinet alone indicates the date. Germain. As for the arsenals of the Swiss Cantons. of primitive and ancient times. placed This in the apartments which he occupies at the Louvre. and the other chief towns of the Cantons have hardly anything re. nor of those of Venice and Malta. some years since. there are but those of Geneva. cabinet. which possesses a good collection of ancient weapons among other things the war-harness attributed to Philip IV. which. contains more than three hundred and thirty specimens. but no one has given any information regarding these museums. though they date back as far as the earliest wars. Basle. Lucerne. for the coat of mail. belongs . we know of none but that of the Baron de Bogaert van . contain few things anterior to the end of the fifteenth century. The other two are catapults of the kind called palintones. to the Museum of St. the museums of Mayence. de Beaumont is forming a catalogue. Petersburg reproductions of the most remarkable objects have been published in photographs and lithographs. to be illustrated with copperplate engravings. Copenhagen. Schwerin. and Berne. and Liesthal are less richly gifted. Soleure. which last are supposed to have lived in the reign of Augustus. Sigmaringen. For the study of weapons in flint and bronze.

which now belongs to the Archaeological Society of Amsterdam. and if we count the galleries in process of formation. in his country-house near Bois-le-Duc.] C) Introduction. we must admit that the taste for armour nearly equals that which has been so universally nhown for keramic ware. The collection of ancient arms at Brussels is somewhat " Porte de extensive. most of which are mentioned along with the engravings from them in the body of this work. . a painter. and is placed in the museum of the Hall. there are still a large number of important collections." Besides the first-class museums which we have here cited. Heeswyk. Kruseman. and that of the late M.

Of the earliest known civilisations those of India and America the latter. since he is always followed by the pioneers of intellectual and mechanical culture. in modern times. all countries. and dread of the reign of brute force. must have been IN among civilised nations. though lost and almost ignored. originally invented for destructive purposes. the most ambitious of conquerors contributes to civilisation. left the most ancient trace of a defensive weapon. man. has lessened the stoppages and smoothed the road of progress by supplying . the improvement of weapons can have nothing injurious to the march of society. the question of weapons has been forced to invent methods of repelling the attacks of those creatures who were with him joint proprietors of the soil. in all probability. yet by shortening renders it eventually less fatal to mankind. the chances of unjust war. weapons. and to whom Nature. strength to disciplined minorities arrayed against barbarous masses. diminish. has progressive . Even among the most backward in civilisation. though making warfare more deadly at a given time. From the beginning.I. . exposed on the earth without means of defence. which. Mind has found means of resisting and subduing brute force. no matter in what branch. and finally secured the triumph of reason for. have become the most powerful means of civilisation the improvement of these deadly instruments has constantly supplied deficiency of numbers. Hence. since all progress is mutually advantageous and as soon as intellectual culture gains ground. perfected o . ABRIDGED HISTORY OF ANCIENT ARMS. Gunpowder has. If we deplore warfare. we must not regret the ever increasing perfection of weapons. and as much among primitive tribes as one of great importance. opened the road to printing. in depriving them of reason. had given us compensation natural weapons.

the end of ancient times and the beginning of the middle ages and. that is to say. has nothing in Nature exactly corresponding to it is a composition formed by man. copper and tin. lead. and others. messing. and of the transitions and combinations which are to be seen in the forms of these products. it is all and made . nations weapons. . tin. The use of the words. they should be divided into four distinct heads weapons of pre-historic times.Abridged History in relief. turies. the Renaissance. in the British Museum. " an age of bronze." does not infer that iron was unknown at this period it indicates only that the use of this metal was not widely spread. lastly. in the ruins of the city Culhuacan. ." it brass). and the circumference of which measures over eighteen its form. which is a mixture of metals (called erroneously in Grimm's dictionary t. &c. which includes the Merovingian times and the reigns of a few of the Carlovingian kings. Germans. of the age of : rough.. chipped. and polished weapons of the age of bronze a category in which are comprehended the manufactures of the ancients as well as those of the Scandinavians. where iron is often spoken of. even edged ones. To obtain an exact account of the progressive march in the construction of weapons among different nations. all tools. were among most of bronze. Ingots of iron. sometimes copper. Gauls. and that nearly . This is miles. and which varies according to the country and the time sometimes. wedge or pickshaped. spis-glas. whose date may possibly reach back three thousand five hundred years. and a few other objects in forged iron preserved in the Assyrian museum at the Louvre. in the helmet worn by a figure on a basPalanque. . on the contrary. the weapons of the middle ages. and the seventeenth and eighteenth censtone. ." show that the Greeks were likewise acquainted with it. and also a fragment of an Assyrian coat of mail in steel. are proofs that in the tenth century before Christ the Assyrians were as well acquainted with this metal as the Egyptians. and requires the knowledge of a mixed fusion of metals for while pure copper can be worked with the hammer only. Kelts. Bronze. Britons. for instance. the early weapons of the age of iron. under the epithet of" difficult to work in. Thirty passages in the Iliad and the Odyssey. .

and the skins of animals. and arrows. in which the ancient mirrors of the Incas were cut. chalcedony. as the latter metal might be worked without being completely fused. and particularly the fragile black obsidian. The use of stones for the manufacture of the latter dates back everywhere to the infancy of all nations. Flint. so as to obviate the possibility of deception. who employ bellows to send oxygen through their furnaces. must of necessity have been the first materials which man employed in the manufacture of his utensils and weapons. and they serve to show that man must have existed during the third geological period a fact of which the picture of . though.of Ancient Arms. The use of bronze. It is not enough. 19 bronze must be submitted to the action of melting. the inhabitants still continued to make use of stone only for the manufacture of offensive weapons. wood. instead of preceding. In Europe stone weapons are found of very great antiquity. Such was the case in America anterior tries ment of metals to its final discovery by Columbus. must necessarily have followed the use of iron. the mastodon or mammoth engraved on a deer's antler found in Perigord. which can be found over all the earth. ser- pentine. which have been gathered in When plutonic strata. diluvium (Alpin) contains no organic matter in the state of . and blades of swords. that these bones and weapons should have been found in alluvial-diluvial districts. notwithstanding that the preparation and employfor other uses was known. stone. Earth." so called because The composed of objects belonging to different epochs. these rough sketches shall have been examined under the microscope. it will then be time enough to discuss the hypothesis. scattered among flint hatchets. have furnished additional proof. were all in request for the heads of lances. as also the numerous bones of the cave-deer. for these might have been subjected to disturbance a fact which is indeed demonstrated by the " movable deposits. and it is these rude creations alone which still compose the arms of the savage. There are even some coun- where. The preparation of iron only needs a high degree of oxygenal heat and its separation from carbon to become malleable a fact known even to the Kaffirs. for war-hatchets and knives for the : copper and bronze were used only making of tools.

which always the cutting instrument. can be drawn only with that small amount of certainty which belongs to epochs Objects of two. and iron. Abridged History : a substance which characterizes bone not fossilized hence it results that any alluvial deposit containing even the smallest bone with ossine must be posterior to that great terrestrial perturbation designated as the deluge. when no weapons or utensils showed any trace of metal. the whole at times mingled in a single tomb. Savoy. Of all these primitive (at present counterfeited in weapons those found in Denmark Germany) show the greatest . a fact which all three epochs. without the aid of metals or corrosive acids. Lines of demarcation between the so-called ages of rough stone.20 ossine. while the lake dwellings found near Noceto. Castiana. and fossil bones. and Peschiera belong to the epoch known as the age of bronze. as well as the objects is found in the lacustrine habitations of Switzerland. mixed with bones of reindeer. near Ischl in Austria. found in France of flint. can be chipped and splintered. bronze. can be explained only by the comparative ease with which flint. chipped by splintering. great many tools and weapons in worked stone are also a sure sign that they do not date further back than the deluge. as Some weapons have been they are to be found everywhere. ancient German cemetery of Hallstatt. both occasionally carved by the hand of man. and before undergoing the influence of the outward air. worked stone. and the Duchy of Baden. may nevertheless be attributed with certainty to the pure flint age. and even some half bronze and half iron. It is impossible to assert the priority of one people over another respecting the first manufacture of these weapons. of which more than a thousand have been visited. have brought to light instruments in stone. and whose manufacture. though all found in alluvial soil. and used as handles for the flint. freshly quarried. The kitchen refuse heaps (Kiokkenmoeding Kitchen midden) of Denmark. as they are made out of pebbles. and even of bronze. and everything tends to show that these must have been rolled together before A being shaped by man's art. have been found intermingled The researches made in the indicates a transition state. and even of partly or wholly pre-historic.

a colour which appears to be much liked and considered symbolical by the Teutonic races. must. is of the same kind as that which was formerly employed to make amulets against spinal complaints. If one wishes to become apt in the knowledge of classifying r . arid " little demons of the earth. as it had done to that of the Bornans. basalt. nevertheless. as the weapons of the so-called age of bronze of the different countries resemble each other more than those of other periods and in the Scandinavian Sagas we find the conquerors treating disdainfully the people still content with flint weapons. and it may be admitted that the superiority of iron weapons contributed to the success of the Franks. as is shown by the hole through which the string was passed. In the north these stones are always green. as the museums of London and Berlin possess several very ancient examples of Assyrian and Egyptian origin in these materials. not a hard stone. remember that these arms have been found in alluvial deposits. though more so than ordinary serpentine. whence it took the name colours. As for the weapons in polished stone. The talismans or stones of victory of of nephritic stone. w hile blue takes the principal place in works of Gaulish and Frankish The nations in remote antiquity appear to have origin. and must necessarily be more modern than those We found in the caverns or in diluvial and quaternary strata. the Scandinavian Sagas were probably nothing more than Some wedges have been found too small for any serpentine. in chalcedony. for it predominated largely at* a later period in their enamels and miniatures.of A ncient Arms. They have also been found in flint. 21 amount of finish . they appear to indicate that at these epochs civilisation was more advanced in the north than in the central parts of Europe. ." The use of calling them bronze weapons had not yet ceased completely among the Gauls after the conquest of Cassar. so common in Auvergne. Bronze weapons have been discovered in the north as They may have been introfrequently as on classic soil. these are most fre- quently of granitic serpentine. duced in the west by victorious oriental races. other use. which must have been worn round the neck as a talisman. curiously enough. used stone weapons simultaneously with iron and bronze ones. jade and jadaic stone of different The jade-like stone.

foundation of the cities of Nineveh and Babylon by Assur and Nimrod. . who was dethroned in 759. Munich. and Ninus. subdued Armenia. from B. Tombs still less elevated. and heaped together without much skill. in the reign of Sardanapalus V. Media and nearly the whole of Northern Asia nor does anything indicate to us in what manner were constructed the brilliant weapons in use under the gorgeous Semiramis.. more or less colossal (and called dolmens). and by the absence of large blocks of stone. which indicates a burnt corpse. The Chaldsean. constructed almost wholly of earth.C. 1968 to 1916. in the twenty-fifth century B. and accumulated fabulous treasures at Babylon. extended her empire as far as the Indus. and by the These tombs generally urn. Assyrian. and Zurich. From the reign of Ninyas. and in which transition states are so frequent. The second category of tombs is most commonly recognisable by a smaller hillock. Median. his son. We 1992. may be considered as very ancient tombs. and furnish ample memorials for the history of . and where the tombs often form cemeteries.22 Abridged History chronologically the weapons of these periods.C. and Egyptian monuments. stones. While engaged on the subject of ancient weapons. save a few tales about the well-known Sardanapalus. closed with slabs of stone. and Persian bas-reliefs and casts in the British Museum. the armies with which Belus conquered the Arabs in B. Babylonian.C. ranging from south to north. there are no monuments from which the slightest notion can be gathered of the arms of a soldier under the five great Asiatic are equally ignorant of the equipment of monarchies. by a vault or tomb formed of unhewn stones of small size.. belong to the third stage. and contain objects in bronze.. until the third century B. which so much resemble one another. Assyrian. are useful supplements to written documents. and whose interiors.C. contain bones unburnt. and flint weapons. the construction of the different tombs should be The high hillocks surrounded or surmounted by studied. the widow of Ninus. we must especially seek for the first traces which have reached us on From the Hindoo. who. in which the burning of bodies had again given way to their burial. history furnishes absolutely nothing respecting the long line of his successors. her son. and in those of Berlin.

and had. or. resembling that worn by the Frankish-Merovingian warriors. corselet. sword. was usually squared at the base and rounded at the top . wore either a helmet. also show casques in scales. ages. differed from those worn by the foot soldiers . The auxiliary soldier. from the thirteenth to the seventh century B.C. who wore a long tunic. either saddle or wore a casque with cheek-straps. sling. 23 the armament of these military monarchies. and twothirds of the height of a man when it was long. 712 707) informs us that the Chaldaean was armed like his Assyrian contemporary. bas-reliefs. or sometimes a long tunic. sometimes ornamented with a crest of horsehair a round buckler. something like the Gaulish helmets. offer for the most part warlike episodes. and whose semi-conical shape. but without a crest. which greatly resemble those of the second part of the Christian middle soldier The . in contradistinction to all Hindoo and Egyptian monuments. which hung at the left side. like the regular soldier. The offensive arms were the lance. and bow. Leggings. probably of buff leather. and the valuable evidence of Sennacherib (B. a long pavois. The buckler.of Ancient Arms. generally breast-high when round. covered the front of the leg as high as the knee-joint. without a crest or chin-strap. exhibited in the British Museum. the ancient capital of the ancient monarchy of Persia (560). is often covered with a casque or bonnet. infantry soldier of the regular troops wore for defensive armour the helmet with chin-strap..C. like the militia. for offensive arms. and show us the entire armament of the soldier during seven centuries. ho . a cuirass. which are nearly all provided with cuneiform inscriptions. The Assyrian horseman rode without spurs. or greaves. The Persian archer on the bas-reliefs of Persepolis. and bow. In this interval military equipment appears to have changed but little. a sword. more properly. and with chin-pieces. the subjects of these sculptures. such as the fragment in the British Museum shows. and also real coats of mail in steel. for. and for sieges. it covered nearly the whole body of the man. sling. which resembles 3'n shape the Two mouldings of these cap of the French magistracy. or a frontlet with chin-strap of leather or metal. a lance. made with plates of metal sewed on to woven stuffs or skins.

wears the helmet with rounded head-piece in This piece of sculpture. the lower part of the archer's leg is encased in greaves. Rom. Like the auxiliary Often soldier. The shape of these war-engines intended to hurl projectiles of all kinds against the enemy. which. a time which wavers between the twelfth and sixteenth centuries B. Mithras sacrificing the bull. see. resembles more closely that of Europe during the middle ages than Asiatic armour. and also those of other authors. He intended to protect the lower part of the buck. and with the chin-guard. carved in the thirteenth century B. and still more of the knife. wore the corselet. as classic authors affirm. They had the helmet with scales. on a monument (an engraving of which is to be seen in De la Chaussee. like it. is not much to depend on. who give the credit to Triptolemus and Trochilus. with a sort of miner's apron hanging from the back. In addition to the bow. Assyria. but wore a cuirass. and Media. which is the Etruscan style. whose invention is due to the Assyrians.. to batter in the walls of the besieged cities. The defensive armour.. his head was protected only by the frontlet.C. When on foot he wears the long tunic. Babylonia. The archer. It is doubtful whether the shape of the helmet. but not a lance. coat of mail. too.24 Abridged History rarely carried a buckler. which invalidates the opinion of also Virgil. with which the god sacrifices. are to be seen on several of their bas-reliefs. which resembled the garde-reins in plate-armour of the middle ages. who is sometimes represented mounted. arrows. attributing their invention to Erichthonius. as we have already mentioned. the catapult and the balista. and quiver. the only guides we have are a few casts from the bas-reliefs of Persepolis. believed to date back to the birth of him who reformed Magianism. MS. but seldom the casque. one laid over the other.C. and al ways carried the lance and sword. on these valuable granite sculptures. among those of ChaldaDa. The Assyrians were acquainted with war-chariots. and was. wore leggings of scales made in the same manner as the corselet. exhibited in the Louvre and the British Museum. and perhaps also the vizor turning on a pivot. or rather. he carries a sword. and which resembles We .). King of Athens. and to strike from far off their defenders differ but slightly from the Greek and Roman ones. As to the ancient Persian arms.

and introduced into the rest of Central Europe at the beginning of the first Crusade. about the fourth century. From this time forward the terms Medes and Persians are always spoken of to- . 220 552). The miniatures in a copy of the Schah-Nameh. or Sdbel. preserved in the British Museum. in 536. During the dynasty of the Sophis (1499 1736). the Zend. similar to that represented on a Persian bas-relief. can really be attributed to the ancient Persians. from Persia. and which has the shape of a French judge's cap. instead of the conical casque. Arbaces. and the same weapons that are still used in Persian warfare.of Ancient Arms. in the reign of Mahmoud (999). that of the Caliphs (652). can with difficulty Tbe separated in treating of the armament of its troops. or Royal Book. The bronze Persian helmet with rounded top of the dynasty of the Sassanides (B. The Chaldaean and Median weapons are often confounded with three of Assyria. a name derived from the Persian chimichir. and acinace by the Romans. The soldier of ancient Babylon whieh was peopled by Chaldaeans from the sea. already mentioned. After the fourth dynasty. though the Ghebir priests use it still. until the end of the twelfth. 25 the modern Indian dagger. and other Mahomedan rulers. already absorbed in that of Persians under Cyrus. recalls the shape of the German round-topped casque of the tenth century. whose language. the German Sable. that of the Mongols. or chimchir. a weapon called seymitar by the Germans. composed by the poet Ferdusi. did not live more than 759 years B. the most powerful kingdom among those which were formed from the ruins of the first Assyrian empire.C. and that the kingdom of the Medes was. and on the farther shore of the lihine. from whence comes the scimitar. and particularly inasmuch as its first king. Persian weapons have hardly changed form. and copied at the beginning of the seventeenth century. Media. whose capital was Teredos nevertheless appears to have worn. show nearly the same shape of helmets. and greatly resemble one another. has been dead for a long 'time.. a metal head-dress.C. Persian weapons take an entirely Mussulman character. in repeating prayers of which they have ceased to understand the meaning. now in the library at Munich. the forefather of the sabre. which was already known by the Dacians.

that of the Chandras.26 Abridged History gether. figures twisted and contorted in the style of the European religious sculptures of the end of the sevenAnd none teenth and beginning of the eighteenth century. It is much to be regretted that the English officials who have successively governed India should not have gathered more of the numerous and splendid architectural ruins. The few sculptures in the British and South Kensington Museums are insufficient. a dynasty which had probably been preceded by many periods of civilisation. nor do these date farther back than the first half of the The figures represented betoken Christian middle ages. which represent a large number of ruined palaces. The funereal and civil monuments of Egypt a country where the genius of the nation turned more towards agriculalso exhibit far fewer ture and the sciences than towards war Den on. by reason of the sword which she carries. in its own productions. The photographs exhibited at the Kensington Museum. Without taking into account the fabulous history in which the Hindoos place antiquity. temples. when the Arab taste began to react against that which had nearly effaced it. that Hindoo war-harness has changed but little as regards offensive armour and it is only in the casques that a radical change has manifested itself. it is true. there is only a fine statue of the Goddess of War in the Museum of Berlin. the Hunguls. like the Egyptians. u Voyages dans la Basse et Haute Egypte. As to the Javanese armour. which represent warlike subjects. show that the Hindoos. now lost to us. 3200. though not very ancient. their we may fix the first origin at a date of exaggerated known dynasty of kings. for among all the sculptures there are only a few stones of Beejanuggur. of the museums possess any monuments for the study of Hindoo armour. in his military subjects than do those of Assyria. which gives a few indications. and employed indistinctly for tlie inhabitants of these two different countries. so that even the Persian wars against the Greeks have been called Median wars. which even now cover the soil. at B.C. . ." has. nor do the Louvre or the Berlin Museum possess any of the peculiar carvings. and a few commemorative stones in sculptured granite. since the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries of our era. cared little to perpetuate their feats of arms on buildings.

Prisso " d'Avesnes. B. which recalls the fool's cap and bells of the Christian middle ages. and the bronze dagger in the museum of Berlin. as also lias M. in his Monuments Egyptians . drawn by M. through which the soldier can see the enemy without imperilling his safety . and the sword-breaker of the middle ages. square at the base and rounded at the top. The coat in crocodile's skin in the Egyptian museum of the Belvedere at Vienna. a blow-warder a peculiar instrument. The oifonsive and defensive Greek weapons in the time of .of Ancient Arms. with a single edge. . The bow. the Louvre. Greece. 1000). in the style of the Merovingian " scrama saxe." and rarely the lance with a metal head these are all that we know of the armour of this country. and Berlin. great Egyptian antiquity. from a bas-relief of Thebes. which brings to mind the small round shield with hooks. though the weapons were found in Egypt. . for the kind of hood on the wounded warrior. . c. appear. have fortunately left us weapons in which art manifests itself as well in the harmony of form as in the detailed execution and it is only by starting from the epoch when these countries were flourishing that a history of weapons can be based on a firm footing. and the casque of the Hindoo Hungul a coat of bronze scale armour. which measures an inch and a half in length. judging from a Biblical inscription engraved on one of the scales. by studying the pieces exhibited in a large number of museums. Prisse d'Avesnes from a monument of the age of the Pharaohs (eighteenth dynasty. Etruria. even when combined with the bas-reliefs of Thebes. nevertheless. and Home. Egyptian museum at the Louvre seem by their shape to indicate a Greek origin. to be of very . the arrows with their quiver. does not enable one to distinguish whether it be a piece of defensive armour or a simple The few daggers in bronze exhibited in the GGT&ring. or rather knives. and the few actual weapons preserved in the museums of London. The buckler. to convey an exact idea of the armIn the drawings ing of the whole of the Egyptian forces. by three-fourths of an inch in breath. we find a helmet. has a hole pierced in it. and intended like the latter to catch and break the adversary's sword a few swords. this buckler was nearly the height of a man. 27 given a few drawings of weapons." but these are too few.

and the javelin. the Greeks made an addition to their armies by enrolling slingers no cavalry . or 202 before Christ.28 Abridged History c. and speaks only of those of his own time. comprise almost all that is Thanks to the poems ascribed to better information about the Greek arms in use in the tenth. (B. each plate cast or hammered in one piece." a short. c. though iron. and also the corselet of imbricated scales. the blade broad. a portion of which ought to precede in this work Greek armour. with whom the Etruscans. long. and horsemen. were so closely allied. born in the year 552.and back-plate. similar circumstances being probably the reason why the French language lacks a substantive to render the German word u Reiten. and in its second that of the Greeks. The information left by this tutor and friend of the second Scipio Africanus. and with a crosspiece in the centre. after the foundation of Rome. the lance. or possibly in the thirteenth. and is involved in obscurity. The offensive weapons were the cut-and. was composed of the cuirass. and by known on the subject. worn on the left. Homer as all composed of bronze. we have much the Arch of Orange (in France). The Etruscan armour. The defensive armour are aware. with a rectangular sheath. was not unknown. they had even no phrase to signify mounting on horseback. straight-bladed. 400. rounded towards the socket. is the first author who has described the arms of a Roman soldier. and sharp. shows in its first period the influence of the Phoenicians. the large round convex shield. taken with the small indications furnished by monumental sculptures on the borders of the Rhine in Germany. than on those with which this sovereign people subdued the . broad dagger (resembling the " " langue de boeuf of the middle ages). and the greaves. after the emigration of The third period is purely JEneas. the casque. Polybius. sharp-pointed. afterwards longer and double-edged. by the columns of Trajan and Antoninus. century before Christ. The Greeks had at that period 1000) were we . or leggings." Later on. from eleven to fifteen feet in length. Roman.thrust sword. which was a kind of long arrow. with its amentum or thong. at the time of the siege of Troy. Homer. breast. in the year B. and which was used either to thrust or to throw. always worn on the right side the " parazonium. at first short and broad.

The first were armed with small javelins. greaves. Later on. He also carried a large convex shield of wood. The cavalry soldier in the time of Polybius was equipped like the Greek. or a Jiamata. being either a squamata. the velites. or legionaries. weapons of attack were the Iberian (or Spanish) sword. cheek-pieces. leather. by greaves (ocrece). As before that time the cavalry soldier's only weapon of defence had been a round.of Ancient Arms. and His iron. The spearman was protected by a helmet of iron or leather. or hexagonal shield of bull's hide. worn on the right side. but no crest. as well as the Greeks and Etruscans. in the time of Trajan and of Septimius Severus. composed of small iron or bronze scales sewed on linen or the same kind of leather. similar to the Greek soldier. and which are at present exhibited in the museum of that town. breastWhilst bronze plates. spearmen. but in the time of Polybius this metal was no longer employed except for casques. with swords. was still the only metal in use among the Gauls. all of bronze. The Kornan army was composed of three kinds of troops. will be seen that a great On examining the Trajan Column it many of the soldiers represented . though sometimes it was ornamented with wolf-skin. and other arms of defence. the Eoman weapons were already made wholly of iron and steel. it was now found necessary to equip him in a more complete style. by a breastplate (or cuirass with two shoulder-pieces). on This was the same kind of account of its round shape. so as to resist the formidable attacks of barbarians. the hastarii. ornamented with a plume of three black and red feathers. or foot soldiers lightly-armed. about four feet in length. oval. at first used only bronze in the fabrication of their offensive weapons. copied from that carried by the Achaeans. and the cavalry. made of metal chains coat of mail as those that have been found at Avenches. two javelins. round or oval. and called parma. The slinger was armed with the sling. in Switzerland. three feet in diameter. one of which was the celebrated pilum of the legionary. which we shall meet at a later period in the Frank equipment. The casque had generally shield which the gladiators used. 29 It is very probable that the Eomans. world. four feet in length and two and a half feet wide. the iron of which measured nine inches. and with a light shield. a flexible cuirass was added.

1868) of a catapult. founded about 1900 B. already referred to. Another engine used in warfare was the tolleno. sharpened at both ends these in Greece were often inscribed with the word AEAHI (receive this). Rhodius calls gastrafetes. Among the Greeks those catapults which fired point-blank were called v6vTova. like many other instruments of warfare. Philon. xxi. something like the armour and from the bas-reliefs on this monuof the middle ages . M. palintones.). imported. as we may see by several leaden specimens. because the crossbow-man used to rest it on his stomach. and which were called respectively. Testament. TEXNH2 . 22. or more properly portable balista. We xybeles. eutliytones. a kind of weighing machine with two baskets attached to it which was used to deposit the attacking party in the besieged place. ch. Of was used .) these instruments of war. the lalista to shoot enormous arrows.30 on it Abridged History have breast-plates that are made neither of mail nor scales. Rhodios makes mention in his treatise IIEPI IIOAEMIKH2 (Athens. but we doubt if the kind of crossbow that M. described by Heron. while those which carried missiles as our mortars throw shells were called -n-aXivrova. something like the crossbow of the middle ages. have been made at the present day for Napoleon III. which had been already in use at Palas-Tyros (the ancient Tyre.) says that the king of Babylon used battering-rams against the walls of Jerusalem. for the ancient writings do not mention it. The ancient Romans as well as the Greeks made use of Besides the scythe chariots originally machines in war. and are mentioned in the old Assyria. some of which were ingot-shaped. (Ezekiel.C. v. but of long plates of metal. and the catapult. can be traced back to the Greeks and Romans. Ezekiel (599 B. ment it will be seen that the Roman army was composed of a great number of troops whose different equipments varied as much as they do now in our modern armies. With regard to the polyspaste or crane of Archimedes (an engine . and scorpion catapults. or tormentum. which have been found in making excavations. from they were acquainted also with battering-ranis.'s collection of arms. even larger projectiles. and Vitruvius.C. which he describes and illustrates from the Byzantine MSS. have already seen from the introduction that several of these machines of war.

far superior to those of other northern countries. M. an axe. or tortoise. shield exhibited side by side with it. or. in Italy. in fact almost impossible. from its resemblance to the shell of that animal. axe-head. in more properly speaking. easily recognisable from found in Russia. but there is good reason to believe that it may be identified with those enormous hooks that were used to pull off the heads of the battering-rams. The shell-like covering or shed under which the batteringram was worked was called testudo. showing more or less in their make the influence of their ancient models. a custom prevailing also among the Franks and Germans. placed. side by side with the arms of the Britons and Anglo-Saxons. have been found in the tombs of almost all those European nations which the Romans used to call barbarians but those of Scandinavia (Northern Germany and Denmark) are like the Danish arms of the stone age. socket and ring. although not a single specimen of the latter is to be found in the and the large twists of hair museum at Copenhagen worn seem to prove that the casque was used only by the chiefs. in the museums of Copenhagen and of London. The defensive armour of the Scandinavian soldier seems to have consisted only in the round or oblong shield. and the casque. the celt. has been France. made use also of explosive machines. in Germany. the cuirass. to plications. Even that famous weapon. our researches are attended with still greater comIt is very difficult. . and in its straight . as well as the . somewhat like an air-cannon or air-gun of the present day on a gigantic scale. may very likely have been of Danish origin. Bronze arms. In treating of the arms of Keltic Gaul and of Lower Brittany. as they are. 31 which was used to raise and shatter to pieces whole vessels) a good deal of uncertainty exists. draw up a distinct category of those that have been found in France. On this point all is uncertain. The casque with horns found in the Thames. Rhodios has also told us in his very interesting work that his ancestors. and preserved in the British Museum among the national arms.of Ancient Arms. and falling very little short of the arms of the The specimens contained Greeks and Romans themselves. the Greeks. show what progress the art of working in metal had already made.

are exactly like the double-crested casques preserved in the museum of Saint-Germain. some specimens of which are to be seen in the Museum of Artillery in Paris in the Louvre. We find among the ancient . sometimes the three-edged sword. and from those on the Arch of Orange. we see that the shield was sometimes round and sometimes oblong. Roman soldier. From the carvings on the sarcophagus of the Vigna-Ammendola. of bronze. The arms of the Germanic nations during the so-called bronze age were as varied as those of Gaul. such as may be seen in the Roman bas-relief of the Melpomene in the Louvre. which we incline to believe to have been a javelin-head . and the bow. and to have belonged to no country in As late as the time of Julius Caesar the defensive particular. made the influence of Roman taste in armour. have only served to increase our uncertainty on this subject. of bronze. like those exhibited in the museum at Rouen. by some considered Keltic. The lance. that are generally supposed to be Etruscan. for some have been found at Posen. was discovered in Bohemia. very pointed. and at Saint- Germain. or UmbrLin. but rather wider The weapons consisted of in the middle than at the ends. were among their weapons. and worn most probably only by the chiefs. an axe. The shield completed the defensive arms. and stone. which varied considerably in shape with this is often classed the celt. The Gallic standard with the device of the boar. We cannot even attribute this casque entirely to Gaul. js a proof of One of these. for the bronze casques found in these sepulchres. being sometimes the short Greek sword. where more than a thousand Germanic tombs have been opened. represented on one of the bas-reliefs of the Arch of Orange. bronze. like their offensive arms. the javelin. in Bavaria. arms of the Gauls were. where this helmet is exhibited in the national museum of Munich. though . together with other weapons made of iron. a sword. which also varied in its form. and consisted of a conical casque.32 Abridged History England a fact which shows the extreme difficulty of an The kelts seem to have been spread accurate classification. under the title of Hungarian or Avar The cuirass was the same as the one worn by the helmet. and at Inn. The numerous excavations that have been made in the cemetery of Hallstatt in Austria. in every direction. without a guard to it. and is now exhibited in the museum at Prague.

Several of the iron weapons discovered in the cemetery of the Catalauni (in the department of Marne). and there is no doubt that. while the Scandi. would seem to be of Germanic origin. this fact contributed in no small degree to the Eoman victories. The bronze weapons belonging to this age that have been discovered in Eussia and in Hungary consist almost entirely {Several of tlie Kussian axes of battle-axes and spear-heads. to end at the close of the fifth century. navian and Germanic ones bear the same characteristics. was repopulated about 550 A. they accordingly used bronze only for arms of defence. In the year 202 B. ought. logically speaking. are ornamented with the device of a ram's head. that is. the seventh and eighth centuries. by-the-bye. Helvetia. by the Allemanni. that is. Its proper termination is undoubtedly that period immediately preceding the age of chivalry.of Ancient Arms. by the Burgundians. without taking into account the so-called Keltic sword an epithet. but many carry it as far as the end of the Carlovingian dynasty.D. We have already seen that iron was known in all times. bronze was still in use. A. who were so celebrated for working in iron. but that when universally adopted for the purpose of making arms of defence and offence. unpleasantly vague. because the swords are very like those found at Tiefenau and at Neufchatel in Switzerland weapons probably made by the Burgundians.D.C. 33 British weapons exhibited in the museums in England. the Eoman soldier was furnished with weapons of iron only. some that were in shape like the Danish. and which are at present preserved in the museum of Saint-Germain. and among the arms found at Hallstatt the celt frequently occurs the short swords remind us strongly of those of Greece. who took possession of that portion where German (Allemand) is spoken to D . 987 a very easy but not very correct limit to assign. The period which by common consent is usually though improperly called the Iron Age. which in the year 450 had been rendered almost desert by those systematic massacres perpetrated by the Eomans. in the second Punic war. numbers of which people had already settled in the west. after the downfall of the Western Empire. The Eomans very soon learnt the superiority of the iron over the bronze weapon for offensive purposes.

and in England these shields being everywhere adopted. Agathias. the battle-axe. found near the village of Onswala (Bara-Schonen) in Switzerland. with very prominent bosses (a shape which seems to have been particularly in this day. A battle-axe and two iron spear-heads. not unlike that of the Germans . Concerning the Franks and their mode of equipment. our information is fuller than with regard to any other nation of This we gather from several authors. has been discovered at Sigmaringen. The francisque. from the difference of their shape. : . that they must have belonged to a people who were neither Gauls nor Franks. in Silesia. favour with the Franks).. . and also from the numerous excavations that have been made in the Merovingian cemeteries. The workmanship of this cuirass is very curious it is made of The Quadi were most small metal scales joined together. in Denmark. is not to be found anywhere those discovered being always of the Saxon The only remains of a Germanic cuirass belonging shape. and generally about eight feet by two in size. Their shields were subsequently made of lime-wood bound with iron but the iron framework of several round shields. in Bavaria. and Gregory of Tours. The Burgundians were a tall. . by means of which we can make out a nearly complete classification of armour. and where Italian . and from the length of their swordhilts we see that they must have had very large hands. strong race. such as was originally worn by these rude warriors. on the whole. probably the only people who had armour made of horn. and French is now spoken. The battle-axe of the Northern Germanic races is easily distinguishable from that of their brethren of the south by its different shape. Sidonius those times. This armour.o-i Abridged History tlie by Ostrogoths. . &c. who settled in the south. Procopius. The arms of the Germanic races generally are very little known we only know that their favourite weapons were the and that their shields lance. but most probably Burgundians. in Hesse. prove conclusively. and which were found in the territory originally occupied by the Allemanni. which was. to these ages that have been discovered. are those at present exhibited in the museum at Zurich. Apollinaris. and the sword were painted in bright colours usually white and red that they were made of plaited osier covered with leather. the characteristic weapon of the Franks.

museum of Zurich more than nine inches another at Sigmaringen. ' its weight. seen in the . ten inches in length. the lance with a long iron head. about fifty centimetres in diameter. The javelin. a line drawn on the arena between two contending gladiators. completed the list. . A specimen is to be. and dyed red. the first part being derived either from the word scamata. The common soldier used to have part of his head shaved. could. These weapons. or from scrarsan (to clip). This weapon appears to have been generally in use by all the Teutonic nations. bows and arrows being more frequently used for the chase than for war. if fixed therein. to a point. two feet eight inches in length. inasmuch as the museum of Copenhagen as well as most of the German and Swiss museums The blade is single-edged. which M. and not an implement of husbandry. because the length of the haft seems to prove that both hands were used but the scrama saxe is undoubtedly a weapon. Many of these knives have been found with very long : : tangs. and the long dagger or cutlass about twenty inches in length. and pointed at the end. Some archaeologists try to persuade themselves that these swords were intended merely for hewing wood. smooth. narrow sword. periale d'Artillerie furnished with clasps. and the battle-axe. The javelin being hurled at the enemy's shield. Hence scrama saxe would mean either a cutting-knife. Penguil]y 1'Haridon has restored in such perfection for the " Musee Im" at Paris.of A nc ie n t Anns. sharpened contain specimens of it. But with weapons of offence he was well provided these consisted of a double-edged. from which word is derived the German ScJieere. of a helmet. but we know from history that their chiefs wore them.tail like a Chinaman his head to form a protection for it. and made of wood or leather. somewhat in the style . 35 consisted of a small circular shield of convex shape. or pilum/ with a barbed point. and had a only that it was twisted round pig. called a scrama saxe the latter part of the word means a knife. were attached to a leathern belt. or otherwise a duellist's knife. No helmets or cuirasses have yet been found. and scooped out in several places to make it lighter in length . as we invariably find it in the tombs of warriors laid side by side with the long spatha. drag it down by and more serviceable.

The sword and spurs that are said to have belonged to Charlemagne are almost all that remains. in mantles like those worn by the Pretorian guard. at Munich. It is impossible to reconcile either of these pictures with the evidence of the monk of Saint-Gall. written in 810.. whilst in a bas-relief now in the church of Saint. the soldiers have helmets that come low down on the neck. by the laws of that sovereign.Julien at Brioude (Haute Loire). surnamed " le Chauve. his thighs by scales of the same the lower part of his legs was protected by greaves. has Roman characters traced upon it. said to have belonged to Childeric I. so that it looks a second guard. We unfortunately have neither documents nor arms which would enable us to give a detailed account of the manner in which the Franks were armed between the end of the Merovingian and the beginning of the Carlovingian dynasty. a single-edged weapon not double-edged. and was no doubt copied from a diptych. a warrior is represented in a coat of and in a German MS. who wrote as an eye-witness about the end of the ninth century. made in the end of the eighth century.36 Abridged History to follow up his attack with the sword or with the francisque. and says that Charlejnagno and his soldiers were literally encased in ironj that the The sword still and . lower part of the hilt instead of the upper. . as many have asserted often making use of this likewise to hurl at the foeman's shield when the javelin had The Frank used then not taken effect. (457-481). of Wesmail. has been so imperfectly restored that it is impossible to form a correct idea of its The pommel has been placed on the original appearance. We must look in the Bible of Charles II. This testimony is confirmed ." and even on that we must not place much reliance. and round shields. preserved in the Louvre. and a conical helmet sobrunn. emperor wore an iron helmet his arms were protected by plates of iron. and his horse was clad in armour from head to foot. who ordered that all warriors . and gives the weapon an utterly absurd shape. presented sitting on a throne. for the artist has evidently allowed his fancy to guide him in some In one of these the king is reof the illustrations. surrounded by guards clad like Roman warriors. Gregory. for the ivory cover belonging to the Antiphonarium of St. made in the seventh or eighth century.

like the soldiers in the Biblia Sacra bas-relief . knights are already armed in the same manner as the Norman knights that are represented in the Bayeux tapestry about the end of the eleventh or the beginning of the twelfth centuries. but wearing a helmet with a rounded crown. from the formidable and complete equipment in the reign of Charlemagne. written in the eleventh century. with a helmet of a very singular shape. and the on a shrine of the ninth century in the treasury of the church of Saint-Maurice in Switzerland. the soldiers The are represented wearing helmets with the nose. mentioned above . Aelfric MS. and of the Codex aureus of Saint- Gall. called Aelfric. The Leges Long obar dor urn of the ninth century. from the year 687 to J87 but for the period of the Crusades (1096 to 1270) our information is much fuller. and the JBiblia Sacra. with the exception of the Martyr ologium.. for in them the king like those of Lombardy is represented bearing a long shield worn in the fourteenth century. 37 should wear armlets. represents a soldier without any coat of mail. a MS. and also carry a shield. helmets. having no nose-piece to it. An Anglo-Saxon MS. which are preserved in the library of Stuttgard. a work undoubtedly written about 870 A. represents a knight in mail armour. As we remarked above.guard. shows a warrior in a complete suit of mail armour. is particularly interesting to the archaeologist for the various shapes of swords it gives. there is a great scarcity of documents on this subject during the Carlovingian period. of the British Museum library. a manuscript preserved in the same library. . written in the tenth century. shows in the equipment of the soldiers many Roman le characteristics similar to those in the Bible of Charles Chauve before mentioned. it is hardly likely that such a retrogression should have taken place in the days of Charles II. though in the Martyrologium. Although the Codex aureus ecangelia of the monastery of Saint-Emeran at Ratisbon. written in the tenth century. whilst another Anglo-Saxon MS. are of the tenth century. ( . in the Imperial library at Paris both In these the German these MSS. the Psychomachia et Prudentius. leg-pieces. After these we find a singular dearth of historical and archaeological traces.of Ancient Arms.. confirm these doubts. for by the length and shape of the blades one can fix the date with tolerable accuracy. another MS.D. now in the library at Stuttgard.

like those borne by the warriors in the BiUia Sacra. Coeur de Lion (1189-1199). Thomas Becket. Norman. it is only toward the end of the twelfth century that we find helmets with round crowns worn in England. may be seen swords with trilobated hilts. in the library at Diisseldorf. in the year 1066. is armed in a very different manner in the Jeremias Apocalypsis. We A A . of the same date the only difference being that the shield on that statue is of the shape that is generally called in France. and the upper and lower part of his hose are of the same material while he also carries the little bassinet and the long-pointed shield of a convex shape. The same armour may be seen on one of the statues of the founders of the cathedral at Naumburg. like sugar-loaves in shape. in the basilica at Zurich. a town close to the Hungarian frontier. bas-relief of the eleventh century. He is there represented hauberk with long sleeves of mail. represents the Duke of Bourckhard with helmet and sword. is our best authority on the subject of Norman armour.Abridged History In the illustrations of this MS. rounded helmets. the shape of which reminds one of the weapons of the Martyrologium of Stuttgard. which was made soon after the conquest of England by William the Conqueror. (See MS. however. as it shows us the manner in which soldiers were armed about the end of the eleventh and first part of the twelfth centuries. square at the top and pointed at the end. though this same kind of casque was worn in Germany as early as the ninth century. statuette in yellow copper of the tenth century. . similar to the casques in the MartyrHenry I. of the eleventh century. called in France Norman . of Scotland (1107-1128) are represented on their seals wearing the conical helmets. in the collection of Count Nieuwerkerke. also see the same armour in the sculptures of twelfth-century date on the gate of Heimburg in Austria. on which the ariist has represented the martyrdom of St. and Alexander I.. have very tall. is very interesting. The conical helmet on the bas-relief of Brioude is also to be seen in the tapestry. but it has generally a fixed nose-piece. The warriors on the mitre of Seligenthal in Bavaria. Stephen and of St. The German knight. a MS. similar to that on the seal of Richard I. of Wesas wearing a . The Bayeux tapestry. because the nose-piece of the helmet is much broader at the bottom than others of the same time. of England (1100) ologium of the tenth century.

and with sleeves which at first reached to the elbow. It was made in one piece from the neck to the knees. and in each of the squares large ir. almost impossible to distinguish the one kind from Coats are also to be seen. at Naumburg. who died in the year 1195. in the library of the Prince Lobkowitz at Kaudnitz. or metal plates in the shape of scales. and sometimes with a guard for the back of the neck. made entirely of iron scales. This hauberk or smock frock was made of leather or linen. in old German. He also wore a sort of hood called a camail. and reached down The camail was a separate garment. In the Bayeux tapestry William the Conqueror is represented with the lower part of his stockings covered with rings. sewed on it side by side. was a sort of close-fitting upper garment. represent knights wearing conical casques. and had either strong wrought iron rings. The hauberk is generally represented having a latticework. The Norman hauberk. About the end of the tenth and beginning of the eleventh century. but not having either nails or rings fastened to them.of Ancient Arms. therefore. but amongst the Normans additional safety was afforded by the conical helmet. and proto the elbows. MSS. which covered the greater part of the head and neck. have the same kind of armour. that extended to just above the knee. the frescoes on the dome of the cathedral at Brunswick. or the heads of nails riveted. a building of the eleventh century. . have their feet bound round with The statue of one of the founders of the cathedral thongs. like the Anglo-Saxon warriors. and hauberks latticed all over. while the knights. 39 sobrnnn. and the reliquary of the church of Saint-Maurice. Duke of Brunswick. painted in the reign of Henry the Lion. tected the back of the neck. and others already provided with rounded helms. so that only a little of the face remained exposed.on rings sewed In the designs on the on. with stockings attached to it.) On the other hand. brunne or brumca). mentioned above. and the figures represented on coins of the reign of Henry the Lion. fitted sometimes with a long nose-piece. seems it is the other. but were subsequently brought lower down on the arm. The Yeleslav manuscript. a knight wore usually a long tunic or hauberk (called in German Halsberg . or chains placed either lengthways or cross ways. wears leggings covered with mail. and a portion of the face . the head.

quilted and kept together by pieces of leather placed so as to form diamond. we may venture to say there were probably none. and the knights have high helmets with crests. 2} istan and Isolde. written in the thirteenth century.shaped spaces. and also on every interThe coats of scale armour. of that time called the German ^Eneid of Henry I.armour in Bohemia had not made very much progress in the thirteenth century but. The helmets worn by the archers were mostly without a nose-piece. The best kind of latticed. and a lance with a little pennon hanging to it. of Waldeck. a ring or nailhead being sewed in each space. we already find pointed mailed shoes in use (a la poulaine). things that were very rare at that time. in the year 1629. jazerans (Jcorazims). The sling and the bow were their missile weapons. for in the museum at Dresden there is a genuine specimen of the latter kind that King Sobieski wore before Vienna. in the In this last-mentioned MS. The earliest one that I can trace in the manuscripts of the middle ages is a kind of shirt of mail worn by a knight in the Codex Aureus of Saint-Gall. a battle-axe with either a long or short handle. usually called secting angle. now in the library at Munich. generally pear-shaped. Nevertheless we must not fail to make a distinction between these jazerans and those of a later date. written in the ninth century. something like those of the Franks. It .40 to prove Abridged Hisiory that the knowledge of body. and of a sufficient size to cover the body. the horses are library at Berlin. about two feet in length. hauberk was made of several layers of stuff with wadding between each. for in it we see the knights armed with leg-pieces of plate and solerets. reaching as it did a little above the shoulder and just below the hip. The Anglo-Saxon shield was round and convex. or small shoes. in fact. and also like the circular buckler of the fifteenth century. being rounded at the top and pointed at the bottom. His weapons consisted in a long cross-hilted sword. or chequered. a mace. nevertheless. The hitter may also be seen in the valuable MS. . a la poulaine. The defensive armour of the Norman was completed by a shield. large iron helmets. and small shields. two The German MS. is also very interesting. which was never very sharp. are very rare at this period. hats. covered with housings in lattice work and studded with nailheads.

invented in 1306 by Jiodolf of Nuremberg. written after the Norman conquest." The coat of mail is also mentioned by a monk of Mairemontiers. as well the hauberk covered with chains or rings.of Ancient Arms. It is also spoken of in the Roman de Rou." a work written in the eleventh century. as well as several other German coins of the same date. 41 Beems that hauberks made of scale armour were not at all uncommon in the north. how his clothes were covered with the rust of his hauberk. having no tissue. . so that we find." a passage which certainly describes the original coat of mail. . coats made of lozenge-shaped pieces of metal. who lived in the time of Louis VII. at the beginning of the thirteenth century. although proof against arrows. about a quarter of an inch in diameter. coats made of oval rings. mentions " lorica this as being made entirely of metal. when she says entirely of steel rings riveted together. The real coat of mail. The lattice-worked coat. were of no in addition to avail against heavier weapons. Some pieces in the shape of rings. and was only worn by the inhabitants of the north of Europe. each one placed so as to overlap half the next. like the former. they were found to be too heavy and cumbersome. The epic poem of Gudrun relates how Herwig took off his hauberk and placed it upon his shield and a little farther on. who has given a detailed description of the armour of Geoffrey of Normandy. certainly some hundreds of years before the crusades. have been found at Tiefenau they are of perfect workmanship and date. made of flat rings sewed on side by side . The " Enigma of Aldhelm. All these coats of mail above mentioned may be divided into four sorts of ringed coats. which is erroneously thought to have been brought from the East after the crusades. and coats with scales. that it was unknown at Byzantium. wire-drawing. for they are to be seen on many of the coins of Magdeburg from 1150 to 1160. (1137-1180). was of no avail against rude shocks. coats of mail very generally worn by the richer knights a defence which. and so were given up by degrees. It must be about this species of coat that the Byzantine Princesse Anna Comnena (1083-1148) " that it was made speaks of in her memoirs. . such as lances this. but which the art of . was already in use in the centre and in the north of Europe some time before the eleventh century.

made at first of leather. so that on this account coats of mail were far too expensive to be used by the poorer knights or by the simple man-at-arms. During the whole of the reign of St. In that country the armour of the common horsemen during the middle ages was very imperfect. without any seam. was in use at a much earlier period in Germany than in Italy. The gamboison of the sixteenth century was made of linen embroidered with eyelet-holes. the armour of the men was in a very perfect condition. sleeves. whilst in Italy we do not find any trace of it till the fourteenth century. sometimes called the white hauberk (die gauze Briinne). called a gamboison or gambeson . and stockings. Plate armour. and on it were embroidered the armorial bearings This coat was generally the work of the Casof its owner. . tellan's lady. and then riveted together. the detestable misericorde and the Panzerbrecher. not being nearly as rich or as influential as the large German. of the thirteenth century represent knights in this new sort of armour with the lieaume complete. all made of mail. and later on of steel. was made entirely of mail. were unable to organise regular bodies of townsmen properly armed. and so closely worked that they were proof at every point against the dagger. a kind of shirt called camail.2 Abridged History brought within the reach of the poorest knights. . and in France the knights alone had the right of wearing it. It reached as far as the knee. weighed from twenty-five to thirty pounds (French). At the battle of Bouvines in 1214. The large hauberk. Over the coat of mail the knights commonly \vore a sort of loose frock made without sleeves it was of a light material. for some German MSS. Louis (1226-1270) the whole suit of mail was in general use amongst people of means in France and Italy. The wroughtiron rings had been previously made one by one. with the hood. and was slipped on like a shirt over it was worn a garment of quilted stuff or leather. coats. They had ankle and knee-pieces. for a long time this latter garment was the only species of defensive armour worn by the foot soldiers in France. and was composed of a long tunic. and was called in German Waffenrock. and Italian cities. Flemish. armguards. so that in order to kill an unhorsed antagonist one was forced to beat him to death. for the French towns. It was alike on both sides. Subsequently the hands were covered with mittens of mail. It .

had no crest. in small links. . Chambly on the Oise was celebrated for the manufacture of a double tissue of links. wards called Sijaque. . according to the authors of the period. Under this coat was worn a large plate of iron. archers. and between it and the head was a cap of quilted stuff. was worn only by the shieldIt was afterbearers. at first. ments or in battle. The habergeon. They were. The small winglets that were attached to the shoulder- pieces of the earlier coats of leather and of horn.of Ancient the A rms. as weU as the shield. an enormous helmet. like those on the statue of Rudolph of Hierstein in the cathedral at Basle. in use for about fifty years only. usually carried at the saddle of the knight when riding. the oval form being usually preferred. completed the equipment. the heaume (derived from the German helm). which. 43 thumb alone having a separate division. Brigantines. which were so often confounded with the korazins. These winglets. cavalry. The long shield. and such like. The small bassinet (called in Celtic lac) must not be confounded with the larger bassinet or casque that was in use from the thirteenth to the beginning of the fifteenth century. The Persian coats of mail. was made with four still I very much doubt if such a coat rings joined on to one were ever really made. It is very difficult to fix the exact date of each separate kind of coat. Still we may generally take it for granted that the thicker and heavier the link the more ancient is the coat. . which varied in shape . during tournastrings to the bassinet. had the arms of the owner blazoned on them. Many of the coats of mail that one sees now-a-days are counterfeit. which. from their resemblance to barleycorns. and even with the hauberks. are still as often made with riveted as unrivcted rings. however. It was worn as often under as over the camail. and came again into fashion in the sixteenth century. for all the coats of mail were made in the same way that is. were sorts of escutcheons. a species of small hauberk. Subsequently the large bassinet was worn underneath the heaume. which covered the whole of the At this time such was the usual armour of the French chest. which became in consequence even larger than before. called a grains d'orge. and can easily be detected by an amateur from the fact of their not being riveted. sometimes fastened by Over this was worn. men-at-arms. rounded at the top and pointed at the bottom. however.

in " the " Bibliotheque de 1' Arsenal at Paris. and. for we can see by the curved scales that they were meant to line the brigantine. and bright steel armour among the Austrians. and called plate armour (Schienenrustung). (1340). Towards the end of the thirteenth century the hauberk began to be shortened. when found in the north of Europe. though the illuminations of a Burgundian MS. a work supposed to have been written by the Duke of Burgundy. show Burgundian armour in a far less advanced state. be assigned to a much earlier period than in Italy and France in these countries the transition period lasted till the reign* of Philip VI. particularly when of good workmanship and well jointed may. -The brigantine was generally made of thin rectangular plates of metal. knights are represented clad in plate armour. particularly in Italy. at which time they began to be in general use. and were worn by nobles in Italy instead of the quilted doublet. a radical change . These illuminations satisfy me on a point which I had already noticed in the Swiss arsenals that is. but apparently of the fifteenth century. This armour. Some of these were made of thin plates covered with silk velvet. the hilt of which during all this time had remained unaltered as to the straight guard for the hand. * Charles le Temeraire used to wear one. arm-guards and leg-pieces made of prepared leather or steel being added. with the scales on the outer side this is evidently an error. wearing helms. In the fourteenth century we see German armour. Their principal weapons were the lance and the sword. . written in the :' thirteenth century. which was worn over the ordinary doublet. Jean SansPeur (1404 to 1419). and their horses completely clad in armour. of Tristan and Isolde. They were worn by the archers on horseback. nations. at which time even complete suits of plate armour did not yet exist. In several museums these brigantines have been exhibited on the wrong side. as a protection against bandits.41 Abridged History are not to be found earlier than the fifteenth century. each one being riveted on to the lining. made of plates of steel. that black armour was more extensively used among the Burgundian and Sardinian . gradually gaining ground. In the German MS. and by knights of moderate means. and overlapping half the other. soon began.

This doublet was made entirely of linen. and wherever an opening might occur for the sword or small three-sided poniard (called in German PanzerbrecJier). they must have been of smaller make. fact being that. which varied according to the country and the period.gardes had increased to an extravagant size. in the arsenals of Germany which strengthened the opinion I had already formed by inspecting other collections. the under-garments had also undergone a change. . and the alteration in the manner of fighting through the invention of firearms. with very few exceptions. for the armour from the fourteenth to the sixteenth century is too narrow for any one of average I made several experiments proportions now-a-days to wear. so as to protect the body wherever the armour was weakest.of Ancient Arms. but with hose attached to them. very like in appearance to the common dress of little boys at the present day. 45 While this new kind of armour had been substituted for the hauberk of mail. The only specimen to us at the present day of this dress that has been handed down is to be seen complete and in capital preservation in the museum at Munich. slightly quilted. Doublets without sleeves. The shapes of the swords and breast-plates of that time are very tasteful. Towards the end of the fifteenth and beginning of the sixteenth century the breast-plate was often rounded in shape. It will not be amiss here to correct an erroneous idea which has sprung up that the men of the days of chivalry were taller and broader than the men of the present day the . During the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries the form of plate armour underwent a great many changes. the passe. It is in the shape of the leg and calf that the superiority of the pre sent race may be seen for it is almost impossible for any one of the present day to make a leg-piece of the middle ages or of the Eenaissance period meet round the calf. The influence of the changes in ordinary costumes. were worn. may be traced in the altered form of the armour. some of them being among the most beautiful ever made. the tassettes of jointed work were made even more curved than . During the greater part of the fifteenth century the armour was usually Gothic in style. and having rings of mail under the breast-plate and under the knees and arms.

are able to distinguish and classify armour through observing the characteristics of its period.. that had taken the places of tassets as thigh coverings. which is very like a close-fitting coat in shape. were worn only by the in. so that as early as the time of Henry IV. which are as easily recognisable as in the civil costumes of the same dates. . . in losing its massive character it had become of very little use. the conical casque. or according to the German pattern with vizor. the buffletin with its high stock took the place of the cuirass the latter was worn only on special occasions. We soon find top-boots taking the place of greaves. whilst the long cuissarts. For instance. to a headgear) being lighter sorts of helmets. by their . Very shortly armour assumed a most grotesque appearance. have lost all manly character.46 before. Abridged History and the whole armour began to lose its beauty and simplicity as well as its severe and formidable character. made according to the English pattern with nose-piece. from the thirteenth to the fifteenth century the small bassinet or cerveliere. and was indifferently called Milanese or Maximilian... . as well as the breast-plate. fantry all these different pieces of armour help us. which used to be worn under the Jieaume . both of which. the larger bassinet belonging to the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries the salade of the fifteenth century the metal headcoverings and saucepan helmets. and still more so in the reign of Louis XIV. armour had almost disappeared . which was invented in Germany. belonging to the twelfth and thirteenth centuries . The breast-plate was made smaller and flattened. the different sorts of burgonets in the sixteenth the armet or helmet of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries (the last technical name applied in the trade the morion and the cabvsset. so often represented on monuments of the tenth century the heaume. which resembles the deformed figure of Punch. called in France Norman. The flute cl armour. . the crested helm. marks the period of the decay of chivalry for the cuirass of the time of Henri II. were brought round behind so as to cover the loins all these alterations making the wearer look like a lobster. We . In Germany as well as in France during the Thirty Years' War. and in a very short time tanned leather took its place. . the earliest specimens of which are to be seen in the manuscripts of the tenth and eleventh centuries. .

writing in the first century of our era. to fix the date 47 of their make with tolerable accuracy. almost all Europe had adopted these distinctive marks. used to deposit there his shield and his helmet. and particularly among the German race. for as the son could gain no credit in any way from the deeds of his father. in order to facilitate the recognition of the new nobility. It is on the Germanic shield that the feudal spirit is first to be traced. This custom was so general among the Germans that the words for painter (Schilder) and the verb to paint (Schildern) in old German are derived from Schild^ a buckler. which was a sign to the heralds (derived from the German Her old. when he arrived at the barrier of the tournament. stated " in his " De Germania that the Germans were in the habit of their shields with all sorts of gay colours and devices. armorial bearings were not hereditary . and some time before the crusades. These records of deeds achieved. gave rise to an art which was quite original in its way. or of the enemy or monster overcome. painting he was ignorant that these devices were a sort of hieroglyphic denoting the most famous deeds achieved by the owner of the shield. as on its surface may be seen the origin of armorial bearings." From the beginning of the tenth century tournaments became so frequent in Germany that in a short time armorial bearings were considered common to the whole family. and from that time armorial bearings and the art of heraldry have . shape and general characteristics. he was obliged to conquer in his turn so as to be able to have his shield painted a fact to which Virgil refers when he " says Parma inglorius alba. It was about the beginning of this century. that. and in a short time strictly hereditary. We shall see shortly that the shield was a much more important portion of the armour in mediaeval than in ancient times. then to their descendants. at the time of the first crusades. In the eleventh century. The importance of the buckler among the northern nations. noble crier) that the bearer of these arms had the right to engage in the tourney. remained during the warrior's life as his distinctive badge a custom which proves that.of Ancient Arms. a knight. whether they were representations of the weapon by the aid of which they had been accomplished. at the outset. When Tacitus.

gorgerin le mange. and even amongst the in Spain. the Scandinavian. the buckler and the target distinctive features and names. came into fashion. to enable the hand to move freely. made thin plates of steel or iron. cases to fix The shape and make Ce que gantelet gagne. Carlovingians. was only a sort of bag made of mail. with joints. of the Merovingians. '-* " About the fourteenth century coverings iof for the feet. the manteau d'armes . which again in the fifteenth century was The mitten was made of thin superseded by the mitten. painted with representations of fantastic animals. and it is to be found in the armour of the Pucelle d'Orleans. the German shield called pavois ." Towards the middle of the sixteenth century gauntlets were again made with divisions for the fingers. In the fourteenth century the regular gauntlet. called solerets or pedieux. plates of steel. Moors It to their was not long after this that the nobles took to adding names the name of their castles or of their lands a custom which gave rise to the fashion of differences in family arms.48 existed Abridged History amongst Christian nations. study. as well as the Franks introduced into very early period the custom of wearing armorial The shields of the Norman knights were all bearings. generally called the Norman shield the triangular shield of the same epoch . with separate fingers to it. which was used in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. formed from the end of the sleeve of the hauberk. which were clearly their personal arms. of the gauntlet also helps us in most the date of the armour with tolerable accuracy. and open a large field for . and British shields all furnished with a boss the square Germanic shield of the anti-Merovingian period the buckler The Normans at a France . The first kind. The Keltic. The shield has varied in shape more than any other part of defensive armour. the round shield of the fifteenth and had all their sixteenth centuries . . the German. It is also of this mitten that Bayard speaks when he says. the long painted shield of the tenth and eleventh centuries. the small shield of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries . the invention of pistols and firearms having rendered this necessary. and the Anglo-Saxons .

for the fluted armour was used as a protection for the breast. for they were adopted at different times in This kind of shoe called a la poulaine different countries. At the end of the seventeenth century top-boots had taken the place The shape of the shoes called of solerets and greaves. but no rowel. but it is difficult to fix the precise date when the changes took place. till at last it assumed a very extravagant length. The defensive armour worn by horses has undergone changes of fashion as well as that worn by men. it ol'iginally terminated in an ogival as early as the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.of Ancient Arms. The form of the soleret is a safe indicator of its date. when it generally had eight points.. a la poulaine is only useful in helping to fix the date of a suit of armour when one is certain of the country to which they belong. the same as those represented in the German ^JEneid of the thirteenth century of Henry of Waldeck. 49 were universally adopted . and the hind-quarters of the horse . now in the library of Berlin. first originated in Hungary. but the rowel does not appear to have been used till the fourteenth During the century. /The fashion. however. the sides. where the horse belonging to the duke is covered with a trellis. was in fashion in France from 1360 to 1420. bee de canne . while. as to slope upwards slightly. of England. as early as at the battle of Morgarten (1315) the Austrian knights are said to have cut off the long points of their shoes on dismounting from horseback and still earlier (1154-1189). Henry II. wore shoes a la poulaine for the purpose of hiding a deformity on one of his feet. From 1420 to 1470 these shoes were worn in a fashion called V ogive tiers point . like the chaussures a la poulaine. which gradually began to grow longer. or plates of armour. . the oldest representation of this kind of armour that I have been able to find is on a coin of the time of Henry the Lion of Germany (1195). from 1470 to 1550. the nose. when also the lower part of the mailed hose was superseded by tumelieres. . after 1570. on the other hand. sabot et le pied d'ours. and in the north. with heads of nails riveted into the squares. The spur in use till the eleventh century had a straight After that time the point was made so point. while in the thirteenth century it was made with a bend or crook in the shank.

the stiletto. the mace. the catapult. . and the cris. the halberd. furnish as many subjects for study and research as do the sling. All those machines formerly used in war. have as many varieties as the dagger. who added a large number of their own invena fact which we gather from the manuscripts of that tion period. . we must not put implicit faith in the supposed existence of all the machines described and represented in these MSS. and the bayonet. in the reign of Charles V. the scythe and the sickle. brated wooden saddle made in Germany. is the rarest. which had not a basket hilt. and constructed so as to prevent the tilter remaining seated. that from the fourteenth quite . the trebnchet. the koukris. the hatchet. Kriegsbuch. the way in which they were used in his work. the flissat. and in the museum at Zurich are published in 1573 exhibited some specimens which were found under the ruins of an old castle. But it is . had been adopted by the Christians of the middle ages. the khouttar. the pike. the bow. particularly those used in tournaments. the boar-spear. the poignard. the The lance. . as that pots of unslaked lime were shot into a besieged town to blind Leonard Fronsperg has described the eyes of the defenders. .. Nevertheless. the hammer. morgenstern. the flail. the spontoon. It is wortli while observing. as certain that fire-barrels and incendiary arrows were hurled by means of these engines. the cangiar. the battering-ram. the cross-bow. the war-fork. the partisan. a duelling and fencing sword a weapon which cannot be traced earlier than the first half of the sixteenth century. The celeshape. or blow-pipe. The list of swords is very long.50 fifteenth Abridged History and sixteenth centuries the shank became longer and longer. and comprises the rapier. about which time. the fustibale. till at last it was transformed. the corsesca a kind of spear the roncone. the greater number being merely designed by the inventors. the art of fencing was first introduced the ancient claymore. and of the Renaissance. into a mere toy. as is generally supposed the scimitar the sabre already employed among the Dacians in the time of Trajan the yatagan. and the sarbacane. such as the Imlista. very few really existed. through the fancy of The saddle varied much in the artist. anr* many others.

which accounts for the great perfection to which the manufacture of armour had been carried in that country. at Strasburg in 842. or rest. not including a " The most imlarge number of smaller passages of arms. be possible for a man to move in this double-jointed armour. not unlike the trunk of a tree in size and all practical been useless for to cumbersomeness. The Musee Imperiale d'Artillerie possesses two of the finest new kind of armour. date much earlier." portant. until 51 end of the fifteenth.of Ancient Arms. At the end of the twelfth century. and was fastened to the rest of the armour by means of screws and chains. and Italy. Some tournaments are known to have taken place in Germany as far back as the ninth century. although tournaments. and which later on was fixed io the cuirass as in a vice. no fewer than a hundred and eighty regular tournaments must have taken place at different times. that enormous helmet that covered the camail and the bassinet. and are. the want was felt of some better protection for the head against the formidable thrusts of the heavy lance. were almost all of them held in Germany. According to the registers existing in different towns. The introduction into tournaments of the laws of chivalry is thought to date from about the twelfth century. The heaume. I do not believe it purposes. knights. at the battle of Crecy (1346). was soon added. in the reign of Charles the . parcentury ticularly in France. as our readers will remember. the earliest existing specimens of which are of English origin. starting from the ninth century to the end of the twelfth. (1445). when tournaments became a regular practice. conducted on a certain method. which were originally in the Ambras collection but it appears to me that they must have suits of this . but not regu- by any fixed laws. at Barcelona in 811. on the occasion of the coronation of Count lated Linofre . by means of a hook called faucre. of dismounting and fighting on foot a practice adopted. had adopted a habit common likewise in England. It would be very interesting if the directors of this museum were to cause some experiments to be made for the purpose of deciding this question. Germany. It is to this sacrithe fice of old traditional dignity that may probably be ascribed the change in construction of armour which took place in the reign of Charles VII.

. at which places they displayed their charms. and the knights . under Theodore of Holland. they increased more and more. one hundred and thirty-three knights. which. under Henry III. was distributing the prizes to ]the winners. on the Saale. in 968. usually the queen of the day. and another also at Treves in 1029 . under Otho I. These tournaments often occasioned much bloodshedding. it was found necessary to institute a regular heraldic code. or in the midst of thick forests. who was baskets of flowers. under Lewis the Swabian at Merscburg. at Brunswick in 996. eighty-four barons. in which took part fourteen princes and dukes. Notwithstanding the anathema launched . at one time as many as sixty people being killed in one passage at arms. being dressed out in finery and stuffs of such brilliant colours. gave to this military exercise a chivalrous bearing. ninety-one counts. at Halle in 1042. if not more. as many. at Zurich in 1165. . when hereditary arms were universally adopted. and again in 1119. squire passed most of his time in hunting in the vicinity of his castle.. under Henry the Fowler. against these barbarous sports. under Conrade of Franin 938 conia at Constance in 948. at Augsburg in 1080. of England. at Spires. . in the ninth century. under Duke Guelph of Bavaria at Beaucaire in 1174. by its strict regulations. so that after the return of the first Crusaders. titles of knighthood were conferred than in battle and it was on these grand occasions that noble As the young country alliances were generally formed. at Rothenburg in 942. though very complicated. and three hundred nobles. under Hermann of Swabia. which took place of course in time of peace. placed on the top of high rocks. all the ladies remained standing. at Batisbon in 925. . at Treves in 1019. that the rude enclosures and galleries seemed to contain nothing but perfect Whilst the most beautiful lady. which in Provence assumed almost the It is a fact that in these tournacharacter of romance. ments. where Floris IV. . still. he had no other opportunity of meeting the daughters of nobles but at tournaments. at Corbie in Picardy in 1234. under Henry II. under Conrad I. by Pope Eugenius. . at Liege in 1148. at Magdeburg in 932. count of Holland was slain. under the same . at Gottingen in 1118.52 Abridged History Bald.

and the German Fausstotirnier . as it was really a great deal heavier. Suits of armour made specially for foot combats are very rare. but this is an error. often mixed up with the joust (the latter being always practised on horseback). In Italy armour has always been marked by an incompleteness of style. and carrying swords attached to their breastplates by means of small chains. It is clearly impossible for a man to have borne the weight of one of those polished steel suits of armour so well known by the beauty of their design. The passage at arms was. tised to look 53 round and select their partners for dancing. for in the fetes of that time these arrangements and restrictions were set at naught far more than is supposed by the authors of the sixteenth century. for the combat was very often continued on foot with the same armour after one of the combatants had been unhorsed. however. their massive character and enormous weight. whose imagination is as fertile on this subject as on that of war machines. It is to be found in England. These tournaments are generally divided into three sorts. we see that in tournaments the wooden mace (Jcolbenturnier) was not the only weapon employed. that many nobles ruined themselves in the desire to eclipse their rivals in the richness of their armour and accoutrements. The armour usually worn for tilting is supposed by some authors to have been lighter than that used in war. which in Germany became subdivided into eighteen. a step which often reduced them to a state of dependence on the Hebrew usurer. though the designs and execution * } . These divisions and limitations were too strict and precise for the middle ages. France. and in the designs of fifteenth-century date. for in the melee knights are represented as wearing the hcaume. arid It was for these very fetes not unfrequently also for life. and even on the classic soil of Italy. for more than an hour at a time. three sorts. according to the customs and tastes of the nation. whilst others are using that less dangerous weapon the wooden mace mentioned above. the German Hennen or tilt. but in all these places it has undergone certain modifications. Spain. the German Stechen or passage at arms.of Ancient Arms. The Gothic armour which originated first in Germany spread rapidly wherever the spirit of chivalry had shown itself. preserved in the Maximilian Museum at Augsburg.

pikes. separated by hundreds of The years. used in the last war. that is in the library at Munich. for the decline in the manufacture of armour did not take place till after the expulsion of the Moors from Granada in 1492 and although after this the Spanish artists had recourse again to the Gothic style it was only for a short time.. swords.54 Abridged. are identical with those dating centuries back. as some authors would have us believe. or Royal Book. 999 years after Christ. the artillery of ancient times. that may seen in the Tower of London and elsewhere. that Persian equipment was in the sixteenth century exactly the same as it is at the present day. for the decay of this art was complete in the reign of Charles V. The artists of that country were too much influenced by a natural prejudice in favour of classic traditions to be able to abandon the Pagan for the new style. The Arab invasion in Spain acted rather as an impulse for improvement in the making of armour than for its decadence. they are almost identical in make to those that the eastern nations manufactured hundreds of years ago. sabres. llistory of the ornaments are usually very artistic. War machines. a poem written by the poet Ferdusi in the reign of Mahmoud. for we see from the illustrations of the period that their construction was almost identical. the form of arms has remained stationary. and some of the finest master-pieces conspicuous by their As to the oriental originality and beauty date from this era. iron-forks. . and even cuirasses and helmets exhibited in the Musee d'Artillerie at Paris. We find very little change in Chinese and Japanese armour. We see particularly in the illustrated copy of the Sclmli-Nameh. freed itself at length from this unhealthy foreign influence. the founder of the Ghaznavides. were adopted by the middle ages with very slight modifications from those used by the Romans. which was characterized by great simplicity of treatment and by a complete change from that of the past age. ne\v . for although a slight alteration can be traced in costume throughout these various epochs. on account of the The art of painting alone influence of the Italian school. arms of the present day. They also seemed to forget that the changes introduced into the manner of fighting required a corresponding change in the armour. We can Lave no doubt of these machines having really existed.

such as are seen in the water-colour drawings. and these drawings may at times represent projected ideas rather than accomplished facts. The princess states. Still. too much faith must not be put in the real existence of all the machines which are represented in the MSS. missiles used in the middle ages. together with a large number of broad arrow heads. the sling. the Princess Anna Comneiia (1083-1148) could scarcely have been ignorant of it. for in those times the minds of men were as fertile in constructing machines for the destruction of human life as they are now. seems to me to have been an invention of central Europe. executed by Nicolaus Glockenthon in 1505. are preserved in the cabinet of antiquities at Zurich. of the arms and armour collected together in the three arsenals of the Emperor Maximilian. The crossbow which M. many others were invented for the defence of camps and of besieged towns. we find at this time. which was destroyed by fire in the thirteenth century. M. as we have already said. The records of Mons also make mention of these catapults. is a bow unknown among us. at all periods. Passing on to hand weapons. of the middle ages and of the Eenaissance." inasmuch as . the fustibal. Two collections of drawings dating about the beginning of the fifteenth century.of Ancient Arms. we have a representation of the catapult or tormentum of the ancient Bomans.' and very like one in the "Recueil d'anciens poetes francais" in the Imperial library at Paris. however. Rodios supposes to have been identical with the gastrafdes of the Greeks. 55 proof having been afforded to us by the remains of balistas found under the ruins of the castle of Kussikon in Switzerland." represent a species of diving-dress not at all unlike the modern ones. These remains. but we can nowhere find any Besides these machines for hurling traces of the polyspaste. Bodies gathers his information frcm " the tzayai a Byzantine MSS. known in French under a slightly different form by the name of c onagre. In some illustrations by Zeitblom in a manuscript of the fifteenth century belonging to the library of Prince Waldburg Wolfegg. as and the bow everywhere prevalent. which are as well as the above in the " Ambras collection. and to date no farther back than the tenth century at earliest^ for if it had been known elsewhere.

The points of the arrows were of various shapes. The Italian bow. . for warlike purposes. in old French in German. according to the records of Saint Denis. The English arrow was a yard in length. Flitz) . Burgundians. while the bow used by the English archers. But alike the Germans continued to make very little use of missile weapons until the invention of the crossbow. mentioned above. and even crescent. Allemanni. The bow was used by the Germanic races for hunting for the Franks. and varied according to the height of the person who used it. about the time of the first Crusade. some of them being square. generally made of steel. one of which was the quiver (called couin. were also some of cork-screw shape. three. Catti. and it must be admitted that at the battle of Hastings both sides made good use of them. an archer usually carried two cases. others petal-pointed. as may be seen in the paintings by Glockenthon. considering it too childish to it even the battle- In the Bayeux tapestry Normans and Anglo-Saxons are armed with bows. whilst others were barbed like ancient arrows. handle fastened to . The scorned it and treacherous a weapon. were then called p tiles and sayettes the other case held the bow. if ever. like the crossbow bolts. In the reign . In the twelfth century. which rarely. only Angli.56 J&ridged History sling and the fustibale (which was only a sling with a were used as late as the sixteenth it) century for hurling fireballs and grenades. Marcomanni. and many others. missed their mark. this held the arrows. that they were able to discharge as many as twelve arrows in a minute. with two. The Norman bow was small. The crossbow mentioned by the name of tzagara by Anna Comncna is also spoken of by William of Tyre in the year 1098. was about a yard and a half in length. which. archers were so expert. . who were so celebrated for their skill in archery about the thirteenth century. like the German bow.shaped. Cherusci. Saxons. measured two yards in length. for hamstringing men and horses. or four There points. and preferring axe or the anjon for missile purposes. being only about a metre in length. The rule was that the bow should measure the exact width between the two middle The English fingers when the arms were outstretched.

Count of Champagne. xx livres. about the " Chacun de la commune de Vitre aura r j ear 1220. though.of Ancient Arms. painted in the reign of Henry the Lion. The first paintings representing crossbowmen are in an Anglo-Saxon MS. at which time all archers were armed with open casques and brigantine coats. introduced amongst his subjects the practice of shooting with the crossbow in the year 1286. the rain often slackened the string of the cross- bow. British Museum. and a little later it was introduced at Nurem- berg and Augsburg." Crossbowmen are also mentioned in the chronicle of Saint Denis. surnamed le Gros (1108-1137). strange to say. difficulty shoot three bolts to the bowman's twelve Moreover. Philip Augustus (1180-1233) organised in France some bodies of crossbowmen on foot and on horseback soon these regiments became so important that their commander took the title of grand master of crossbowmen. Duko of Schweidnitz. throughout France this weapon had entirely superseded the long bow. that Boleslaus.. of the eleventh century. aura aubeleste en son ostel et quarriaux. notwithstanding the pastoral letter of Pope Innocent III. which however continued to be used in England till the end of . in It is well known paintings done in the thirteenth century. In England. Eichard Coeur de Lion (1189-1199) allowed crossbowmen to form part of his army. and next in rank to that of marshal of France. also in some frescoes in the cathedral at Brunswick. In the charter of Theobald. and in the chapel of Saint John at Ghent. who died in 1195. had caused to be planted in all the cemeteries in Normandy yew-trees for the manufacture of crossbows in point of fact. this crossbow was in general use in France. The bow used by the English was much superior to the French crossbow. while the bow-string could easily be protected. it is said. the reign of Queen Elizabeth (1558-1603). however. The loss of the battle of Crecy (1346) was in great part owing . 57 of Louis VI. and a law was passed at the Lateran council held in 1139 forbidding its employment amongst Christian nations. etc. [Charles VII. and it was not till 1515 that this office was united with that of grand master of artillery. for the crossbowman could with arrows. now in the . it authorised the use for the purpose of slaying infidels and miscreants. a high post in the army.

as mentioned above. from its being somewhat large in size. In 1356. crossbow. when the corps of crossbowmen was finally given up. fitted with a case which turned on the stock by means of a lever moved by the wrist. calls them Petau1 diers and Bibaudiers. which. who soon became so expert that the nobility grew fearful of their power. a heavy and comparatively useless weapon of the time of Louis XIV. there were some English archers in the pay of Eichelieu who distinguished themselves at the attack on the Island of Re. There are seven different sorts of this weapon. The Goafs foot crossbow. and earthenware balls that were shot from it instead of bolts. used by the cavalry.58 Abridged History to this circumstance. the inferiority of the crossbow became so evident. however (1390-1543). caused the infantry to be called cranequeniers. goat s foot. who had improved it in various ways. leaden bullets. This was the weapon used by the Genoese at Agincourt specially The (1420). generally called cranequin crossbow. which rendered it almost impossible for the French to return the unerring shots of the English archers. also called a tour and de passot. called a This species of windlass was called cranequin. Monstrelet. . having the wheel attached to the The crossbow a galet. The Chinese crossbow. The Windlass crossbow. so called from the round pebbles. adapted for sieges and for shooting at a mark. In the year 1627. and had them disbanded. or pebble crossbow of the sixteenth century. and the string was stretched by means of a simple lever. and the foot-soldiers who used it were surnamed Cranequeniers . at the siege of La Rochelle. after the defeat at Poitiers. that in France corps of archers were organised. France it fell out of use in the seventeenth century. The German stock. Latch crossbow. just like our modern revolvers. The ramrod-crossbow. The Germans called it Balestre. The crossbows of the cavalry were lighter than those of the infantry. The crossbow had also become a favourite weapon amongst In the Germans. and which furnished twenty arrows in succession.

bolt called matras had a round disk or head. which were arranged in a curved direction round the Another shaft. have been. belonging to the convent of Friburg in Breisgau. or thin pieces of wood or iron. restored. It was especially useful in bringing down such beasts as the hunter might wish to preserve with the skin uninjured. so to speak. thanks to Dr. or lake. as well as the machines with which. who lived in the year 215 A. It was believed for a long time to have been the invention of two monks . Vossius. 59 The projectiles carried by these crossbows. seem to strengthen our belief in the existence of an explosive powder for the purposes of war. and on this subject our researches are attended with many We complications. Keller. but it is now supposed to have been known to the Kelts and to all the In the Palafittes. Callinicus. had learnt from the Arabs how to make three different kinds of Greek fire. which were filled with a composition which might very likely have been The words Shet a gene (centueur) and gunpowder.of Ancient Arms. now come to fire-arms. a Greek. and this secret he communicated to Constantine Pogonatus during the siege of . was most likely covered with a preparation of similar materials to those used now in the manufacture of gunpowder. the use of which in Europe cannot be traced back earlier than the fourteenth century. The Falarica of the Romans. The Chinese knew of gunpowder for several centuries before its use was general among us. and probably identical with the incendiary arrow. inclines to the same opinion. it was. Constantino Amalzen or Schwarz (1280-1320). agenaster (fire-arms ?) found in the sacred Indian books.dwellings of Switzerland. from a description by Julius Africanus. was a bolt furnished with feathers. which killed without piercing whatever object it struck . which. which was also used in the middle ages. Caligula used to imitate thunder and lightning. have sometimes been found fire-bullets. oftener used for the chase than in war. were called carrels or The vireton carreaux. in his Liber observationum. assigned by Gregory of Tours to a Keltic origin. according to Dion Cassius. however. so as to impart a rotary motion to the bolt. ancients. with the exception of the bullets mentioned above.D. from the square shape of the head.

fire what were called fire-arms were only engines which threw . Indian or Chinese salt. which means Indian or Chinese snow. for the Arabs call saltpetre Thely Sini.. though our appliances for the destruction of life are much more formidable. two of sulphur. 846 A. would lead one to conclude that Mohamedanism was propagated not only by means of the sword. . a work written by the Bishop Albertus Magnus of Ratisbon in 1280. The secret of gunpowder most likely came over from India. built about 200 B. and it was also used at the siege of Seville (12i7). six parts of saltpetre. and two of charcoal.60 Constantinople. and also proves that the author was acquainted with a composition called raquette.D. besieged places for the purpose of destroying the buildings and machines of the enemy and it is not until the end of the fourteenth century that weapons which carried leaden or stone bullets were invented.. it always resolved itself at the last into a hand-to-hand struggle of the most exciting and deadly kind. for notwithstanding the manoeuvres of their captains. victory in battle resulted as much from the muscular strength of the soldiers as from the strategic skill of their leaders or fury of the combatants. As soon as artillery began to be used battles changed The combatants did not rush on each entirely in character. besides other things. which has no parallel in our modern warfare. that is. and the Persians call it Nemek-Tschini. and the receipt for this powder and for that called raquette. (Liber ignium ad comburendos hostes) written by Marcus Grsecus. at the siege of Mecca.C. but also by gunpowder. furnish additional proof that the Chinese used artillery at this epoch. The embrasures for cannon constructed in the great wall of China. The fire-arms which were used by Hagiacus and the Arabs in 690. The MS. and that the history of artillery and fire-arms really begins. Abridged History of these compositions bore a strong resemblance to gunpowder. given in the De Mirabilibus Mundi. enables one to assign distinct dates on this question. We have proof that in 1232 the Chinese and the Tartars employed gunpowder regularly in war. t One Till the into commencement of the fourteenth century in Europe. contains a receipt for making gunpowder. This receipt includes. Before gunpowder was used.

a touch-hole was added for the purpose of firing it without danger. sometimes one whole piece. We . as well as the art of printing. etc. one comprising all large and heavy pieces of ordnance such as cannons. fowler. to be considered as the first European fire-arm. charcoal. more or less . all portable arms. and eight feet two inches in The first cannon (a name derived from the German length. though open at both ends. the process of corning which was known in has helped. the composition suddenly exploded. we must divide fire-arms into two categories. sometimes several hammered in with a mallet. and the designs. to protect 1452. therefore. like the staves of a barrel joined one to the other by hoops. In order to proceed systematically in this matter. In examining the MSS. and is three feet seven inches in diameter. was made of wrought-iron. While pounding a mixture of sulphur. The mortar ought. from the German Vogler.of Ancient Arms. are quite justified in believing the traditional story that the idea of making use of gunpowder to shoot balls through an iron tube accidentally occurred to the inventor. and ply destruction among each other's ranks with their pieces of artillery. and finally. the other. Kanne. called veuglaire. the most ancient form of cannon. and this was a mortar. in which the chamber and tube were formed of separate pieces. but of an improved shape. which was then stopped up with wedges of metal or wood. and it was not till the end of the action that a hand-to-hand struggle for some important locality was needed to decide the day. The charge was inserted at the lower extremity. but used to station themselves at a distance. It was followed by the charge a la botte mobile. generally called bombarde. is found in Germany as early as the sixteenth century. by the muzzle-loading gun. and the man was knocked down this proves that it must have been from a common domestic mortar that the first idea of a cannon was conceived. and saltpetre together in a mortar. This. a drinking-vessel). 61 other after shooting off a few arrows or bolts. The largest one is in the arsenal at Vienna. modern civilisation against the chance of again vanishing. Not long after the invention of this weapon several guns or mortars were made of pieces or bars of wrought-iron. Gunpowder.

It is stated in authentic history. and there exist representations of the cannons used by the English at the battle of Crecy in 1346. that was open at both ends. the Teutonic nations throughout the north of Europe made use of large cannons in their wars in Prussia and Lithuania. were more modern than the veuglaire . cannons were already in use (1339). of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. as these. and to the twelve municipal magistrates.thro wing guns and it was probably from Flanders that Edward III. The first mention of the use of fire-arms perhaps powderarms would have been a better title which for a very long time did not entirely supplant the old-fashioned machines. But I doubt if the small wooden cannons made of thick staves covered with leather that are to be found in the arsenal at Genoa are of as early a date. it appears as if the cannon called bombarde. In 1428 the English made use of fifteen mortars that were loaded from the breech. the Republic of Florence granted to the priors. are to be found in use throughout the whole of the middle ages. On referring to a passage in De remediis utriusque fortunes. dates as far back as the year 1301.. brought over these new weapons . but from the pieces that still exist. when the town of Amberg in Germany had constructed a large cannon. and Brescia succumbed under a volley of arquebusses (?). It was also about this time that all the free towns of Germany began to provide themselves with artillery. the gonfaloniers. in 1328. few years later. the veuglaire is proved to be the more modern weapon. particularly for siege operations. whose origin and date of manufacture is known. A . by Petrarch (1382).62 Abridged History fantastic. In 1313 the town of Ghent had stone. at the siego of Orleans. ^*^Tn the year 1325. it is clear that wooden cannons existed at that date in Italy. for use against the Scots in 1227. for the defence of the castles and villages belonging to the republic. the right of nominating two officers. that at the sieges of PuyGuillern and of Cambrai by Edward III. and may not rather be contemporary with the leather cannons used by the Swedes in the Thirty Years' War. charged with the construction of iron bullets and metal cannons. Cast-iron cannons succeeded those of wrought-iron.

tbat were used with great success in the siege of Claudia. Vienna. these are mentioned for the first time in the casting of thirty guns at Augsburg in 1378. With regard The trunnions that support the cannon. and similar to one exhibited in the arsenal at Between the ball (which was at first made of Soleure.Fossa. stone.of Ancient Arms. and of hollow iron and leaden to the use of bronze in casting of cannons.. at Berne in 1413. In Italy bronze cannon were not cast earlier than 1470.. some German manufacturers sent over to the Venetians a great many iron cannons and balls. shot. as well as another in the Hauslaub balls. viz. at Tournay. It was in 1346. In Switzerland fire-arms were not introduced till a later date at Basle the first cannons were cast in 1371. simply) and the charge of powder was The charge was at first fired by placed a wooden wad. to be drawn down during the time of loading the cannons. keep it evenly . written in the sixteenth century. the charge was at first enclosed in a small copper case. 63 When the manner of loading was changed from loading at the breech to insertion at the muzzle. In 1372. such as is represented in the work of Fronsberg. which may be regarded as the precursors of the conical bullets According to the Thuactually used at the present day. fired carronades. iron balls superseded those of lead. ringian chronicles of Eothe. About the year 1400. by a founder called Aarau. and it was not till some time later that a slow match fastened to the end of a The mantlets or wooden blinds which used stick was used. it was the artillery of the Duke of Brunswick in 1346 who were the first to use a new kind Not long after this of projectiles. contains designs where the gunners are represented loading their guns from the breech with red-hot iron cannonThis same MS. in the Ambras collection at Vienna. some of the French ships . at the battle of Ehodes. collection. leaden bullets. means of a live coal or a red-hot iron. of the fifteenth century. shows us also how they used the small A incendiary barrels in sieges about this time. and called stone. MS. that a man named Piers made the first experiment with the long-pointed projectiles. were for the purpose of sheltering the gunner and his man.

the discovery of which was of great importance. and were also used as a check against a These cannons were usually placed on twocavalry charge.carriages and gear were also used. to the powder mines. were adopted for the defence of camps. used howitzers in 1434. though Vannoccio Biringuccio attributes the invention to the Italian Francisco di Giorgio. chariots bristling with spears. in 1503. and shortly after fore.. formerly used by the ancient nations. and are still to be seen in the designs car. . at present in the Museums of Lausanne and Neuville. from Riband. The artillery of Charles the Bold had no trunnions. . As artillery. appear in Germany as early as the fifteenth century. Cannons were introduced into Kussia in 1389 and the Taborites. and 40). George Lofler of Augsburg. which was destined to effect a great . now in the Museum of Artillery at Paris.34 Abridged History balanced. for the bore. At first mortars were usually placed on blocks of wood or in sorts of sockets (affats fixes) later on (1492) they were placed on movable carriages that enabled the shot to be The scala librorum. it is generally admitted that they were first used. Towards the fourteenth century. wheeled carriages. an assistant gunner. having small cannons fixed on the framework of the These were called Ribaudequins. It was at this period that cast shot was invented. and prevent its recoil off the carriage. that is generally supposed cannot be relied on. or measure directed on any side. as well as those taken at Grandson and at Nancy. and it was brought into use throughout Germany by the celebrated smelter of Charles V. was invented by Hartmann of Nuremberg in 1440. and in the Gymnasium at Morat. who also instituted a standard of the four sizes (which were 6. the avengers of Huss. 12. but it is not known who was the first person to introduce this improvement. The cannons taken at Morat in 1476. The cannons that at first were fixed on wooden blocks and cases were soon placed on gun carriages with wheels. 24. have no trunnions. as the idea being taken from MSS. : change in which were preceded in the middle ages by firebrand mines. when it was besieged by the Spanish general Gonzalvo of Cordova. at Naples. as it enabled the cannon to move easily in a vertical direction.

is composed of small wrought-iron cannons rudely mounted on what looks like the trunk of a tree. L'orgue a serpentins. published in 1846. at Sigmaringen . spirales. There were serpentines (in German Rothschlangen). executed about the year 1505.of Ancient Arms. With regard to hand grenades. bombardes. loaded either from the muzzle or at the breech. says that in the arsenal at Nuremberg there were organs with thirty-three pipes to them and that death might be said to play dance music on them. all the different species of cannons. and of the fifteenth century. writing in 1698. (Feldschlangeri). Weigel." by Napoleon III.shaped tubes firmly joined together and mounted on a stand with large wheels third somewhat similar to the carriage of a field-piece. of the seventeenth century. mounted so as to form a triangular block. and to fire six successive volleys. demiThere were also mortars which was a machine composed of a great number of guns of small bore. basilics. almost impossible. or Holler) that were moved from place to place on chariots. falcons. it was made at the beginning It is loaded from the muzzle. is composed of forty square.. It is very difficult. In France the names passevolants. the cannons then existing in the arsenals of the Emperor Maximilian. and falconettes. Another of these machines. is now in the Museum at Soleure. after 65 of Nicolaus Glockenthon. termed orgue de danse Macabre. copied in 1505 by Nicolaus Glockenthon from one in the arsenals of the Emperor Maximilian. (Moerser. which are supposed to . had each separate chamber encased as far as the muzzle in wood or metal these chambers were fired in : succession or all at once. or Boeller. while petards. consisting of forty-two barrels. they appear for the Museum A first time in 1536. to classify exactly. in fact. In Germany they were called Todtenorgel (death-organ). one. and moves on two round disks of wood for wheels. it will be seen that there were some of these machines which could fire a hundred and forty shots at once. according to the names then in use. veuglaires and pierriers. From the " fitudes sur 1'Artillerie. culverins culverins. One of the earliest of these machines is in the . were used to designate various pieces of ordnance. for very often the same piece was named differently in each large city.

it also had trunnions like the Suedoise. This gun was very useful because of its light weight in a mountainous country like Switzerland. 1661 wr ought-iron cannon of the year 1694 which has eight Not much attention had been paid to the rifling of grooves. rifling of $ The large guns till after Benjamin Eobins. and is dated A. and which had been proposed by the Count of Hamilton. and wound round it was a stout cord that separated the leathern casing from the metal tube. by those of Armstrong. these cannons were made of a tube of yellow copper. and the charge was only about a quarter of what would be used at the present day. These cannons. Like those mentioned above. The length The Swedes had leather was about seven feet. They were given up after the battle of Leipsig. in the Museum of Artillery in Paris. were about three feet seven inches in length. and a little later it >vas applied to large cannons. born in 1707. as may be seen from the rifled cannon of the sixteenth century in the Museum at the Hague. a member of the Royal Society of London. These guns were not very strong.D. They were superseded by a species of ordnance called Swedish guns.66 1579. and the collection of the king of Sweden. for on that occasion they became so hot that they discharged themselves spontaneously. and by the wonderful . had treated the subModern artillery has been greatly ject mathematically. do not appear in the Thirty Years' War cannons of lined with a tubing of brass or yellow copper. published iu 1822 . and round them were also several rings of wrought iron. The centre barrel was of thin copper. hand fire-arms was invented in Germany towards the end of the fifteenth century. altered through the improvements made by Paixhans. which differed very much from those used by the Imperial Austrian army. for a man could carry it on his shoulders . but between it and the exterior leather tube there was a thick layer of lime. In the arsenal at Zurich there is another kind of cannon very like the leather cannons of the Swedes. Abridged History till have been invented by the Hungarians. The iron cannon in the arsenal at Berlin has thirteen grooves and at Nuremberg there is a to it. and a Covering plate on hinges for the touch-hole. specimens of which may be seen in the Arsenals of Berlin and Hamburg.

as may be concluded from the expression Eques scoppetarius. and it appears that the Flemings used them some time before other nations. At Arras in 1414 this small hand cannon was used for M. progress that cast-steel 67 in the manufacture of one of which. we may divide them into thirteen distinct kinds. the shot was also of cast steel. Portable fire-arms were often confounded with heavy artillery in Europe in the days when gunpowder was first emThe first trace of hand fire-arms is towards the ployed. viz. . and was 10 cwt.. little later the This touch-hole was placed to the right of the cannon. the hand cannon of the middle of the fourteenth century. weighed 49 tons 2 cwt. Krupp has made . 3 qrs. used by Paulus Sanctinus. at Padua in 1386. and had a covering plate on a pivot or on hinges. Four small sannons are represented . and mentioned above as having been copied from some canncns in the arsenal of the . they were adopted at Perugia in 1364. primitive weapon is represented in the water-colour drawings of Glockenthon. in weight. a breech-loader. These cannons were used also at the battle of Rosebecque and in 1382. By classifying them carefully according to their mechanism. middle of the fourteenth century. projecting leaden bullets . The town of Liege had made several experiments in the manufacture of small hand cannons. At the close of the fifteenth century its use had extended to the cavalry. and in Switzerland in 1392. and 1430 this new kind of weapon was used for firing at a mark both at Augsburg and Nuremberg. executed in 1505. at the siege of Trosky in Lithuania in 1383 in the records of Bologna of 1399 they are called scZopo.hole was at first made on the top of the cannon. to preserve it from damp. from which word is derived sclopetto and escopette. so that it could not be brought to the shoulder the touch. cannons . at the siege of Bonifacio in Corsica In 1429 in 1420 these bullets even penetrated the armour. The continual alterations that have been made in the different sorts of portable arms that have been invented since the adoption of hand cannon have given birth to more numerous names than even those of large firearms. called by the Germans KnaUbuschen . portable firearms. exhibited by him in 1867. fastened to a piece of rough wood. A Emperor Maximilian.of Ancient Arms. a rudely-made weapon in wrought iron.

which was The hand cannon. a serpentin. match. a fire-arm fixed to the four corners of a board. belonging to the end of the fourteenth century. . simple Harquebus. made about the latter half of the fifteenth century. and intended for the use of cavalry. When this Two weapon was better made it petrinal. shape of the stock. is distinguished from the former by having a rudely-fashioned stock. which could be fired from the shoulder. inches in length. but with a trigger. The match was fastened to the weapon itself. from the old or perhaps (jpoitrinal) Spanish word pedernal. a firearm with a double catch or match-holder. with match-holder. This hand cannon was often served by two men. or poitrinal. called also marcassite. without spring. trigger. When of a small size. The hand cannon. the length being from three The lock is distinguished from that of the to seven feet. and was held by the serpentin. was called a hand culverin. The Harquebus (from the German word Hack-Buss.68 Abridged History and a gunner is firing them with a match. a sort of small linstock. in having two match-holders working in It was often supported by a stand opposite directions. The double Harquebus (from the German Doppelhacker). fired with a separate match. this hand cannon was called in France petronel. or a dragon. It is a weapon very perfect in make. usually made of ten It is not. or cannon with catch). The wheeled or German Harquebus (Itadschlosbuchse in Its difGerman) was invented in 1515 at Nuremberg. this being superseded by the sulphurous pyrites. from the fact of its being rested against the cuirass. termed in French Le canon a main a epauler. resting on iron spikes or wheels that was called fourquine. which is found in cubes of a brilliant golden . fired with a separate pieces. and tumbler. from the often rested on the cuirass. ference consists in having a wheel-lock. that could be fired with a surer aim when rested on the shoulder. like all earlier arms. without trigger or tumbler. with match-holder. other sorts of haiid cannons. were invented about the year 1424. It was mostly used for defending ramparts. and the prototype of our guns the barrel was about three feet three of the present day . The touch-hole All these weapons were is generally on the right side.

of Ancient Arms. so The pyrites. is used either with a wheel lock it differs from the arquebus only in diameter. according to Saint-Eemy. and including the stock was five feet The Museum A . long. that the Koman patrols took care never to be without. This piece has been for a long time ignorantly considered as the first fire-arm invented by Berthold Schwarz (A. solid. . however. was not adopted by the French army until 1793 it was the carbine of Versailles. . of the beginning of the sixteenth century. The arquebus or musket with home by a mallet. The flock of compilers still continue to call this little handcannon " Moenchsbiichse. to whom also was attributed the invention of gunpowder. was never able to replace entirely the harquebus with the match. a German monk. which was extremely brittle. 69 This is that combination of sulphur and metal yellow. as to procure a light as quickly as possible. it necessitated the use of a rest or carriage like that of the double arquebus. of Dresden possesses a small hand cannon eleven inches long and four inches and three quarters in diameter. according to some authorities at Leipsig in rasp by grating against the sulphurous pyrites showers sparks upon it as soon as it is removed from the screw-plate. or match the charge and bullet being double in size. for when used the sulphurous pyrites. which appears to have preceded the invention of the wheel-lock and given the first idea of. The musket. when struck by this cogged wheel.D." a name . The arquebus or musket with the " chenappan. and much more sure. of the calibre of twenty leaden bullets to the pound it was three feet eight inches long in the barrel. according to others at Vienna by Gaspar Zollner. whose construction and mechanism is the same as that of the arquebus. The French musket in 1694 was generally. This new weapon. with balls driven in Germany. broke very easily. Being much heavier. ignited and fired the charge. The rifled barrel invented rifle barrel. whose mechanism was more simple. and to point it out as the first fire-arm. 1290-1320)." or monk's arquebus.

and the Spanish bandits of the Pyrenees who were enrolled under Louis also XIII. which was the latter half of the sixteenth century. a hundred and fifty years before the replacing of the wheel-lock by the flint " fusil " was process. as it had a bayonet with a socket. The flint-lock gun was in all probability invented in France about 1640. whose blade at the same time serves as a barrel cleaner. Henry Badoc. and particularly the Turkish guns. who changed the wheel-lock of a pistol to a " " " snaphaunce. but as the name "fusil" already appears in France in the orders of hunting in the year 1515." a cock pecking. but really introduced into the French army by Vauban. the last remnants of the unhappy Vaudois. which was very inconvenient." The name Chenappan was soon given in France to robbers who used this new weapon. who were forced by religious intolerance to become marauders and bandits. This gun was also named fusil-mousquet. a wheeled lock of the end of the sixteenth century. it must be admitted that the name of then applied to arquebuses of the old fashion. and still keep his bayonet on the gun-barrel. The handled or " plug " bayonet was obliged to be fixed into the gnn-barrel at the moment of charging. The change which the lock of the fire-arm underwent . where a long bayonet. Some few Italian authors have wished to attribute to their country " the invention of the musket." fire. subsequent to this date were snaphaunces. may be looked upon as the forerunner of the French flint-lock. The socket allowed the marksman to shoot. Culemann at Hanover possesses an arquebus with 1691.70 Abridged History " corrupted from the German Schnapphahn. The ''snaphaunce'* method. which was worked by means of the sulphurous pyrites. indicates the time of its invention. for mention is made of moneys paid in 1588 by the chamberlain of Norwich to a gunsmith. in M. is fastened by a socket. that is to say." as were the Barbets of the Alps. an invention wrongly attributed to the Scottish General Mackay. in 1691. It has been already mentioned that the inventio'n of the socketed bayonet is wrongly attributed to the Scottish General Mackay. were also called " chenappan . because its name " focile " is derived from the Latin focus. which is derived from it. Nearly all the Oriental arms.

but neither immediate nor radical.of Ancient Arms. introduced in 1698 the iron ramrod among his soldiers. supposing the gun were to flash in the pan. French . the complete charge of the fire-arm wrapped in one packet. because it was preceded by the snaphaunce lock. where as early as " 1364 they constructed hand-cannons only the length *' The German "Tercerole" was a small pocket pistol. generally short and used by cavalry . appears " . 71 by the invention of the flint battery was important." the city of that name. and this amelioration of the gun contributed to their victory at the battle of Mollwitz in 1730. and the shower of sparks set light to the powder in a pan communicating with the touch-hole." a pommel. Streubuchse" German) had a wide trumpet-shaped barrel. Putch (mousquet tonnerre. probably of Italian origin. In the French guns. The pistol. The carbine is a fire-arm with a rifled barrel. which was strongly held in the grip of the dog-head and sharply struck against the steel hammer.. The blunderbuss to of a " palma. . commanding a Hessian regiment in the American war (1775-1783). and discharged ten or twelve balls at once. have come originally from Perugia. after the manner of the arquebus with wheel and screw. the pyrites was replaced by flint. appears to have been used for the first time in Spain about 1569 it was not adopted in France uiitil 1644. along with the cartridge-box invented by Gustavus Adolphus in 1630. that is to say. rather than from " Pistoia. donderbus. the organiser of Prussian infantry. whose invention is wrongly attributed to the English Captain Fergusson. dates . The cartridge. Vauban also invented a gun with a double firelock. Prince Leopold I. The old match-lock was not entirely replaced by the new gun with the hammer until 1700. The percussion-capped gun. so that. as soon as the finger pressing on the trigger loosed the spring. of Anhalt Dessau. the diminutive of the arquebus and fusil. whose name was probably derived from "pistallo. but war and hunting fire-arms with/rifled barrels are also called carbines. a screw-match would set fire to the priming. in which we already meet with the doghead or hammer." about nine inches.

and has given way only to the musket. a small copper cylinder open at one side and filled with fulminate. and it is to Fourcroy. The first chemical researches concerning the composition of detonating materials. Delvigne found out a method of forcing the bullet into the rifled barrel of the carbine without the use of the hammer. Vauquelin. that the discoveries (between 1785 and 1787) of the fulminating salts of gold. introduced it into France. a Scottish armourer of the name of Forsyth. oxygen and mercury an invention erroneously attributed to Howard.* appear due to Nicholas Lemery continued Pierre Bouldure. erroneously called in French " double detente. In 1808 the armourer Pauly. took out a patent for the percussion gun." an ingenious piece of mechanism to render almost insensible the concussion produced by the loosing of the ordinary trigger. a preparation fitted to replace the priming powder in fire-arms. who in 1800 composed the first explosive powder of fulminate of mercury and saltpetre. when the real inventor." or hair-trigger. have seen that the wheel-lock has been in all ages very little used in warfare. . in 1699. The arquebus and * Ammoniures fulminantes. azote. which must not be confounded with fulminates. Joseph Egg may also be cited as having led this gunsmith to the invention of the priming capsule. The " Stecher. but merely an amelioration which may be adapted to most carbines. but it was universally adopted We for hunting and parade weapons. silver. and Berthollet. whether match or wheel- percussion. these researches in 1712. invented by a gunsmith of Munich in 1543. and platinum. and in a manner to avoid the inconveniences of the systems hitherto tried..72 Abridged History back no further than 1807. and with which all the ancient German fire-arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries are provided. army surgeon under Louis XV. as well as the muriated oxygen of chlorate of potash. appears to have made known in 1764 the fulminate of mercury a salt composed of carbon. Bayon. are due. who had modified Forsyth's The percussion gun of gun. is not a new system. In 1826 M. Liebig and GayLussac in 1824 analysed these fulminates.

The repeating but not revolving fusil. In modern times in France. Gastine-Kenette. and nearly identical with the match. is also a breech-loader. several yards of match. have invented different systems of percussion breech-loading guns. The " amussette " or plaything of Marshal Saxe. receiving the charge either in a metallic envelope. . with four barrels. and a German gun of the eighteenth century. and another. Pauly in 1808. also of the sixteenth century. Dresden. a system which has been brought forward again in modern times. after Grevelot had introduced a great amelioration in the manufacture of percussion caps. a copper utensil invented by the Dutch. flasks. dates from the beginning of the sixteenth. a weapon the barrel of which receives various charges in a groove which can be discharged successively. but only in calibre they were the usual arms of the regular The arquebusiers were provided with large powdertroops. a bag of bullets. and the Imperial Arsenal of Vienna. Lefaucheux alone has remained in favour for sporting weapons. The Musee d'Artillerie at Paris possesses a German wheel-lock arquebus of the sixteenth century. Leroy in 1813. which was loaded at the breech. but only two kinds of the same system they differed neither in form nor mechanism. There are specimens of these weapons at the Tower of London. . The Musee d'Artillerie at Paris also exhibits one of these weapons still retaining the old match-lock. and even of revolvers. at the Museums of Sigmaringen. but that of M. called Pulvermassen in German. and a The musketeers had in addition to the bag of bullets. sword and cushion a baldrick with wooden powder-tubes. of guns with more than one barrel. case of the grenadiers of the eighteenth century. or even the end of the fifteenth century these appear to be all of German invention. The origin of portable breech-loading fire-arms. with an opening in the barrel. at the Musee d'Artillerie at Paris. a priming horn. or in a movable chamber. 73 xock. The Museum of Sigmaringen possesses a German arquebus of the sixteenth century. and Lefaucheux. is likewise not a modern invention the Museum of Sigmaringen possesses . which is a revolver with seven barrels. and . were not two different systems.of Ancient Arms. more recently Lepage. a horn for the priming. that is to say. some matches and a match-case.

In respect of accuracy. are. as follow: . the Werndl (Austria) 12. loading needle-gun. by the Mariette pistol with twenty-four shots. The revolving pistol. duced its needle-gun. the Chassepot 11. has since undergone many changes. with the models of the needle- gun used by different nations. for eight years. the Eomington (Denmark) 14.74: Abridged History of Ancient Arms. revived at Paris by the gunsmith Lenormand in 1815. the best of all. he constructed the first needle-gun in 1827. the Woenzl (Austria) 10. and fires Since America has begun to manufacture metallic cartridges the revolving fusil has reappeared in that country. fications deserves the palm. the first perfect model of which was adopted in Prussia about 1841. and which is most generally in use. near Erfurth. was born in 1798. it an ancient gun of this character. for it was only in 1836 that breech-loading was applied to the manuSince that time every nation has profacture of this gun. port. where Spencer and Winchester have invented different processes. and lastly by the Colt revolver in 1835. after seventeen years of study. who constructed one with five barrels. and attempted to manufacture a weapon superior to that which produced such terrible results in the It is difficult to ascertain which of the new modilate war. and by the Hermann revolver at Liege. at Soemrnerda. After the mention of these different descriptions of firearms we have only to speak of the celebrated breechThe inventor. is grooved. The results of the experiments made on September 5th. and the revolver of Henry Winchester (North America) 19. This gun. was soon followed by the Devisme revolver with seven barrels. at the shooting-gallery of Spandau. however. Jean Nicolas Dreyse. successively six shots. the Peabody (Switzerland) 13. and took out a patent in 1828. according to official re- The Prussian needle-gun discharges 12 shots per minute. for his spring needle and fulminating cartridge. the last-mentioned weapon takes the lowest rank. the Snider (England) 10. only eleven of the nineteen shots being on the target.

and that of the dolmens .75 n. the manufacture of which required less primitive processes. nor in the fine polished state of the second . The stone weapons found in the Perigord along with bones in a cavern. There exist also some of these weapons which are neither in the first rough state. WEAPONS OF PRE-HISTORIC TIMES. and. that of their first appearance. this classification is not is certain. might indeed add a few proofs of the existence of man during the third geological epoch. altogether satisfactory. the dates of which naturally vary according to their different In France it has been attempted to divide these countries. and it is with these primitive products that a universal history of the weapons of all people should begin. smoothed but not polished. AND WEAPONS IN POLISHED STONE. CHIPPED FLINT WEAPONS. wood. but it would be necessary to submit these engravings to a microscopic obser- . they belong to epochs of transition. that earth. it has been shown that weapons of chipped stone have everywhere preceded those of polished stone. CHIPPED FLINT WEAPONS. but as epochs in the progressive march of civilisation sometimes differ greatly even among people of the same origin and race. It would be superfluous to reiterate here what has been said on this subject in the first pages of the preceding chapter . IT the skins as we have already observed. stone scattered over the earth. THE AGE OF STONE. productions into three distinct classes . must of necessity have been the first materials which man employed for the manufacture of his tools and weapons . some of which are engraved with the image of the mastodon. of wild beasts. that of the existence of the reindeer in France. above all.

" so called because they are com- The posed of objects belonging to different epochs. is later than the great terrestrial disturbance which we call the Deluge.76 Chipped Flint vation. have clearly been rolled together before being worked by hand. when freshly quarried. they are formed out of pebbles which. when undisturbed. a substance which is peculiar to unfossilised bone. although found in the interior soils of our continent. as is shown by the different "movable deposits. with ossine. Alpine diluvium. Many weapons and . so as to assure ourselves of the absence of any decepIt is not enough that these bones and weapons should tion. and before it has undergone the influence of the atmosphere. be gathered up in alluvial-diluvial deposits. contains no organic matter in the state of ossine. tools of manufactured flints betoken surely that they are not antediluvian . so that all alluvial soil containing fhe least bone. which may have undergone disturbances. can be divided by splintering. The manufacture of flint without metallic tools or corrosive acids can be explained only by the facility with which the flint.

has also been found at Sarabut El Khaden. . of Berlin. Museum of Sigmaringen. Museum 3. 5. 8. an island in the 9. Egyptian flint lance-head (6 inches). of Sigmaringen. found at Balingen. of Berlin. Museum 4. in Austria. Museum 6. Museum of Berlin. 10. knife (5 inches). of Sigmaringen.Weapons. of Berlin. 11. German flint Museum of Berlin. German flint lance-head (or chisel) (?2 inches). A quantity of chips in flint. the founder of Babylon . Egyptian flint knife (4 inches). and was found at Luneburg. Museum 2. Doubled-headed hatchet of smooth stone a transitory link between . found near Lintz. the chipped and polished stones. It is 5 inches long. Museum of the City of Hanover. German hatchet in basalt (7 inches). German Baltic. intended to be made into tools and weapons. found at Riigen. Museum 7. flint hatchet (5 inches). 77 reign Babylonian of Nimrod. Egyptian flint knife (6 inches). (6 Wedge of serpentine inches). Point of German lance. flint arrow-head (2 inches). 1. . found near Lintz (Austria).

London. It arrow-head of 2^ inches length. British flint of Fribourg. and found at " 1 See the Moniteur Loire). . Museum 16. Kelto-Gallic yellow flint knife (3 inches) 15. 20. Irish Llewellyn Meyrick Collection. 1865. London. 18. Helvetian : found as above. Kelto-Gallic s Collection. flint. British wedge or hatchet in whitish flint. of France. 14- 14. in hatchet (11 inches) Danish. Pressigny-le-Grand (Indre et " " Author 13. of 5 raltar. Danish flint (called Flint). Christy Collection. yellow flint knife of 5 inches found as ahove. Christy Collection. Kelto-Gallic yellow flint called is hatchet Pain de beurre.* It 10 inches long. in the lake of Neuchatel. of Prague.78 Chipped Flint 12. barbed arrow-head. flint 5 inches length: found near Stavaye. 19. whitish of 5 inches. Camp (sic) Christy Collection. 18 May. dagger of Author's Collection. 17. Spanish flint dagger inches found at Gib. may date from a time preceding the arrival of the Plioenicians. of 5| inches : found at Cisburg in Sussex. Bohemian flint knife (5 Museum 21. : Author's Collection. inches). Iberian or London. Kiler of Museum of Copenhagen.

Long arrow-head. worked in an admirable manner. Danish flint lance-head (7 inches). 26. inches). Danish flint dagger (8 inches). Museum of CopenJiagen. of Copenhagen. This weapon (Lanseweapon. but showing equally skilful work with the preceding one. Museum 23. of Copenhagen. Museum 25. Danish flint dagger with rounded handle (13| inches). of Copenhagen.Weapons. (in Danish Kiler of Flint). less sharp. flint (3 unbarbed. 79 Danish flint hatchet of superior shape (5J inches). Very Museum 28. Museum 29. Museum of Copenhagen. Danish lance-head flint (9 inches). of Copenhagen. . A marvel of workmanship. spits of Flint) is as sharp as any steel Museum 24. Museum of Copenhagen. 22. 27. Two Danish barbed flint arrowheads (1J inch) (Pilespidser of Flint in Danish). (Dolk of Flint). of Copenhagen. Danish inches). Danish flint hatchet-sabre fine work.

As the modern weapons of savage nations do not enter into the scheme of this work. it is difficult to fix the priority of one people over another in the construction of these where everything is plunged in obscurity. represented are no longer made. . . and the times when these weapons were in polished flint or bronze. Savoy. soils Even when taking note of the more or less rapid march of civilisation in each country. It is very difficult to establish exact demarcations between the times when nations made use of rough flint weapons. and Peschiera. which have yielded us no bronze weapons. have been found mingled together. The alluvial in which great quantities of these beautiful weapons have been found (in the so-called Kiokkenmoedinge or kitchen-refuse heaps). even when ancient. were already acquainted with bronze weapons. these beautiful the fineness of whose workmanship generally surpasses that of the polished flints of the second epoch of other countries. appear to show that their manufacture is later than that of the weapons from the lake dwellings in Switzerland. which date from the bronze age.80 WEAPONS IN POLISHED FLINT. The author has nevertheless made an exception in favour of Mexico. In England. and when new excavations from time to time overthrow what preceding ones have established. may possibly date farther back than the fourth geological epoch. for two of these products. it must necessarily be admitted that the phases of Danish civilisation do not tally with those of the Germanic and Gallic nations. mentioned in the preceding chapter. because the Mexican arms which have been here primitive weapons . and Baden. the flint ones likewise must of necessity be passed over. Castiana. for the modern construction of savage nations is just what it was in the bygone centuries. we can only argue from hypothesis. and that the Danish flints are probably not of earlier origin than the lake dwellings of Noveto. likewise. and even all three. and that the Danes continued to work in flints at a time when many of their neighbours When we see that Denmark produced weapons in chipped flint. these weapons have always been found in alluvial soils but the hatchets in chipped or rough flint of the Christy collection of London.

Weapons in Polished Flint. of the products of the so-called iron age will be seen some representations of dagger-points in iron. even when flint and bronze were still the usual In the chapter which treats materials for cutting weapons. SI made in the cemetery of Hallstatt have furnished proof that iron was not unknown in Germany. The excavations in fact . found in the tombs of Hallstatt along with weapons in bronze and flint.

near Lintz. found at London.hatchet. serpentine (8 inches). with bronze and iron weapons. National 35. in 34. hatchet. in German hammer . granite (6 inches). found with bronze and iron weapons in the tombs of Hallstatt. serpentine (6 inches). London. . German wedge.82 Weapons in 30. 32. German hatchet in serpentine (9 inches). of German double hatchet. Mecklenburg. found at Enns. Large Kelto-GaUic jade (16 inches). found at Hildesheim. Museum of Bavaria at Munich. Author's Collection. German hatchet.hatchet. 33. Small Kelto-Gallic hatchet. German at hammer . double-headed hatchet. serpentine (6 inches). 38. basalt (4^ inches). inches). in serpentine (1 inch). found 34- Kaufbeuren. Christy Collection. or talis- man 31. Christy Collection. British of Antiquities at Vienna. Museum 37. 36. London. amulet. in serpentine granite (3 found in the Nivernais. found at Gensen- heim. Museum 33. of Vannes.Car olinum at Fragment of German hatchet. Museum Lintz. near Mayence. London. touchstone (6 greenish inches). Christy Collection. Francisco. Christy Collection. Author's Collection.

Museum 42. of Copenhagen. basalt (5 inches). London. basalt (5 Museum 44. single hatchet. Double-edged Danish hatchet. Spanish hatchet in inches). basalt (8 inches). of Copenhagen. found in a Swiss lacustrine dwelling. Museum found in a tomb on the coast of Scotland. Danish double-edged hatchet. The Niolner is an attribute of the Scandinavian god Th or. serpentine. basalt (7 Christy Collection. Iberian or Meyrick Collection. in basalt (9 inches). Danish of Copenhagen. Museum of Zurich. Museum 46. Danish inches). 47. with long wooden handle. of Copenhagen. 40. Double-edged Danish hatchet. and 83 io with a wooden handle. serpentine. of Copenhagen. 41. of Zurich. and is often mentioned in the Sagas. War hammer. . basalt Museum 43. (5 Danish inches). basalt (8. 48. called Niolner.^ inches). hatchet. Kelto-Swiss hatchet.Polished Flint. Kelto-Swiss hatchet. fixed into a stag's horn. Museum 45. found at Rotenhausen.

Russian war-hammer in black stone (11 inches). iron of 1 metre. 50. 52. fixed into the wood. chalce- . Germain. employed it for mirrors. Mexican sword long. Flint. Fragment of a Hungarian hatchet.84 Weapons in Polished 49. o?. and the priests of Huitzilopochtli for ornaments. fixed in a * Obsidian is a volcanic production. with an enamelled- looking surface. of a greenish black. Mexican spear-head wooden handle. and serpentine. with ten blades. flint. in basalt (7 inches).* This weapon is 25 inches long. it Petersburg. There is a cast of at the Museum of St. London. of iron wood. Christy Collection. and capable of taking The Peruvian Incas a high polish. of the 15th century. in obsidian. Mexican sword of the 15th century. 51. Museum of St. 8 inches wood and black Museum of Berlin. black obsidian. they used also dony. of black obsidian. It is not the only stone made use of by the ancient inhabitants of America for their weapons.

their monuments. method of classification but the author has only acted thus after having entered his protest. Our museums are much richer in Greek and Roman arms. BABYLON. MEDIA AND PERSIA. AMERICA. it is from fear of creating confusion of ideas by a new. We have seen that even in times of the greatest antiquity iron and bronze were employed indistinctively for the manufacture of offensive and defensive weapons. including in term the five great Assyrian monarchies. Few arms and weapons and few documents of the Hindoo. ASSYRIA. ROME. changes in the weapons of the ancients. so that the establishment of a veritable Age of Bronze and Age of Iron If these terms have been preserved in the is inadmissible. pages 17 to 74. ETRURIA. have been explained in the historical chapter. EGYPT. and it has been found necessary to study the military equipment of these countries almost entirely from this . though more correct. which enable us to follow the changes of armour on classic soil during a number of centuries. and explained in what manner the conventional denominations were to be understood. who appear rather to have given the model of their arms to the Egyptians and Greeks than to have borrowed from them. Persian. . GREECE. SAMNIUM. for everything tends to show that the lost civilisations of America have even preceded those of a great part cf India. ANCIENT WEAPONS OF THE AGES OF BRONZE AND IRON. WEAPONS FROM INDIA. ETC. and Egyptian nations have reached us. The American weapons have been placed after those of India.85 III. Assyrian. American. CHALMJA. chapter which speaks of the weapons of northern nations.

and classic mythology it is a Hercules defeating his antagonist and many specimens of American keramic ware are known. . even in their state of artistic decline. had been carried by a people whose very shadow has disappeared from the field of history. 3000. . insomuch that the least ancient are always the least artistic a fact which authorises us to draw the conclusion of an ancient American civilisation since declined. so visible in Egyptian. . The Louvre possesses one of these ancient pieces of Transatlantic pottery. Assyrian.C. which appears to have manifested itself from the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries of this present era. Nothing has been found to throw any light on the arms of the ancient civilisation of this country. and that the helmet alone betokens a decided change. the more their workmanship resembles Greek art. See the historical chapter. . The more remote the date of these antique products. to what height the worship of pure outline and ornament. Weapons of and probably those of the countries we have been in the habit The Keramic wares of the heroic age of America. whose history goes back to B. the design of which recalls the decoration of ancient Etruscan vases. and Greek art.80 of calling classic. show. The figures here represented indicate that Hindoo armour has varied but little in the matter of offensive weapons. among which may be counted some products of Palenque and Mitla. as will be seen in the chapter which treats of Western weapons of the Christian Middle Ages. the classic ornaments of which show an equally incontestable priority. but whose most flourishing epoch was two and even three thousand years before Jesus Christ.

The engraving of this bas-relief is reversed. from an Indian piece of sculpture in the city of Saitron in Rajpootana. Hindoo hatchet. . (A. The Assyrians and all modern nations wore left. Javanese sword.D. from the statue of the Goddess of War at the 4. Hindoo warriors. date of these monuments corresponds with our Middle Ages.Bronze and Iron 1. it on the while the Greeks and Romans wore it on the right. 3. and their shields in their right. 2. 1100. Hindoo sabre from a bas-relief of Beenjanugar and the Hussoman monument. so that the combatants appear to hold their spears in their left hands. of which the Kensington Mu- seum The possesses photographs. from granite memorial stones of Beenjauugar. Museum of Berlin. It will is be seen that the sword placed on the right side of the warrior.) Kensington Museum.

and that the European conquerors found only pure stone in request for In regard to those of defence. These American arms. or city of Culhuacan. now a civilisation which may easily have extinct. or Culhuacan. This city was situated in the state of Chiapa. . or Huehuetlapatl'an. they have been placed at the end of the chapter which treats of polished stone weapons. the American weapons of the period corresponding to the Christian Middle Ages are few and insignificant. The helmet of the bas-relief of Hochicalco. mother-of-pearl. and Jose Alonzo Calderon. was as yet unknown. wood. where the cradle of the most ancient American civilisation. gold. As It has . and not in the place where the weapons of a time prior to the Merovingian epoch are mentioned. was placed been contemporaneous with. been observed in the historical chapter that the people of America never employed either bronze or iron in the construction of their offensive weapons. when the horse. were manufactured in bronze. are generally of wood edged with obsidian. from a stucco bas-relief in the ruins of Palanque.88 AMERICAN WEAPONS. and leather and traces have been found of different Such is the arms. was discovered only by Antonio del Eio. Palanqui. as we have seen. still belongs to a remote period. * in 1787. helmet engraved further on. the origin of which is lost in antiquity.* the circumference of which was about eighteen miles. that of India. if not anterior to. introduced by European navigators. though less ancient. in the northern part of Central America. they all cutting weapons. horn.

Two Mexican helmets drawn from a Mexican manuscript of the beginning of the fifteenth century. drawn from a bas-relief of Palanque. feathers. in which is described the con- quest of Ascapusala. 2. American helmet. de Waldeck's work. 3. de Waldeck. the property of M. 1. of the fifteenth century. destroyed in Mexico by fire. is represented sitting with the left leg folded under the body.American Weapons. Mexico. Mexican helmet in ornamented with solid gold. in the province of Quemaraca. which is mentioned in M. similar to the statues of the god Boodha. 4. It was part of a royal suit. Mexican helmet drawn from a bas-relief of great antiquity at Hochicalco. The figure in this bas-relief. . or the Chinese god Fo.

8. 4. and feathers. 25 inches in diameter. Buckler or small round Mexican shield. fifteenth century. leather and feathers.90 American Weapons. Mexican corslet of scales of mother of pearl (Jazeran or Korazin) ol the fifteenth century. The hieroglyphic ornaments have not hitherto been explained. 7. This fine piece of defensive armour was part of a royal suit. Oi the fifteenth century. destroyed in Mexico by fire. wood. . mentioned on the preceding page as having been at fig. of gold and silver. which was burnt. From a Manuscript. 6. leopard skin. Mexican helmet in wood. and ornamented with feathers. 5. It was part of the same suit of the fifteenth century. Mexican helmet in leather. From a Manuscript.

Ensign or Mexican standard in gold. or locust. surmounted by an eagle's head. For American offensive weapons in wood and obsidian. inches in diameter. shield. Mexican ensign in gold. 12g inches long. Buckler or round Mexican 25 9. 11. see the end of the chapter on polished stone weapons. and which here indicates that the shield belonged to a centurion over a hundred men. surmounted by a grasshopper. or captain 10. .American Weapons. life size. fifteenth century. fifteenth century. composed entirely of leather. and ornamented by the hieroglyphic sign which among the Mexicans stood for a hundred.

ETC. whole of which the name Assyrian has been commonly allotted. has been given at pages 22 to 26. as is proved by the ingots of this metal. as also by the fragment of a steel coat of mail in the British Museum. B. It has been seen that iron as well as bronze was already used in these countries in The to the the eleventh century. WEAPONS.C. and the few iron utensils in the Louvre.92 ASSYRIAN ARMS. . history of the weapons of the five great monarchies.

leggings.C.C. Nineveh of Sardanapalus V. of the reign of Sargon. target and lance. notice the greaves or leggings. 700. Basreliefs of B. 2. B.Assyrian Weapons. Assyrian soldier hunting game. British Museum. 700. Bas-relief of Khorsa- bad. coat. Assyrio-Babylonian archer with war a helmet. 8. Foot soldier of the Assyrian army. 93 1. . Museum of the Louvre. armed with the coat. and fillet instead of Bas-relief. without leggings. helmet and We also crest.

with ear and neck coverings in one single piece. The shield. The headdress has nothing of the helmet. differs entirely from the other Assyrian helmets known to us from different bas-reliefs. almost hemispherical. 4. is exceedingly convex. the helmet. Foot (B. descends to the ankle. The long coat. Persian warrior from a bas-relief of Persepolis. high enough to rest on. large. soldier of the army of Sennacherib 707). . probably of leather. a cast of which is found in the British Museum. but nevertheless indicates workmanship in metal.Assyrian Weapons. 560). The it archer carries the sword on the left side. Greeks and Romans wore on the 6. from a bas-relief of Persepolis. the ancient capital of Persia and of all the Persian monarchy (B. . and very convex. 5. from a bas-relief in the British Museum.C. . The shape of the conical 712 helmet approaches that of the Samnite one (see the chapter on Roman and Samto nite armour) the coat and leggings appear be of mail the shield is round. Persian archer. while the right.C.

C. British (8 Museum. to which the quivers of the warriors fighting on chariots were often fastened. 95 Assyrian hatchet in bronze inches). Assyrian dagger in bronze. Kouyunjik. 17 and 18. from the bas-reliefs of Khorsubad. Assyrian single hatchet.C. by De la Chaussee). 9. 12. It is very like the ancient "Akinake. the sense of which they do not understand. of the reign 1000. 13. Assyrian dagger in bronze. Museums of Berlin and of the Louvre. Assyrian poignard with head of probably in hippopotamus. bas-relief from a palace in Nineveh. The time of the birth of Zoroaster. from the bas-relief of Nimrod. 1000. . 10. the founder of Magianism. B. of Sardanapalus. from a bas-relief. 11. belongs to the period when the ancient Parsees still spoke the Zend language. Assyrian single hatchet. Assyrian sword in bronze. 7. from whom these arms have been copied.Assyrian Weapons. 14. B. 8. bronze. from a bas-relief. 16. Assyrian double hatchet.C. probably in iron. floats between B. the son of the mountain Ulbordi. B. but in which the Parsee or Guebcr priests still repeat prayers. Museum of the Louvre. Kouyunjik. Assyrian sword. Museum of Berlin. Mithras sacrificing a bull* (M. From the cast of a bas-relief in the Louvre. probably in iron. 1300. found at Babylon. British Museum. 15. or more correctly the reformer of Parseoism. Museums of the Louvre and of Berlin. Rom. 1300 and 1100. which is now extinct. Persian sword and sheath from an antique group. a Persian mythologic hero. of whom the "Zend-Avesta" fragments of the Works of Zoroaster give details." * Mithras. The Mithras. of the reign of king Sargon.C. Babylonian dagger in bronze.

Median quiver. bas-relief. British Museum and Louvre.96 Assyrian Weapons. See Roman Arms.C. Assyrian sickle-shaped weapon from a bas-relief. O 19. 22. B. 700. Persian sword. Assyrian lance. It is preserved in the Muse"e d'Artillerie at Paris. 23. Median bow. Bas-relief from a Palace of Nineveh. the height of a The shaft is man. British Museum and Louvre 20. similai weapon in iron has been found A at Psestum in Lucania. 21. Cast from a bas- relief of Persepolis. From a bas-relief. 24. of the reign of Sardanapalus V. bas-relief. and has a counter-weight at the end. . Assyrian spear-head.

probably in bronze. but in bronze and Kouyunjik. Museum. of an Assyrian foot-soldier. 27.Assyrian Weapons. of Assyrian horseman. 700. the authen- which is established. 28. Assyrian helmet in iron. Helmet.C. also the chapter on Roman arms.C. valuable for history. forms part of British the Klemm collection at Dresden. B. 26. See especially among the Normans. drawn from a bas-relief of Nineveh of the time of Sardanapalus V. . probably in bronze. Helmet. of the time of Sardanapalus V. and the Samnite helmet. interesting on B. Museum of the Louvre. This helmet its is account of cheek-plates. 700. Museum of the Louvre. indicates the use of iron in the time which is called the Age of Bronze of the ancients. Assyrian ticity of 97 bronze helmet. British Museum. from a bas-relief of Nineveh. attributed to Germany. A similar helmet. The conical shape of this helmet is to be found in the Christian Middle Ages. said to be from This piece of armour. 25.

B. Bronze crest of Assyrian helmet. leather probably in metal. which protected the top of the head. with chin-strap. From a bas-relief. 1000. Museum of the Louvre. 31. Headdress of Assyrian archer. or mounted with metal. (See note to pago 95. probably in bronze. and appears to come The one with a from the ancient civilisation of America. British Museum. and Berlin Museums. or cheekplates.98 Assyrian Weapons. 32. Fillet. pro- Helmet without bably in bronze. from bas-reliefs. Persian helmet from a group representing Mithras sacrificing a bull. double-pointed crest has been imitated by the Greeks. 33. Two Assyrian helmets.C. bas-reliefs in the British. and recalls the headdress of the Frank warriors.) . From 30. chin-strap. Louvre. worn by the Assyrian archers and auxiliaries. 29.

C. 34. British Museum. (B. Same observations as for the preceding of .C.Assyrian Weapons. casts of which are at the Louvre and British Museum. or war headdress of Persian from a bas-relief now in the This headdress. has probably been used in war. 560. Persian helmet with movable plates. Persian helmet of the reign of the dynasty of the Sassanides (A. Helmet or headdress of Persian archer. .) 35 36. 38. (B. a cast of which is in the British This piece of inasmuch as it prefigures the European Kenaissance helmet of the sixteenth century.) 37. 35. Persian helmet with cheek-plates and neck-covering. from a Persian bas-relief. Same observations as the preceding one. probably in bronze. 226This bronze helmet is in the 652). Helmet chief. a cast which is in the British Museum.D. from a bas-relief. British Museum. armour is interesting. 560. Museum. from a bas-relief of which appears to be of metal.

bas-relief representing the siege of a city by AsshurBritish Museum. from a baa- appears to be of a convex form. covers the loins. of the height of a man's shoulder. like the preceding It 41. Pavois. reign of Sardauapalus V. Assyrian shield.C. British Museum. Persian buckler from the mosaic of Pompeii. B. Bas-relief of the second Assyrian Empire. 700. in tempered steel. relief. From a Izir-Pal. which represents the battle between Alexander and Darius. in which is also to be found a fragment of a veritable Assyrian coat of mail. said to come from Babylon. breast-high. Babylonian buckler of the height of a man's shoulder. Museum 43. . Bas-relief.100 Assyrian Weapons. Pavois. 42. 40. probably in bronze. 45. Assyrian buckler. Coat of arms of Assyrian horseman. and is copied from bas-reliefs in the British Museum. Museum 44. 39. Persian buckler with vizor or sight-holes. or of Naples. Assyrian of the Louvre. probably of plates of It metal sewed on leather.

as may be seen in the chapter in which these weapons are mentioned. a time when this country formed. to be able to give an exact idea of the . Uchoreus the founder of Memphis. by . documentary evidence as to the arms of The first seventeen the soldiery fails us almost entirely. on account of its being a country where the genius of the nation was bent more towards science and agriculture than to war. all three hundred and thirty kings. and lance-heads in flint chipped offensive splintering. have left us no other evidence than a few bas-reliefs. even when added to the Theban bas-reliefs. offer fewer military subjects than Assyrian monuments. known as the reign of the Pharaohs (Moeris. can leave no doubts as to this metal being used in Egypt as well as in Assyria contemporaneously with bronze. The arrow-blades were found in Babylon itself. dynasties.C. and Berlin. This. the Louvre. &c. Notwithstanding the knowledge that we have of the history of Egypt. Xois. who reigned simultaneously in Thebes. All that has been found of weapons dating from the age of stone consists. which assuredly belong to most ancient times. We have seen that Denon. knives. that is to say. complete equipment of Egyptian soldiery. in his " Voyages dans la haute et basse Egypte. that the civil and funereal monuments of Egypt.101 EGYPTIAN WEAPONS. and cannot date farther back than iho foundation of this In addition to this there are in the British Museum a city. which goes back to the commencement of twentysix dynasties. It has already been observed in the historical chapter. Heraclea. the first king (B. exhibited in the museums of London. of a few arrow-heads.). as well as those of the eighteenth dynasty. beginning which comprised in from Menes to Maoris (2450 1990). to the reign of Menes. Ramses. preserved in the museums of London and Berlin. Elephantine. each under an independent prince. 2450)." has left a few drawings of offensive and defensive weapons but they are too slight. Diospolis. The few Egyptian tools and weapons in iron. Osymandias. and Tanis. as under the eighteenth dynasty. Amenophis. several distinct states.

Egyptian Weapons. found at Sarabut-el-Khadon. The most valuable piece. destined to the manufacture of sharp-bladed weapons. . for the reconstituting Egyptian armour. Prisse d'Avennes has represented in his work. same archsBologist are of such peculiar shape that it is impossible to explain their use. is the imbricated coat of mail which M. for the Biblical inscription engraved on one of the bronze scales enables us to Several of the offensive weapons drawn by this fix its date.102 few flint chips.

but of oval shape. Egyptian Museum of the Belvedere. Egyptian coat in crocodile's skin. 19). The la-addresses are of a strange form. already mentioned. Among tho scales the one which bears the Biblical inscription fixes the date of the manufacture to the Pharaonic dynasty. bas-reliefs. 103 1. No. Vienna. Egyptians fighting.ian Weapons. 3. in scales of bronze. designs of mail. . and the sist of offensive weapons con- only lanoes and arrows. from mural paintings of Thebes. The basrelief of Thebes. from Theban In addition to the men appear with the " with sight-holes these to be all armed " shop or " " khop (see farther on. 5. 4. from Denon's work. shows a similar buckler. Egyptian shield soldiers. from the Among M. Egyptian coat of Denon's work. Prisse d'Avennes may be remarked an Egyptian coat of mail. Egyptian buckler with sight-hole. each scale being an inch and a half in length by three-fourths of an inch in breadth.

from Thebes. id. 10. 6. 14. id. id. in bronze . Unknown weapon. Hatchet. sword. dart. id. 8. Egyptian quivers. 11. 7. Sword-breaker. Unknown weapon.104 Egyptian Weapons.from Denon'-swork. but they appear be from 25 to 27 inches long. id. 13. id. Egyptian hatchet. Scorpion or whip-goad. id. The to size of tnese weapons could not be given. scimitar. ?J. bas-reliefs ol 16. They were probably and iron. 15.

weapon has. Egyptian bronze. sheath.Egyptian Weapons. 19. bronze. a Greek character. to a wooden handle British Museum. 20. 26. 17. Louvre. Museum of Berlin. and handle with studs in gilded bronze. 25. 24. 23. hatchet. Prisse d'Avennes* work. bronze inches). Egyptian hatchet. Egyptian inches. of the 18th dynasty (B. on the seen. It an Egyptian iron inches).C. bronze (4 inches). Egyptian lance-head. Museum of Berlin. Louvre. 18. bronze (10| inches). or khop. 1990). 22. Shop weapon (6 Berlin. ornamented Museum of Berlin. Egyptian knife or lance-head. The foot in length. handle is fixed upon a wooden core. found at Thebes. Louvre. is of ivory. Museum of may be enlarged. of f bound with thongs of 15 inches. and drawn in M. at the British Museum. . bronze. iron (6 inches). however. bronze (4| inches). Egyptian poignard. This Bronze dagger (14 inches). 21. The handle poignard 1 is in horn. 105 Egyptian wedge or hatchet. The Egyptian poignard. a little group of Seti- Menephthah vanquishing Tahennub. fixed into a wooden handle of 16 inches.

particularly by the hetairx. the sandal. as in the modern skate. 1000) were for the most part in bronze. a few for purposes of defence being in leather. this chapter will contain a summary of what has already been said in the historical chapter on Greek and Etruscan armour.thrust sword. It was also worn by kings and people of the higher classes. broad. to ride. . straight-bladed. which did not cover the whole of the foot belonging to the peasant. The buskin was particularly suited to comic it was a kind of boot laced up the front. which was worn on the right The lance was from eleven to fifteen feet long. To facilitate research. even in French. The Greeks had at first no cavalry. An antique statue of Diana in the Museo Pio-Clementino. the iron-shod shoe of the philosophers and and the garbatine. . and with a cross-piece bevelled. on horseback). long. Defensive armour was composed of a cuirass or corslet (with breast and back plates. which was generally of cork. The javelin with its amentum (a strap fixed to the centre of gravity of the javelin) was a kind of long arrow or dart. which the warrior threw from his hand. of the large round convex shield. horsebackf * -The different coverings for the feet among the Greeks were. worn by the women. The first was the foot covering of the tragic actors. soldiers.C. f This assertion seems hardly admissible. greaves or The offensive weapons were the cut-and.* Kvrjfuftfs. and generally coming actors up higher than the ankle. and the buskin. The offensive and defensive weapons of Greece in the time of Homer (B. more or less long. of the helmet. a proper verb does not exist. and strongest towards the centre. between the . rounded towards the socket. double-edged. There were also the cothurnus. and many other statues. first and second toe. and passed . the crepida. and which we find amongst the Germans and Romans and lastly. with a slender point and square sheath. to appear taller when they acted heroes.106 GREEK AND ETEUSCAN AEMOUR. (sc. Ligatures. in the face of the words eVtjSejSTjKwo-. and tVreue^. fastened to the sole. and the defensive leggings. though iron was as well known in Greece as in Egypt and Assyria. each made of a single piece or shell). wear the buskin. This weapon served either for thrusting or throwing. the bow and arrows. with a side. nor had they even a term to indicate the action of mounting on horseback. became narrower. and pointed head. mounted TRANSLATORS NOTE. for the " chevaucher " means rather to stroll expression (fldner) on . worn by the men the persica. for which.

bodies of slingers and horsemen were added to their armies. and which are perfectly identical with Greek weapons and lastly those of the Latin time. .C.Greek and Etruscan Armour. As to the Etruscan arms. . . a little while before the conquest of Etruria by the Romans Greek weapons have necessarily been classed with Etruscan ones. 107 Later. and which appear anterior even to : Greek civilisation those of the epoch of the end of the Trojan war. about B. 400. . they may be divided into three categories those constructed when Phoenician influences prevailed (Asiatic weapons). of which few or none of the first period exist . to class them separately would have been impracticable.

Etruscan casque in bronze. 340).. 2). but wear no leggings. 2. Turin (No. of Mayence (No.C. but has a chin strap. one is also attributed to archaic times. and appears to indicate well the primitive form of casquos. The lance and sword constitute the offensive weapons. breastplates. farther era. been similar casque has. riors are The war- armed with casques. and bucklers." A however. in the Museums of Berlin. and in the Tower of London (}). This casque has no crest. preThis served in the Louvre. from a painted vase in the Louvre. whose tombs do not date than the Christian 4. found in the German cemetery of Hallstatt. . 3. Etruscan casque in bronze. Greek casque called "kataityx. 1. Greek combatants. said to belong to the first period. " Musee d'Artillerie de Paris. 380).108 'Greek and Etruscan Armour. of the 8th B. copied from a bronze statuette of Dioined. C." century probably in leather. to Similar examples are be found in the " Muse'e d'Artillerie de Paris" (C.

6. and another found at Steingaden. attributed to One similar the Umbrians. Etruscan casque in bronze with long antennae.Greek and Etruscan Armour. . with inscriptions. British Museum. British * Museum. 12. Archaic Etruscan bronze casque. which resembles the yards of ships. The antennae but in gold. The Louvre possesses a similar specimen. in Bavaria. (from the Latin "ante/' before. Contrary to the opinion of some modern historians. Paris (C. 8.* has been found in the German tombs of Hallstatt.). I believe that this people was a less ancient one than the Etruscan race. Fac-similes to be seen in the Artillery Museum. and " fixus. figured vizor may be re- A marked. and in the Cabinet of Medals at Paris. Germain. 5. Bronze casque from the Museum of St. 7. The Umbrians or Umbri WPTA^T allies of -^ of the Gallic race. which calls to mind the movable vizors of the Christian Middle Ages. in the Museum at Mayence." fixed) are so called from their shape. Greek casques in bronze. and were the Etruscans. B. is in the museum at Augsburg.C. and ex- hibited in the Cabinet of Antiquities at Vienna. 311307.

the British Museum. Goodrich Court. G*eek casque in bronze. which we see in so many sculptures : not a single specimen. 10. are of this pure Greek type. Zealand casques of twisted vegetable fibre. Greek casque from a painted vase." or heavy-armed foot-soldier. No. now exhibiting at South Kensington. 9. in the Louvre. of Mayence. A object. Greek casque in bronze. Similar examples are to be seen in the armouries of Turin (341). and surmounted with a crest-holder. said to be Etruscan. It is an admirable piece of workmanship. however. 11. . in Paris. of the fifteenth century resemble in style this helmet. NOTE. near Hohenschwanga. is engraved with a Greek The Venetian salades inscription.110 Greek and Etruscan Armour. Museum the of is reliefs representing a combat two bulls it has antennae. in bronze. 12. and the Artillery similar Museum. copied from a statue of that time. Mayence. No. 3176. One like it in every respect has been found at Steingaden. has descended to us. in the Meyrick Collection. Greek casque of a "hoplites. TRANSLATOR'S . This is the perfect Greek classic casque. in Bavaria: it is now in the Augsburg Museum. Berlin. Arsenal of Turin.* * two New Singularly enough.

Ill 13. C. which re. J5. C. and the head-piece shows fine emstatue . Crest of a Greek bronze. page 98. Greek casque from an antique the crest is ornamented with horsehair cut short. Paris. in the Louvre Museum it is of a rare and artistic shape.Greek and Etruscan Armour. 6. Greek casque with chin-strap in bronze. C. found in casque in a tomb. in bronze. 16. presents a kind of eagle. bossed workmanship. Museum This helmet appears to have belonged to a horseman of the decadence period. Museum of Artillery. 13. 17. Paris. 32. Observe the likeness to Assyrian crest. No. The crest holder. Greek casque from the paintings on a vase said to be Etruscan. Greek casque with neck covering. Mussum of Artillery. . Paris. appears to be ornamented with horsehair. of Artillery. 8. 14.

length). C. found in the encorslet pieces. Gnreek belt in bronze. . Collection of M. furnished 15. virons of Naples. The Museum of Artillery at Paris possesses a cast of it. C. I. and showing in relief the human shape. Greek composed of two back and breast plate. Greek helmet with neck-covering and plume-holder. Etruscan breastplate in bronze. 18. 22. with o: Museum Artillery. 17. Bonstellen. Paris. 20. C. the 19. Paris. to this helmet belongs period of decadence.112 Greek and Etruscan Armour. made in one shell. in bronze. C. 13. It comes from an Etruscan tomb. seum of Artillery. Paris. near Berne. Museum of Mayence. and No. belonging to a soldier or gladiator (1 foot in hooks. Mu- 21. Greek arm -guard in bronze. Switzerland. and is now in the Museum of Carlsruhe. 372. Museum of Artillery. belonging to a horseman.

17 inches in diameter. C. The Museum Paris possesses a No. hammered and chased buckler. . No. * The Greek buckler had two handles. one in the centre. and It meawas found in the environs of Mayence. 22. 3 feet in found in a tomb. It was discovered in a tomb. and is now in the Museum Museum of Mayence. C. Museum No. through which the arm passed. and one at the edge for the hand. The en- graving is of the interior of the shield. 9. in bronze. The of Artillery at Paris possesses a cast of it. 25. of Artillery at cast of it.Greek and Etruscan Armour. to the British Museum. and a cast is to be seen in the Paris. C. Boss of ' Greek shield. In addition to this there to liang was a leathern strap the shield round the neck. Etruscan diameter The is work which the style is fills the circles . which city it is exhibited. 23. of Artillery.* sures 10 in inches. . Etruscan buckler. of a remarkable character and Asiatic-Phoenician. 10. Indicates that the article to the first belonged Etruscan This shield belongs period. 24.

Mayence. 27. and a 15. Museum of Artillery. and 29. C. or frontal plate for a horse's head. appear to have belonged to the same suit of horseman's armour. No. C. The back of the leg is not protected. Etruscan poitrinal "barde. C. 29." in bronze. 22. Paris. The knee-cap is represents the head of a lion. 28. 26. Museums of Carlsruhe. No. Greave of Greek horseman. Greave of Etruscan horseman. Carlsruhe. 16. in bronze. Museum of Artillery at Paris. C. Etruscan chamfront. . to protect the horse's breast. 18. and possesses a similar the Museum of Ar- tillery at Paris a cast. 28. It was found in a tomb. Museum of of The Museum Mayence one. cast. Museums of Carlsruhe. No.Greek- and Etruscan Armour. bronze (21 inches). and a cast. of the leg The back not protected. The numbers 27. Paris. Museum of Artillery. bronze (18 inches). Mayence.

Bronze lance-head. 19. 30. Paris. B. 348. Greek or Etruscan mace- head. 33. Etruscan Armour.Greek and. Greek sword. probably Greek. with sheath. 13. found in a peat moss near Abbeville (Somme). hatchet. 16| inches long. found in the department its of Uzes. called parazonium. in bronze (32 inches). 18. of Artillery. Museum of Mayence. in bronze. Paris. Paris. Paris. Museum 38. 349. lar lance-head. 81. both in bronze. Antique dagger. 32. Antique in bronze. spur. The Museum of Mayence 34. found in the ancient kingdom of Naples. covered with points. Paris. 23. possesses a simiNo. Greek (?) 36. Paris. C. Museum of Artillery. Saint GerArtillery. Museum of Artillery. and 37. . in bronze. Paris. *' Museum 35. Museum of Artillery. Greek spur. called GalloGreek (25 inches). in bronze (19J No. Museum of Berlin. inches). Museums of main." common to the Greeks and Romans. of Artillery. 115 Greek sword. Museum of Artillery. found in the ancient king- dom of Naples. in bronze. Berlin. Greek sword. probably Greek.

"Hoplites." regular soldier. Athens. or lalista. it arbalest. Battering ram with protecting cover. Coat of mail. and the shield like a three-lobed leaf. It will be seen that the sword is worn on the right side. Rodios' work. 4. Rodios. 5. however. AEHAI. on wheels." from M. 8. 2. a cross- weapon much like the of the Middle Ages. copied from the work of Rodios. called a " tortoise.116 Greek- and Etruscan Armour. . 1868. This soldier is interesting on account of the helmet of Etruscan shape. after a Byzantine is It doubtful. from the treatise ofM. was really used in ancient Greece. or arbalest. bolt of Greek cata- engraved with the word receive. EH! nOAEMIKHS TEXNH2. Hand bow M. portable whether such a balista. who constructed text. armed with the trefoil-shaped buckler. Leaden pult. 1.

at first used only bronze for their weapons. But from the works ascribed to Homer we have much fuller information concerning the arms used by the Greeks in the tenth and even in the thirteenth century. and cavalry. Polybius. added to some slight information afforded us by sculptures on or in tombs on the borders of the Rhine in Germany. or foot-soldiers.. than concerning those by the aid of which the mighty Roman people conquered tho world. were always either made entirely of or tipped with iron. hastarii. and a small round or oval shield.C. . and who is the earliest author who has described the offensive and defensive arms of the Romans. The description given by this contemporary of Scipio Africanus. the epoch of the siege of Troy. As in the preceding chapter we have treated of the Greek equipment. breastplates. in the present we have given a summary of Roman equipment. and the iron head about nine inches. who was born in the year 552 after the foundation of Rome. who were lightly armed legionary foot soldiers. The first were armed with seven light javelins. called par ma* about three feet in circumference. speaks only of those of his own time. which in the earliest epochs was most probably the same as that of Etruria. is nearly all that is known on this subject. and by the columns of Trajan and Antoninus. B. (nearly three hundred years after the conquest of Etruria by the Romans). a country where it had been established by the combined influence of the Phoenicians and Greeks. and other portions of their armour. AND DACIAN ARMS IN BRONZE AND IN IRON. SAMNITE. swords.117 BOMAN.C. or * This was the class of shield worn by gladiators. with a sword. It is very probable that the Romans. and lances. The Roman army was composed of three divisions of soldiers: the velites. all offensive weapons. but in the time of Polybius this metal was restricted to helmets. while the Gauls at that time still employed bronze. such as bows. in common with the Greeks and Etruscans. . or 202 B. the shaft of which was about three feet in length.

composed of a corslet and shoulderHe also had a large pieces. and covered with plates of iron. or shoe of civil life The boot. javelins. skin. For offensive weapons he carried an iron Iberian sword. being in fact a sort of mail-coat. was unknown to all ancient peoples. Samnite. text. oval. shield called a scutum. the Hindoos. but subsequently the armour was changed and made stronger and better fitted to resist the attacks of barbarians. by greaves or leggings (ocras). had two day. various. besides the above weapon. The armour of the centurion was more elaborate than that like . . which was usually made with cheek-pieces. The Eoman cavalry in the time of Polybius were equipped we Before that time they had no defence the Greek. slinger was armed with a sling similar to the one used by the Achseans. and iron. of a rectangular and convex shape. or legionary soldier. a sole of wood or leather attached by the ocretv mentioned in the straps the calceus. and the Egyptians always wore it on the left side. had neither crest nor horsehair. which was always worn on the right side. In the time of Trajan and of Septimius Severus. foot-coverings of the Romans. or sandal. . the whole made of bronze. the ancient Americans. which The . derived from the Keltic bot (foot).* and by a breastplate or cuirass. or hexagonal shield made of ox-hide . but of long pieces of and the metal similar to the armour of the Middle Ages bas-reliefs on this monument show that there was as much variety in the equipment of their different bodies of troops at that time as there is now-a-days. the horseman wore a flexible cuirass or squamata. The hastarius. * The . and the solea Hgnca % the wooden ^hoe of the poor. The Roman find later in use among the Franks. though it was sometimes ornamented with wolf's skin. made of scales of iron or bronze sewed on linen or leather or a hamata. were TLe solea. as in Greece though the Assyrians. about four feet long by two and a half feet broad. made of metal On the column chains. of Trajan are represented many soldiers wearing cuirasses made neither of scales nor of chain mail. helmet. the Persians. made of wood. one of which was the famous legionary pilum.118 Roman. was protected by an iron or leathern helmet. like those of the Greeks. ornamented with three scarlet and black feathers. except a round. as at the present The hastarius. .

It was very often ornamented with silver phalerae.and Dacian Arms. of the : 119 his corslet had shoulder-pieces simple liastarius and was loLg enough to cover his thighs. Some of these are represented on page 120. fixed to it. which served as marks of distinction and military rewards at that time. .

a a .120 1 Roman. Samnite.

No. . 5. Roman helmet. to the legion represented on a tombstone that is now in the Museum at Mayence. This helmet is now in the Castle d'Erbach in Hesse-Darmstadt. On it are represented in particular his exploits in the wars against the Dacians (103-104). The cuirass is made of thin plates of metal. in the Museum of Artillery at Paris. of a hastarius belonging to another legion. and the north-east of Hungary). from the Trajan column. 379. from the ruins of Aventicum. 4. wars which were ended by the conquest of Dacia Trajana (now Moldavia. . 114 A.D. B. or military distinctions. of Varus (who was defeated by the Germans. This figure is bas-reliefs on the Trajan column. from the Trajan column. Head of a hastarius of another legion. 9). and now in the Museum at Mayence a cast of it is in the Museum of Artillery at Paris. A 10. or auxiliary soldier. front view. in bronze. 8. It was dug up in the field where the battle of Cannae took place. from the Trajan column. or shirt. A. with a sword worn on the right side. The same. 1 .D. erected by Trajan three years before his death. a helmet with a ring and chin strap. 2. which was known of in the time of Julius Caesar.and Dacian Arms. or Roman cuirass. Head of a hastarius belonging to another legion. in the Museum at Mayence. He wears the squamata. Wallachia. A legionary soldier (hastarius). Roman horseman. Bust of a Roman legionary wears a crested helmet. and is There is a cast of in the possession of King William I. 11. has the same kind of cuirass. Cuirass of a Roman centurion. capital of Roman Switzerland. Some of its remains are in the Museum at Avenche. centurion belonging it in the Museum of Artillery in Paris. and a sword on the right side. are helmets similar to the above. made of metal chain armour. and was subsequently very much improved by Vespasian. Head 7. a veles. They are copied from those found at Avenche. D. 9. 216. Bronze scales of a squamata. back view. the ancient Aventicum. about 22 inches in length. and No. The only defensive armour he has is a small apron made of straps of leather studded with pieces of metal.C. from the Trajan column. Roman taken from the 3. of Prussia. soldier. 121 A Roman soldier. 1. Transylvania. He 6. and with a parazvnium or dagger on the left. from a tombstone found in the Rhine. a species of coat of mail an oval shield. but it is not known how it came there. from the Trajan column. This soldier is armed with two long javelins about the same height as himself. It is ornamented with nine silver phalerae. The author has in his own collection several other fragments of Roman arms in bronze. and given by the Superior of an Augustine Convent to Pope Ganganelli.

in iron. 16. column. It is one of the most curious of that age. Samnite helmet.C. in anThis Samnium. . Xow the Museum of St. Roman helmet. Two Roman helmets. The face is almost entirely covered by It is in a sort of mask. entirely a fixed vizor. collec- from the Pourtales The face protected by pierced all over with round holes. It is orna- mented with bronze. from the Trajan column. in bronze. and dates as early as the second Samnite 327-324). Gennaia. about 1 foot in height. 14 resembles a helmet copied from the Theodosian later. D. spoken of in the chapter on the iron age. of Artillery at 13 and 14. 12. (B. 29. No. Roman tion. found at Isernia. is This sort of helmet came in into use in the 16th century of our era. cient helmet is in the Erbach collection. and dates from the time of the decline of the empire. 15. gladiator's helmet. gilded Japanese helmet of similar shape is in the war* A Museum Paris.122 Roman. Samnite. the Museum of Artillery in Paris.

Roman From worn war-hatchet. head of Roman (?) jave- inches long. C. which is also found on Assyrian sculpture. 24. Iron head of Roman javelin. from the Trajan column. 25. 20. T 7 Tower of London. in iron. in bronze. 19. This weapon. Perseus. The Dacians were the who inhabited people Moldavia. Dadan at Arms. with a sharp hook projecting from the cutting edge of tli e weapon a wea- pon with which Mercury is represented killing Argus. Roman bill. . 2. They fought bareheaded. 123 Roman helmet. and had only a shield for defensive armour. called parazonium. Museum of Artillery in Paris. north . Roman (?) bill. and which the gladiators often used. the Collegia Romano at 20. 22. 1 1 at Mayence. in iron. erected by Trajan three years before his death. 18. is not the harpe (apTn?) or scimetar of the Greeks. in the year 114. From the Museum at Mayence. D. and and the Transylvania. sword of iron with belt. From the A Museum 23. Museum of Artillery in Paris. Dacian sword. 21. which was a sort of sword. Wallachia. Iron lin. from the ruins of Psestum. found in Ireland. 10 inches in length.east of Hungary. cast of this we apon (which was found in Germany) is now in the Museum of Artillery in Paris. 23 bis. when cutting off Medusa's head. Iron head of Roman pilum. and its sheath Roman made of bronze. found Pompeii. on jl the coast of Lucania. 6 inches long. Rome.and 17.

in bronze. Museums at Avenche These (Aventicum). found at Bingen. in iron. Roman D. Paris. Roman spur. Roman length. by the Keeper of the Archives. Roman iron (hameus ferreus): ends. Collection of the Burgomaster Sollen. 30. in iron. Paris. 25 inches in The armourer's mark is 28. 27. at 31. and at Lintz. Roman sword. 26 inches in length. Museum of Artillery. sword. 14. is pointed at both 34. I). of 33. 22 inches in length. in scabbard dug up at Mayence. Roman sword. Museum. 29.* It was found at Bingen. in iron. horse-shoes have been found in Switzerland. Roman sword.Roman. Roman horse-shoe. Sollen Collection. spur. bears a portrait of Augustus. in iron. 19 inches in length. Paris. Sdbini. Sollen Collection. A cast of it is in the Museum of Artillery. Samniie. Paris. near Homburg. D. The hilt is ornamented with bronze. Habel. Museum of Artillery. 26. in iron. Paris. in iron. Roman sword-blade. 23 inches in length. found at Mayence. 43. and a group of * A now in the British Thibenius offering statue of Victory. found Salburg. Museum caltrop it of Artillery. to the emperor a . 13. that was fastened to the hock of the horse by means of a strap passed through the ring of the shoe. 12. U. 32. Museum of Artillery. Austria.

This is a most beautiful piece of w >rk. Poniard. or badge. Plain war-hatchet. 38. B. found in the old kingdom of Naples. 86. 3. 36. Cabinet qf Antiquities at Vienna. in bronze.and 125 35. in bronze. found in Asia Minor. found at Naples. B. Parity . in bronze. 37. found in a lake dwelling at Peschiera. in bronze. Signum. Its shape shows that it was a weapon. 37. of Roman cohort. Museum of Artillery in Paris. Museum of Artillery. Plain war-hatchet. or short sword. Paris. These two last weapons may very likely have been of an earlier date. Museum of Artillery. and must have been designed by a Greek D. artist. and not an implement of husbandry or carpentry.

With regard to the machines of war that have been already mentioned in a former chapter. there is not one existing in its original shape and the balistas and catapults which have been restored from drawings ought not to figure in a work which is devoted exclusively to the history of such arms as are based upon authentic documentary evidence. and Daeian Arms. .126 Roman. . Samnite.

THE of Central Europe. Where everything is involved in obscurity it is hazardous to attempt to establish exact limits and periods for the weapons of the bronze age it is safer to treat of them under one category. which are so often confounded with the bronze weapons of our era down to what is called the age of iron. Keltico-Germanic.. Germanic. so that weapons of bronze. The iron celt in the national Museum at Munich. We should never be able to classify satisfactorily the socalled Keltic productions . and even of German. stone. in the cemetery at Hallstatt. The author has been careful to separate only the weapons coming from different places. and to classify them into countries according to the languages there spoken. the stone hatchets and the long iron lance-heads similar to the celts found. and those who have wished to assign the tombs discovered in these different countries to races of well-distinguished origin have constantly had their arguments disproved by fresh discoveries. The names of Galatian and Gaul are often confounded with that of Kelt. Scandinavian. Keltico-Britannic. together with a quantity of weapons and of bronze and gold ornaments.127 IV. as we are often obliged to do when dealing with matters be. who occupied most probably a large have left weapons that are not easily distinguished from those of contemporary and later races. and iron ages. the Scandinavian. longing to pre-historic times. The excavations that have been made in this cemetery not only show that stone was used at the same time as bronze . and also some of the northern portion districts. possibly Keltico-Gallic. &c. show that it is not possible to discriminate exactly between the bronze. have been included under one head and described seriatim. Keltic tribes. and Gallic elements are manifest everywhere. WEAPONS OF THE BKONZE AGE.

in Austria. Bronze was used in the manufacture ef weapons by the Scandinavians and the Britons at the same time as by the Germans and the Gauls. and iron. . at Linz. It will be seen in the following chapter. it would be useless to describe them again. which treats of the weapons of the iron age. but even that iron was used for the sword-blades and bronze for hilts. And what is even more remarkable is that these same kind of shields were used by the Danes during the bronze age. just as at the present day. but it is well known that his equipment varied in different countries. . though in the Frankish tombs belonging to the end of the iron age (Merovingian) small round shields with projecting bosses were discovered. in Vienna possesses a large quantity of utensils. that the shape of the battle-axes of the Franks differed from that adopted by the Saxons. The shield used by the Germans of the north was very large. and without a boss. weapons. Hallstatt The cabinet of antiquities is situated near Ischl. Az. . and by the Britons. covered with thin plates of copper. There does not exist a single piece of sculpture that represents a Germanic warrior thoroughly equipped. has some very remarkable As these ruins have been perobjects from the same place. fectly described by M. de Sacken in his Grabfeld von Hallstatt written in 1868.128 Weapons of the Bronze Age. and perhaps also by other Scandinavian nations. and ornaments that have been found amongst the ruins of the said cemetery and M.

near Pforteu. (See No. Similar arm-guards have been found in Denmark. Winnsbach. and now in the Klemm collection at Dresden. of Hohenzollern. specimen in the Maximilian burg. Mu- German arm-guard found in in the in the principality bronze. found in one of the tombs at Hallstatt. German arm-guard found at . about three and a half inches in height . seum of Copenhagen. 1. either Cabinet of Antiquities in Vienna. for their shape is Etruscan. 129 German helmet in bronze.) 5. Germain. Museum at Augs- . in This doubleAustria. Saxony. helmets may very likely have been made in Italy. which to be is said Etruscan or Umbrian. found at Britsch. in the crested helmet is very like one Museum at St. German helmet in bronze. though found in Germany. 261.Germanic Arms in Bronze. 4. It is an unique specimen. in Austria Museum at Lintz. German helmet was also in bronze. 2. and preserved Museum A similar at Sigmaringen. 3. in bronze. near now in the Lintz. and the shape is similar to that of the Assyrian helmets in the British Museum. These two quities in Vienna. which found in Hallstatt Cabinet of Anticemetery.

in the principality of Found in Hohenzollern. German. German found at Stade. Celt. Az' Collection at Lintz. Celt. M. of the Mero- . Museum JO. of Sigmaringen. at Found in a Waldhausen. Celt. 7. with copper. The the size and shape of these nterior shields to indicate a period makes influence. inches long. In the Museum at tomb Munich there a are fragments of German in the ornamented same way. of Sigmaringen. as this shield. German shield. Fragment man with of a large square Gershield in wood covered bronze. 4 inches long. Museum * of Sigmaringen. German. Rath at Tubingen. (said to be Keltic) Celt. 6 inches long. cuirass.* 8. Hall- found in the cemetery. and published by M. which itself felt in the circular Roman Franki^h bucklers vingian epoch. 6 Museum 13. 6. Celt. and preserved the Museum of Sigma- ringen. at Hanover. Museum 12. 11. C. statt. German. Same as above. 5% inches long.130 Germanic Arms in Bronze. German. 9. Seven German arrow-heads.

Klemm Collection at Dresden. Museum and preserved in of Munich. 18. of CasseL German.Germanic Arms in Bronze. ornamented with 9 rings. . The ornament of this weapon is also like Danish work. Found in bronze. 14. 131 German hatchet inches long. 10 in the National 15. German war-hammer (about iii bronze 18 inches). 19 to 22. Four poniards. The Abyssinian lances at the present day are ornamented with these chiseledged blades (see chapter on lances). 12 Found in the inches long. in bronze. Palatinate. formed of 6 lines each. This Hallstatt cemetery. Cabinet of Antiquities at Vienna. Celt. Celt. found at The handle is Thuringen.m at Sigmaringen. German daggers or Muset. Museum 16. German. German hatchet in bronze. inches long. weapon resembles in its ornament those of Denmark. 17. Museums of Cassel and Erbach.

which shows that the handle must have been mounted in either wood. 25. in bronze. German swords in bronze. 22 is The pommel ornamented with an eagle's head. found near Augsburg. Museum of Sigmaringen. Short German sword in bronze. . The part of the hilt is pierced with holes.Germanic Arms in Bronze. German flat sword. 27. 31 inches long. or metal. bone. The points are not sharp. This sword is made entirely of metal. 26. Head of German lance in bronze. 24. some entirely of bone. Found at Hallstatt. Cabinet of Antiquities at Vienna. Cabinet of Antiquities at Vienna. horn. Museum of Cassel. Museum of Hanover. 23. Found in the tombs at Hallstatt. The pommels and hilts are of bone and bronze. The shape of these swords t differs essentially from that of the Greek parazonium. German sword inches long. 27 inches long.

and where periods of transition. IN BRONZE. Even the celt. which indicates the burning of the corpse. that point of a lance so well known by the rings fastened to it. The second category is usually signalised by smaller hillocks. and by the urn. and the caves generally closed with flag-stones. These latter sepulchres generally contain bronze weapons. GALLIC. they were almost all in bronze. are less distinctly indicated. and stone weapons. . The high hillocks surrounded and surmounted by stones of a more or less colossal size (dolmens). by a cave or tomb formed of small rough stones built up with little art. AND OF LOWER BRITTANY. It has already been observed that it is not possible to classify distinctly the bronze weapons that have been found in France. KELTO-GALLIO. and to classify chronologically the western weapons of pre-historic times. by the absence of large blocks of stone. As to the Gallic weapons of the time of Caesar. even in Russia. which will be described in this chapter. has been found everywhere. containing unburnt bones.133 WEAPONS. may be considered as very ancient tombs. It has already been said elsewhere that if one wishes to be accurate. it is necessary to study the construction and contents of the various tombs. although frequent. when the productions of different nations were more nearly alike than at any other epoch.. ETC.

134 Gallic Arms. and German helmet found at Britsch. the boss. and another in Bavaria. 11 inches in height. 16. B. Paris. possess similar speci- mens. A similar one has been found at Posen. in the river Inn. 3. and of Saint Germain. The bar. under the title of a Hungarian or Avaric helmet. The the same as that of the Assyrian helmets. .* Museum * of Saint Germain. TKANSLATOR'S NOTE. 2. 1. might act as a swordbreaker. found in a field near Grenoble. Two bronze helmets. instead of over. Museum of Rouen. attributed by the Museum of Saint Germain shape of a is to the Gauls. This last figures in the National Museum of Munich. Framework of boss the shape is in bronze not unlike the iron bosses of the Frankish shields. at Dresden. Bronze helmet. Gallic cuirass in bronze. 4. The Museums of the Louvre. Museum of Artillery. ascribed in France to the Gauls. but it is difficult to : explain why the iron bar passes under. and preserved in the Kiemm collection. if fixed at both ex- tremities to the circumference of the buckler.

Paris. Ammendola. 7. B. from a sculpture on the sarcophagus found in the Vigna 6. 1C. 18^ inches long. . 9. Lance head. found in the Seine. Lance blade. 135 Gallic shield. and is preserved in the National Museum of Prague. fitted into from a bas-relief the pedestal of the Melpomene of the Louvre. Gallic shield. from a bas-relief on the Arch of Orange. Museum of Artillery. Museum of Artillery. 10. 13. B. 17. 5^ inches high. found in the Seine at Paris. has been found in Bohemia. Signum or Gallic standard. 5 inches long. B. Kelto-Gallic lance. 7. 1 5. Hatchet. Louvre. Gallic sword. Lance head. called celt. Museum 12. from a bas-relief on the Arch of Orange.Gallic Arms. of Artillery. Lance head. Paris. 6 inches long. called celt. Louvre Museum. Paris. of Artillery. A similar standard. 5. Arrow head. 20. Gallic sword in bronze. 34. Paris. 8. Museum 11. Paris. Autliors Collection. 3 inches long. Hatchet. 14. found in the Seine. Museum of Artillery.

or Men of the North).D. and that they were brought into tho British Isles by the Norman who corsairs (Nordtnannen. for example.136 BKITISH WEAPONS IN BRONZE. or in the northern part of North Germany. These weapons are rare. the heads of lances. The horned helmet. If we compare the Danish shields. which the British Commission on the history of labour for the Universal Exhibition in Paris in 1867 has described as " seeond epoch. and even the swords. It is very probable tbat the greater part of these weapons were made in Scandinavia itself. anterior to the Koman invasion. the horns. or Nordmaenner. and of hatchets in bronze which are in the Museum at Copenhagen with the antiquities of the same sort exhibited in England amongst British productions. did not cease to ravage that country till it had been quite conquered by their descendants in A. preserved in age and origin. * It will be observed in the introduction to the chapter which treats of Germanic arms that the author considers the use of bronze for weapons in Scandinavia to correspond with that of iron in Germany.* of the bronze age in England. The epoch taste and manufacture which cannot have been produced by chance or imitation alone. and the buckler by the side of it." cannot be limited in this manner. museums in England and described as British. 1066. . are doubtful. and the Danish in the sixth centuries. did not cease under the Roman dominion. because the use of bronze weapons. at first general. and the long shield in the their may very likely have been Danish. we shall find amongst most of them a similarity in Meyrick collection. in the British Museum. and it is difficult to fix accurately Several specimens. and even continued partially till the time of the Saxon invasion in the fifth.

similar Roman Scutum. is It is in beaten work. belonging to a British shield called in shape to the It was found Ysgwyd. mention was made of the fact that the use of metal in the manufacture of weapons began at a later date in Scandinavia than in either Gaul or Germany.British Weapons in Bronze. See in the preceding page the observations respecting the great similarity in these weapons to those found in Denmark. that part of the Introduction which refers to German bronze weapons. Bronze British 137 helmet. Plating in gilt bronze and beaten work. . which resembles enamel. and preserved in the Museum. Meyrick Collection. and exhibited In in the Copenhagen Museum. Leckhampton British Museum* 3. found in the Thames. in the river Witham. Meyrick Collection. 4. and ornamented with incrustations in coloured cement. Framework of helmet found at Hill. 2. Bronze shield.

in bronze. War horn. 8. with a double ring British celt. It is very like German and Scandinavian weapons. Tower of London. 9. called Stuio. Blade of " framee" called a bronze. and may easily Lave been Danish. Jg. Meyrick Collection. Irish. Museum. 5. called Gwaew-fon. Sword blade in bronze . in to it. Meyrick Collection. Sword blade Ireland.Weapons in Bronze. 6. 10. . Bronze hatchet. Bronze sword. Several similar ones are in the British Mu- seum. found in Meyrick Collection. British Museum. 7.

in the cuirass. and very little inferior to those of the Greeks and Komans .Scandinavian Weapons in Bronze. which treats of British arms. whose shape does not vary in the least from that of Continental weapons of the same epoch. for he introduces even swords of the thirteenth and fourteenth are. swords. the crest that a helmet.* and their circles of hair may lead us to suppose that the helmet was only worn by the chiefs. In the preceding article. * See following page. (See observations on German bronze weapons. superior to those of other so-called barbaric nations. The use of stone and bronze weapons seems to have been continued much longer in Scandinavia than in the rest of Europe . and lance and arrowheads. Worsaae has been obliged in his illustrated catalogue of the Copenhagen Museum to class amongst the products of the iron age objects belonging to the middle ages. of Continental Scandinavia (Denmark) weapons of this country. (See observations on this question in the introduction to this chapter. This fact has made me hesitate to class them amongst British weapons. and even to a late period of the middle ages. 139 In the London Museums there are a large quantity of hatchets. show with what a degree of art they worked in this metal. is supposed to have belonged to . in the introduction to this chapter. as well as the stone The bronze arms centuries. which will be found represented farther on. as amongst the Franks. a fact explicable to those who adopt the author's suggestion that the use of bronze in Denmark was later than in other countries. a horned helmet is mentioned that may very probably have been Danish.) The specimens exhibited in the Museum at Copenhagen. daggers. and coincided with the iron age in Germany and Gaul. celts. and in the helmet. The defensive armour of a Scandinavian warrior seems to have consisted in the round or long shield. though not one single complete or perfect helmet exists in the Copenhagen Museum.) SCANDINAVIAN WEAPONS. since M.

(?) Danish. 3. Oval Danish shield in bronze. boss. inside view.140 Scandinavian Arms in Bronze. a mered. Greet of helmet 1. preserved in the Copenhagen Museum. in bronze. and three surrounding Copenhagen Museum. 26 inches long. Copenhagen Museum. with central . 2. sort of helmet. Round Danish shield in bronze 23 (Bronces-Kjold in Danish) inches in length. ones. This singular crest is in the shape of a candlestick. . 4. 9 inches high (Hjelmprydelse in Danish). 5 inches high. engraved and ham- Copenhagen Museum. the boss serves to receive the handle. Head band.

Copenhagen Museum. (See this same arm-guard in the chapter on German arms in bronze. 9. is richly ornamented. Copenwort of hagen Museum. Copenhagen Museum. 7.) 8. Round Danish shield in bronze. 141 5.Scandinavian Arms in Bronze. 6. Danish arm-guard in bronze. Covering of round Danish shield in bronze. Danish arm-guard in bronze. ornamented with nail heads. 6 inches long. 7 inches long. 18 inches in diameter it . Danish spring arm guard in bronze. It is ornamented with medals. 22 inches in diameter. Copenhagen Museum. Copenhagen Museum. and with round boss. and has a pointed boss. . 12| inches long.

11 inches in length. 2^ inches long. in bronze. Copenhagen Museum. 16. Danish arrow-head in bronze. Danish hatchet 18 inches long. Danish hatchet in bronze. 21. 19. Copenhagen Museum. Celt. 15. Danish knife in bronze. Copenhagen Museum. t Head of lance. Same as above. 1 ronze. Danish dagger in bronze. 12. 12 J inches long. Copenhagen Museum. Danish celt. Copenhagen Museum. 6 inches long. 11. Copenhagen Museum 18A. 20. in bronze. Copenhagen Museum. Danish hatchet 10 inches long. in bronze. 14. Copenhagen Museum 18. Danish. Danish arrow-head in bronze. Danish dagger in bronze. 6 inches long. 17. 13.142 Scandinavian Arms in Bronze. 6 inches long. 14 J inches in length. 8 inches in length. Danish poniard in 4 inches long. 10. 3f inches long. Copenhagen Museum. . staff re- and a part of the maining. Copenhagen Museum.

amongst which.Scandinavian Arms in Bronze. should be mentioned a sword with. according to the methods of interment or of burning. rings of hair worn as head-dresses. Danish. 24. 35 inches hi length. and some kerumic ware. amongst which are domestic urns of great value in fixing their respective epochs. 37 inches in length. The work- manship is very remarkable. Copenhagen Museum. Danish sword in bronze. and similar to that found in German tombs. .its leathern sheath. feet 4 inches in length. besides those here represented. 23. Danish sword in bronze. 143 22. The Museum sesses at Copenhagen pos- more than two hundred remarkable objects belonging to the age of bronze. Copenhagen Museum. Copenhagen Museum. War 4 horn in bronze. poniards and knives of unusual shapes.

or rather smoothed. found in Switzerland. found in Switzerland. Hatchet or lance head in bronze. Museum of Saint Germain. . Excavations made Petersburg. 3. Bronze of celt. 6^ inches long. of Geneva. 8 and Two hatchets in bronze. 10. A cast of the same is in tin 11. 6. 9. called celts. Bronze celt. Bronze hatchet. Klemm Collection. Many of the specimens are preserved in the Oziersky collection at St. 2. Bronze axe. in the and preserved Museum G eneva. found in Siberia. found in Bohemia. cast of it is in the of Saint Germain. 10 inches long. of Lausanne. in bronze. found in Russia. Oziersky Collection. some rough. Museum 5. A Museum 7. Head of lance. 1. Preserved in the Zurich Museum. in the provinces of Minsk and Vladimir. not far from Bremgarten in Switzerland. 7 inches long. Knife with ram's head. and also in Siberia. Casts of them in the Saint Germain Museum. Bronze hatchet found at Lieli near Oberwyl. and preserved in the Museum of Geneva. Museum 4. and some polished. found in Hungary. in bronze. National Museum of Prague. found in Russia.144 BRONZE ARMS OF VARIOUS COUNTRIES. Dresden. Swiss hatchet in bronze. have brought to light a large quantity of arms and tools of the stone age.

to which fact was mainly due the easy subjugation of the country at that epoch. had contributed greatly to their victories over people whose cutting The badly armed weapons were still formed of copper." does not begin till a hundred years before the Saxon invasion for the knowledge The use of of iron weapons does not imply their prevalence. the Saxons. ARMS OF THE IRON AGE BELONGING TO THE NORTHERN NATIONS. In the year 202 B. The Romans very soon found out the superiority of iron for offensive weapons to bronze. the Roman soldier had no longer any offensive weapon of bronze. in Paris. they have. The periods that it has been decided to include under the title of the iron age ought logically to terminate at the end of the fifth century. and thus aggravating the difficulty of researches. and it may be admitted that in the second Punic war the iron arms contributed greatly We . where their legions constantly met with reverses. but that its universal employment for the fabrication of offensive and defensive weapons was preceded by that of bronze. a system which though not correct had better be accepted in part. bronze for offensive weapons was continued much longer in the British Isles than on the Continent.C. though the latter were never able to subdue Germany. however. Gauls were entirely conquered by the Romans. have seen in the introduction that iron was known everywhere and in all ages. which metal was thenceforth restricted by them to defensive armour. for fear of bringing disorder among chronologic classification.v. which the British commission for the history of labour at the Universal JL Exhibition of 1867. and also of other German tribes. The iron weapons of the Romans. been brought down to a much later date. rpHE epoch in England called the iron age. that is. after the decline of the Eastern Empire . even to the end of the Carlovingian race (987). the Franks. . as so many museums have classed a large quantity of arms belonging to the middle ages amongst the products of the iron age. the Burgundians. has designated as the " third epoch that of the Roman reign.

who established themselves in the south. that was so formidable.f were their favourite offensive * f The See the etymology of tin's word. seem to be of German origin. and Romansch tongues now prevail. and from the large hilts of their swords must have had very large The axe and two lance-heads in iron that were hands. or ensis. p. and the long sword. a\voi(L$ found in Germany measure generally 3G to 38 inches in . which ought to terminate at the end of the fifth century. the use of iron began but a little while before the middle ages. and there is nothing to authorise their being carried back to the iron age. The Burgundians were a strong and tall race. found near the village of Onswala in Switzerland (see illustration farther on) show by their different shape that they must have belonged to a nation which was not Frank. and those found in the Gallic cemetery of Catalaunum (in the department of Marne). bands of which people had possessed themselves of the west by the Almains. which will be found represented farther on. because they resemble greatly the swords found at Tiefenau and at Neufchatel in Switzerland. which in the year 450 was almost depopulated by the systematic massacres of the Romans. where they were mingled with those of bronze. such as the specimens that are preserved in the Museum of Saint Germain. longer even than those of the Kimbri and Marcomanni. where the French. The swords of the Britons at a later period were of a very great length. . of the warriors varied but slightly amongst numerous branches of the great German race. spata. and was probably Burgundian. and which I attribute to the Burgundians. Everywhere the Saxe (Sacks) or Scramasax.146 to the Arms of the Iron Age Roman victories over the Carthaginians. who occupied all the districts where German is now spoken and . so in Denmark. Italian. according to Guglielmus Apuliensis and Nicetas Choniates. The few iron weapons that have been found in the Gallic tombs. As in England.* a sort of Roman The equipment the Gladius with a grooved blade. after the fall of the Eastern Empire. The form and character of the greater part of the Danish or Scandinavian arms classed in the Copenhagen Museum amongst those of the so-called age of iron sTiow that they belonged to the middle ages. in the Teutonic hand. Helvetia. sharp only on one side. who were so celebrated for working in iron. 35. by the Ostrogoths. the eminently Germanic character of which was stamped on their arms and monuments. was repeopled about 550 by the Burgundians.

as its name shows. It is by the Burgundian. the Merovingian reigns. 147 weapons. For the study of the equipment of these so-called barbarian peoples. that were taller than his sword. is everywhere recognized as male It is with this weapon (much shorter among the Merovingians than in the days of knighthood) that Clotaire II. women. the poisoned Hr anting of Beowulf.. the Calibarn of King Artus. Frank swords found in Gaul anl have the blade more pointed. the Chlaritel of Englir. whilst the . written by Saxo Grammaticus. is rarely met with in Saxon tombs. though bearing a Saxon name. and the Frank branches that the weapon was familiarly used. and children. the most characteristic weapon of the German nation these battle-axes are found in Scandinavia as well as in Great Britain. nor in those of Northern Germany. played an important part in the lives of these people. there exist very few documents. the Almain. preserved in the Louvre. the Almace of Turpin. renowned for its temper. attributed to Charlemagne constitute probably the sole relength. the Balmung of Sigfried. with a rounded blade. The long sworl. by a single stroke split in two an enormous mill-stone. which varied in form according to the races to whicli they belonged. and was frequently known by a proper name. . and bearing often the name of its owner engraved in Runic letters. the Tryfing. the Preciosa of King Poligan. . the Schoyeuse of Orange. It is curious to remark that among Northern races the sword in the South. the Jciuse of Charlemagne. men. the Alteclre of Olivier. Such were the Mimung of Wieland. All that remain in the way of arms belonging to the end of . The scratnasax. into which country they had been brought by the Saxons and the Danes. were. that exterminated two thousand four hundred men. according to history committed the dreadful crime of massacring all the Saxons that he had vanquished. the weapon of Svafrlamis. and the English Quersteinbeis of Hakon. the Durndart or Durnadal of Roland. however. are the sword and the francisque of The sword and spurs Childeric I. The axes. the Mistelstein. the Damleif of Hagen the father of Gudrun. and these few relating only to the Franks. and amongst which the francisque of the latest conquerors of Gaul was one of the most celebrated. as female.Belonging to Northern Nations. the S/ceop Liusingi and Hwittingi of Danish history. which.are "28 to 30 inches long. the Mai of Rother.

for in them the king is represented seated on his throne surrounded by guards. warriors already armed in the same manner as in the Bayeux tapestry of the end of the eleventh century. 810. and was usually confined by a leathern band.D. As yet no casques nor cuirasses have been found.148 Arms of the Iron Age. with a long blade of iron. to serve as a casque. plaited and matted together on the front part of the head. and even the francisque.D. the battle axe. See pp. Gregory. single-edged and called francisque. The Codex Aureus of St. in the Munich Library. whose costumes may be considered Roman. Thanks to the descriptions given by several authors (Sidonius Apollinarius. . Julien at Brioude (?) and other documents all contradict the illustrator of this Bible of Charles le Ghauve. the defensive armour of the Frank consisted only in the small round convex shield. the leathern fringes and other portions of the dress seeming almost praetorian. are represented. the remainder of the hair was dyed a bright red. which was a kind of protection. qngon. served him occasionally as missiles. barbed at the point. made of wood covered with skin. but we have written evidence that the chiefs The common soldier had part of his head wore them. the Wessobrunn of A. His offensive armour consisted in the angon or pilum. As with most other Germanic races. Gregory of Tours. writing in A. the cover of the Antiphonariwn of St. Procopius Agathios. the sword and the scramasax. as likewise in the bas-relief of the reliquary of the treasury of St. though the miniatures seem not very exact. and to the excavations made in the Merovingian cemeteries. 450 . the lance (framee). and others). when. Gall. in the Martyrologium of the tenth century. a long dagger or rather cutlass with a single The bow and arrow he used only in hunting. 20 inches in diameter. we are able to reconstruct nearly the whole of the equipment of the last conquerors of Gaul. 35 to 39. for the edge. shaved like a Chinese. a manuscript preserved in the Library of Stuttgart. we must have recourse to the Bible of Charles le Chauve (840 877). After this there is no other historical nor archaeological trace for a hundred years. the Leges Longobardorum of the Stuttgart Library. the bas-relief of the Church of St. Moritz of the ninth century. and are certainly influenced by the imagination of the artist. niaining arms of the commencement of the Carlovingian For written and painted documents in this matter epoch.

4. in the Hallstatt cemetery. 7. 11 inches long . Small Germanic sword. The blade is iron. in Austria. Collection of 3. and a third. Blade of Germanic lance in iron. Lintz. at Museum 10. 1. idem. Az.Germanic Iron Weapons. with socket in iron. inches in Found one of the tombs of the Hallstatt cemetery. length. Collection of 6. M. with a socket. National Museum of Munich. Length 11 inches. 8. similar specimen is in the Cabinet of Antiquities in Vienna. Collection of M. length in a tomb in Museum 9. at Lintz. in at Hanover. A iron. Found in the Hallstatt cemetery. Found in iron. celt. . Museum found at Liineburg. of Sigmaringen. the hilt bronze. Germanic poniard 15 inches. 149 Blade of Germanic lance in called iron. Az. Cabinet of Antiquities. and a portion of the about 6 in staff re- maining. National Museum of Munich. iron. - Found iron. 2. of Sigmaringen. 11 1 Germanic lance-blade in inches long. knife length 14 inches. Vienna. Cabinet of Antiquities in Vienna. Az. length 16 inches. 11 the 5. in Germanic war Ringenbach. Germanic lance-blade in inches long. Germanic lance-blade in iron. in iron. Germanic lance . at Lintz. It measures 15 inches.blade. Bavaria. Germanic war -knife length 11 1 inches. M. 7^ inches long. and a ring similar and was found to the rings on the lances called celts. with socket. Found in the cemetery at Hallstatt.

called a scramasax. to be the scramasax of the Franks. Author's Collection. One of these scramasaxes found at Mannheim is in the Tower of London T | T ). which . One of these weapons has also been found at Gruningen. found in Switzerland. and have belonged to the Burgundians. There is also one in the Signiaringen Museum. Winclisch. cleaving wood. however. It is preserved in the Zurich Museum the haft measures about 8 inches. Its length. N. for it was in 264 that the Allemanni penetrated that country. The Museum at Geneva also has one for ^ of these weapons that was found in a tomb at Bellecan (Canton of Vaud). I believe them. It lias a single edge and several grooves on the back of the blade. but hatchets intended to be used with both hands 11. 19. including the haft. which is about 10 inches in length. is about 24 inches it \vas found near Chalons. nnd of other Germanic nations. is covered with linen and leather thongs. Scramasax in iron. the whole weapon therefore measuring about 26 inches. length 18 inches. and destroyed Aventicurn entirely. whose hilts are about 6 inches in length. .150 Germanic Iron Weapons. or in iron semispata (Prankish). E. length of blade. mounted with a wooden casing. The great length of the hafts of the scrarnasaxes found in Switzerland (they vary between 6 and 10 inches) lias led Dr. which seem may date as f. The Museum at Lausanne possesses others. 12 Scramasax in back as the third century. Dagger . . which was found at Hoheuzollcrn. for they are often found in the tombs of warriors side by side with their long sword. The handle. Paris. A scramasax in the Avenches Museum. Keller of Zurich to suppose that they were not weapons. 15 inches. is of copper. 8 inches. found to in that town. The blade is about 16 inches in length. Museum of Artillery. 13. and of haft.

found in the tomb of Childeric I. as represented in tho illustration (No. about 30 inches in length. The same mistake has been made with regard to a Frankish spata. near Nierstein. 14. with a sharp point. Paris. The armourer who was it intrusted to restore has placed the pommel close to the blade. distinct from others of its kind by having a small knife attached on the outside of the sheath. Germanic sword in iron. preserved in the Museum of There is the Louvre. Frankish sword of the Merovingian epoch.Germanic Iron Weapons. Paris. where by excavating 28 tombs all containing skeletons. Found at Moselle. 16. The point of the blade is rounded. found at Wulflingen and preserved in the 151 Museum of Sig- This weapon is maringen. 14. of the ninth turies. written in the eighth century. an error in the mounting of this sword. Museum Similar ten. and Frankish shape by side. found at Langeneslingen. of Artillery. 17) and in the MSS. Sigmarmgen swords Museum. as well as in those of We many other Anglo-Saxon MSS. and eleventh cen- 15. been found in tombs at Fronstetswords have Sword with sheath. E. . at the cemetery of Selzen. Similar have been found of more than a metre in length. and not at the end of the hilt. (457-481). several of which have these long swords and battle-axes of the Saxon have been discovered. their recognise the same sort of sword in the illuminations of the Codex Aureus of Saint Gall. length 37 inches.

Pommel of sword.152 Germanic Iron Weapons. 17. used in duels or a cutting knife. in Paris. belonging to the Copied from the bas-relief of a diptych that is in the of the Cathedral of Halberstadt. square sixth century. 19. department of Aube. The great length of treasury the an die resembles the Burgundian swords found in Switzerland (see No. The guard of this sword scarcely projects beyond the blade. a line traced on the sand between two Greek combatants. there is the cast of a similar sword to the above. 1 at the point. after MSS. 18. and was found on the battle-field of Pouan. Sax means knife. is derived. 20. it is about 36 inches in length. from which the The scramasax is thus a Schere. In the Cabinet de Medailles. later on). and Scrama may be derived from the word scamata. most probably of the same date. 21. Haft of Merovingian sword. found at Peiting in Bavaria. German weapon or from scaran to shear. . attributed to Childeric. I must repeat here what I have already observed in the historical chapter about the etymology of the word Scramasax. Haft of Germanic sword. Germanic or Slavonic sword. which is wide and pointed. scissors.

including the haft. 153 Burgundian about sword feet in iron. which is very long. It is a rare specimen. for it is to be found iii the fifteenth century. Germanic dagger of the Merofound at epoch.Germanic Iron Weapons. Germanic dagger of the Merovingian inches. handed not have been placed amongst lacustrine arms. inches in length. vingian Rothenlachen. Length 8^ inches. and preserved in the Museum of Sigmaringen. 21. on acthere is count of its shape a similar one in the National Museum of Munich. and proves that it must have been used by a robust and large- 3 3 The Museum of race. 24. in iron. 23. . in the museum of which city it is preserved. length in a 17 at Found tomb Hettingen. Artillery in Paris possesses casts of the 11 swords found at Tiefenau in Switzerland. Germain possesses similar swords that were found in the lake of Neuchatel. Germanic sword 34 inches in length. Vienna shape of blade. Found in a tomb in the Hall stalt cemetery. . on a field of battle. found in a tomb near Sigmaringen. (for Cabinet of Antiquities. and preserved in the Sigmaringen Museum. 22. This shape was used for more than 800 years. epoch. Germanic dagger-knife (length 13| inches) of the Merovingian epoch. They have been alluded to in a work of but in it they should Troy on. The Museum of St. see bronze 25.

154 Germanic Iron Weapons. found at (Hesse) in a tomb. Hi-ad of framee (a kind of lance. Museum 27. actual size. and preserved in the Museum of Sweden. 33. of Sigmari. Museum of Artillery. 30. Germanic origin. Museum of of framee. vingian cemetery of LondiE. Blade of Frankish anjon or dart (Merovingian epoch). Two Museum of Sigmaringen. Paris. found in a tomb near Lupfen. Paris. 26. Fragment (Almain of ?) of Germanic bow wood. 28. and 6 feet in length. belonging to the Merovingian epoch. and is Lund in in the Louvre. length 15 Found in the Mero- nieres. 7. (457487). 32. has been found in the tomb of Childeric I. which would make the 34- bow 7 34. . It is of oak. E. German Pfriem). in inches. but somewhat shorter. found in the (Bara village of Onswala Schonen) in Switzerland. heads of darts. found in a lake dwelling in Switzerland. 31. 16 Artillery. 23.ngen. found in the princi- pality of Hohenzollern. length 14 inches. Sigmaringen. and preserved in the Museum of 29. Two poisoned arrow - heads. A similar one. Six Germanic arrow-heads of different shapes. of Selzen Head Burgundian spear. This piece measures 3 feet 5 inches. feet 6 inches. Germanic bow of Merovingian reign. Head inches in length.

in 1848 visited 28 tombs. Klemm 42. Frank hatchet (called frandsat Enversmen. Museum of Munich. yJ 7 43. ^ Museum 40. is in the Museum of Mayence another. at Hohenzollern. . 41.axe. axe (9 inches). One of these axes is in the Tower of London. axe of the inches). Museums of St. 35. 83*. Almain shape found in Switzerland. Another. found at Selzen. quej. battle . belonging to the end of the Merovingian epoch. Onswala (Bara Schonen) in Switzerland. Battle - Collection. Sweden. Saxon 36. 44. Museum at Lund. . in Hesse. found near Augsburg. of Sigmaringen. found in the department of the Moselle. Germanic battle - axe. British in the axe. Anglo-Saxon battle-axe. probably (pole-axe). Saxon shape. Museum of Artillery in Paris. and has published the result of his excavations. yJ 7 Tower of London. 5. and is thore called Taper axeThe Louvre Museum possesses the francisque of Childeric I. Cabinet of Antiquities. Germanic battle-axes. Dresden. Lindenschmidl (Hesse). Germanic battle Saxon shape (6 of Maycnce. Museum of Augsburg. . Zurich. in the Museum of Sigmaringen. - I 34*. 38 and 39.Germanic Iron Weapons. Found Thames. Germanic battle-axe (6| inches). . 9-2 inches. in Saxony. Burgundian found at Tower of London. found in the Thames. Paris. E. found in the Frankish cemetery of Selzen M. Museum of - Museum Artillery. Germain and Sigmaringen. 37. 155 Germanic battle axe of the Saxon shape. Germanic battle-axe found at Sclieben.

and preserved in the Maximilian Museum at Augsburg. shield with iron boss. of wood covered with leather. and preserved in the Meyrick Collection subsequently. The shape of these bosses was changed to a spherical form ending in a point. Germanic boss (Frankish) iron. Similar frame- works. in found at Selzen (Hesse). convex and round. Several bosses similar to the above have been found in tombs of as early a date as the sixth century. . 49 and 50. Germanic bosses in iron found in Bavaria.are preserved in the Museum of Sigmaringen. 45. and are now in the Bavarian Mu- seum at Munich. which have been excavated in the principality of Hohenzollern. 48.156 Germanic Iron Weapons. Frankish shield. 46. found at Toudinieres. found in Lincolnshire. Boss of Anglo-Saxon shield. 7 inches in Designed from the reconstructed for the Museum of Artillery in Paris. Frame-work of the iron boss of a Frank shield. diameter. and described by the Abbe Cochet. 47. 21 inches in diameter.

found in Switzerland. belonging to a at Germanic shield. Germanic bosses in served in the iron. . Zurich. Germanic bit Merovingian epoch. pre- Museum of Sig- maringeu. 5J . of Sigmaringen. of Museum 56.Germanic Iron Weapons. in the is No. at A similar boss. Museum of Sigmaringen. Cabinet of Antiquities. found is Liineburg. the in iron. Fragment of cuirass. belonging Anglo-Saxon shield. Boss in iron. 53. 5-1 Germanic spur of the Mero- vingian epoch. 50*. 52. found Grosclmowitz (Oppeln). and preserved in the Museum of Berlin. This valuable speci- men of is made of long plates to iron riveted each other. Germanic bit (Trense in German) in iron. in the Hanover Museum. Museum 55. of Merovingian epoch. 157 to an Boss in iron. 492 Museum of Copenhagen also a similar boss. of Sigmaringen. probably made by the Allemauni who invaded Switzerland in the fourth century.

Danish two-edged sword. Museum of Copenhagen. (15 Museum P. length 3 feet. iron. No. in the museum and in M. one-edged. belongs to the (See the 5. almost as rounded as the Germanic swords. thirteenth century. of Copenhagen. Danish stirrup iuches). Danish sword in iron. but the ends of the guard are not bent. and now when the two extremities of the guard are slightly bent towards it the blade. Danish stirrup in bronze. In the collection of M. Museum 6. 496. one-edged. 2. Danish sword in iron. length 43 inches. length 43 i nc lies.158 S andinavian 1. as belonging to the iron age. of (Copenhagen. The handle in the shape of the hilt and pommel resembles the Frankish swords of the Merovingian epoch. Museum 8. Danish stirrup in bronze inches). Iron Arms. in fact. The handle is threelobed. When the handle is fivelobod and not three-lobed. bronze (8 Museum 7. of Adfric. written in the eleventh century. The blade is deeply grooved. Danish sword. . but have been classed erroneously. these objects belong to the Christian Middle Ages. in of Copenhagen. Danish spur in bronze. and is not pointed. Museum of Copenhagen. seum of Copenhagen. inlaid with silver (12 inches). Nieuwerkerke there is a similar one. Worsaae's all Almost catalogue. 493. like the swords in the Anglo-Saxon MSS.S. 3. of Copenhagen. The shape is very like that of the scramasax.) The sword in the Nieuwerkerke Collection is five-lobed. in the British Museum. 494. one in the Munich Museum in the chapter on swords of the Middle A:es. length 44 inches. Mu- 4.

This coat has nothing of the ancient classic character. copied from the column of Theodosius at Constantinople. in 346. residence of the tine.3asque and coat of arms. of the Roman Empire. we may suppose that they belonged to allies or to barbarian mercenaries. and in 1207 it was taken by the Turks. on the partition the capital of In the year 557 the city suffered from an earthquake. 159 . * Constantinople. pro- bably in leather and iron. . The Emperor Theodosius was born the East.Scandinavian Iron Arms. and died in 398.* As these arms display no Roman characteristics. already the became in Emperor Constan330. and its singular shape makes one hesitate about its origin.

pages 37 to 59. the reader is referred to the chapter on the abridged history of ancient arms. tenth century. The mail-shirt rewhether missile or for close combat. . the alterations in which are always more apparent than those of offensive weapons. which^ it is hoped. will greatly facilitate the comprehension of the text. This chapter. and was replaced by complete plate armour only after a transition period in which coats of mail. OF THE RENAISSANCE. AND OF THE SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES. however small. will give a separate history of each weapon. mained in use for more than five hundred years. ARMS OF THE CHRISTIAN MIDDLE AGES. were used. Starting from the historical introduction has that . we are already able to follow step by step the gradual change in defensive armour. partly composed of plates of iron or of leather. As to the more general historical development. accompanied by illustrations of the objects.160 VI. TJHE gress shown the gradual prowas made in the improvement of arms from the earliest ages and though the description of the equipment of the ancients and even of pre-historic nations has been sometimes based on supposition. the history of the two later stages of the Christian middle ages may be established from existing specimens. after having passed in review the complete equipment of the different epochs.

sort of Moses-like horns on the heads of the warriors remind one of the defensive head-gear of the northern nations. and the diptych. however. and their only weapon of defence is the shield. which shows a single loop for the arm. . Byzantine character about it it may very likely have come from a . 161 Combatants from the ivory cover of the Antiphonary of Saint Gregory. The shape of the shields. is not Roman. a manuscript of the eighth century. in Switzerland. The two combatants do not wear beards.Complete Equipments of the Middle Ages. preserved in the library of Saiiii This sculpture has much of the Roman and even Gall.

from a bas-relief in the church of Saint Julien at Bri >ude (Haute Loire). attributed to the eighth century. called in France Norman. but with sleeves that reached to the wrist. The comcal casque resembles those of the eleventh century. The chin-piece seems to be made by e portion of the hood that appears from under the casque. The general character of this equipment indicates rather the tenth or eleventh century. without hose or leggings. This warrior is equipped in the short hauberk or jacket of scales called Jazerans or Korazlns (see explanation in the chapter on mail coats and cuirasses).162 Complete Equipments Merovingian knight. though without nose-guard. on which account the author hesitates about giving it .

round shield with boss. from MSS. in This miniature is interesting on account of the elongated square and convex shape of the shield which is also seen in the long targe of Germany. The king wears his beard. 163 1. of the fourteenth century.of (he Middle Ages. (810). . preserved in the Munich and that he helmet 2. carries a worthy of notice that this warrior wears no beard. . a miniature in Wessobrunn It is of the beginning of the ninth century. but with the chin bare. of the ninth century. the Stuttgart library. and has a rounded Lombard king from Leges Longobardorum. German man-at-arms. library.

of the eighth or ninth century. . Gall. Horseman and foot-soldiers from the miniatures of the Codex Aurens. now at St.164 Complete Equi 3. The horseman and one of the foot-soldiers wears the beard and moustache.

which is very broad at the base. Warrior in large hauberk of mail. The conical helmet is remarkable by the shape of the nose-piece. remarkable by its long sleeves. The warriors have no beards.of the Mid'dle Ages. of that time. but without casque from the bas-reliefs of a reliquary in beaten silver. This valuable example is 3 inches high. From the " Marty rologie. 2. and hauberk of mail. but lias not the close-fitting leggings of the Norman armour of the eleventh century. The coat of mail is long." a manuscript of the tenth century. with short sleeves and hood. 1C5 1. in the Canton of the Valais. from a statuette on a cover of yellow leather. of the end of the ninth century. 3. in the library of Stuttgard. Treasury of the Convent of Saint . with conical- shaped helmet and nose-piece. . Man-at-arms of the tenth century. German warrior of the tenth century. in the collection of M. Switzerland. the Count of Nieuwerkerke. pointed. and with a boss. The shield is long. Maurice. The sword is pointed.

166 Complete Equipments 1. 2. etc. in . Anglo-Saxon manuscript of the tenth century. and by the small buckler. which is trilobed.. This miniature is remarkable on account of the shape of the sword-handle. The same kind end of saddle is found on the Bayeux tapestries of the of the eleventh century. . as in the Aelfric. in the Imperial Library of Paris. Anglo-Saxon men-at-arms. from the Prudentius Psychomachia. Warrior of the tenth from a manuscript of that time. sists of the round shield with boss. the library of the British Museum. in the library The whole of the defensive armour conof the British Museum. and the casque with rounded shell. (?") century the Biblia Sacra. an Anglo-Saxon manuscript. which may be seen on the seal of Richard Cceur-de-Lion (11571173). which was used likewise in the reign of Saint Louis (12261270).

of the Middle Ages. which was built towards the end of the eleventh century. in place of the church burnt in 1078. The Duke Bourckhard of Swabia (965) bas-relief in the Basilica of Zurich. the helmet. 167 1. in the library of the British the Norman shield. Switzerland. These men-at-arms are both represented without beards. in the Martyrology (already mentioned). . the Aelfric. The sword-handle is trilobed. or trefoil -shaped. and the hauberk with long sleeves does not resemble the Norman hauberks. Museum. in the Library of Stuttgard. of the end of the eleventh century. The shield has no resemblance to which was long and very pointed at the base . from the miniatures of an Anglo-Saxon manuscript. 2. differs entirely from those we are acquainted with. also. and sword recalling those of the tenth century. Helmet . An^lo-Saxon man-at-arms.

It may be noticed that the Anglo-Saxon is represented with a beard. of the beginning of the eleventh century. 2. and the large hauberk of trellised mail. but the hauberk here is ringed. The shield is adorned with paintings. the heartshaped buckler. with long sleeves and hood. . without leggings. the Germanic "framee" (lance). mentioned on preceding page. same round shield. Same kind of trilobed sword-handle. Anglo-Saxon warrior from the Aelfric manuscript. but with close-fitting breeches. He wears the conical helmet with nose-piece.168 Complete Equipments 1. which probably represent personal armorial bearings. from a bas-relief in the cloister of Saint Aubin at Angers. French warrior.

The casque is similar Codex Aureus of Saint Gall. hood. and breeches and leggings in mail. 2. Strangely enough. A . German equipment to that in the of the eleventh century. from the statue of one of the founders of the Cathedral of Naumburg.of tlie Middle Ages. German warrior of the eleventh century. 169 1. the beard is seen on the chin. Jeremias Apocalypsis. in a hauberk with long From the sleeves. in the library at Darmstadt. right leg is without armour.

The hauberk. 1170). to protect the back of the arms.D. and of the Archbishop Thomas Becket of Canterbury (Saint Thomas died A. with shoulder-pieces and elbows. in Austria. German man-at-arms of the end of the twelfth century. German warrior from a stone sculpture of the twelfth century. at the gate of Heimburg. with long tight sleeves and hood. appears to be of thongs covered with iron. The arm-guards. are radical difference also very characteristic of the time. 2. but it resembles that of the Dacian sabre. The rounded shell of the Lelmet shows the . and of a kind unknown. from the embroideries on the mitre in the Convent of Seligenthal at Lands- hut.70 Complete Equipments 1. on which are represented the martyrdoms of Saint Etienne (997). . National Museum of Munich. so that the shape of it cannot be rightly conjectured. defen&ive armour which existed between this piece of German and that of the Normans. The sword-blade appears to be broken in the hands of the statue. in Bavaria.

The sword is very long in the blade. Xorman warrior of the eleventh century. The legs are bound round with thongs. and has a simple pommel. close-fitting breeches. Bayeux Tapestry. Anglo-Saxon warrior. recognisable by his round shield with boss. and the shield reaches to the height of a man's shoulder. 171 1 . The conical helmet has a nosepiece. . Bayeux 2. with sleeves. Tapestry. and hood. and whose defensive armour does not differ in other things from the Norman.of the Middle Ages. in large ringed or trellised hauberk.

and hood in one This figure is probably meant for William the Conqueror. 2. and wearing the hood alone. but this warrior is interesting on account of the form of his saddle. bridle. and leggings. and the pen- nant on his lance. because it alone has the legs armed like the rest of the body. Norman warrior fighting without helmet. breeches. Bayeux Tapestry* . piece. Bayeux Tapestry. with sleeves. The conical casque with nose-piece does not differ from that of the other warriors. The defensive armour is the same.172 Complete Equipments 1. Norman warrior of the eleventh century in large ringed or trellised hauberk.

has a pennant. and stripes en the other. from an enin Iceland. from a sculpture in wood on the door of a church 2. and the rest of the armour seems to consist of a hauberk with hood. 173 1. all in one piece. (1140). preserved in the is ment graved seal. The equipremarkable by the conical casque with nose-piece and neck-covering. Museum of Copenhagen.of the Middle Ayes. The long shield has a coat of arms on one of his seals. The lunce . and breeches and leggings of mail. Scandinavian warrior. The conical helmet has a nose-piece. Don Ramon Berenger IV. and by the curved sword or glaive which the warrior bears along with the buckler on his right shoulder. end of the eleventh or beginning of the twelfth century. Count of Barcelona.

174 Complete Equipments 1. a cross as a crest. breeches. from his seal. The helmet has a rounded shell without a nose-piece. and leggings. . the young (11371180). close-fitting sleeves. Louis VII. The coat of mail has a hood. and the buckler differs greatly from the Norman one.

(See at page 180 the equipment of Richard Cceur-de-Lion (1189 1199). should follow here. The equipment is interesting on account of the coat of scale- armour. executed in the reign of Henry the Lion. according to chronological order. which.of the Middle Ages. and the metal rings which encircle the knees. which is double-lobed. the large shield. which resembles the Koman squamata. German 175 warrior from the mural paintings on the cathedral of Brunswick.) . the pommel of the sword. who died in 1195.

176 Complete Equipments .

at Raudnitz. It may be remarked that only the two chiefs wear beards. in the . close-fitting sleeves. judging from the line riveted witli nail-heads. for the iron hats of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. which divides the pointed shell of the helmet into two halves. worn with the hood. are evidently of the kind called ringed (see the explan ation in the chapter on corslets and coats). as far as the history of defensive armour is concerned. while the chiefs wear beards and have sharp-pointed shoes a la poulaine.of the Middle Ages. reaches to the shoulders. generally supposed to belong to the fourteenth century. and which. have not the crown thus pointed. from the manuscript of Voleslav of Bohemia. many of already wear the large bassinet. The most remarkable feature in this elaborate illumination. in Bohemia. whom The hauberks with long. and that the shields with armorial devices resemble in shape the shield of Louis VII. The bassinets do not appear to be made of a single shell. and breeches with " " leggings. represented on page 174. is the broad-brimmed iron hat There is no exiting with pointed crown like that of the bassinet. specimen of this kind of hat. (11371180). which are sometimes to be met with in collections of armour. The second group on the page is headed by a chieftain whoce equip- ment differs in no respect from that of the other warriors. The swords are not yet pointed. . but the saddles have raised cantles. Gerthir- teenth century preserved in the library of Prince Lobkowitz. 177 The engraving on the preceding page represents Bohemian or man warriors.

178 Complete Equipments .

preserved The coat of mail at the foot of the anvil. in the library of Berlin. The armour of the horse. appears to be in plates. the buckler is heart-shaped. represented at page 181. or ringed like the coat lying at the foot of the anvil in the first engraving. warrior wears above his armour is grotesque enough with its long skirts like the overcoats of the present day it is also to be seen on trellised. German armourer forging a helm. judging from the armguards. like the small shield which was uniThe armour already versally worn in the time of Saint Louis. . inaccurately copied. in the original design. copied from a miniature of the German JEneid of Henry of Waldeck. from the same manuscript. appears. .of the Middle Ages. The helm (Top/helm in German. probably of leather. the cuisses. if it be not ringed. the Dutch statue of the same period. German The helm has a crest warrior. and pointed shoes. to be trellised and studded with nail-heads. leggings. which is completely and studded with heads of nails. and heaume in French) which the armourer is forgiog has a fixed vizor and is fiat-crowned. which are all evidently laminated. thirteenth century. shows a great The " Waffenrock " or frock which the progress in equipment. 179 1. . 2.

Cceur-de-Lion (11891199). and hood.* from a seal. but without hose. ' The helmet with rounded top of Northern Germanic origin has replaced the Franco-Norman conical helmet its shape is much higher. which . The coat of mail has tight-fitting sleeves. while the buckler seems to be the forerunner of the small shield of the thirteenth century. which. also belong to the second half of the twelfth century. 174. according to the chronologic order followed in this book. and recalls the helmets of the embroideries of Seligenthal. * This woodcut. has been obliged to be inserted on this page for typographical reasons.180 Complete Equipments Richard I. should have been placed to follow p. reaching to the knee. The jambs" or leggings are also of mail. .

heaumes de joute in French). . The Dutch warrior in coat of mail with tight-fitting sleeves. probably of leather. front and back view in the collection of M. has a grotesque appearance. of the end of the thirteenth century. 181 1. and preserved in the library of Berlin.of the Middle Ages. wearing plate-armour. Tristan and Isolde. "jambs" or leggings of plate armour. 2. the . Six at Amsterdam. They wear tilting helms (Stechhelm in German. and the singularly disproportionate size of the crest of his helm. Equestrian statue in bronze. and plated shoes a la poulaine. From a German manuscript. German warriors. hose jambs in plates. on account of the long-skirted coat worn over the armour. and the Waffenrock or surcoat above their armour. written in the thirteenth century by Godfrey of Strasburg. arm guards.

the the armour the Waflfenrock. and the is crested. The sword-guard has the two ends turned towards the point of the sword. CHARLES LE GRAND.182 Complete Equipments 1. plate. high relief. four- from the ornaments on a stamped and engraved leathern coffer of thut period in the collection of M. and the gauntlets have separate fingers. French warrior of the teenth century. 3. in the collection of M. The French inscriptions in Gothic letters indicate a time posterior to 1360. and dates from the thirteenth century. in shades of alternately citron and orange. in the collection of M. from a champlevtf enamel candlestick of that period. or frock with long horse is skirts. 4 inches in height. le Comte de Nieuwerkerke. 2. Above the figure are the words. French warrior of the teenth century. . le Comte de Nieuwerkerke. le Comte de Nieuwerkerke. The armour is all the shoes are a la poulaine. It is enamelled in blue and gilt. French warrior of the thirteenth century. thir- from a champlevf enamel on copin per. helm covered with caparisoned.

183 hand by means Italian warriors of the fourteenth century." but their body armour the hauberk. already known among the Mexicans. at Sitten. from a canvas printed by of engraved wood blocks in oil colours. . the other warriors have the fluted bassinet of which no specimen is now known. confounds this manner of hand-printing. is * Dr. Odet. while black. belonging to M. still All wear the fluted " jambs.* red and The chiefs wear helms. who has published the fac-simile. with the real wood-engraving. which necessitates the use of the printing-press.of the Middle Ages. which had fallen into disuse in Germany. Keller.

184 Complete Equipments Italian warriors of the fourteenth century. The Gothic capitals in use from 1200 to 13GO show that the canvas cannot date later than the four- teenth century. from the same canvas as the preceding engraving. The plain bassinet is noticeable. . a kind of vizor which resembles the shade or peak on modern caps. and which seems to be the precursor of the peak on the burgonet of the fifteenth century. on account of the frontlet.

The helm is still of the shape " of the " Topfhelm From an of the Germans. thirteenth century.of the Middle Ages. 185 Danish warrior of the fourteenth century. . ecclesiastical bowl in the Museum of Copenhagen. whose armour is curioua because of the braconniere or apron and loinguards in trellised work which partly cover the mailed hauberk.

Manuscript 2576 of the Imperial Library at Vienna Bistoria : sacra et profana. beginning of the fourteenth century . The helm has a plume. etc. .186 Complete Equipments German warrior . he is already armed with plated jambs and mailed shoes a la poulaine. and the shield is larger than the buckler of the thirteenth century.

This is the date of the completion of the funereal monument in the Upper Church of Neufchatel. at the time when this sculpture was carved. This armour is drawn from an exact fac-simile of the monument to the Count of Berthold. 187 1. but the buckler is email. It represents Rodolph II. notice the greaves or jambs of plate-armour. who died in 1258. Armour of a Neufchatel knight. who died in 1196.. 2. Knight of Neufchatel of the year 1372.of the Middle Ages. We still .

hut end of the fourteenth or beginning of the fifteenth armed with the hooded hauberk. This bas-relief is surrounded with an inscription in small Gothic letters. which were not Spanish warrior still . .188 Complete Equipments century. without helmet from a fragment of sculpture in the Alhambra. used earlier than 1360. .

which appears to have been written for the Duke of Burgundy. a Roman history. buckler. . Man-at-arms the firing a small hand-cannon. 2. from a manuscript of fifteenth century. is seen on the back of the warrior. "Jean sans peur" (1404 1419). 189 1. Burgundian warrior. also of the thirteenth century.of (lie Middle Ages. It will be seen that the armour still consists of the The small mailed hauberk. from the illuminations of a manuscript in the Library of the Arsenal at Paris. and the salade kind of helmet.

190 Complete Equipments .

. The coats are very short. The All the armour of these warriors is on the whole very defective. representing the massacre of the Innocents. and German equipments of the same period. partly were not in use anterior to 1360. while that underneath the engraving is in small letters. and inferior to English. * " cross-piece. as well as the lower part of their arms. and do not even reach to the knee the feet also are without solerets or armed shoes. . French. the second half of the sixteenth century. from a mural painting dating about the end of the fourteenth century.of the Middle Ages. 191 Spanish men-at-arms . and wear covered by a breastplate. " Paa d'ane is the name of the ring-shaped sword-guard below the on each side of the blade it is not generally met with until . which The soldiers carry swords with the trellised coats. The inscription on the large pavois of one of the soldiers is in Gothic capitals. legs of the soldiers. " pas d'ane"* guard. con- sidering the time (second half or end of the fourteenth century). in the Cathedral of Mondoneda. are without protection.

2. The body armour. and German equipment! of that period.192 Complete Equipments 1. from equestrian statue of Bartolommeo Colat Venice. French. harness is interesting on account of its enormous shoulderwhich are pieces. as well as the salade without a vizor. leoni. Italian armour of the end of the fifteenth the century. executed in 1496 by Andrea Verrocchio and Alessandro LeoThis war pardi. protecis and much Eng- inferior to the lish. the sculpture of whose died in tomb was executed by Paolo di Jacomello of Massegna. not fastened either to the arm-guards. for be- tween them may be seen a large surface of coat of mail. Italian armour of the end the fourteenth from the century. or to the breastplate. . who 1384. forms a very insufficient tion. to the back. tomb of Jacopo Cao'f valli at Venice.

formerly on the balustrade of the old Townhall of Amsterdam. and of the back-plate. (1404 1417). 193 Dutch armour. where the tribunal sat. The armour ia enormous knee-pieces. front and back view.of ihe Middle Ages. of the fifteenth century. composed of two pieces. from a bronze statuette of William VI. and now preserved in the collection of antiquities of this city. its worthy of notice on account of ''genouilliares/' .

Collection. the gauntlets. as first is sight. and the ends of the is solerets. the casque. by the side of the left leg. and hinged vizor to Frederick tine of the . one of represented in full. be- longs to the middle of the fifteenth century. has a rounded crown. who died Vienna. is in the same to attributed Frederick the Catholic.191 Complete Equipments Gothic armour of polished steel. Ambras collection. attributed Count Pala- Rhine. . which The casque and seems already partakes of the character of the armet. in 1476. of the fifteenth century. from the singular form of the tassets. a kind of heaume.. to be more modern than the rest of the armour. it is I. This war obvious at harness. A similar suit.

attributed to Sigis- mund of Tyrol. 2. as the tassets are Fine Gothic armour of the first half of the fifteenth century. of the thirteenth century.of the Middle Ayes. German Gothic armour inund of Tyrol. of the fifteenth century. This suit of armour with wanting. is almost the same as this one of the Sigmaringeii Museum. . its salade is incomplete. 195 1. Frederick I. and is erroneously attributed to the Count of HohenThe suit of zollern-Eitel. in polished steel. It forms a part of the collection in the Museum of Sigmaringen. attributed to Sigis- Anibras Collection at Vienna. armour of the Ambras collection (drawn above).

armour for a warrior and horse. Ambras M. purchased in Nuremberg. solerets. has a movable vizor. Maximilian I. but are of the sixteenth century. Armour of man and The horse. and a laminated chin piece. do not The suit. properly belong to the . and arm-guards. born in 1459.. salafJe cuisses.196 Complete Equipments of the Middle Ages. greaves. attributed to died in 1519. the Count of Nieuwcrkorke possesses a similar suit of Collection.

Equipments of the "beginning of the Renaissance. G. in polished steel. and the heaume. the tilting targe. of the years of the sixteenth century. The Emperor Napoleon TIL possesses three similar suits of armour. 197 German Gothic tilting armour of the second half of the fifteenth century. armour of the same kind. le Oomte de Nieuwerkerke has Musee first d'Artillerie is another suit of No. . 115 in the one. Ambras Collection at Vienna. It is remarkable on account of the large size of the palettes. and M.

N. and the huge lance rest. or beginning of the sixteenth century. Musee d'Artillerie. and weighing 82 Ibs. in polished steel.198 Equipments of the "beginning German tilting armour of the end of the fifteenth. and joined to the breastplate. The laminated tassets are long. with chin piece. the flutings of which indicate the end of the fifteenth century. G. is a similar suit of armour. Paris. It is worthy of note on account of the beautiful salade. (French). Ambras Collection. its large placcate or tilting guard. 116. .

belonging to the best period. in polished steel. . breastplate. . and the large tassets are surmounted by a plated fluted. The suit. partly This suit of is a fine and elegant armour. The elbow pieces have a Gothic character distinct about them.and the leg- guard . this last left foot was to pre- vent the from being crushed against the barrier. The most notice- able features are the heaume. 199 German Gothic tilting armour of the second half of the fifteenth century.of flie Renaissance. was made at Augs- burg. and is to be found in the Imperial Arsenal of Vienna.. who died in 1493. the gauntleted arm-guard of the left hand. which is attributed to Maximilian I.

and rendered a coat of mail an indispensable addition. here the heaume is seen fixed to the back-plate by a strong hinge.200 Equipments of the beginning view. tilting . but the loin guard is defective. Fine Gothic armour of the second half of the fifteenth century. back the front view is engraved on the following page. The lance rest and shoulder pieces are very large.

with "volant piece. indicate exactly the time of the conof this suit of struction armour. pieces the shape of the shoulder and gauntlets. Imperial Arsenal of Vienna. two large and the breastplate " tassets. . or ridge." but a transition helmet between it and the salade. 201 German armour. The crested helmet with movable vizor. The armed shoes. The sword is of the middle of the sixteenth century. " bee de cane "shaped. lowered by means of a pivot on the top of the crown. or of the beginning of the sixteenth century. end fifteenth. is not yet the proper "armet. of the cuirass with a tapul. the elbow and knee-pieces being of a small size.of the Renaissance.

ticulated . The gauntlet is ar- only for the first division of the hand. where the vizor. similar suit in the author's collection. has a helmet. rets. Imperial Arsenal of Vienna. The solepaw- armed shoes." of the beginning of the sixteenth armour. century (Geripte Rustung in Ger- man). not following the lines of the human face. but the lower arm or pieces and the greaves are plain. and with passe in German).202 Complete Equipments German fluted called " Maximilienne " and " Milanaise." and the shoulder- pieces large. The cuirass is round- ed. shaped. The cuishes and upper gardes (Ednder arm pieces are fluted like the rest of the armour. the breastplate does not possess the central ridge or "tapul. allows the wearer to see and breathe through eleven small holes. the sixteenth century. the shape of whose soleret indicates the A second half of the fifteenth century. indicate the time to which this armour belongs.

16. of 1515. 117). p. It is also of note worthy on account of the shape of the "brayette. 229. orna- Ambras mented with the same facet cutting.. the date of the coronation of Francis I. Musee de d'Artillerie " Paris. leaving no part unprotected.of the Renaissance. everywhere and thus does not need the coat of mail to protect weaknesses which do not exist. The bouillone'e." or puffed suit of armour (see next page). mentions it as coming from the gallery of Sedan. which is engraved on the right wrist. it is laminated. The catalogue (G. the same This harness covers the whole body. of the Collection." which resembles the one engraved at No. 203 German armour in polished steel. while at Vienna it is supposed to have belonged to the Ambras Collection. cut in facets. for fighting on foot. . was probably wrought by artist.

the engraving of which is found on the preceding page. indicates a suit to be worn for fighting on foot it also shows that it proceeds from the same hand which constructed the suit in the in 1541. It belonged to William of Rogendorf. with the exception of the cuishes and greaves. Museum of Artillery in Paris. in steel cut in facets. and who died This fine war harness. There is a similar suit in the Tower of London. of the first half of the sixteenth century.204 Complete Equipments German puffed armour. Ambras Collection. one of the captains who defended Vienna against the Turks in 1529. . .

Anribras Collection. .of the Renaissance. 205 view of the suit of armour described on the preceding page.tok It will graving of which is given at page 203. the enP>. be seen that the plated loin guard is exactly similar to the one belonging to the suit of armour erroneously called Italian.

Complete Equipments German armour in steel. may The possibly to longed have another besuit. is very pecu- having a double movable vizor. of 1526. . Imperial Arsenal oj Vienna. as a monogram. and the greaves not being ornamented. polished and facetted. and bears in the centre of it the initials S. deficiency between the waist-piece and the tassets is here supplied by a piece of mail which reaches to the loin-guard. The armet liar. L. The solerets are club or paw- shaped. pieces have passe-gardes. The tassets and waist-piece are joinand the shoulder ed. The cuirass is rather rounded in shape.

207 Italian armour of the first half of the sixteenth century. . which was worn in Italy during the fifteenth century. in the style of the brigantine jacket. Ambra* Collection at Vienna. It is attributed to the Duke of Urbino (1538).of the Renaissance.

. which . left no hold for the enemy's sword. f closing hermetically. The armet being joined to the cuirass by the gorget and collar.208 Complete Equipments Richly damascened or inlaid armour (ianchirt in German). and is now in the Imperial Arsenal of Vienna. of the second half of the sixteenth century it is of Nuremberg workmanship. formed one solid piece.

209 Richly inlaid armour. gorget and collar. . and being joined to the cuirass by the of the sixteenth century. . The left arm the armct IB provided with an arm-guard called large tilting guard closing every wher hermetically. manufactured at Nuremberg in tlic second half Imperial Arsenal of Viennn. offered no place of vantage for the point of the enemy's sword.of ike Renaissance.

the waist and thighs. becoming smaller. and the elbowpieces small. of the second half of the sixteenth century. gradually rising towards the centre until it terminates in a ridge. on that account. tabulated. The gauntlets are entirely articulated. The cuirass is already lengthening. The tassets and cuishes are very short.210 Complete Equipments German suit of steel ar- mour. and the absence of a waist in plate armour protect necessitates the to use of onn in mail. richly ornamented with engraving and inlaying. The volant-piece (Vorhelm in " has German) passe- gardes/' and is screwed or on to which the is breastplate. and the tassets are. Imperial Arsenal of Vienna* .

the large palettes. Archduke FerdiCount of Tyrol. represent This ar- mour was intended to be worn when fighting on foot. . attributed to the nand. and the bear's foot solerets. of the second half of the sixteenth century. The armet. indicate ex- actly the period of manufacture. Ambras Collection. but the skirt was divisible so as to allow it to be worn on horseback. its length. 2J1 German skirted armour.of the Renaissance. The small orna- engraved ments eagles. the ridge on the great cuirass.

Augsburg manufacture. Van Achen. which recalls the designs by the painters Schwa rz. in the Cabinet of Engiavings at Munich. It is entirely covered with rich " repousse. Brockberger. Museum of Imperial Artillery at I io/ua. and Milich.'' or embossed ornament. .212 Complete Equipment* Suit of armour. of the second half of the sixteenth century.

and the absence of the lance-rest. who died in 1574. . cause it to resemble the war harness of the seventeenth century. 213 century. Adam Gall. forming what was called the lobster-tail.of the Uenaissance. Imperial Arsenal of Vienna. armour in polished steel second half of the sixteenth the breastplate is the name of the knight to whom it belonged. when the tassets were joined with the cuishes. Thia kind of armour was worn in Spain more generally than in The profusion of buttons. German On Germany. plate .

attributed io the Duke of Alva. is deficient.214 Complete Equipments of Spai. The armet. . prayer before a crucifix.ish plate armour. a kind of bnrgonet. as it leaves too large a space between the chin-piece and eye-shade of the helmet. is engraved a knight in observation as for Ambras Same the armour on the preceding page. the stern rulei of the Low Countries (1508-1582). On the breastplate Collection.

215 tury. . armour in steel. necessitate the use ot Italian mail. The breastplate rises into a ridge.the End of the Renaissance. inlaid with silver. end of the sixteenth cenand which is believed to have belonged to Alessandro Farnese. Imperial Arsenal of Vienna. and has a lance-rest. and the absence of the large brayette. The space between the tassets. as well as of great fineness. This suit is of splendid workmanship.

to the II. Ambras Collection at Vienna. con- sidered to have belonged Emperor Rodolph The (15721612).2 If] Complete Equipments of the German armour end of of the ^ the in sixteenth centmy. the The and the large elbow shape of the "bee de cane" solerets. richly embossed (Getrieben German). brayette. point out the time of the manufacture of this fine ar- mour. as well as the shape of the breastplate without lance-rest. shoulder pieces. indicates sword by the shape of the hilt and the " " the beginpas d'ane ning of the seventeenth century. and the absence of the large armet. indicates and whose work the school of Munich It is or Augsburg. .

a poem composed by Ferdusi.End of the Sixteenth Century. 217 Complete equipment of Persian horseman. illuminated about the year 1580 to 1600. Book. It is a copy of the Schah Nameh or Royal mail. . illustrated with 215 beautiful miniatures. From a manuscript in the library of Munich. in the reign of Mahmoud the Gaznevide (999). The man wears a coat of and the horse is covered with an armour composed of plates of iron joined together with small chain links.

. what is somewhat remarkable." during the Stadtholdership of Henry Frederick (16251647). For fuller detail. pistols. from a pictuis of that time. under the Norman captain. Tl e armour is still an entire covering. between the Dutch. by Ter Himpelen of Delft. and. m Dutch warrior . see p. under the command of Lieutenant Abraham!. painted on earthenware. and the loin-guard is worn. Breaute. and which represents the celebrated battle before Bois le Due..218 Complete Equipments 2 . on the heath of Lekkerbeetze. time of the " War of Independence." of the author. of the " Encyclopedie ceramique imnogrammique. 631. and the Spaniards. 3rd edition. we find already flint-lock guns and Author's Collection.

construction of these inferior suits of harness may be seen by the huge shoulder-pieces.of the Seventeenth Century." and the long lobwhich re- Ci placed the waist piece and the tassets. Louis XIV. Ambras Collection at Vienna. . the di- minution of the breastplate. 219 German armour of the seventeenth century. and died in 1705. and several other in the Artillery suits Museum at Paris are said to be of the reign of XIII. ster - tails. (1643 The date of the 1715). atto the Archtributed duke Leopold. who became Emperor in 1658. A similar is suit in the to Louvre Louis attributed (1610 1643).

and covered with a mail hood. composed of chain and plate. The graceful. especially the cuishes and knee-pieces. The round shield is ornamented with a painting representing a cross-bow. whole appears pic- and very turesque. of the end of the sixteenth or beginning of the seven- teenth century. composed of plates joined by rings. such as are used in Persia. The casque is made with a low crown. Imperial Arsenal oj Vienna* . the front part of which protects the forehead and cheeks. The whole equipment has an oriental charactei about it.220 Complete Equipments Hungarian armour.

. of German the of manufacture beventeenth century. 221 Hungarian war r.of (he Seventeenth Century. and was not in use at the is time to which this ar- mour It apbelongs. It is characterised by the peculiar form of the casque and shield. richly damascened. is The sabre of Eastern shape. similar to those the Swedes in the Thirty Years' War.ess. - hnr- in steel. Imperial Arsenal of Vienna. The mace hand of the in the right man a weapon of the sixteenth century. half-suit pears that this was worn over the buff of coat.

and helmet neck with nose-piece. Cuirass with ridged breastplate. cheek and Arms guards. in what way a soldier's equipment underwent continual changes from the commencement of the Middle Ages. and which. like it. was formed of several plates. must not be confounded with the gorget (Kehlstuck. The cuirass (Kiirass in German) was composed of the breastplate (Brust platte\ which protected the chest and was often made with a salient ridge called tapul down the centre (Graete). Ger. . belongs to the end of the fifteenth or beginning of the sixteenth century. a kind of burgonet. underneath which it was placed. the following pieces The neck collar (Halsberge in : German).222 Armour of the Eighteenth Century.). besides the casque (which at this time was always considered a thing apart). which will here be described in detail. We have seen in the historical chapter. Imperial Arsenal of Vienna. It comprises. The perfected plate armour. which supported the whole of the rest of the harness. ARMOUR IN ALL ITS DETAIL. and of the back plate (Itiickcnplatte). WITH THE EXCEPTION OF THE CASQUE. and in the introduction to the present one. of the end of the seventeenth or beginning of the eighteenth century. richly damascened and engraved.

The cuishes (Dielinge. like the waist-piece. and imbricated plates was called " ecrevisses " " in England. and strapped with thongs on to the Some German authors. 223 The lance rest (Eustliacken). The shoulder-plates (Achselstucke). The small brayette. before 1500 generally covered only the front of the The armed shoes. it has been thought better to give in this instance the terms . a suit of splints The loin guard (Hinterschurz) was composed of imbricated plates. composed of front together and back pieces (vor and hinter Armzeug). The tassets. and ended in the tassets. and was used to fix the lance. or double leggings with hinges (BeinscMenen). designated by French to which no recognised English synonyms exist. with or without passegardes (Bander). knee-plates (Kniestucke). The arm guards (Armzeug and Armschienen).Armour in Detail. and halber Krebs to the armour in plates and the long cuishes of lower part of the the end of the sixteenth and beginning of the seventeenth Fouchet also. says that armour entirely composed of " in France. ever. greaves. It was composed of steel plates. which before 1500 protected only the front of the thigh. joined by the elbow-pieces (Meuseln or Elletibogen Kacheln). that part of the armour which covered the abdomen. give the name "Krebs" to a complete suit of armour " " composed of imbricated plates. howlarge brayette or waist-piece. or tuiles (Krebse). The large brayette (Vordersclmrz). which was placed on the right of the breastplate. who wrote about the end of the centuries. The palettes (Acliselliolilsclieiben). and whose use does not date farther back than the middle of the fifteenth century. The small plates (Kleine Scliienen). Dichlinge. The The which leg. destined to protect the upper part of the thighs. sixteenth century. or Schenkelschienen). or solerets (Bustmany varieties of foot-armour being titles The or Eisenschuhe). which protected the armpits. which English taste has eliminated from the armour preserved in the Tower of London. to protect the armpits. and disappears at the end of the sixteenth.

tury. or half mentonniere (Kinnlielrn). Demmin rather than attempt to translate them. with or without sight-holes.224 Armour in Detail. or Gefingerte Tatze) . When. towards the end of the sixteenth century. century articulated fingers (Fingerhandschuhe. The armour of the sixteenth century flutiugs . from 1490 to 1560 and a bee de cane about 1585. but all these were used only for . a la poulaine. The movable chin-piece. or demi-poulaine. and in the sixteenth century they were again made with The gauntlets of the seventeenth censeparate fingers. . large tilting cuishes (Turnier Lendenplatte). ogivale lancette. in doeskin and armed with plated scales." that of the second half of this same century is adorned with artistic engravings. or with the arm-guard. armour had attained its highest degree of perfection. it declined. Solerets V crochet. and ended by disappearing entirely in the second half of the seventeenth century. or demipieds d'ours. different pieces belonging to the helmet. in the eleventh century. from 1350 to 1470. . which will all be found in the following chapter. . : The The The is remarkable by its such was the armour called Maxi" milian or "Milanaise. done with the tool and with aquafortis. After the . in the fifteenth century they were without joints . The large shoulder-guard (Kleines fifteenth century. with volant-piece. about 1485 a sabots. Brustschild) was used rait from the end of the The Band). vain-plate (Schweber Scheibe). First. beautiful ' ' standing could no longer offer a sufficient protection against fire arms. The gauntlets (KampfJiandscliuhe^ had in the fourteenth . or pieds d'ours. employed by M. were called in German Schappenliandschulie. shoulder-plate with passe-garde (Schulterschild The large tilting breast-shield (Grosses BrustschM and Scharfrenntartsche) was sometimes simple sometimes with the chin-piece. and return to a la poulaine in the fifteenth century arcs tiers points from 1440 to 1470 a demi-sabots. but notwith- The great mentonniere (Kinrihelm). from early twelfth to middle fourteenth century. tilting. were The volant-piece (VorJielm).

a style of art probably invented by Wohlgemuth (1434 1519). but everything which dates farther back than : the fifteenth century is very unartistic. resembled the Punch's hump of the reign of Henry III. and afterwards the flat forms of costume under Louis XIII. (Roller). . which . and even this only as a The buff coat or jerkin special arm by the cuirassiers. Respecting armours ornamented with aquafortis engraving.. Engraving by the tool was used for the ornamenting of swords from the second half of the Christian Middle Ages.Armour tasscts in Detail. Before the introduction of half armour ungraceful breastplates. these are as for the supposition very rare in the fifteenth century that engraving by aquafortis was in use among the Arabs from the eleventh century. and William III. lastly. if not by his pupil Diirer (14711528). were followed. 225 had been replaced by the ungraceful cuishes. while greaves and solerets were discarded for the heavy riding boots of Louis XIV. then took the place of armour. by the long lobster-tails of Louis XIV/s reign. on which was worn a light collar. imitating the fashion of doublets.. . and very soon no more arm-guards the cuirass alone being worn to the end. had already been the precursors of decadence in armour these breastplates. in which there were neither greaves nor cuishes. armour was reduced to its latest change. it has not been confirmed by any existing object.

. ridge in the centre called tapul (Graete). rest is is sometimes The lance- seen on the right of the breastplate (Musthacken). or pauldron (AcJisdstuck). tury. 3. 2. Ambras Collection. of a fluted suit of armour second half of the. Shoulder-plate. This piece supported the whole of the harness. Ditto. 1 . or front The salient part of the cuirass. Back-plate of the cuirass (Ruckenplatte). IA.226 Detached Pieces Neck collar (Hakberge). Autiws Collection. ditto. fifteenth cen. Breastplate (Brustpkttte).

larger than the preceding ones. Paris. fifteenth 7. 5. similarly large palettes." similar gorget and A shoulder-piece lery. 6. 256. A few armour of the end of the fifteenth and beginsuits of tilting ning of the sixteenth century have. so composed was called " allecret. Gorget with pauldrons attached end of the sixteenth century.of Plate Armour. nevertheless. Palette. Museum of Artil- . G. Palette (Achselhohkcheibe} of a fluted suit. 10 inches in diameter. in the 'Ambras Collection. Palette of a Gothic suit centuiy. studded with copper nail-heads belonging to a suit of the end of the sixteenth century. . Palette. may be seen in No. In England a piece of armour . end of the fifteenth century. of a suit belonging to the middle of the sixteenth century. 9. . 8.

in the Imperial Arsenal of Vienna. of a fifteenth-century suit. which protected the cuishes. This waist-piece was always completed by the two large tassets. piece. or great brayette (Forderschurz}. 11. 13. or tuiles. * tassets During the fifteenth century the were generally composed of one like No. Waist-piece. for fighting on foot. After that they assumed a rounded shape. Small tasset. Tasset* (Krebs\ tuile-shaped. Museum of Artillery. and were for the most part smaller. embossed or an engraved and end of the fifteenth of beginning the sixteenth Its century. Paris. shape renders the tassets unneces- sary. 12. in plates. . and with movable plates.228 Detached Pieces 10. Waist-piece of suit. used also in the sixteenth century. during the sixteenth century. 12. belonging to a Gothic suit of the fifteenth century. end of the fifteenth century .

sixteenth century. Paris. Small brayette (Gliedschirm) of a sixteenth-century suit.of Plate Armour. or garde -reins be- (Hinterschurz). 16. like a is Freemason's apron . and almost entirely covering the cuishes. (died in 1547). No. Small brayette. G. it attributed to part of a suit Francis I. 15. 17. Loin -guard. 119. of a suit longing to the end of the fifteenth century. . Tasset and waist-piece in one. Museum of Artillery. of an unusual size. 229 .

or loin-guard.and Hinterami\ and these two pieces are joined Armzeug). one of the most graceful pieces of fifteenth-century work known. 21. called vambrace and rearbrace (For." suit end of the fifteenth or beginning of the sixteenth century. Two garde-reins of the seventeenth century. Garde-reins. elbow-piece Elleribogen- The shape of the Tfachei). small dimensions. .piece varies greatly. of a Gothic suit of armour. Garde-reins called " of a fluted Maximilienne . Complete arm -guard (Games It is composed of an upper and lower arm. 19.230 Detached Pieces ^ -^y *^ 18.plate. 20.. preserved Museum of Artillery. together by the or (Meusel. as at the end of the fifteenth sometimes with century . jointed plates and during the sixteenth century it was of . reign of Louis XIV. elbow . Sometimes it is more rounded. The smaller one belongs to a suit of the in the Paris.

or thigh-plate. tilting fifteenth century. 24. middle of the fifteenth century. with separately articulated fingers." shape called end of the sixteenth century. or (kleines Schulterschild). Cuish (JDieling - or Scherikel- scliiene]. Greave with soleret (Eisen- The soleret is of the schuhe).of Plate Armour. grand guard used in towards the end of the . Shoulder-plate. 231 22 22. which shows its manufacture to be later than 1500. 23. 25. Gauntlet (Kampfhandschuhe or gefingerte Handtatze). belonging to a Gothic suit . with knee cap (Knie*tuck\ and It is greave (Beinschiene}. double or hinged. " bee de cane .

of Bavaria (15101545). beginning of the sixteenth century. Tilting breastplate. richly engraved German work on a tilting suit. . 27 Us. beginning of the sixteenth century. and also Scharfrenntartsche. Pauldron with passe-garde (Schulter* echild mil Band). in iron. Great tilting shoulder-guard (Turmer schulterschild). . 29.232 Detached Pieces 26. Museum of Artillery. German. Tilting breastplate with mentonniere (Brustschild mit Schoribart\ from the " " Book of Tourneys of Duke Wil- liam IV. Elbow-piece belonging to a left armguard. 10. Paris. This piece of armour is called in German Grosses Brustschild. G. 28. 27.

" executed about 1517. breastplate with belonging to a suit of the beginning of the sixteenth century. painted black. Tilting breastplate with mentonniere and helmet. ditto. and forms a sort of vizor.of Plate Armour. 32. Ditto. 29. Tilting with mentonniere This protection to tilting armour. 31. It is composed of thick wood. Tilting mentonniere. 233 30. Ambras Collection. . which covers nearly the whole of the helmet. is older than the preceding tilting shields. and covered with canvas. breastplate and sight-holes. same description as No. 83. and has been copied from the engraving of the "Triumph of Maximilian.

Paris. Largo German volant-piece rest. belonging to a called Maxisuit of armour . Museum of Artillery. and a screw tilting guard. milienne beginning of the six- teenth century. met and crest fastened but without the helto the back-plate. ditto. German The screw lance-rest was used to keep in its place and support the tilting shield. already protected by the chin-guard. 124. called in crest Rennltutschraube. Museum of Artillery. and to rest the lance. 114. Paris. to hold the prizes won at tournaments. G. . Museum of Dresden. Ditto. fac-simile. 35. to which it is screwed. It is also believed that the knight sometimes placed a ball there to serve as a target for his adversary. G. with lance- The helmet. Large cuishe (Turniertilting Lendenplatte]. is also fastened to the the back-plate of the cuirass by or comb. 36.234 34- Detached Pieces 34.

. of Maximilian armour. Paris. . M.of Plate Armour. ( . Museum of Artillery. so as to shield the leg from collision with the barrier. 235 37. for tournaments. for jilting. This was worn over the greaves of the armour. le Comte de Nieuwer- 40. or thigh-piece. 3 J. Paris. Large cuisse for tilting beginning of the sixteenth century. German End of leg-piece. 115. the fifteenth century. Vamplate in of lance (Schwebewheibe . of the beginning of the sixteenth century. Collection of kerhe. G. German Museum of Artillery. Large cuisse.

Museum of Dresden. 44. . Vamplate of lance of the teenth century. six. 45. six- 42.- Meyrick Collection. Vamplate of lance of the teenth century. Vamplate of lance of the teenth century.Detached Pieces 41. six- Meyrick Collection. Two sorts of lance-rests of the end of the sixteenth century. Lance-rest (Rustliacken in Ger- man) of the middle of the sixteenth century. 43. Museum of Drewten.

49.of Plate Armour. High placcate. from a set of tilting armour belonging to the end of the fifteenth century. 47. Museum of Dresden. Rennf Collection at Constance. Museum of Dresden. paul- drons. or volant - piece (Vorhelm in German). see No. Great chin-guard (Grosse Barthaube in German). Museum of Dresden. 48. 34. . 46. Nieuwerkerke Collection. SO. and elbow-pieces. 34. Volant-piece with placcate. see No. Crete-e*chelle 237 (Rennhutschraube in German). Screwed lance-rest.

Volant-piece. and there exist only two specimens (one in the Ambras one the in Collection. with a spring. Halfchin-guard (HalbeBarthaube in German) of the end of the tury. It was in use for about 30 One is to be seen years.238 Detached Pieces of Plate Armour. and gorget (Geschobene Barthaube in German) of German Used in workmanship. the end of the fifteenth century. was worn Collection. Ailette. 51. on the statue of Rodolph de Hierstein (who died in 1318) at Bahl. \ Meyrick 52. used during the transition period. German. the of the first sixteenth This is of very peculiar make. Nieuwerkerke 53. Breastplate of tilting armour. to was touched ty the whole opened The place be touched was marked by a pierced heart. 55. part of century. or plate. Plated chin-guard Collection. when it with the salade. and worn between the coat and the leathern armour. . fifteenth cen- 54. and the Artillery in centre Museum of Paris). When part of the breastplate the lance.

and the crested helm is of about the same period.239 THE CASQUE. as represented in page 248. and. (In German they are called Topfformhelm. from cead. and Jced. similar to the As: The word casque (German. though not a single specimen has been found as yet. No. and later on. several inches in width. which was fixed to the helmet and came just beyond the nose. as may be seen in the Seligenthal embroidery. movable earplates and neckstill This last guard.) The Museum of Artillery in Paris possesses a specimen marked No. H. for in the nose-piece. which is represented in page 250. according to MSS. This is really a casque of the transition period which has preserved its helm (Top/helm) dates no earlier than the end of the thirteenth or the beginning of the fourteenth century. syrian ones of the earliest times the : in the Museums of Eouen and Saint Germain they are attributed to the Gauls. Only two sorts exist the horned casque. or mail-shirt. The first helms appear towards the end of the twelfth century. box or sheath. We have seen what were the shapes of the ancient casques. has a fixed nose-piece (Nasenberge or Schoribart in German). so as to protect it. and was often a continuation of the hauberk. The casques of the Germanic races. and in chiefs of the Munich Museum to the Avars. and the conical casques. were most probably of the same conical shape amongst the people of Southern Germany. which was usually of small chains or mail. and of those worn by such people as were called barbarians during the iron and bronze ages. from the specimen in the Museum of Artillery in Paris. The casque of the people of Northern Germany had also a fixed nose-piece. 20. This casque was worn over the hood (Itinghaube in German). 1. of the time. a round crown. but which appears to have been more probably Scandinavian. The real . Helm) is derived from the Keltic words cas. represented in page 170. attributed by the British Museum to the Britons. head. this casque sometimes was of a disproportionate height. inasmuch as the Franco-Norman casque of the eleventh century preserved that shape unchanged.

German JEneid of Henry of Waldeck several knights are reThis presented with crested helms of fantastic shapes. however. and . It was worn over the mail hood. must not be confounded with the large bassinet of the fourteenth century. Sometimes the mail capuchin or the bassinet alone was used. under which the mail capuchin was often worn. and often had a movable vizor. were so short that they came no lower than the end of the nose. and the great bassinet. . represented as wearing the large bassinet. and the salade came into use the latter was of German origin. which in its turn was worn over the quilted cap. while the one used in battle weighed from six and a half to nine pounds. This salade. hidden. printed by hand and not by wood blocks. belonging to M. which was of a similar shape. as we have already mentioned. of the thirteenth century knights are helmet. was also adopted. Odet at Sitten. of the middle of the fourteenth century. Sometimes also the small bassinet (from the Keltic word &ac. In the fourteenth century the great tilting helmet (Stechtopfhelm in German) was more used in tournaments than in battle it weighed between twenty and twenty-three pounds. a bowl.240 The Casque. boat. was ovoid and pointed. had a neck-guard to it. except at tilting matches. that was hinged at the left side and fastened at the point of the In a MS. which was a pointed helmet of an oriental shape. and seldom worn "battle. mouth. and the Latin bacinaluni) was worn over the cap above mentioned. but subsequently movable vizors were adopted. but which covered the cheeks and neck as well. and during A canvas. This headgear (Grosse Kesselhaube). the beginning of the fifteenth century the great bassinet went out of fashion. as its name implies . and necessitated the employment of the beaver. helm (word derived from the German Helm. which some authors think is derived from the Spanish celada. shows that in Italy the helm was used in battle as well as at tournaments. the ancient German authors called it Schallern. and was at first made with fixed vizor. helmet) was the large flat-crowned helmet usually fastened to the saddle. close-fitting like a skull cap. but generally the two were both worn under the huge helm. The small bassinet. from the word schale. to protect the chin. neck. At . These.

The morion (Morian in German) was originally a Spanish helmet. and a neck. round. and the skull-cap in the twelfth. cheek-pieces . like those of modern times." (Glock. Faucher. so as to form a crescent when seen . and may be said to be types of the different epochs of chivalry. cheek-pieces. or beaver (Kinnstiick in German). 241 The iron hat (Eisenhut in German). but with a rim to it. It has a rounded crown with a crest. and (Eiseiikappe in German). and is distinguished by a shade over The president the eyes. Augenschirm. crest . The crown (timbre) was rounded. Wangenlclappen. chin-piece. and the ventail (fan). Besides the above helmets. and the word is derived from the Spanish word It had neither vizor. nose-piece. were made of thin plates of metal and were fastened to the helmet. and preserved the oval form. gorget. and was still in use in the middle of the seventeenth. some of which are here described. are first seen remained in use until the seventeenth century. the vizor (Visier in German). is the most perfect helmet it dates only from the second half of the fifteenth century. The burgonet (Burgunder Helm) is a helmet that dates from the end of the fifteenth century. both of which protected the lower part of the face. . there existed many others used by archers and fook soldiers. and the gorget (Ealsberge in German). the nose-piece. The armet. which the president Faucher mistakes for the burgonet.) . that were in use almost everywhere. The Oriental and Russian helmets of these times. The mentonniere. is crown Kamm. varied very little. in German. helmet (VisierJielm in German). possible a cause des Bourguignons inventeurs. a helmet without vizor or neck-guard. and could be raised up to the crest by means of a pivot. were all movable. helmet-shade Nackenschutz. in profile . with movable nose-pieces.guard. ils furent nommes bourguinotes. who wrote about the end of the sixteenth century. . but was surmounted by a high crest sometimes half the height of the helmet and its edge turned up in a point in front and behind. neck-guard. heaumes ont mieux represente la teste d'un homme. nor morro.The Casque. neck-guard. u Ces confounds the burgonet with the armet when he says. All the front part of this helmet was called mezail.

like a shepherd's hat. or pear helmet (Birnhelm in German). but was pointed like a This helmet. particularly in France and Italy. of which the stalk made a little crest. (1643 1743) was flat-crowned. which dates as far back as the thirteenth century.242 its The Casque. derived name from the gourd-like or calabash form. a sort of skull-cap of thick iron. is of this kind hat. gorget. till about the middle of the vizor. being simply the emblem of the Virgin. and very heavy. and was the usual helmet of Knappen. especially those of Austria and Bavaria. the arms of the kings of France. worn by the Elector at the battle of Fehrbellin in 1 677. 114). and iron frameworks of the seven- . 100). The helmet worn by the foot-soldiers of the household of King Louis XIV. in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries (see No. enormous embossed fleur-de-lys. weighing twenty-five pounds (No. The calottes. which is to be seen but the iron in the Museum at Dresden. where it was part of the municipal equipment in This fleur-de-lys has nothing to do with the middle ages. was worn by both horse and foot soldiers. seventeenth arsenals century. or caps. worn in battle by Augustus the Strong (1670 1733). had neither vizor nor crest. There were some in the seventeenth century resembling in form a cap with a the iron vizor. and sometimes of the lansquenets. 97). has a rounded crown and wide brim. that were worn by Cromwell's foot-soldiers. The iron hat (Eisenhuih in German). piece (No. The morion. like the morion. The word pot-helmet is also used for iron hats much lighter in weight. or crest. pear. 101). ornamented with an is to be seen in many of Germany. or lightly armed cavalry. and with a movable nosehat. . was without neck guard. or men-at-arms of the feudal castellans. The real pot-helmet (EisenJcappe in German). particularly in sieges. The cabasset. whose image many bodies of crossbowmen and halberdiers had adopted for the sign of their civic banners. and sometimes with a movable nose-piece : twenty pounds in weight (No. The ordinary burgonet (Pickelhaulie in German) was widely spread throughout Germany. as may be seen from the Bohemian manuscript Voleslav in the library of Prince Lobkowitz at Raudnitz. was used.

They are of no archaeological value.) As to the casques of ancient shapes of the sixteenth century. they are principally helmets for pride and pomp rather than for war or tournaments. which enrich the collections of amateurs. and Spanish workmanship. as they are all of the Kenaissance period. hats. 111. and are only reminiscences of ancient days. 243 keenth and eighteenth centuries were only used inside other In the Historical Museum of the Monbijou Palace at Berlin there is a triangular framework that must have served as lining to a three-cornered hat (No. mostly of Italian. which do not reflect the habits and customs of their time. . German.The Casque.

in the Stuttgardt library. from the Psalterium. 4. in the library at Stuttgardt. from the Codex Aureus. of the tenth century. a MS. of that time preserved in the Saint Gall Library. 3. from the Ademari-Cronicon in the Imperial Library of Paris. German casque. called in France Norman casque. and with nazal. from the Martyroh-* gium. either of iron or bronze. either in bronze or iron. . of the ninth century. half conical.) 5. a MS. 2. Carlovingian casque of the ninth century. from the Bible of Charles the Bald in the Louvre.244 Different Casques lefore the Germanic casque. German casque in iron. Carlovingian casque. of the tenth century. belonging to the eighth and ninth centuries. (See this shape among the Greek and Japanese casques. either in bronze or iron. a MS.

Uasque of ancient form. from a bust in silver. life size. Convent of Saint Maurice^ Canton Valais. 7. who died in 935. inlaid with silver. Cathedral of Prague. 245 6. with fixed nose-piece. from an illumination in the of the tenth century. 8. belonging to Saint Wenceslaus. with crest and cheek-pieces. of the in the British . Collection of the Count of Nieuwerkerke. nose-piece at the bottom. in embossed work of the tenth century. German casque with rounded crown in iron. in the Imperial Library of Paris.Introduction of the Heaume. Casque in iron. Conical broader with casque. BiUia Sacra and also copied from the Prudentius same date Museum. Switzerland. from a statuette of the tenth century.

12. already mentioned. German casque in iron. . Conic Norman casque with neck-guard. German conic casque with nose-piece. de Hefner-Alteneck.246 Different Casques before the 10. from the Aelfric MS. executed in the reign of Henry the Lion. with fixed nosepiece. from a MS. This same sort of casque is also to be seen in the mural paintings in the Cathedral of Brunswick. This same kind of casque is represented some illuminations in the Jeremias MS. who died in 1195. of the eleventh century in the library of the British Museum. of the eleventh century. 13. Anglo-Saxon casque with neck-guard. in 11. belonging to M. of Saint Bernard in the eleventh century. from a bronze bas-relief in the baptistery of the Cathedral at Hildesheim the work . nose-piece and William the Conqueror is represented in the Bayeux ing one. of the same century. in the library at Darmstadt. This shape is also to tapestry wearbe seen in the Aelfric MS.

Duke of Hemy Brunswick. ornamented with a crest and six bands in gilt and engraved copper. of the eleventh century. 17. such as is represented in the duke's arms. of From the end of the twelfth century. Casque attributed to in iron of the twelfth century. an illumination in the Harleian MS. the Lion. Russian casque with small nose-piece and long neck-guard. 14. Collection of the Baron de Zu-Rhein at Wurzburg. Small conic casque in ircn. . National Museum of Munich. and Richard Coeur de Lion (1157-1183). are represented on their seals with this sort of casque. who died in 1195. Arribras Collection.Introduction of the Heaume. the principal ornament of which is a lion. (1137-1180). with fixed nose-piece. The crown is of iron. from the embroidery on the mitre belonging to the convent of Seligenthal. in the library of the British Museum 15. 16. German casque with neck guard. and previously in that of the Duchesse de Berry. of the eleventh century. made of iron imbricated or curved scales. 247 Anglo-Saxon casque with nose-pi^ee. Attributed in Saint Petersburg to the eleventh century. Louis VII. found in Moravia. 17 &/s. and with an embossed band in front of the same material.

more probably the latter. twelfth century. Museum of Artillery. German casque with movable neckguard and cheek-plates. 20. From a mural of the paint- ing in the Cathedral of Brunswick. but with the nose-piece fixed. executed in the reign of Henry the Lion. Paris. and is now in the of Artillery in Paris. Casque in red copper of the eleventh century. It was found in the Saone. near the field of battle where Saint Ulrich. of either the tenth or twelfth century . with Greek cross and three pierced holes. for it was discovered in the river Lech. 21. who died in 1195. contributed to the defeat of Attila. Maximilian Museum at Augsbury* . at the head of his flock. Museum IS. It is of the twelfth century.248 Different Casques before the 18. and was found in the Somme. Bronze casque with neck-guard. German casque with neck-guard.

from the Isolde. found in a tomb at Epernelle (Cote d'Or). H. of Tristan and by Gottfried of Strasburg. of the thirteenth century. H. or skull-cap. which has been broken. 249 22. 25. of the thirteenth It was century. German MS. 7. Paris. 24. Museum of Artillery. 23. German casque with chin-piece and gorget affixed. Paris. Museum of Artillery. of the thirteenth century. and which appears to be the last trace of the nasal of the tenth and eleventh centuries. worn over the camail and under the heaume. probably French. Small German bassinet. 18. Library of Munich. . and with open mezail. of the thirteenth century. and a fixed nose-piece. It has a neckguard of mail. Small cap of mail riveted a grains d'orge.Introduction of the Heaume. Small bassinet.

From the mural paintings in the Cathedral at Brunswick. German heaume (Topflidm in German) of the twelfth century. H. Id. . Paris. so far as the author knows. also with nosepiece. 27. 1. Primitive English heaume. the earliest specimens of heaumes. Museum of Artillery. of the end of the twelfth century j Tower of London. who died in 1195. 26. intended to be worn above the ba#> sinet. of the end of the twelfth century. Early English heaume. casques of German origin. executed in the reign of Henri le Lion.250 Heaumes without Crests. about seventeen inches in height. 29. 28. as above. These are. with nose- piece. It is of blackened iron.

or high helmet. Heaume worn by arcners on foot and on horseback. of the thirteenth cen- tury.Heaumes without Crests. . But the author believes it to be a counterfeit. in the library of Munich. is a piece of armour. from the Cronicon Colmarieme. Paris. 32. of helmet spoken of by the writers contemporary with the battle of Bouvines (1214). of 1298. marked in the Parham Collection as belonging to the twelfth century. as not a single one of the same shape be found in any manuscript is to 33. English heaume of the thirteenth cenThis is probably the new sort tury. 251 30. of the same date. 31. much more perfect Museum of Artillery. from the Tristan and Isolde MS. English heaume. The German heaume. however. represented on the frescoes in the Cathedral of Brunswick. German heaume of the beginning of the thirteenth century.

pre- served in the Paris. It of the fourteenth cen- was found. it looks like a counter- 87. together with represented farther some on. the Minnesinger of the lineage of Hohenzollern.Heaumes wit/tout Crests. Imperial Library of which represents the death of Albert of Heigerloch. under the ruins of the Castle of Tannenburg. 34. German heaume of the end of the thirteenth century. 36. But the helmet is altogether so light that feit. Nieuwerkerke Collection. 35. marked No. German heaume tury. preserved in the Museum of Prague. Heaume. which was destroyed in the fourteenth century. 570 in the The helmet Museum of Copenhagen is very like this one. in decorated with polychrome de- signs. in 1298. Heaume iron. from an illumination in the Manessis manuscript. said to be of the thirteenth century. and another in the Museum FranciscoCarolinum at Lintz also closely sembles it re- . of the thirteenth century. bassinets.

and that the earliest defences of this character could not date sooner than the end of the thirteenth century. German heaume with thirteenth crest.the crest heaumes about the middle of the fourteenth century. But the Nos. of the German deck. .Heaumes with Crests. . 26 and 27. \ Tower of London. copi. Museum of Artillery. These two are the earliest crested helmets which the author has been able to find. Same as above. Till it was believed that had been added to the lately . 38 English heaurne with hinged flap beginning of the fourteenth cen.d from the frescoes in the Cathedral of Brunswick. German heaume teenth century. 39. 40 40. 5. From the century. ^Eneid of Henry of Wai- 41. and the ones here represented. tury. appear to militate against this opinion. Paris. end of the four- H.

eauine. and with the remains of a crest. Museum . The monument is of red stone. with crest the begin- ning of the fifteenth century. 42. and the mezail is fixed. Tho is of wood. of in black iron. from the cenotaph of the King of the Eomans. crest. Large heaume for tilting. The lower part of the crest is of plates of metal imbricated or curved. and that there other was a heraldic badge or some emblem on the top.s with Crests. in polished iron. Large heaume with crest. of the fourteenth century. and was erected in the Cathedral of Frankfort in 1352. Large tilting heaume. 4. who was poisoned at Frankfort in 1349. 44 44. Gunther of Schwarzburg. 3.254 H. Paris. and seems to bu of Artillery. 43. H. Museum of Artillery. It is probable that the crest is not complete. Paris. H. English. modem.

and a small collar. who died in 1519. supposed to have belonged to Maximilian 1. It is of polished iron. Museum of Artillery. of the end of the fifteenth century. till though somewhat modified. Large German tilting heaume .Tilting Heaumes. Large tilting helmet. and another in the Arsenal at Berlin. Munich Museum. end of the fifteenth century. 46. is in the Prague Museum. either English or German.. has a hinged flap or ventilator. Large tilting heaume. Imperial Arsenal of Vienna. found at Klingen- A berg in Bohemia. similar helm. Large It tilting heaume of the fifteenth century. . and has a small collar. 255 45. 47. Tower of London. English. that was meant to be riveted on to the cuiiass. Paris. and with a small collar. the middle of the sixteenth cen- tury. It is in polished iron. 48. This shape continued in fashion. 6. similar to the one in the H.

hinged vizor the gorget and It is part of collar are fixed. 51. Heauine It for has war in polished iron. It is twenty inches in height. It belonged to the Count of Esendorf. of the fifteenth century. German heaume. while is the back part covered over with linen. massette. The mace. who was killed at Biberach. German heaume used in tourna- ments with massettes* (Kolbentournier in German). 50. of the gilding still remains. and swcrd were equally used in military exercises and in tournaments. and the frame- work is of wrought iron. . on which can be distinguished the painted arms of the barons of Spaeth part . Soeter Collection in the Maxi- milian * Museum at Augsburg. a complete suit of armour in the Arsenal of Berlin.. Museum at Sigmaringen. of the fifteenth century. a round crown and .256 War and Tilting Heaumes. used in tournaments with maces.

Spengel. German bassinet. has since disposed of it to the Count de Nieuwer. Vizors. found amongst the ruins of the Castle of Tannenburg. was fastened. half inches. for the neck-guari tnat of the Venetian celata of the fifteenth century.* of the fourteenth century. 257 Bohemian MS. in the library of Prince Lobkowitz at Baud- nitz. of Munich. at first without either nose-piece or vizor. This helmet was in the collection of the Count of Thun.Large Bassinets wifhoui 5SJ. The great bassinet appears in the second half of the thirteenth century. kerke. thirteenth which was burnt in the fourteenth century. de Hefner. It was of an oval-pointed shape. at Val di Non M. with square holes for holding the rod on which the piece of mail was strung. of the end of the century. bassinet. to which the mail shirt. Bassinet. * More < lilr likely Italian. ornamented with twelve large screw-rings. It has been copied and described by M. and Berlin. used for a neck-guard. . bassinet of the thirteenth cenIt is eleven by eight and a is 53. from the Voleslav of the thirteenth century. in Bohemia. German tury. in the Museum at 54. either French or Italian.Alteneck. but with buttons.

held the rod on which the piece of mail used as a neckCollection of guard was strung. de Hefner -Alteneok. 57. Paris. so as to leave a large sp*ce for the . Vizors. M. the crown is of pointed oval shape. like those of the armets of the sixteenth There is still a century. Large German bassinet of the fourteenth century iron. wearer to breatiu freely . The which 20 large fitted into screw -rings. These helmets are of polished steel. 58. The vizor lifts up by means of a pivot. The vizor comes very forward. Warwick Cadle.258 Large Bassinets with hinged /it. Museum Artillery. and in one piece. and in the collection of M. bassinet with of Tower of hinged London. Large English bassinet of the middle of the fourteenth century. m black with movable mezail. Large vizor. the square holes shown in the engraving. which is fastened to the collar. le Comte de Nieuwerkerke. the upper part of the vizor lifts up by means of a hinge. piece of the mail gorget left.

had a fixed and was worn straight. Collection of M. and Necl'-guards. The Schale. and collection of M. 62. Collection of the King of Sweden. It was worn bideways. so that the slit for the sight came before the 60. vizor. de JRenne at Constance. tury. with hinged vizor and Tower of London. salades German Schallern. Museum 61. German snlade with nose-piece. It of the in used tournaments. . German salade of the fifteenth century in a single piece. and with a chin-piece. Paris. salade The worn was generally with the chin-piece. of Artillery.Bassinets with Vizors 59. is helmet in some (in respects very like the preceding one. were distinguished by their neckguards. of the fifteenth century. and by other characteristics in which they are particularly not unlike the iron hats. lern). de This Renne at Constance. and Sche- which took the place of the bassinets in the fifteenth century. 259 Large English bassinet of the middle of the fourteenth cenfixed collar. eyes. Charles XV. German salade-heaume fourteenth century. that was high usually part of the collar.

Salade with crest. It comes from the Chateaux d'Ort in Bavaria. and with a high collar. an ornamented neck-guard is vizor. 65. with chin-piece of a peculiar form. Museum 66. of the and the same It did piece as the helmet. of the fif- teenth century.260 Salades. from the Isle This helmet has of Rhodes. like the preceding one. German salade iron. and formed but an imperfect defence. at Prague. that was originally in the collection of the Comte de Thun at Val di Non. Salade of the fifteenth century. and is small. and must have been worn sideways and with a chin-piece. with vizor and neck-guard it must have been worn sideways . 63. A similar one in the Spengt 1 Collection at Munich. looks . The ke early workmanshif Italian. in blackened with movable vizor on a pivot. Tower of London. Of the fifteenth century. not protect the face. The neck-guard is of the same piece. Salade with sight-piece in shape of a shell. of the end of the fifteenth century.

of where it Artillery in is said to be of the fifteenth century. The shape of the brim and the fluting would fix it in the first half of the sixteenth when century. 67. these sorts of vizor were very generally in use. of the fifteenth century. German salade to be used in battle. 69. pointed. historique of the Mus&e Monbijou Palace at Berlin. and metal. the neck-guard in plates of The small print gives a front view. chin-plate and Muwlen-Hanoverien. The vizor is hinged. is of the sixteenth century. 70. of Brunswick.) . a work completed in 1494. which. Fluted salade with front brim. copied from the statue of Duke William the younger. It has a fixed vizor. German salade to be used in battle. 68. Burgonet. according to the author. a very The crown is uncommon and perhaps unique shape.Salades. and comes from the Isle of Ehodea. (See No. Same as elongated above. 125. near Cassel. which forms a sort of gorget or high collar. but movable gorget. Museum Paris. but with mentonniere or chin-piece.

singular to be counterfeit. which the other had not. 74. same ag above. Renn Collection at Constance. at Naples. page 110). Italian and also 74 fifteenth century. 73. H. Museum of Artillery in Paris. Venetian salade with crest. is also to be seen in the celata Ven& ziana of the second half of the fifteenth cen- . Venetian salade for archers. King of Arragon. which represent his triumphal entry into that city in 1443. Venetian salade teenth century.* The neck-guard of this helmet is larger than that of the preceding one. of the second half of the fifteenth century. which tury. 71. in the Tower of London. Italian salade with vizor. 22. Nieuwerkerke Collection in Paris. 9. Meyrick Collection. salade of the second half of the from the bas-reliefs in white marble on the triumphal arch of Alphonso V. but without nose-piece. but it has a neck-guard. from the where it is Tower of London.Salades. (celata Veneziana] nose-piece. but without nose-piece. * This helmet is hoplite casque (see not unlike the Greek No. of the first half of the and fif- Meyrick Collection. and in the Tower of London. English salade. The point in the front forms a nose-piece. A. with crest. shape I believe 72. The neck-guard is smaller than that of the preceding one.. 74 B. marked as being of fifteenthbut from the it century date.

77. copied by M. from the Bohemian Voleslav. 79. 80. a MS. from an illumination in the Manessis manuscript. in iron. iron from the frescoes in the Cathedral of Brunswick. of the end of the thirteenth century.Skull-caps 75. 76. the Minnesinger of the race of Hohenzollern. of from the of German JEneid Waldeck. of Henry the thir- teenth century. and War -hats. War-hat. War-hat in German) (Eisenlmt in of the twelfth century. War-hat in iron of the end of the fourteenth century. in the library of Berlin. Same as above. Paris. Skull-cap (Eiserikappe in German). from a paint- ing at Saint-Michel in Schwaebisch Hall. . which represents the death of Albrecht of Heigerloch. who died 1195. in War-hat MS. of the thirteenth century. done in the reign of Henry the Lion. 78. de HefnerAlteneck. Imperial Library.

81. iron. War-hat in century. 85. of the fifteenth century. in the collection of M. so as to allow the head to be inserted.264 War-hats. from a painting at Saint-Michel. as seen in the pictures. leads one to suppose that the back part was rendered movable by means of a hinge or pivot. with chin-piece. . at Constance. oval shape. From a MS. de Hefmr-Alteneck at Munich. view of these helmets. preserved in the Library of Prague. from a MS. le Chevalier von Hauslaub at Vienna. War-hat in iron. of the fifteenth Museum tion of of Copenhagen and CollecM. War-hat in iron. War-hat of the end of the four- teenth century. at Schwae- bisch Hall. 84. and from frescoes in the Cathedral of Mondo- The under neda. le Chevalier von Hauslaub at Vienna. Skull-cap of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries slightly . 83. From a MS. in Spain. in the collection of M. 82. date 1435.

the crown made in a single piece. from a of manuscript the fifteenth century in the collection of M. from the of water . 83. copied from one in the collection of M. Ambras Collection. Its shape is almost identical with that of the iron hat. over the ordinary helmet. 90. from a cast in the Germanic Museum at Nuremberg. . of the end of the fifteenth century. like the heaume. de Hefner Munich.Skull-caps 86. Same as above. 87. This helmet was used most probably in sieges. le Chevalier von Hauslaub at Vienna. Frame-work of pot-helmet. War-hat with vizor. German. which represent the arms the Arsenals of Maximilian in I. 88.Alteneck at Like it. 265 man) with (Eisenkappe in Gerear-plates. War-hat.colour paintings Glockenthon of the year 1505. 89. No. is . Skull-cap and War-Jiafs. and was worn.

in One the is in the Mazis Collec- at Paris. tion. Renne A similar one. whose initials it twists are richly orna- mented with trophies and other subjects. surmounted large twisted ridges. Arsenal of Zurich. Collection. covered with black and yellow cloth. of the seventeenth century. battle of Capel in 1531. War-hat from the Theuerdanck. Munich. Pot-helmet with ear-plates. Arsenal of Munich. of the sixteenth century. was used principally for hunting. Pam. War-hat of the end of the fifteenth century. and century. with the exception is in the Spengel . This helmet is covered with red velvet. Pot-helmet used in sieges. which are the colours of Munich. There are others in the tion. The principal ornament is in cross. 93. War-hat belonging to the Reformer Zwinglius. 96. 97. H. .266 War-hats and Pot-helmets. engraved and embossed. Ambras Collec- and in the castle of Laxein- burg. Museum (1559 bears. of the cross. Collection at Constance. From the Spengel and HefnerAlteneck Collections at Munich. of Artillery attributed to Henri IV. 92. the shape of the Burgundy and made of pierced copper. 95. In the Arsenal of that city there is a similar casque. who was killed at tlte . 154. Museum of Artillery. of the sixteenth German war-hat of the sixteenth by three and with movable ear-plates. The 1610). published at Augsburg at the commencement century.

It 27 and with a socket weighs about measures 12 inches by 16. War-hat in iron. B. War-hat in for iron. Ibs. 102. outer part is perforated. Iron skull-cap with vizor. of the century. and War-liats. with and nose-piece. who wore it at the battle of Felirbellin in 1677. Az 100. of the seven- teenth century. 99. Museum of Dresden. Collection at Lintz. 267 iron. belonging to of England (1625 It bears the mark of the armourer A. to Augustus It belonged the Strong (16701733). plume. Dresden Museum . Berlin Museum. seventeenth The neck-guard is of mail.Skull-cays War-hat in Charles 1649). The and weighs 20 Ibs. and belonged to the Great Elector'of Bran- denburg. and is covered on the outside with grey linen. I. Warwick Castle. O. German vizor skull-cap in iron. 101..

in polished steel. of skull-cap iron. Paris. for the feather The 8->cket and several other parts are in gilt copper. of Artillery. 105. It was worn by John Sobie&ki. before King of Poland. Same as above. for lining the interior of Museum of Sigmaringen. in Frame-work of skull-cap the war-hats. 107. 104. of Dresden. iron. Museum 106. and the upper part open-work. 108. Skull-cap of imbricated tury. in 1683. the latter forming an outer covering. in Frame. and neck-guard. Industrial Museum of Vienna.268 Iron Skull-caps. Berlin Arsenal. of the seventeenth cen- Museum of Prague. worn by French carabi neers inside their war-bats in 1680. Museum 109. Vienna. All these perforated or openwork skull-caps belong to the time when the helmet had been superseded by the war-hat. . Skull-cap of imbricated scales. Skull-cap of the seventeenth century in thick iron. from a drawing by Holbein of the sixteenth century. 103. cheek-plates. Frame-work of skull-cap in iron. with movable nose-piece.

Historical Museum of the Monbijou Palace at Berlin. It is in iron. War haft. 269 German skull-cap in iron. 113. and is studded with heads in copper. Iron hat with nose-piece. however. probably Italian. The author. worn by the household foot-soldiers of King Louis XIV. War-hat. (1643 1715). 114. Museum of Artillery . 111.Iron Shti'l-eaps and 110. was used in besieging castles and towns. where it is preserved. . entries of princes. nail- Imperial Arsenal of Vienna. to the which. in- tended to be worn inside the iron hats. thinks that this sort of hat was only used at ceremonies. has a chin-strap. H. Imperial Arsenal of Vienna. acdescription given in Arsenal of Vienna. of the seventeenth century. 112. of the seventeenth century. German cording war-hat. Frame -work for lining of the the three-cornered hat eighteenth century. etc. The large brim protected the face from the boiling liquids that the besieged used in defence. Paris. 1 52.

and being without crest." etc. which make it very like the " armet. The workmanship is German. very beautiful. tnentonniere. This helmet is known cheek- by the pieces. 53. Vienna. Industrial Museum of Vienna.) H. 119. It is chiefly noticeable on account of its pointed" shape. \JllQ. Burgonet of the sixteenth movable which make it resemble the armet." (See later. formerly in the collection of the Castle of Laxemburg. Burgonet of the sixteenth century. from the "Descriptions des Noces Princieres. Burgonet of the end of the sixteenth century. crest. with gorget and mentonniere. 118. and vizor..) Arsenal of Soleure. Paris. (Same remarks as for the preceding one.Burgonets. Burgonet of the sixteenth century. in engraved iron. Burgonet (Burgunder helm in German) of the six- teenth sort of century. shade. and gorget. .or chin-piece. zig. and neck-guard. Ambras 121. Collection. with century. 115. of Wir- printed in Vienna in 1571. German burgonet-bassinet of the sixteenth century. German burgonet. a work 122. 117. Imperial Arsenal. a Az Collection at Lint*. Museum of Artillery.

Burgonets. It is the finest specimen that exists of this sort. Burgonet. formerly in the century. of the sixteenth In the Imperial Arsenal of Vienna. Castle of Laxemburg. 271 i 120. . in beaten iron. and has been satisfactorily photographed at tlie Industrial Museum of Vienna. splendid Italian work.

of the beginning of the seven- teenth century. is fastened on to the peak. 126 kit. of the end of the seventeenth century. Arsenal of Geneva. Museum of Artillery. Burgonet-skull-cap. Tower of London. Burgonet-skull-cap of the seventeenth century. in the shape of a A trident. in blackened iron. 123. 125. like that of the cabasset. cheek-pieces. sort of vizor. neck-guard. but is no crest. Burgonet of the seventeenth century. It is of very thick iron. German. Burgonet used at sieges. . and the neck-guard is of metal plates. Guelf Museum at Hanover.272 Burgonets. and has a and peak. It has a peak. J24. Burgonet-cabasset of the beginning of the seventeenth century. Paris. It is covered with red velvet. Tower of London. The crown pointed. 126. flat" neck - guard H. 76.

on account of the kind of fan on each side of the crown. This helmet. 366. .Burgonets. It is of Hungarian origin. 1 28. 273 Burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century. who died in 1662. called zucchetto. Burgonet skull-cap in iron. No. with cheekpieces. and studded with copper nail-heads. Skrzydlata) Museum of Dresden. nasal-vizor. Royal Arsenal of Turin. with noseThese casques. is wrongly said to have belonged to Vengi (1540). Burgonet skull-cap. resemble those of the winged cavalry (Jazala of Sobieski. 129. 130. Polish. Burgonet skull-cap. Ambras Collection. with movable nose-piece and plated neck-guard. 127. It is in en- graved iron. with cheekand plated pieces. and long plated neckIt is said to have belonged to Charles de Tyrol. which is in the Arsenal of Soleure. of the middle of the seventeenth century. guard. and was called dschycksc. piece. neck-guard.

resembling flutings. show at first sight that we must assign this piece of workmanship to the latter half of the seventeenth century. Burgonet of the seventeenth century. to John George I. 133. 132. German burgonet teenth century. where it is errone- ously attributed to EH ward IV. (1461-1483).274 Burgonets. . English burgonet of the seventeenth century. in the Meyrick Colleclection. in order to show the double line on Ihe back. as well as the tinsel ornaments of the crest and the plume-clasp. and - was given by William III. of the sevenIt has a fixed nose-piece. 56. where it is said to be of the fifteenth century. Paris. The peak. in the Dresden Museum. 131. with the plated neck-guard riveted gilt nail-heads. and the front part is like that of the armets. H. with plated neckguard. According to common tradition it was originally in the collation of the Tower of London. The front and back of this speci- men have been of ornaments engraved. Museum of Artillery.

The morion of the suit attri- Henry IV. 137. . 134. and Imperial Arsenal of Vienna. 275 Morion (Morian in German). German morion of the end of the sixteenth century. having nothing to do with the arms of the kings of France. richly artistic engraved in a very Author's Collection. (See p. 95). It is also engraved. from the "Dedes Noces Prin- cieres" of Wirzig. It is rather higher. during a It is night style. German scriptions morion. 136. attack. The fleur-de-lys in embossed work on the front of the helmet was the badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich.Morions. This is an Italian casque for a foot-soldier of the sixteenth century. published at Vienna in 1571. baine as above. who was killed before the walls of Geneva. No. and is the symbol of the Virgin. French morion of foot-soldier. and formerly betain Chaffardin 734 longed to the Savoyard capBrananlien. Tower of London. and the rims narrower and van- dycked. Arsenal of the town of Munich. of the end of the sixteenth century. from the Arsenal of Geneva. buted in the Louvre to King of France (1559- 1610). 135. 137 A. Industrial Museum of Vienna. 266.

of the sixteenth century engraved iron.le Comte de Nieu- werkerke. different rim. German cabasset with cheek- pieces. with for . richly socket plume. in sixteenth century. This shape is rare. Cabasset. or pear-shaped casque (Birnen-helm in German. where it is described as being of the twelfth century. 141. Arsenal of Munich 139. engraved iron. of the This samo shape. .. The large screw on the top distinguishes it from the usual morions.276 Morions and Cabassets. Arsenal of Munich. German morion of the sixteenth century. Collection of M. but with a slightly in use in was very much France and Italy. 140. In the National Museum of Brunswick. German morion of the end of the sixteenth century. 138.

beaten. of the sixteenth century. Paris. 143. Museum of Artillery. of the sixteenth century. chased. H. Italian cabasset for foot-soldier. Tower of London. are copper nail-heads. in iron. and pointed. 100.277 142. German iron. The represents Perseus and It is a very fine Andromeda. It is richly engraved. cabasset in blackened with socket for plume. of the sixteenth century. and dasub- mascened ject in gold. le Comte de Nieu- werkerke. Italian cabasset for foot-soldier. . Italian cabasset in embossed iron. specimen. 145. Collection of The only ornaments on this helmet M. It is a very beautiful specimen of workmanship. of the sixteenth century. 144.

with real ram's horns. H. tooled leather. The armet the most perfect form of It is composed of helmet. Museum of Artillery. Arsenal of Geneva. the vizor. Tower of London. From is helmet this word the English presumably derived. Paris. 148. 147. 149. 28. formed part of the armour of the jester of Henry VIII. from the Weisskunig. and the gorget. as also the vizor. in iron. Armet man) is (Visier-helm* in Gerof the second half of the fifteenth century. Armet It of the sixteenth century. The lower part of the mezail is wanting. .278 Armets. of the sixteenth century. nose-piece crown with crest. 146. It is the only helmet of this kind known * to the author. the and ventoyle latter (these three forming altogether the mezat'Z). Armet with small plumes. Armet in of the sixteenth century. (1509-1547).

work of the second half of the sixteenth century. 151. Armet with vizor on pivot. 153. in 1517. 279 Armet with fluted crown. Imperial Arsenal of Vienna. German armet of the sixteenth century. and German high mentonniere. 150. Armet with vizor on pivot. and with vizor moving on a pivot. This helmet is richly engraved. and \\ighmentonniere (Barthaube). of German workmanImperial ship. Imperial Arsenal of Vienna. by Burckmayer. Arsenal of Vienna. The vizor turns on a pivot.Arinets. and the lower part is in the shape of an eagle's beak. of the first half of the sixteenth century. German work of the second half of the sixteenth century. A similar one is in the author's col- lection. from the Triomphe de Maximilien. 152. part of a suit of Maximilian's time. It is richly engraved and damascened. .

Paris. . 156. 129. Italian casque. in iron work. chased and damascened. and the vizor is latticed. Italian armet of the end of tho sixteenth century. H. For- now merly in the Imperial Library. of the sixteenth century. and represents a maritime subject. Paris. The dome is in embossed work. called caschetto. It is richly chased in all parts. copied from tho antique. Armet of the end of the sixteenth century. Italian casque. of a shape called antique. Paris. It is a splendid beaten specimen. marked H. Museum of Artillery. Museum of Artillery.Armets and 154. 131. 155. in the Museum of Ar- tillery. 157. Royal Armoury at Madrid. but much resembling the burgonets of the middle of the sixteenth century.

Arsenal of Geneva. The vizor face a man's with moustaches. 173. the seventeenth century. 180. Turkish casque of the fifteenth Artillery. but whose workmanship appears Tsarskoe-Selo at St. II. in polished to the iroij. century. The goat's head and the other ornaments are in copper. Museum of Swiss armet. 158. attributed to Prince George Castriota (Scanderbeg). who died in 1467. Turkish casque with movable nosepiece. Peters- called #g thoroughly Italian. 160. H. Paris. German armet represents of the first half of the sixteenth century. 161 . Paris. Meyrick Collection. Museum of Artillery. It of the fifteenth century. in iron damascened with gold. belonged to Bajazet H. Casque. antique Russian. 162. Albanian casque. Museum of 163.Antique Casques. . belonging cavalry regiment of the city of Geneva. of the beginning of \ 159. found at Rhodes.

Indian piece is casque from Delhi. which he had already lost before the death of Huss. from a MS. 168. in a picture now in the library of Geneva.282 Different Casques. Museum of Artillery. the chief of the Hussites. fifteen tl i G. lost his remaining eye in 1421. 1 67 . The nosemovable. lie . Iron casque with copper studs. Pay is. and the neck-guard composed of small metal plates. probably of the century. or Eoyal Book. Meyrick Collection. 166. or drew it from fancy. It is uncertain whether the painter copied this helmet from one of the time. 164. died in 1424 . or Taborites. is * Ziska (one-eyed). and neck-guard. 138. in the reign of Mahmoud (999- 1030). 165. worn by Jean Ziska * (1420). formerly belonging to the Seraskier This helmet lias a noseSoliman. of about 1600. Mongolian casque. Persian casque. a poem composed by Ferdusi. The hinged plate on the side concealed the cavity of the left eye. a copy of the Schah Nameh. Turkish casque of the sixteenth centuiy. piece. was born in 1360. cheek-pieces.

damascened with gold. and the screw of the nose-piece is in the shape of a fleur-de-lis. Paris. and nose-piece. Museum at St. or m 174. shell-like gilt. * There is a celebrated tragedy on this subject by the German. Ko'rner. who was buried under the ruins of Sigeth. casque with cheek-pieces and neck- movable nose-piece. of the fifteenth century. belonging formerly to Ascanier Sforza Pallavicino. Italian Collection. with cheek-pieces. who took an important part in the naval casque. 283 9 Mongolian casque in iron. and ornamented with mountings and gilt studs. neck-guard. engraved. in 1571. Pot-helmet with cheek-pieces. Petersburg.guard. Museum of Artillery. . 170. neck-guard. richly ornamented in gilt copper. Ambras 173. and movable nose-piece. with movable nose piece and neck. burgonet. in thick iron. Hungarian casque of the sixteenth century. 172.* TsarsJcoe-Selo Museum at St. TsarsJcoe-Selo and large Museum at St. guard. of TsarsJcoe-Selo Found in the battle-field Konlikowo (1380). H. It belongs to the seventeenth century. Petersburg. 171. Arsenal of Soleure. Russian 176. Petersburg. Russian casque with movable nose-piece and neck-guard. This helmet belonged to the hero Nicolao Zrinyi. battle of Lepanto. in 1566.Different 169.

Armet of the beginning of the seven- teenth century. This helmet has a crest and neckguard. known as a Spider helmet. who was killed in 1602 before the walls of Geneva. . Tower of London. worn by the troops called under Sobieski.) Tsarakoe-Selo Museum at St. of the beginning of the seventeenth It was taken from the century. (Jazala (See No. No. Museum 179. which city he attempted 1 to surprise.Fifferent Casques. German tilting casque of the beginning of the seventeenth century. with winglets. This helmet is very like the Savoyard helmet. 178. the of Artillery. troop of Branaulien Chaffardin. 111. Arsenal of Soleure. 127 in precavalry ceding pages. 175. and Author's Collection. flat vizor. 175. 135.. 176. who were winged Skrzydlata). Tower of London. It has a peak or with iron strips or ribbons all round. and is provided with a screw for fastening to It is rather like the salade of the placcate in front. Savoyard armet in blackened iron. Paris. fifteenth century. H. of the seventeenth century. Petersburg. Polish casque. Casque of French soldier under Henri IV.

Mahratta casque Thib (Indian). and richly ornamented with damascened work. Meyrick Collection. Meyrick Collection. or mail hood. Indian casque It is cheek-pieces. which protects all the head. and movable noseornamented with preand the work is very at St.guard. It is very beautiful. 285 180. cious stones. beautiful. 183. which descends to the loins. a large mail hood. and a neck-guard like a tail. . with fixed nose-piece. with peak crest and socket for plume. with neck . 182.Different Casques. and very long neck-guard. Mongolian casque. Petersburg. piece. Tsarskoe-Selo Museum 181. Polygar casque of Central India. Petersburg. TsarsJcoe-Selo Museum at St. cheek-pieces. helmet has a long movable nosepiece of a singular shape.

No. * A similar object of the South Kensington modern date Museum. now in Museum of AHillery. 183. Par's. has a fixed nose-piece the mask protects . Emperor of China.286 Different Casques. Japanese casque with neck-guard.) 185. Casque in gold and precious It belonged to the and was taken at stones. A bronze Samnite helmet in the of Museum shape. is in . It and neck-guard the entire face. 142. Museum of Artillery. from the Imperial Library. 184. Japanese helmet in lacquered iron. G. G. Tower of London. 140. of a shape actually in use at the pre- sent day. Paris. 187. Museum of Artillery. Paris* 186. Erbach is very like it in (See p. Pekin in 1860. Conical Chinese helmet with peak. 'St. 122.

as also the Wessobrunn MS. called in French ombilic d'umbo. square-shaped. The cover. tych. or round buckler. Saxons. represent! combatants armed with small square shields with pointed bassos but the character of this piece of carving is certainly of earlier date . it is probably taken from a dip. and we have seen that they underwent very We little variation. in German schildnahel or schildbuckel. represents the king carrying a long German targe. of the Antiphonary of Saint Gregory. which was made in the eighth century and is preserved at Saint Gall. seems to have been the shield of the Norman. and the rondache. a shield that is also to be seen in the Prudentms and Psalterium MSS. This portion of the armour. where the pear-shaped buckler.27*6 Shield. During the iron age the bucklers were circular. and not from the Celtic word bwa. One may also see in the Prudentius PsyclwmaclLia^ a MS. and made sometimes of wood. as likewise in the Bayeux tapestry of the eleventh century. The Leges Long obardorum. which we meet with again in the fourteenth century whilst the Codex Aureus Evangelicus of the ninth century. in the Libraries of London and Stuttgardt. THE SHIELD OR BUCKLER. and sometimes as high as a man. boss. but more often of osier branches covered with bronze plates. to cover. a MS. have already noticed what were the shapes of the ancient bucklers. which derives its name from the old German word BucJcel. 287 It should be remarked that the Chinese and Japanese helmets have remained unchanged during several centuries. The most race ancient shields of the nations of the Germanic (Franks. and Burgundians) were large. was originally called scilt in German. leather. of . of the ninth century. an etymology often assigned to it. but at the present day scMld. slightly tapering towards the base. show us the rondache with a boss to it. Alemanni. and leder. that of the Anglo-Saxon warrior. of the tenth century. . and usually with a boss in the centre. BO that these arms have not the same interest as attaches to European arms of different historical periods. of the same date.

the point of the shield towards the rear. The Count of Barcelona.288 The Shield. The Duke of Bourchard of Swabia (965) is represented in the basilica of Zurich with a shield not unlike the Norman ones in the Bayeux tapestry mentioned above and this same sort of shield is borne by a horseman in a bas-relief in the cloister of Saint Aubin at Angers. and was only two feet in length. . and by one of the founders of the Cathedral of Naumbourg of the eleventh century. triangular buckler seldom appears before the thirteenth century in France that is to say. while the whole shield was bound round with iron. . carries already a small targe. or round shield. appears . the tenth century. Several remains of these shields are represented in tho chapter on arms of the iron age. The buckler used in Germany at this period was larger. (1140). . The English buckler of the fourteenth century was very like the small targe. These shields gave rise to the use of the first armorial bearings. and more The long shields had especially the Greek. besides a guige. in the Library of the British Museum. Louis (1226-1270). and painted with grotesque figures. or strap (Hangband in German). before the reign of Saint Louis this shield was as wide as it was long. painted in the reign of Henry the Lion. of the tenth century. whilst the ancient shields. is represented on his seal bearing the same sort of shield that is to be seen in the frescoes in the Cathedral of Brunswick. They appear to have been padded inside the framework was usually made of wood covered with leather. griffe in German). and remained in use till the sixteenth century. After this the small rondelle. Don Eamon Berenger IV. who died in These large shields always had two armlets (Hand1195. on his funereal monument in the Church of Saint Vincent at Breslau. had only one. Anglo-Saxon warriors armed with circular bossed targets. and also the The small targe or little round buckler of the Franks. but not a single uninjured specimen has reached us. it was only a foot and a quarter in length. as may be seen on the statue of Henri II. The earliest Germanic shields were large and square. a shield that was not in general use till the reign of St. but a knight in the Biblia Sacra. as we have seen in pages 47 and 48 of the historical chapter. : . by which to suspend them from the left shoulder.

may be seen some heart-shaped. No. 289 Tlie Burgundian shields of the beginning of the fifteenth Century (see p. was slightly rounded at the top and square at the bottom. and circumstance of war. when in Germany. In the sixteenth century. of the same epoch. as well as elsewhere. . at Toulon and Marseilles. The long targe. were used. At the present day. * Targe is derived from the Arab word dardy and tarcha. and targettes with a hook. the rondaches. pomp. The greater part of the Italian rondacJies that were chased and ornamented in embossed work were not meant to be used in combat.The Shield. which was hollowed out at the edge. and bear evidence of master hands having been employed on them. The pavois. the shield that the sailors use in naval sports is called a targe. It was also about this same time. and appears about the fourteenth century. about the end of the fifteenth century. but were rather part of the pride. is easily distinguished from the little targe of the fifteenth century. in which may be recognised the primitive form of the most ancient Germanic shields.* in wood and skin. the shield was almost out of use. that the placcates. that is. the rondelles. 291. but with three points at the top. of German origin. Many of these were finished with great care. ond reached to the shoulder. 13) were usually triangular.

Buckler of the tenth century. the Aureus Evangelicus of St. 8. etc. from a statuette in the collection of M.290 Different Shields. from the Antiphonarium of Saint-Gall of the eighth century. from the Bayeux tapestry. represented in the MSS. showing the armlets and the strap. . ninth century the Prudentius Psychomachia of the tenth century the Aelfric and the Bayeux tapestry. the Jeremias Norman Norman shield. for Mahomet was not born till AJ? 570. (?)* from the Theodosian column erected to the Emperor Theodosius. . Oriental. Shield. 810. of Wessdbrunn. 5. Square and convex shield with boss. shield. 7. from Apocalypsis. 870. 6. used for suspending it from the lelt shoulder. the year of the commencement of the Eastern Empire. back view. Shield or rondache with boss. 4. German shield of the eleventh century. 2. surnamed the Great. called in France "Norman" buckler. * The crescents do not prove that this shield is of Mussulman origin. 1. A. the Codex Aureus. in use from the eighth to the eleventh centuries. le Comte de Nieuwerkerke. Lombard-German targe of the ninth century^ from the Leges Longolardorum. Emeran. born in 346. 3. .D. died in 396.

15. Small targe used in the reign * of Saint Louis (1226-1270). preceding page. about 21 inches by 30.) .cylindrical targe with round boss. length. (See also No. of the thirteenth century. who died in 1195. from the MS. Semi . existed in the equipment of the fifteenth century. 32 inches shield. Brunswick. from a tombstone found in the convent of Steinbach. from 12. from a coin of the time of Henry the Lion.Different Shields. Shield of the twelfth century. but without the boss. Small 291. now in the chapel of the Castle of Erbach. as a specimen in the same museum proves. A similar targe. shield. German convex frescoes in the Cathedral of painted in the reign of Henry the Lion. as will be seen on reference to the MS. from the 10. 18 inches long. Triangular shield. 9. 13. about in length. It was also used in the Burgundiari of the fifteenth century. from an illumination of the period in the British Museum. in the library of the Arsenal of Paris. 4. of Tristan and Isolde of the thirteenth century. Lombard targe of the ninth century. German about 2 feet in the frescoes in the Cathedral of Brunswick. German targe of the twelfth century. equipment 14. who died in 1195. 11.

18. Spanish targe of the end of the fourteenth century. 17. Same as above. Cabinet of Engravings at Munich. from the picture of a single combat called the of Judgment of God in the Codex of the maitre d'armes Tolhofer. 15 B. 296. 45. 20. The Museum of Artillery in Paris possesses a similar targe in leather. Spanish shield. 22> Hispano-Mussulman the fifteenth shield of century. (See p. of the end of the fourteenth century. Shield from a woodcut of the fifteenth century. represent- ing the massacre of the Innocents 19. German targe with holes. German shield. from a picture in the church of Saint-Michel at Schwaebisch-Hall. 16. of the end of the sightfour- teenth century. from an illumination of 1480.292 Different Shields. . about the height of a man. German targe with sight-holes. from a mura! painting in the Cathedral of Mondoneda. of the fifteenth century. 21. No.) . Cathedral of Bamlery.

from the Theur- danck published at the com- mencement of the sixteenth century at Augsburg. which leather. ornamented with two coats of arms engraved. painted red and yellow. inside mountings are of Museum of Sigmaringen. Historical Museum of the Palace of Monbijou at Berlin. 51 inches It is of by 76. shield. 24. Ravensburg. 295 German shield. The points and the iron. is in black sents the and white. 27. German pavois d'assaut of the of Artillery. Paris. of the fifteenth century. German pavois d'assaut of the fifteenth century. 26.Shields {Pavois). about 2 feet high. wood covered over with leather. fifteenth century. 25. German termed pavois d'assaut (Setzschild or Sturmwand in German). 23. of wood covered over with The painting. and studded all round with large screw -heads. Museum . reprearms of the city of Arsenal of Berlin. Shield in steel of the sixteenth century. 44 inches by 72.

in height. of the fifteenth century. century. of wood covered over with leather. in The painting is a representation of St. 72 inches end of the Arsenal of Berne. . Az Collection at Lintz. and its capital preservation. 28. It is a valuable specimen on account of the beauty of the painting. German pavois d'assaut. 29 and 30. covered with hide. 32. and has only one iron point. is rounded at the bottom. from the arsenal of Ens. 26 inches by 45 inches. Arsenal of Berlin. of the fifteenth ancient Austria. Museum of Sigmaringen. German targe. It was probably the buckler of an archer.294 Shields and Targes. Swiss pavois d'assaut. 31 . George. 19 inches by 40. It is smaller than the pavois d'assaut. Swiss or German targe ( Tartsche in German). with three longitudinal bosses of wood.

37. which is very remarkable in an archaeological point of view. in wood the and with an inscription. of Artillery. 35. German rear. Tower of London.Shields and Targes. German targe of the fifteenth century. 14 inches by 16. Museum of Artillery. 295 33. tilting targe of the end of the fifteenth century side. and painted in polychrome. German fluted targe fifteenth century. leather. It is of wood and skin. tilting targe of fifteenth century. Museum German of Artillery. . with the representation of a tournament. of^ the 26 inches in leather. wood the and leather. in wood and Museum 36. ornamented with painted devices. German tilting targe of fifteenth century. and ornamented with painted decorations. Paris. Paris. . on account of the helmets worn by the knights. Paris. length. Cathedral of Marburg. and belonged to the Landgrave of Thuringia. 34. in wood and iron. and front views.

Targe. It is of wood and cloth. Vienna. copied from the water-colour drawings painted by Glockenthon in the first part of the of sixteenth century. Spanish-Moorish targe (adarga) 9 of the end of the sixteenth century. Moorish targe. decorated with painted designs. 39. of Cluny. Paris. Ambras Collection. Ambras Collection t Vienna. Targe. Museum 44. Vienna. silvered. 39 38. convex. Vienna. 45. 42. painted and gilt. probably Armerial of Madrid. entirely leather. century . No.) Museum of Artillery. preceding pp. Targe. Ambras Collection. Armerial of Madrid. German targe of the sixteenth century. 32 inches by 36. 43. Small targe.Targes. . Ambras Collection. 30 inches of supple (See by 38. 40. of the six- teenth Spanish. 41. painted wood and and silvered. illus- trative of the arms and suits armour in the Arsenals of Maximilian I. German targe in leather. painted and silvered. 22.

with sliding chamber and match. On it are painted the arms of the first Duke of Milan. 35. 61. &t Hamburg there is a target. Arsenal similar with a lantern but no gauntlet. (.) 47. in wood and leather. Giovanni Galeazzo Visconti. in the battle of Jornico (Gornis\ in 1478. English target of the beginning of In the the sixteenth century. target of the end of the from the water- colour drawings of Glockenthon. orna- mented with poly chrome paintings. No.1547). (See also at page 301. taken by Frischhaus Thelig of Lucerne.Targes. Museum of In the Artillery. . centre of this shield there is a small hand-cannon. 48. night combats. mention of which is made in the inventory made in the reign of Edward VI. I. Italian target of the fifteenth century. whose initials. are visible. surmounted by a crown. German target. mentioned above. with gauntlet and lantern. of the It was used for fifteenth century. something The Tower of like a veuglaire. Paris. Ambras 49. London possesses twenty-five of these targets. The Arsenal of Lucerne possesses twenty-one of these shields. Collection. termed Rondache. 46. German fifteenth century.

Museum of Artillery.] .298 Targes. and Imperial Arsenal of Vienna. has a sight-hole and a slit for the sword. Small target with sword-breakei and arm-guard. Museum of Turin 52.. in one piece of iron. Target of foot - soldier in blackened steel. Paris. and in one > piece. size 2 feet by 1. 51. of the seventeenth century. which weighs 12 Ibs. 50. it seems only for show. Italian target of the sixteenth century. It is in high-relief embossed work. Meyrick Collection* [Engraved in reverse. This shield.

Collection of the Castle of Lvwenberg or Wilhelmshohe. the centre part curving inwards. It is in the shape of a heart. with a sword. The engraving re- presents the back view. Italian shield of the sixteenth century. Cabinet of Engravings at Munich. century in blackened about 20 by 24 inches. Museum of Dresden* 54. 53. near Cassel. . 28 inches in length. Small round German hand shield of the fifteenth century. from engravings of the time.Shields and Targes. German shield of the sixteenth iron. 20 inches in length. 55.

about 10 inches in diameter. Small German hand shield. about a end of the Arsenal of Munich. from a carving on a comb made at that time. of the fifteenth century. Small hand target in steel of the fifteenth century. to the Earl of mond (Henry RichVII. Meyrick Collection. Small hand shield of the middle of century. 58. It is said to have belonged 1485).breaking it measures about 11 inches diameter. Parit. tury. J.Small Shields. . 5. called pavoisienne. Museum of Artillery. 59. of England. 57. Small hand shield with hook for sword . foot in diameter. 56. and is of the end of the fifteenth cen. 1 foot the fourteenth inch in diameter.

Allah (Goo) is engraved on it. 62. No. Paris. 46. by Burckmayer (1517). Museum of Artillery. A similar obErbach Museum. Museum of the Guelphs at Hanover. iron. See page 297. Iron hand shield. with an iron escutcheon longing to the second half of the fif. from the Triumph of Maximilian. Shields.Small 60. German. Small hand target made of the elk's behorn. Mahmoud ject exists in the Monbijou at Berlin. for targets with lanterns. Small German hand shield of the six- teenth century. about 14 It inches in diameter. I. of Turkish small hand shield of The word the sixteenth century. has a dart and a lantern. which shows that it was used at night. Many arms coming from the Arsenal of are similarly marked. 4. teenth century. 61. . Historical Museum of the Palace of II.

Small German hand shield with hook for breaking the adversary's sword. 67. and is now at in Germany. and hook teenth century. of Turin. Small German target with gauntlet. German target with gauntlet.302 Small Targes. of 69. It beMeiningen longed to the Count of Heniieberg. The A both represents similar one exists rn the Collection of M. Collection. Small German hand target of the end of the fifteenth century. in size. 65. gauntlet German target with for breaking the adversary's sword of the six. (Exterior view. Museum 66. le Comte de Nieuwerkerke.) Historical Museum of the Palace MonWjou at Berlin. Historical Museum in the Palace of Monbijou at Berlin. of the end of the fifteenth century. 64. . 68. of the first half of the sixteenth century. of the sixteenth century. inches about 8 1 Meyrick engraving sides. Small German hand target with a hook for breaking a sword. Museum at Erbach.

ornamented with medallions and trophies in embossed work. Vienna. very beautifully executed. Ambras Collection. . made at Augsburg. German pageant It is shield of the sixteenth century. The fringe all round is fastened with is screws and quilted at the back. 303 70.Pageant Shields.

The ornaments on this shield. indicate by their workmanship that the shield was made at the - end of the sixteenth century or beginning of the seventeenth. Ambras Collection. which are very beautiful.304 Pageant Shields. 71. Vienna . probably made at Augsburg. The trophies are like the work of the French artists of the reign of Henri IV. German pageant shield of the sixteenth century.


306 Pageant Shields. .

and her most favoured and celebrated artists furnished designs. has been several times counterfeited and sold at a high price to purchasers who have not seen the original. and often themselves manufactured these splendid arms*. characterized by a beauty of design and a delicacy of workmanship which disheartens even the is cleverest imitators. The subjoined sketch gives but a very imperfect idea of the beauty of this artistic work. however.Pageant Shields. belonged to Charles V. which in the Ambras Collection. This piece of defensive armour. to whom it had been ft German pageant represented as a first-rate Italian work of art. of the sixteenth century. but only to be worn on gala days. 307 shield in embossed iron. when the nobles rivalled one another in the magnificence and artistic richness of their equipments. Italy was especially famous for this kind of work during the whole period of the Renaissance. It has been already stated that these sorts of arms were not intended as instruments of warfare. but which hardly answer the purpose for which weopons arc generally nuuta. . is. which is one of the most perfect specimens of this style of German art. One of these imitations was brought into France and purchased by the late Baron of Mazis. which now embellish collections by their beauty of design and exquisite finish. The real shield.

Ambras Collection at Vienna* .BOS Pageant Shields. and the design may be taken as a characteristic type of a master engraver's composition in Germany Its German pageant execution is at that period. of the most finished nature. of the sixteenth century. shield in embossed iron.

and the sleeves The defensive armour of this German knight in the short. to the still worn in all other countries perfectly close-fitting. or Spain. SCALE ARMOUR. when similar . AND TRELLISED. was in the eighth century worn by all knights. The small hauberk. " with the " camail or hood. which afterwards became the dress of the squire or of the poorer class of gentlemen. which did not descend much lower than the hips. and Panzerhemd. COATS OF MAIL AND BRIGANTINE JACKETS. the large " " hauberk. Brunica. which are both of the eleventh century. BUFF COATS. ETC. and the elbow. HAUBERKS OR COATS OF MAIL. but the different kinds of armour have yet to be described. The coat of mail (from the German Kutte). a manuscript of the tenth century in the Library of Stuttgard. was called hauberk (from the the German Halsberge). CUIRASSES.309 BO^TS AND CUIRASSES. " Jeremias " of the eleventh century does not appear either in England. in the Library of Darmstadt. it was also called Briinne. either of leather or steel. the leggings in one piece with the hauberk. at first reached just to the knee. and the sleeves or loose arm-guards a little below the elbow. RINGEDj BUSTRED. in the shape of a frock. like the hauberk represented in the Martyrology. an Anglo-Saxon manuscript of the eleventh century in the Library of the British Museum. The history of the changes in armour during the Middle Ages. until the twelfth. with hose and leggings in separate pieces. was . it is a hundred and fifty years in advance of what we know to have been worn at that time for according embroidery on the mitre of Seligenthal and the Bayeux tapestry. GAMBOI8ONS. the sleeves of which were rather loose. neck-protector . BISHOPS' MANTLES OR MAIL TIPPETS. which the Jeremias represents as having already long sleeves. and ended before reaching The large hauberk. France. which preceded the armour composed of plates. and the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries has been already treated of in the second chapter of this work. This hauberk was a kind of jacket in scales. the Renaissance. and also in the Aelfric. MACLED. As for the equipment of the German knight in the " Jerernias Apocalypsis" of the eleventh century. as the Codex Aureus of Saint Gall bears evidence.

"* was the large imbricated hauberk. to which date most compilers consider it incumbent on them to assign it.310 Coats and Cuirasses. like the single. the single and double mail Chambly (Oise) was celebrated for the manufacture The double mail. of which we have already spoken. probably the ringed hauberk (Beringt). and of the Count of Barcelona. covered with overlapping (Geschuppt) plates. (See her Memoirs. overlapping each other half way. (1140). side by side. of Louis VII. like the small hauberk of the eighth century. in which the defence consisted of rings of metal sewed flatly. The coat of mail in France dates much farther back than the time of the Crusades. There are two kinds of this work. riveted nail-head. or Maschenpanzerhemd). (Bekettet) was protected by oval flattened rings. the rings of which were riveted piece by piece.) . or chain mail hauberk (Ketten. and were called grains d'orge. and without either a right or wrong side . Don Kamon Berenger IV." or "korazin. that is to say. was The most ancient was made in many different ways. The hauberk. or padded stuff. * The name is probably derived from Khoiassan. a country in the lUiapire of Persia. generally in iron. ' The trellised in trellised coat (Benagelt) was made of leathern thongs and out over the stuff or skin of which the coat was composed. the younger (1137-1180). costumes may be seen on the seals of Richard L. it thus formed a complete tissue of iron which might be put on like a shirt. The Byzantine princess Anna Comnena was acquainted with it only from seeing it worn by northern warriors. . each interstice was strengthened with a The "jazeran. always of the latter. on their return from Jerusalem. without a lining of leather or stuff. It was not the Crusaders who. the coat of mail was well known before the eleventh century. Coeur de Lion (1157-1173). shows us each ring joined to four others. on The "rustred" hauberk coarse leather. " The " macled coat (Beschildet) was composed of small lozenge-shaped plates of metal. before the use of mail became universal. The coat of mail. was composed entirely of mail. were the first to introduce it into their country.

as also of the other pieces : . these plates were riveted underneath the stuff. or salient ridge. which in the fourteenth century was worn under the earliest suits of plate armour. Poly gars. generally made of velvet. however. somewhat in the style of the macled coats. probably on account of the first Roman cuirasses having^ treen made of leather. worn over the cuirass.Coats and Cuirasses. thus the armour is next the body. and made in various ways. waist-piece. was composed of two pieces the breastplate (Brustplatte). and quilted so that it was entirely covered with stitches. It was the favourite coat of Charles the Bold. has The coat of mail Chinese. but there are also riveted coats of Persian and Circassian manufacture all this. and the sides of the kneeplates armed with mail. from the Italian word c-orazza. or gambeson. so as to compensate for the defects of The bishop's mantle. Persians. no an archaeological point of view. not descending further than the hips. The jacket " was a kind of small hauberk. was meant the doublet of leather or linen cloth without sleeves. shows a quantity of small rivets. 311 is still worn by the Indians. Mongols. so that the outside. The " brigantine " was a jacket composed of small plates of metal. and the back-plate (HiicJcenplatte^ to protect the back. derived from the Latin corium. The breast. centre-ridge. and imbricated . The line down the centre of the breastplate is called tapul (Graete). like copper-headed nails . to protect the chest. Mahrattas. lined with linen.and back-plate are generally fastened together by leather straps passing over the shoulder and gorget. was often the armour. These coats are often without rivets. The brigantine jacket (Italianische Panzer jacke) was most generally worn in Italy during the fifteenth century. and was worn with the breastplate. like the counterfeit Parisian coats. The shape of the cuirass. with cuishes and leggings. Circassians. The cuirass (Kiirass). Japanese. The high gamboison. . and the only specimen of which is at present in the Museum of Munich. was also in leather or linen lightly quilted. like the interest in " large hauberk. or mailed cape. and other people whose civilisation is still rather backward. particularly in Italy during the fifteenth century. By the gamboison.

buffletin). French. and furnished with a metal gorget. Roller. but generally imitate the peaceful costume of their respective times. .312 Coats and Cuirasses. and sometimes more or less rounded. as well deer-skin. are sometimes pointed. while the engravings in the present chapter represent in their order of date all the different sorts of cuirasses in use up to the time of their being superseded (from about 16201660) by buff coats or jerkins (German. as well as in that one which treats of armour in general. always enable us to fix its date and place of manufacture with tolerable certainty. The Gothic breastas those of the beginning of the sixteenth century. The reader will find fuller information respecting the various changes undergone by the cuirass in the historical chapter. an article of costume made generally of plates. of a suit.

and sometimes overlapping each other he. Specimen (Bekettef). in which the rings do not really interlace. represented in illuminations as actual chain armour.Coats of Arms of the Middle Ages. This kind of coat difficult. This is sort of coat. plate No. of rustred coat Here the flat rings are oval.lf way. Specimen of macled coat (BeThis is composed of BchildeC). and overlap each other half way. composed of flat sewed side by side on quilted linen or leather. . small lozenge-shaped plates of metal. 4.) (See 2. sewed on a foundation of cloth or leather. in the illuminations of different manuscripts. 8. to distinguish from the macled coat. i 313 1. if is very not impossible. Specimen rings of the ringed coat (Beringt).

in the on manuscript*. coat linen is made both skin. of metal sewed (x Specimen of coat riveted d'orge rings.314 Coats of Arms of 4. placed trellis-wise each square is armed with a riveted nail- head. the Middle Ages. of mail in called (Genietetes grains Ketten or Maschengewebe). called It is also jazeran and korazin. so as to overlap each other. Specimen of scaled or imbricated coat (Geschuppf). on quilted linen or on leather. the coat of mail has neither wrong side nor lining. It is difficult. 5. Being entirely formed of metal rings. to distinguish the trellised from illuminations the ringed coat. V Specimen of trellised co&i(Gegiltert and also Thig Benayelt). . of quilted and with straps of strengthened thick leather. . The armour consists of scales by rows.

dating about 11501160. 9. Martyrologium. an imbri- cated hauberk is one in the Codex 'Aureus of Saint Gall. in the library at Stuttgard. ringed. Some coins of Magdeburg. a From manu- script of the tenth century. about the eighth or ninth century.Coats of Arms of the Midd 315 Small hauberk or jacket* of the eighth century (Kleines Panzer- hemd) in overlapping scales of metal. Great hauberk (Brunne or Ganzes the Panzerhemd). 8. as well as some older coins of Germany. Bayeux * Tapestry. a country in the Persian Empire. eighth century. a name probably derived from Khoras^an. movable camail and short sleeves. have representations of coats engraved on them. Great Norman a trellised hauberk It lias of the eleventh century. represented above. a kind of armour which is known under the name of jazeran or korazin. . on which we can easily recognize the imbricated or curved scales of far larger dimensions which formed the material of the hauberks of the knights painted on the walls of the Cathedral of Brunswick in The earliest instance of the eleventh century. It has the camail and close-fitting short sleeves. Codex Aureus of Saint Gall.

with fixed cuisses and legging. and Eenne Collection at Constance. in the Museum 14. specimen. called mantle (Biaclwf't Mantel). in Germany during the fif- teenth and sixteenth centuries. and leggings. Gamboison. A sort jacket of the sixteenth century. cuirass. of Munich. Eenne Collection at Constance. German hauberk of the eleventh century. Gamboison of the fourteenth century. cuisses. made of linen quilted and embroidered. . with which the Doges were armed it was also worn . preserved in the library at Darmstadt. fitted with mail at the and knees. breast. The gamboison was generally worn under the Cluny Museum. waist It is of quilted linen. 13. but supposed to have come from the Dresden Museum. or (Geolirter gambeson Unterof coat or leinener panzer). Venetian bishop's mail cape. from the Jeremias Apocalypsis. with fixed hood. 12. from which this drawing has The only known is been taken.316 Coats of Arms of the Middle 11.

This mistake is found in the Museums of Dresden. the au- Many have museums and collections exhibited this piece of defensive armour on the wrong Bide. in thor's collection. stamped with the fleur-de-lys. Museum of Darmstadt. Gorget with sleeves in chain mail. are No. Brigantine jacket (Jtalianische Panzerjacke) of the fifteenth century. shows on which side the brigantine was worn. Cluny. the Ambraa Collection. stamped with lions (probably the ar- mourer's mark). 17. . etc. The trilobed scales. Trilobed scale of armour be- longing to the above described brigantine. Dresden Museum. size. overlapping each other on the velvet doublet of which they form a metal lining. whether velvet or linen.Coats of Arms of the Middle Ages. of the fifteenth century. nearly the actual 18. and riveted. Scales of a brigantine. The curve of the scales. should be worn next the body. The error arises from presuming that the stuff. however. 317 15. 17.

Brigantine of the fifteenth century. fif- century. Similar specimens may be seen in the Museums Munich. exhibited on the reverse Paris. Brigantine of the fifteenth cen- tury. 127. 20. No. of Sigmaringen and 21. Breastplate of brigantine. and both museums have exhibited side. side at the Muse'e d'Artillerie. composed of small steel plates. 19.318 Coats of Arms of the Middle Ages. It is teenth exhibited in the Cluny Muit seum on the is reverse side. composed of trefoilimbricated shaped scales. it on the reverse . Dresden Mu- seum. as here drawn. The Ambras Collection also possesses a similar brigantine. composed of small plates of steel. which protects the thighs below the hips. This specimen is remarkable on account of its waist-piece.

fifteenth century. probably painted from a drawing of that time and preserved in the library at Geneva. from an old picture. Erbach CvUtotion. like the brigan- but riveted to one another. 319 22. Scales of the preceding jacket. tine. The scales of this to armour are not riveted on any material.Coats of Arms of ike Middle Ages. <23. with lining of stuff or skin. . so that it resembles a coat of mail. drawn half their actual size. 24. but the mail of the gorget and the surrounding rims of copper. Jacket in imbricated plates of steel. The coat and breastplate are in are iron. Coat of mail of Jean Ziska (died 1424). with collar and amiguards in chain mail.

320 Different Coats of Arms. 25. exhibited in the Dresden Museum. . 28. This copy of the Schah Nameh. a poem composed by Ferdnsi in the reign of Mahommed the Gaznevide (999). The G. is orna- mented with 215 beautiful illuminations. Persian hauberk in chain mail. which are riveted on. 138. and is exhibited in the library at Munich. See in the chapter on helmets the pot-helm belonging to this game suit. steel plate Early part of the eighteenth century. 26. from the same manu- script. from a Persian manuscript of about 1600. Coat in steel plates. 27. rather smaller than the actual size. Many of these scales are ornamented with crosses in gilded copper. Polished steel plate or scale. links are without rivets. or Royal Book. Mongolian coat of armour. and leggings. Mu&eum of ArtiUery. Paris. with sleeves. from the jazeran or imjacket of bricated Sobieski (1648 to 1696). cuisses.

and far from graceful character about it. in Western India. The Musee d'Artillerie at Paris possesses a few similar Eastern coats. straight collar appears to a indicate comparatively The modern origin. Meyrick Collection. 29. Indian coat in rhinoceros hide. are made with rhinoceros and buffalo hides. which is ornamented with inlaid plates. like the round bucklers. . Meyiick This armour is Collection. remarkable on account of the points round the collar descending on to the shoulders. is kind of Meyrick armour manufactured at Mundavien.Different Goafs of Arm?. According this to the Catalogue. Indian coat. The coats. Meyrick * Collection. in the Gulf of Cutch. 31. has a very modern. boiled in oil.* This armour. Polygar coat of mail. 30.

without lance rest. fifteenth century. headed National Museum of Bavaria. doubled at the back with a plain and pointed hood. Ambras Collection. sixteenth It is century. Gothic cuirass with salient ridge (Graete) and lance rest. Paris. fif- and velvet. This coat. ele- 34. This is the most gant form of cuirass. very heavy. at Munidi. covered with red and studded with ironnails. reaching only a little below the hips.322 Coats of Arms and ?>2. Cuirasses. Gothic cuirass." or hood. Saracenic coat of mail . is short. Arsenal of Zurich. in iron. fifteenth century. with scaled back plate and waist-piece. 33. Cuirass with salient ridge. teenth century. which serves both as a protection to '* the shoulders and also as a camail. . 35. back view. exhibited in the Musee d'Artillerie.

Meyrick Collection. as is usually the case. 88. .Cuirasses. G. part of a German suit end of the fifteenth and beginning of the six. Semi-rounded cuirass without tapid. and believed to belong to a German suit. " Maximilienne " and It is called Milanese the shape is very beautiful. or salient ridge. Paris. of a German fluted suit end of the fifteenth century. century.. . 37. 1505. of a German suit. Arsenal of Vienna. ^ the waist-piece large. from drawings by Glockenthon in Ambras Collection. very rounded. Arsenals of Maximilian I. 39. 5. but with lance rest. Muse'e dArtillerie. the tassets in this instance being joined to the rest of the suit. Semi-rounded cuirass without tapul. Gothic cuirass without salient ridge. and also in the Collection of the Count of Nieuwerkerke. 30. Semi-rounded cuirass without tapul. end of the fifteenth century. . in embossed iron end of the fifteenth . teenth century. and does not end with the tassets.

Imperial Arsenal of Vienna. tion. part of a German suit of armour belonging to the Landgrave Philip the Magnanimous (died 1567). part of a Naremberg suit. tapul half of the sixteenth century part of a suit belonging to a knight of the order of St.32i Cuirasses. George. 41. V 40. Scmi-ronnded cuirass . but without tapul. of the year 1570. Semi-rounded cuirass with tapid and waist-piece first half of the . 43. part of a German suit. Vienna. with and lance rest first . . Meyrick Collection. Cuirass with lance rest. sixteenth century . Count of Nieuwerkerke's CollecIn the arsenal of the city. there are suits. many similar which formerly belonged to the civic troops of this town. 42. middle of the sixteenth century. and all bear the date 151G. Cuirass with tapul.

of France. or like a Punch's hump (GansebaucJi) end of the . 47. reign of Henry III. (1589). Reign of Louis XIII. Italian cuirass with buttons and and peascod-shaped tapul. * The cuirass of the suit of armour in the Louvre. is of a similar shape. and with tapul. Count of Nieuwerkerlte's Collection. Sitter's Collection at Augslury. Ambras Collection* 45. the waist-piece is composed of three large metal plates. peascod-shaped. (1610-1643). Cuirass in plates. attributed to Henry IV. Peascod-shaped cuirass with tapul. and long lobster -shell cuisses instead of tassets. .Cuirasses. 46. M. 325 44. Italian engraved cuirass with lapul . end of the sixteenth century.

or crabs. ornamented with gilt nails. Some German authors have called these suits of plate or scaled armour Krebse. 49. 50. Cuirass in plates belonging to a German Better . Paris. 50. G. 52. where it is wrongly attributed to Vengli (1550). Collar in russet steel belonging to the buff coat No. Buff coat (Koller. France (1618 1640). 162. . German. middle of the seventeenth century. The Imperial Arsenal of Vienna possesses the buff coat which Gustavus Adolphus wore when killed at the battle of Lutzen. Coats. and reign of Louis XIII.Cuirasses and Buff 48. of 1650. Musee d'Artillerie. . 51. French). Half armour in engraved iron. skin time of the Thirty Years' of War. Cuirassier's buff coat with sleeves. of deer- luffletin. latter half of the seventeenth at the century. preserved Arsenal of Soleure.

Persian leather cuirass. which is drawn near plate 53. Musee ob- d'Artillerie. which is inlaid and quilted. Janissary's cuirass. probably of the sixteenth or seventeenth century. * The janissaries (a name derived from the two Turkish words. Paris. servations G. as 133. Paris. d'Artillerie. mentioned below. Musee 134. of armour is stamped with a mark. ieni tcherij signifying new soldiers) composed the infantry of the Turkish militia. 327 53. This is the monogram or device by which the Turks represent the name of Allah (God). in all 1302 by Amurath I massacred in 1826. seventeenth century. This piece of armour. See the observation concerning this mark in the chapter on shields. Meyrick Collection. sixteenth century. Same the preceding number. resembles cuirasses very of the much the janissaries.Cuirasses. 54. Janissary's* cuirass. They were organised . This piece G. 55. and almost .

did not form any essential part of ancient armour. and had often a fixed gauntlet without joints they were The shape generally worn instead of the manteau d'armes.328 THE ABM-GUARD. and later by There were both single and double arm-guards. or gauntlet without fingers. which was generally hinged. These terminated in tho chain mail mitten. The arm-guard. . superseded at steel ones.guards of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries were used only for the left arm. . but it has been ascertained to have been in some instances used by the ancient nations as well as by barbarians during the brazen age it was then in the form of a . and protected the arm entirely. Armschiene . French. as already shown above. and also the arm-guard complete. screw. which protected the upper and lower portion of the arm. and was joined together by the elbow-piece. properly so called (German. and size of the elbow and shoulder pieces are always a help towards recognising the date of a complete arm-guard. the coat of mail often had sleeves which formed a protection for the arm. and were first by boiled leather plates. brassard). During that part of the Middle Ages when plate armour was not yet invented. The large tilting arm.

Complete arm-guard. a coat of mail.piece.. 2. Complete Gothic arm-guard with elbow. for these kinds of armour were with the contemporaneous the fluted suits called Maximilian find Milanese armour. The elbow-pieces are very large. like the preceding ones. 3. upper arm. the upp^r and lower part of the It is ornamented with arm. protecting. Id. . to protect the upper and lower part of the arm . as well as the shape of the elbow-piece. 5. and gauntlet.Arm-guards 1. 329 Arm-guard with mitten (Armschutz mil schuli) of Maschen-Fausthand- $$$$. 4. indicate the end of fifteenth century or the beginning of the sixteenth. middle of the fifteenth century. Gothic arm-guard with elbow and upper arm-piece. id. which. bands of embossed work. from a monument of 1460 in Oxfordshire.

wit . wit] mitten. Spengel Collection at Municl 9. Lower-arm arm-plate guard: is the inne pierced with eigh square holes. 8. German tilting arm-guard. mitten. with elbow an< upper arm-piece.330 Arm-guards. for the left hand the fifteenth century. Arm-guard. suit of armour end of the fifteenth. part of a fluted or Maximilian. be ginning of the sixteenth cen tury. century. end c 10. for the left hand . . or begin ning of the sixteenth century. All these guards protec the upper and lower arm. with elbow and uppe arm-piece end of the sixteentl . 6. German tilting arm-guard. Arm-guard.

thirteenth century. still represent all the men-at-arms with their hands protected only by the mitten. has the hand covered with a mail mitten. tius Psychomachia.331 THE GAUNTLET. which seems to be trellised if not A already plated. and riding a horse covered with ringed or trellised armour. and was covered with scales. forming a bag or We . always represent the warrior with bare hands. the embroidery on the mitre of Seligenthal. such as is represented on the tombstone of the King of the Romans. in which the thumb alone has a separate place. but part of the arm. authorities which have already been cited. the Aelfric. as well as the soleret or shoe. probably executed at the beginning of the fifteenth century for the Duke of Burgundy. The shape of the gauntlet or armed glove (KampfJiandscliuh or Gefingerte Handtatze in German). the Prudenof the thirteenth century. in the possession of M. recognise this kind of gauntlet in an Italian painting of the fourteenth century. the gauntlet proper does not date farther back than the end The Martyrologium. and the Bayeux tapestry. or some other overlapping plates of iron . the Jeremias Apocalypsis. The illuminations in a manuscript of Roman history preserved in the Library of the Arsenal at Paris. but the seal of Richard Coeur de Lion (1157-1173) shows the hand of the king already protected by a sort of continuation of the chain mail sleeve. wh. the Biblia Sacra. a great help towards the classification of a suit of armour. which covered not only the hand. warrior in the illustrations of the German -Sneid of Henry of Waldeck. carved in 1352. made by a continuation of the mail sleeve. is. and which date from the ninth to the end of the eleventh century. plates. the back of the hand was protected by a plate of metal or leather. The first real gauntlet had separate fingers. in the Cathedral of Frankfort. where this prince was poisoned in 1349. with a crested heaume. or with a continuation of the sleeve of the coat. for both one and the other have undergone great It appears to be tolerably certain that the use of changes. Giinther of Schwarzburg. Odet at Sitten.

Palatine of the Rhine. The mitten (FausfhandschuJi). the separate fingers ring finger sixteen. The armour of Joan of Arc. . but after a little while this latter fell into disuse and disappeared. and the middle finger has twenty-two small plates or scales. like those in the Museum of Sigmaringen." also the terms of throwing the gauntlet and " raising the gauntlet. as compilers insist nevertheless almost all the fluted suits of armour have the iuarticulated gauntlet. and not in the middle of the sixteenth century. like the curious specimen which the Imperial Arsenal of Vienna possesses." which in the fifteenth century occur in the French language. at the time when the pistol made its appearance. makes its appearance in the fifteenth century. a kind of gauntlet in which the fingers were not separated. while the reverse or outside of the glove is composed only of three or four plates was in use contemporaneously with the mitten.332 shows how TJie Gauntlet far the Burgundian equipment was behind that of other nations. See the harness of Maximilian I. by which means the closed hand might be fixed on to the sword or handle of the hammer. preserved in the Ainbras Collection at Vienna. but it is to the articulated gauntlet that Bayard's " Ce que gantelet gagne. show that the mitten was everywhere used during the first half of the fifteenth century. and which forms part of a suit of armour attributed to Charles V. more especially tilting suits. Several of these iron gauntlets are studded with nail-heads . There are. and the armour of Frederick L. in the catalogue of Dezest. however. and with plates of steel placed so as to move with the principal movements of the hand. are provided with mittens. Several of these gauntlets were provided with a screw ring on a pivot. " " le mange. (1404-1417) at Amsterdam. some German suits of armour where the gauntlets have already separate spaces for the fingers. gorgerin favourite proverb applies. and a large number of suits of the second half of the fifteenth and beginning of the sixteenth century. The articulated gauntlet came into general use towards the end of the fifteenth. (1459-1519) in the Ambras Collection and in the Imperial Arsenal of Vienna. the bronze statuette of William VI. The gauntlet with in which the fore-finger has fifteen.

however. About a hundred years later were worn the " gauntlet tilting shield. such as was worn during the Thirty Years' War. but the reason of these excrescences is not known to us. was a piece of defensive armour which belonged to the latter half of the fifteenth century." The last articulated gauntlet was soon afterwards replaced by the glove with deerskin gauntlet. In England. and in inverted positions. . for the left arm.* The tilting gauntlet arm-guard. 333 placed on the outside of the glove. or knuckle-duster of modern times." the " sword gauntlet. during part of the seventeenth century." and the " gauntlet for bear-hunting. gloves armed with scales were worn a specimen of which is to be found in the Meyrick Collection. TRANSLATOR. " " being analogous to the cestus of classic. * They served probably to increase the power of a blow from the fist. .The Gauntlet.

German gauntlet. first half oi the fifteenth century. . separate. Id. Mitten gauntlet. 3.. Gauntlet with separately articulated fingers KampfhandscJiuh. in ment of the Roman the Cathedral of Frankfort-on-the-Main. fingerja are indicated latter half of the fifteenth century. in which the . gerte Tatze]. Mitten gauntlet. erected in 1352. Paris.334 Gauntlets. 4. 2. Mitten is (Fausthandscliuh\ fifteenth century the thumb alone . 6. 1. from (Gefingerter or Gefin- the monu- king. 5. Museum of Artillery. Collection of Baron des Moris. Giinther of Schwarzburg. id.

Gauntlets. teenth century. 8. English gauntlet in deerskin covered with scales seven. beginning of the seventeenth century. 12. sixteenth century. j 10. * The fluted armour of the be- ginning of the sixteenth century has generally articulated gauntlets. Mitten gauntlet of a " " Maximilian armour fluted . 335 7 Articulated gauntlet.* Author's Collection. and the bear's paw-shaped soleret. 11. German articulated gauntlet. latter half of the fifteenth century. Articulated gauntlet of a fluted "Maximilian" armour. middle of the fifteenth century. (See Nos. Gauntlet of a German Eeiter . It belongs to a suit of armour in the Imperial Arsenal at Vienna.) . 11 and 13 in the chapter on Solerets. 9. beginning of the sixteenth century. which closes by means of a screw-ring and pivot.

German gauntlet. in iron. It is armed with darts. very little known. local. This gauntlet. or small buckler. ia iron. 14. Gauntlet of the sixteenth century. The weapon is more fanciful than useful.336 Gaunilets. for the left hand. used in bearhunting. 13. and a sword fastened to it. with a large arm-guard. Ambras Collection. for the left hand. . and probably only in the North. These pieces of armour are very rare they must have been-. of the sixteenth century. as and most probably extremely it is very seldom met with. and two daggers sharpened like a saw. appears also to have been intended for bear-hunting.

as the monument at Merseburg shows. is represented. and the cuishes (Dieling or SchenkelscMeneri) they were at first made in boiled leather. were articulated plates or cover- ings for the feet in iron they do not appear to date farther . All the manuscripts of the eighth to the tenth century show the warrior without either leggings or greaves -(Beinschi'enen and Kettenstrumpfe). either of mail or other materials. while the monument of Merseburg. greaves and solerets had already appeared at the close of the eleventh century. MAIL AND STRAPPED. AND SHOES. which was fastened by thongs on the chain-mail The tombstone of Sir Hugh Hastings. OB LEGGINGS. In Germany. Towards the end of the thirteenth century the first plated greaves appeared in France (T^emscJiier^n in German. -who died in 1258. which nevertheless do not date farther back than the end of the eleventh century. and tumeliercs or grcvc '. he has them bound only with thongs of leather. cnishes and leggings with foot-soles of one piece are almost invariable- made of iron chain-mail. SOLERETS. on which this novel kind of armour : . and if he be not represented without any protection whatever on the legs.337 GREAVES. WAR BOOTS AND HOSE. the buckled knee-caps (Kniestiickc). while none of his warriors wear leggings. COVERINGS CALLED FOOT HOSE. The solerets (EisenscJmJi) . Even in the Bayeux tapestries. and the "Lancelot of the Lake. William the Conqueror alone has the lower part of the legs protected. the miniatures on a manuscript in the Library of Berlin. the tomb of Berthold. Dating from the eleventh century.: French). already depict the plate armour which Germany and Switzerland appear to have been tho first to adopt for after the Merseburg monument and the thirteenth-century manuscript at Berlin. of the thirteenth century. At first only the front of the leg was protected by the plate. 1347. and afterwards in iron or steel. of the eleventh century. seems to prove that the English knight of that period still wore the leggings and greaves in mail. erected in legging." 1360. offers the most ancient evidence.

was worn also the shape "arc tiers point. however. miniatures. The " a la first known soleret is pointed. " the Frank is terrible when on horseback. At the battle of Sempach (1386) the knights after dismounting from horseback cut off the long ends of their solerets." This last soleret was replaced by the boot and top-boot. The shoes which Kodolph the Swabian wears on a monument of 1080 in the Cathedral of Merseburg do not show any plates. and the long-pointed shoes." which had disappeared towards the middle of" the fourteenth century. the prow of a galley). and which is wrongly considered to belong only to the fifteenth century." " Tristan and Isolde. but should he fall. The shoe "a la poulaine." The "sabot" or "pied d'ours. Count It is. the knight scarcely appears the same person. to make way for the " demi-poulaine or " ogivale de lancette. like the soleret pou" laine (so called from poulaine.. so weighted is he by his shield. in which century. 1 iS9) of England." also depicts the knights with contury. which prevent his walking. and was followed by the "bee de cane. was worn from 1490 to 1560. and render him an easy The German manuscript of the thirteenth prisoner. than the beginning of the fourteenth century." and " towards 1485 the " demi-sabot or the " demi pied d'ours. =? "^ . An incontrovertible proof that this fashion already existed in the twelfth century is found in the memoirs of the Byzantine princess Anna Comnena (1080-1148). and reigns anew during the fourteenth." a style belonging to the fluted armour. where the authoress says. and to Henry lr.333 Leggings. of Anjou (1087). The knowledge of the differently shaped foot-coverings adopted by the Christians in Europj during the different periods of the Middle Ages and Kenaissance are highly important for the classification of sculptures. who adopted it to hide a deformity. and arms. 'where it universally prevailed during the twelfth attributed to Falco IV. a fashion which came originally from Hungary. shot a la poulaine." reappears towards the end of this century. which gave him the name of Cornadu or Cornatus. however century. from 1440 to 1470. for military equipment has always been subject to the influences of fashion which governs civil costumes. (LLu-*.

Soleret " " demi-poulaine . 5. Soleret "a la poulaine. Legging bound with thongs. 1. when it is replaced by the greaved soleret. 4. 2. and disappears partly at the beginning of the thirteenth. 1080. which belongs to the beginning of the eleventh century. 6 and 7. Thonged and Mailed. thirteenth. First the greaved soleret known. Iron mail legging. in use before the eleventh century. 3." fifteenth century. from tomb of Rodolph the Swabian.Leggings. Solerets "a la poulaine. . in the Cathedral of Merseburg. and first half of the fourteenth century. or ogi- vale lancette end of the four- teenth century." of the twelfth.

gauntlets of this as well as the shape of the soleret. in 1443." or bear's soleret. " Sabot. G reave 1485 : with it soleret " demi- sabot. King of Arragon.Greaves and Solerets. 8. 9. . indicate the end of the fifteenth." in the author's collection. Library of Munich." in use about 1480 fluted suit. from a manu. \< 10. middle of the fifteenth century. Soleret "arc tiers point. at Naples. This same shape of iron shoe may be seen also on a piece of earthenware Nuremberg which forms part of the author's collection. 12.. Soleret. erected on his entry there.reliefs in marble on the triumphal arch of Alphonso V. and slightly the beginning of the sixteenth century. Paris. called and forms part of a German " Maximi- lian." worn from 1450 to 1485. and the subject of which represents of Charlemagne. from has . script of the sixteenth century a copy of the Schah Nameh. Museum of Artillery. 11. The mitten suit. paw-shaped century sixteenth (1490-1560). Persian greave.

. Top-boot of carabineer of 1680. from a suit of armour in use soleret about 1560. Museum of are very like those of Mexico. and . (1715 1774). Artillery. 341 13. 325. in use from 1490 to 1560. G reave with soleret bee de cane. 15. They are side. . from a suit of Maximilian or Milanese armour. This kind of must not be confounded tiers with those called ogivak point of the fifteenth century. G reave with soleret shaped like a bear's paw. A. Paris. square-toed and high-heeled the spurs belong to the end of the reign of Louis XIV. They are in the shape of gaiters laced up one the tops being furnished with three buttons. French top-boot in leather of the reign of Louis XV.Greaves and Top-loots. 16. \ 14.

at present in the Library of the Arsenal of Paris. considering the early period at which they were manufactured. Neither the horsemen on Assyrian bas-reliefs. of which the part covering the tendon . The most ancient spurs were those made with a single point of a conical shape. by the number and length of its points. who had neither cavalry nor even a verb in their language to express mounting on horseback. (1422) . were also ignorant of this appliance. nor those on Persian or Egyptian monuments. a fact proved by the spurs of that time that are in the National Museum of Munich. indicates quite as well as the shank and point. is composed of the shank (German. which was very thick and riveted on at right angles to the shank. This wheel. The spur. which in the Middle Ages was called carcaire. of the fifteenth century. of Bavaria. These spurs all show a wonderful degree of finish in their make. thirteenth century. a Burgundian MS. The spur seems to have been first used by the Romans. and in England the six-pointed rowel was unknown before the reign of Henry VI. the epoch to which the spur belongs. and are also noticeable on account of the shape of their shank. though most of these rowels belong to the seventeenth century. towards the eleventh century it became longer.342 THE SPUR. have spurs. from the Italian sperone. and the prick or rowel (StacJiel or Bad in German). who introduced it most probably among the Gauls. Sporn). Bugefy. but some are to be seen in the illuminations of the Histoire Homaine. from the the Latin calcar (German. the spur-neck (Hals in German). English heraldry considers the mullet or heraldic star to be derived from the fivepointed rowel of the spur. About the tenth century the spur began to show a slighter and sharper point. and in the twelfth The rowel we find in the century was curved upwards. which indicates that they were worn over an iron greave. which belonged to the knights of Heideck and the Duke Albrecht II. while the Greeks of the Heroic Ages. In Germany as early as the fourteenth century the eightpointed rowel was used.

as also later. and even eighteen points. at which time spurs had often rowels of twelve. formed an acute angle. with a large spurneck cut in open-work and with very large rowels. it was in the Mexican shape. which in the time when tournaments were most in fashion. After the fifteenth century the number of the points cannot be taken always as a guide. whilst in the reign of Louis XIV. about the fifteenth century. generally of nine points. seventeenth century. when top-boots had displaced greaves. Of all accoutrements the spur is the most difficult to classify in correct chronologic order. was extravagantly long. was small and sometimes embellished with perforations. the branches of the spur were rounded.The Spur. fifteen. became shorter again in the sixteenth century. The spur-neck. The spur of the time of Louis XIII. . in the 343 Before the time of greaves or plates. as they varied according to the time and the country.

of the Louvre. Anglo-Saxon or Norman spur of the eleventh century. 6. 12. 9. German spur of the tenth century. Gymnasium Collection at Marat. . 4. of the twelfth century. I 1 . found at Gnevikon in of Berlin. found at Brandenburg. teenth century. Museum of Sigmaringen. German spur in iron. German spur in iron. Museum of Sigmaringen. Museum 5. 1 n and 2. found at Constance. Swiss spur in iron. who died in. I. with an iron point. of the eighth century. found at Groschnowitz. of the thirteenth century. painted in the reign of Henry the Lion. copied from the frescoes in the Cathedral at Brunswick. Paris. Neville Museum at Audley End. near Oppeln. German spur in iron. 8. Spur copied from a reliquary of the twelfth century. twelfth century. Tower of Condon. Gold spur belonging lemagne. Ruppin. of the eleventh century. Hanover Museum. oi the eighth century. 1195. German spur in iron. of the thirin the lake of Morat. Museum 1 of Berlin. Spur in iron. Danish spur in bronze. Museum of Copenhagen. in the collection of the late King of Hanover.341 Spurs. English spur. Char- Museum 3. to A. 10. of the tenth century. found 13. German spurs in iron. of the eighth century. found at Chesterford . Author's Collection.

found at Brandenburg. German spur Museum of Munich* of the end of the fourteenth century. . with eightpointed rowel. 14. Collection.Spurs. Museum of Munich. of Bavaria. It belonged to Duke Albrecht II. with a twelvepointed rowel. of the commencement of the fourteenth century. found in the tomb of a knight of Heideck. Authors 15. 1C. German spur of the end of the fourteenth century. 345 German spur in iron.

rowel. Museum of Artilare lery. Museum 23. Spur in iron with a double neck. and is now in the Museum of century. of the four- teenth century. Similar ones in Collection the Ambras said to be of Polish origin. Munich. of the end of the fifteenth century. of German spur fourteenth the century. Museum 18. of the fourteenth century. Museum 24. 25. and Spur with gilt stirrup copper. with six pointed Widter Collection at Vienna. found at Mayence. of Sigmaringen. of Sigmaringen. German spur in iron. Museum 19. found at Constance. of Sigmaringen. of attached. Meyrick 20. Spur in iron. Paris. of the fourteenth Collection. Spur in copper.316 Spurs. 17. in the fifteenth It belonged to Duke Christopher of Bavaria. of the century. century. Italian spur in iron. with eight- pointed rowel. Spur in iron. in iron. fifteenth - Museum 21. of the fifteenth century. 22. of the sixteenth century. fifteenth Moorish spur of the century. of Berlin. found in the isle of Riigen. . of Sigmaringen.

Museum 29. spur. English spur in gilt iron. Sb'ter and Ambras Collections. of the sixteenth century. German spur in iron. Spur in of the seventeenth century. English spur in copper. Paris. . of Sigmaringen. of the end of the fifteenth century. Meyrick 31. 28. It belonged to Ralph Sadler in the rei. (1547 1553). 27. The author believes it to be of the seven- teenth century on account of the rounded branches. and served as a receptacle for concealed despatches. witli rounded branches. steel of English spur in the six- teenth century. Spur in gilt iron. copied from one on a suit of armour for a German man on 33. German spur. three rowels. German spur century. of the end of the fifteenth century. of Artillery. 34. Museum of Sigmaringen. The 85. heel of the shank.26. formed the mouth. of the sixteenth Museum of Dresden. Meyrick Collection. Meyrick 32 B. iron. the branches of which are hollow. and is of a very rare shape. which unscrewed. Collection. Collection. German spur in copper. Large spur in blackened iron. of the sixteenth century. Museum 30.n of Edward VI. said to be of sixIt has teenth-century date. about 5 inches long. horseback. 32 A. about 10 inches long.

said to be of the fifteenth but the shape of the bent branch renders this unlikely. Spanish spur of the middle of century. Author 's Collection. died in 1320 but at that time the rowel was much smaller. 42. are rounded. Museum 40. barely come into use. 43. in . It resembles the Mexican spurs. Museums of Prague and maringen. (16431715). to have belonged to fact. The branches 88. Spur in gilt copper. Meyriek Collection. Museum seventeenth of Sigmaringen. 36. of the Louvre. Meyriek 39.348 Spurs. 41. Spur in iron of the reign of Louis XIV. Sig- . of the six- teenth century. Polish spur of the seventeenth century. In the Meyriek Collection it is . in work which it a by a is said Alphonso Perez de Guzman. 37. Collection. who was born in 1278. (16431715). German spur in iron of the seventeenth century. English spur of the sixteenth or seventeenth century. and had. English spur of the end of the called century. wrongly attributed to Louis XIV. the seventeenth copied from Spaniard. English spur of the sixteenth century.

Spurs." to prevent the horse from shying) . 44. The horse-armour in German) is for battle and tournaments (PanzerdecJce often wrongly termed caparisons (derived from the Spanish word cape). the part \vhich covers the forehead of the horse (and which was either open or shut. This same kind is in use at the present day. spur. and shape of the branches show to a no branches of the spurs which were worn over greaves formed an acute angle. the testiere.. . in use at the present \ ft 48. Author's Collection. Arab day.e. German spur of the sevenThe width teenth century. a word which properly means only the rich coverings or housings spread over the back of the spare horse (destrier. 47. Persian spur of the fifteenth century. 349 German spur century. Rosstirne). which consisted of the chartfrein (German. from the Latin dextra). Brazilian spur. of Berlin. i. Ancient African spur in iron. that this spur belongs time when greaves were For the longer worn. which was led along on the right hand by the squire. Horse-armour during the Middle Ages had not attained the same degree of perfecit was not until the middle tion as armour for men of the fifteenth century that it assumed the form of a complete equipment. 46 B. 46. in use at the present day. of the sixteenth Museum 45 A. and could not possibly be arched or curved. HORSE-ARMOUR. . with or without " blinkers.

the side pieces or flanchards (Flankenpanzer or Seitenblatter in German). The clianfrein was known to the Greeks. which were either formed in one piece. the rear-protector (German Schwanzriempanzer) . or else in two pieces. a name which was given to the plate which covered the juncture of the chanfrein. was only an ornament. which was placed over the nostrils. most probably it was only used at festivals to heighten the beauty of the caparison. which came all round like a flounce. of about 1617. that is to say. but was not used in Europe till the end of the fourteenth or beginning of the fifteenth century. * Bossettes these are ornaments on the side of the : bit. Krupp und Lendenpanzer or Hintergebuge).stall of the horse is always represented as being made of mail. that a picture of the year 1480. for before this date the head. separated under the tail . . the crupper and thigh-pieces (German. a MS. fitted either with hinges or like a flounce . which joined the front plate or breast-piece to the thigh-pieces and croupiere. the saddle with stirrups . as proved by the drawings of Jobst Ammon in his Traite $ equitation civile. or blinker. and could be of no use in war. as in many countries that of man still was but it was covered over with a caparison of cloth. was used by all the . At the commencement of the fourteenth century horsearmour was of mail. The name is also applied to the piece of leather. and. Kopfstuck). according to the Diversarum gentium armatura equestris. the bridle and bit the snaffle bridle and bossettes* and the nose-band or horse-muzzle. armourer to the Archduke Maximilian. or head-piece (German. . which latter article was very much in vogue in Germany during tho sixteenth century. and was also sometimes applied whole head-armour of the steed (Mahnenpanzer or Kammkappe in German to the . . plates of boiled leather. neck-armour.350 Horse-armour. represents Master Albrecht. criniere) . German cavalry. and jaw-plates. the mane-armour French. which covers the eyes of the mule. preserved in the Arsenal of Vienna. mounted on a horse furnished with articulated greaves. or of . appears to be supported by doubtful the muzzle. the poitrail (JBrustpanzer or breastplate. barde de or Vordergebilge in German). This assertion for authority The German armourers had brought horse-armour to such a degree of perfection.

Closed chamfron. Head-stall (Kopfstiick) from a MS. Complete head-piece with open chamfron. Open chamfron. the Arsenal of Vienna. the Museum Imperial >f Artillery. sixteenth century. Comte etc. the Collection of le M. Open chamfron (Ross-slime) of the middle of the fifteenth century.. 1. 6.Horse-armour. of the fourteenth century. is sixteenth cen- richly part of It embossed. a set of horse- armour of the Imperial Arsenal The Meyrick and of Vienna. 2. . 3. the Tower of London. 5. 4. Head-stall of the fifteenth century. on which the makers of that day so delighted to exercise their inventive and decorative taste. the Armoury of Madrid. tury. de Nieuwer- kerke. all possess good specimens of this piece of the horse-armour. the Amhras Collections.

Poitrel a jupe. .352 Horse -armour. of the sixteenth century. Ambras Collection. 10. alternately in mail and plate armour. belonged to Maxi- milian Ambras Collection. 9. Poitrel (Brustpanzer or Vorgebuge) of the middle of the fifteenth century. similar one in the A Nieuwerkerke Collection. Crinet and gorget of the end of the fifteenth century. of a set of horse-armour said teenth to have I. 8. said to have belonged It is to Maximilian I. Crinet or mane-guard (Mashnen* panzer or Kammkappe) of the end of the fifteenth or beginning of the sixteenth century. 11. or in the shape of a flounce. Poitrel of the end of the fif- It is part century. 12 Flanchard (Flanhenpanzer) of the middle of the fifteenth century.

in the shape of a flounce. 17. (Schwanzriem- Meyrick Collection.Horse armour Flanchard from a suit of armour called a jupe. 16. Croupiere or hind-piece a jupe and trellised. 3 14. of the sixteenth century. 1 13. Ambras Collection. 15. Tail-guard panzer). Croupiere or hind-piece a jupe. to said have belonged to Maximilian I. Amir as Collection. of the second half of the fifteenth or beginning of the sixteenth century. from a suit of horse-armour of the end of the fifteenth century. 2 A . Croupiere cuissards or hind-piece with (Krupp und Lenden- panzer or Hintergebuge).

neck-guard. Tournierbuch (book on tournaments) of the commencement of the sixteenth century. copied from a painting of 1480 in the Arsenal of Vienna. all and Meyrick Col have similar ones. 18. with a saddle used at tournaments that protected the legs and chest of the rider from an engraving in the . Horse-muzzle Nasenband). Leg-guard of German horsearmour. at Paris. Tower of London. Museum Ambras of Artillery. lections. Front piece of horse-armour. the ar- mourer of the Archduke Maximilian. comprising head-stall. of (Maulkorb or The Museum Sigmaringen. .354 Horse-armcur. 20. Arsenal of Turin. representing the horse of Master Albrecht. 19. poitrel.

an author of that time. The five specimens of these curious saddles that have come down to us are to be found at Regensburg. in giving the account of a combat fought in the year 340 between Constans and his brother Constantine. at Constance. properly so called. saddle used at tournaments in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries had two sorts of sheaths or guards. at Schaffhausen. could not have known much about an article which even the Bo mans did not possess till the fourth century after Christ. and on the Egyptian monuments the horse is invariably harnessed The Greeks. and the Codex Aureus of the eighth or ninth century represents the German courser with a saddle and stirrups. . which was much lower. the thighs. with The the exception of the cantle. The saddle used in battle was almost exactly the same shape at first as it was at the end of the Middle Ages. which covered entirely the legs.355 THE SADDLE. that is. is the first to describe a saddle. word in their language to express the action of riding. to a time perhaps anterior to the sixth century. nor even a to the chariot. The known saddle (from the Latin sella) seems to have been unin ancient times before the Christian era. judging from the bronze pommels and stirrups that are preserved in the Copenhagen Museum . In France there is a bas-relief of this date (?) at Saint-Julien de Brioude (Haute Loire). on which. saddles and stirrups are represented. at the Tower of London. the hips. and even came as high as the chest these were originally made of wood. who had no cavalry. The Assyrian bas-reliefs show neither saddles nor stirrups. Zonoras. The use of the saddle in Scandinavia dates as far back as the iron age. as also in the Bayeux tapestry. but sub: sequently of iron. and at the Germanic Museum at Nuremberg.

5. Bohemian war-saddle of the thirteenth century. century. of the eighth or Goll. of Tristan and Isolde in the Munich Library. Bayeux Tapestry. 4. 3. of Boleslav in the Library oj Raudnitz. Codex Aureus of Saint 2. German war-saddle of the thirteenth century. 1. German war-saddle of the thirteenth MS. German war-saddle ninth century. MS. of the German ^Eneid in the Library at Berlin. MS.856 War-saddles. . Norman war-saddle of the eleventh century.

10.War-saddles. 7. War-saddle from an ivory of the fourteenth century. of Artillery. Italian war-saddle. from a copy of the Schah Nameh. 9. Odet Collection at Sitten. German war-saddle of the fifteenth century. Persian war-saddle. Paris 11. 8. Paris. German war-saddle mencement of the Museum of the com- sixteenth cen- tury. 357 6. copied from a cloth of the fourpiece of printed teenth century. Museum of Artillery. written about 1600. found at Strashurg. . Museum of Munich. Italian war-saddle of the second half Copied of the fifteenth century. from an equestrian statue of Bartolomeo Colleoni at Venice.

.358 Tilting -saddles.

is only 3 feet 4 inches. and it appears to to the second half of the fifteenth century. and protected entirely the legs and chest of the rider. of the fourteenth century.. It is of wood covered over with pig-skin. 359 12. from the Arsenal of Schaffhausen. In the Germanic Museum there is a similar one. similar to the preceding one family. 4 feet in length. who stood up in the stirrups. and is not very unlike the saddles that It is Tower of London and in the Museum of Ratisbou. but the part meant to protect the stomach and chest is only 22 inches. it that family. It measures about 3 feet 8 inches in height. Saddle. Museum of the 13.Tilting-saddles. Historical Society of Schaffhausen. Tower of London.<. and also in the Renne Collection at Constance. M. 14. either German or Swiss. which became belonged to the Paulstorfer extinct in 1622. German tilting-saddle of the end of the fourteenth. or beginning of the fifteenth century. It bears the colours of . is meant to sit down instead of standing. Tilting-saddle. have belonged hung up Ratisbon. It was in the Chapel of the Minorite's at Ratisbon. Hans Weiningeu has kindly copied it for me. It is about 5 feet 6 inches in height. where the The height vaults of the Paulstorfer but is now in the Museum of ?. . which belonged to the same family.. originally in the Penker Collection at Berlin. whilst in the other saddles it are in the excepting that the horseman is about 26 inches high. and it is said to have been used in the tournament held in that town in 1392. as he must have done in those mentioned.

Ambras. from 14. Tournierbucli. in being much lower. It is like Nos. also those in the Museums of Monbijou at Berlin. 13. of the fifteenth century. end of the Meyrick. and but it differs from these saddles of the fourteenth. and that it does not entirely cover the legs and chest. These five specimens. Constance. 12. and Nieuwerkerke and Collections. 16. Nuremberg. . which may be found at Schaffhausen.360 15. who was killed at the battle of Liefenhausen. if God holp me in the name of Saint George. The saddle in the Tower of the following in- London has scription " /< : h hoff des pesten Hilf Got wal aufSand Jorger Nam:' I hope for the best. German til ting-saddle of the the sixteenth century. and London. Duke Magnus. and BrimsThis last belonged to wick. are the only ones that the author has been able to find in European collections. German saddle in ivory.

at which time the author Zonoras lived. are closed at one end.D. The stirrup. The shape of the stirrup has varied very much. who is the first who mentions a saddle. and the ring through which the strap that fastens it to the saddle passes. is composed of the flat piece where the foot rests. . the stirrup was not used before the fourteenth century . as may be seen in the frescoes of the Cathedral of Brunswick. between Constans and his brother Constautine. The pyrophore stirrup had a lantern to it.361 THE STIRRUP. * to to the time and people. as well as those used in battle of the fifteenth century. used by women. which was subsequently added a flat piece of wood or metal. in his description of the combat in 340 A. * See the knight on the bas-relief of Brioude. so as to prevent the passage of the foot. according At first it was only a strap. As the saddle was unknown to the ancients before the Christian era. which gave light and warmed the feet of the rider. and afterwards it was of a triangular shape. which took the place of the soleret. a word derived from the Latin strivarium or straperium (Steigbugel in German). but not a single The stirrups specimen is to be found in any museum.

and in possession of an antiquary at Geneva. belongs the Romanic period. 1. Cule- mann seum at Hanover. judging from the work. who . from the frescoes in the Cathedral of Brunswick. but attributed in the Armoury of Madrid. of the thirteenth century. 2. and 13 inches wide. t. to Austria. Mussulman-Spanish stirrup of the is twelfth century. to where it is preserved. not long before his death. and was most likely taken over to America by the Spaniards. who This valuable stirrup in iron. in the Muthe of Lyons. died in 1276. Spanish stirrup in iron.362 Stirrups. where it is now in the Ambras Collection. the collection of Similar stirrups are in M. German stirrup in iron. who had captured it from the to Moors. It belonged to I. King James the Conqueror. German stirrup of the twelfth century. the Emperor Maximilian sent it. of the end of the fourteenth century. Museum of Sigmaringen. 3. This specimen about 18 inches high..

and the work is perforated. "5. 8 inches wide.Stirrups. 10. Arsenal of Berlin. National 12. Iron stirrup of the end of the fifteenth century. Museum of Sigmaringen. with gold and silver. (Query meant for female use ?) : Meyrick 8. Paris. 9. it meant for the right foot. Castle. ladies') stirrup of the sixteenth century. It is ornamented with armorial bearings. 363 Arab stirrup mencement in iron. Artillery. Museum of 11. . 6. of the fifteenth century. of the sixteenth century. Authors Collection. Stirrup Museum of Prague. 6. G. 361. It belongs to a carved ivory saddle in the Historical Museum of Mon- bijou at Berlin. for from a set of armour man and horse.inches high. Tilting (or. query. Collection' Iron stirrup of the end of the fifteenth century. Warwick 7. Large iron stirrup. of the comof the fifteenth cen- It is richly engraved tury. English is soleret stirrup in iron . English soleret stirrup in iron. belonging to the sixteenth century.

13.364 Stirrups. 1-4. Author's Collection. Paris. chased iron. . Id. Large Saracen stirrup in iron. *"* '9 19. 130. probably for It belonged to the six- teenth century. id. Ambras Collection. perforated work. Polish stirrup in iron. 16. Small stirrup to be used with a soleret of the bee de cane shape (1585). 18. of the beginning of the sixteenth century. Museum of Artillery. of the commencement of the sixteenth century. 17. id. Stirrup in a mule. Id. Id. 196/. G. Stirrup in embossed and perforated Tower of London. 15.

It is covered over with silver filigree work. and rosettes ornamented with gilt and precious stones. German stirrup in iron of the seventeenth century.Stirrups. Museum of Sigmaringen. 365 20. used in the north of . 23. Museum at CasseL 26. Arab stirrup in perforated iron. 21. German stirrup in iron of the seventeenth century. Persian stirrup from a the sixteenth century. 25. Hungarian stirrup of the six- teenth century. of 22. Museum of ArtiUery. Amhras Collection. 21. MS. Stirrup in yellow copper of the end of the seventeenth century. found at Dielfort. Paris. Iron stirrup Africa.

for the Eoman solid bit in the Meyrick Collection has neither branches nor cross-pieces. and of the reins. bridon . The name snaffle (French. seem to belong to the Middle Ages. .THE BRIDLE. bridle. The bit is usually either solid or with branches. there to the iron age. for the MSS. and attributed . consists of the head-stall with frontal. but bits with branches do not appear to have been used before the beginning of the Middle Ages. Trense) is sometimes applied to a jointed bit with branches. German. and sometimes to a light bridle with reins and bit. it is not possible to determine the exact date when it came first into use. There are also bridles with double reins. The snaffles or jointed bits with branches in the Copenhagen Museum. The bridle is to be found in the earliest times in fact. a word derived from the Celtic Irid (Zaum in German). of the bit. of the ninth and tenth centuries only represent bits without branches or cross-pieces.

nose-piece. of the eleventh or twelfth copied from the Bayeux . The first has no stalls of these front-piece. now in the Copenhagen Museum. 3. 367 1. copied from an aquamanile of the twelfth century. Banish bridle. The head- two specimens have no and the second one seems to be held on by the band that goes round the ears. Bridle from a bas-relief in the church of Brioude. the ninth cen- i. Danish bridle. tapestry. Norman bridle century. 2.Bridles. carved in tury (?). carved in the tenth or eleventh century. copied from the door of a church. now in the Museum of Copen- hagen.

end of the eleventh century. Tapestry. of ninth and tenth centuries. Paris. Branch or cross-piece of a bit in perforated iron. . bit. Museum of Artillery. or jointed with branches. 12. German without joint or branches. copied from MSS. from a set of harness in the Dresden Museum. the six- Museum of Artillery. of Copenhagen. 11. 62. Arab Museum of Artillery. snaffle. Bridon. Norman. Bayeux 8. 7. Paris. 5. Paris. 6. belonging to the Iron Age or commencement of the Middle Ages.368 Bits and Bridles. Meyrick Collection. also called snaffle. Bit without joint. without cross-piece. bit. Bit with chains belonging to an bridle. bit 10. G. of the first part of the sixteenth century. German bit without joint. Roman Jointed solid bit. of teenth century. and with long branches and cross- piece. Museum 9.

: ." which fits into point (Spitze or Ort in German) . page 190. and it is found amongst all nations. the pas d'dne. which includes the pommel ^Knaufin. used with both hands. introduced so as to lighten the weight. a species of guard only used in the sixteenth century. which is an outer case to the tang the guard (Parirstangen or Stichbldtter in German) the counter-guard.| the quillons. spada in Italian. . 01 of the fifteenth century. inasFor swords famed in history. The espadonj from the Italian word spadone. see the introductory chapter. which arms of the iron age. from the German word Stock. German). .* The sword (spatha in Latin. the the handle the edge . implied at first a long sword. The sword is composed of two principal parts the blade (Klinge in German). where the men on horseback are beginning treats of the Kol. By the Greeks and Romans it was used in battle only. which crossed horizontally between the tang and blade all these are comprised in the one word hilt. but the Persians. the Germans. must likewise be mentioned. . which came partly over the edge of the blade . the Scandinavians. t See the illustration. The Germans still retain the name Glaive (Schwert) for the sword. word was applied to all double-edged weapons. the handle (Hilse in German). which is opposite the guard. of the end of the fourteenth. was the long narrow sword intended for thrusting rather than cutting. espada in Spanish. Sckwert or Degen in German) is one of the most uucient of weapons. such as the Spanish rapiers have. Therefore the expression frapper d'estoc et de iaille can only apply to the long broad-bladed sword.3G9 THE SWORD. and which protects the back of the hand and the wrist. or the Celtic stoc. when applied to the weapon used in the days of knighthood. ling this sort of * sword. wound round with iron or copper wire. . The estoc. generally of wood or horn. or to that used for executions. The flat piece of metal which is sometimes affixed to the bottom of the hilt is called a shield (Korb in German) and the term shell is applied to the semicircular hilts. and the Gauls wore it at all times. the extremity of which is called the " tang. which protected one side of the hand the grooved blades. 2 B . and the hilt. but later the.




ihuch as the blade of the rapier and pointed sword, which was straight, thin, and either three or four sided, was suitable

only for thrusts. The rapiers of the estoc shape were not in use before the reign of Charles V., in whose time the modern art of fencing seems to have originated. The blades of the estoc rapiers

and Solingen, and they are very rapier has a basket hilt, either solid or of perforated work, and a long straight handle. The colickemarde rapier, or Konigsmark sword, is known its large by hilt, and by the blade being cut or engraved into little It was used only in the reign of Louis XIV., and squares. then only in duels. The word colichemarde is only a corruption of Konigsmark. The scimitar (in Persian chimchir or cJtimichir, in German Scymitar} was the acinace of the Romans, and most probably It was used only by Oriental gave rise to the sabre. nations in ancient times, and afterwards by the Moors in The handle of this Spain, by Saracens, and by the Turks. sword has no guard, the blade is single-edged, short, and curved ; it is slightly wider towards the end. The sabre (from the German Sabel or Sabel, or from the Sclavonic sabla) is the weapon that is most like the scimitar. It was unknown to the Greeks and also for some time to the Romans, but most probably it was known to the Persians and the inhabitants of Iberia before the conquest of this country by the Visigoths and Arabs. The sabre was also the principal weapon of the Dacians in the time of Trajan (A.D. 101 to 106), as may be seen by the bas-reliefs on the Trajan column, which represent the campaigns of that emperor. Dacia was bordered on the south by the Danube, on the north-east by the Carpathian mountains, and on the north by the Dniester, and corresponds to Moldavia, Walat Toledo, Seville,

were made


the fourteenth century, and was universally employed in Europe at the time of the first crusade.

lachia, Transylvania, sabre first appears in

and also a portion of Hungary.


Germany about


This weapon, which Meyer, in his book on fencing, published in 1570, wrongly calls a diisack,* and which is often * The diisack was a Bohemian sabre of a peculiar shape, without a handle or hilt, It was wielded with a gauntlet protecting the hand.




represented in the engravings of Hans Burgmeier, was the favourite weapon of the Mussulmans, who used to give Mohammed, the founder of special names to their sabres.

Islamism, had nine, which were named respectively, Mabw' Al-Adhb, Daulfakar, Ali-Kola (after the city of Kola, where there were at that time many manufactories of

arms), Al-Ballar, Al-Hatif, Al-Medham, Al-Bosul, and Al-


The real Scotch claymore had a plain cross-guard, without the basket hilt which protected the whole of the hand swords and sabres with these hilts are often wrongly called claymores, but they were used only by the Venetians, and were called scliiavone, being the weapon used by the Doge's guards in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, as may be seen in pictures of that time ; in Scotland they were not known till the eighteenth century. The yatagan, the khandjar, the flissa, the Jconlcri, the Icampak, etc., etc., are all different sorts of hatchet sabres, These Oriental generally without hilts or cross-guards. weapons are all so like each other, and they have varied so little during many centuries, that they do not afford a subject for study, nor can they be classed chronologically, on which account the sword of the Christian Middle Ages is more valuable to the antiquary. This weapon in the eighth, ninth, tenth, and eleventh centuries was large, long, two-edged, with a rounded point, and only useful for cutting or slashing. The handle was straight, and formed with the blade a Latin The pommel was usually rounded or flattened, and cross. had sometimes two or three lobes in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. The guards are always straight, but in the thirteenth century their points were curved slightly towards the blade, which at that time was sharp-pointed, and about three feet in length. In Germany the sword was a very formidable weapon as The one of the knight early as the thirteenth century. Konrad Schenck de Winterstetten (1209 1240), that is preserved in the Museum of Dresden, has a straight guard, free from any curve. The pommel is about four inches in diameter, the handle six, and the hilt about ten inches in length ; but these dimensions are unusually great. The sword of the fourteenth century is even longer thnn that of the preceding ages ; it was generally about forty-five



are always in the

or fifty inches in length. shape of a cross.

The handles

The sword of the fifteenth century had a longer haft than those of earlier times those of the sixteenth century are more complicated in the arrangements of the hilt, from which the simple cross-guard now After this time the disappears. pas-ddne form began to be used. J Braquemart, malclms, coustil a croc, epee de passot, are all names that were used to describe the short sword of Italian origin, which had a blade very broad at the top, but gradually tapering towards the end till it came into a point like a tongue, which form seems to have been copied from the ancient parazonium. This kind of sword belongs to the fifteenth century, and in England was commonly known as

flamberg, or Swiss flame-sword, must not be mistaken for the flame-sword intended to be used with both hands, which was a weapon in use in the sixteenth century. The two-handed sword (Zweihander), or real espadon, is no earlier than the fifteenth century. It was the ordinary weapon of the foot-soldier in Switzerland in Germany its use was confined mainly to the defence of besieged towns.


The lansquenette of the sixteenth century was short, wide, The handle was like a truncated two-edged, and pointed. cone, and flattened at the end, which formed the pommel. The verdun was a long narrow weapon, which took its name from the town where it was made. The handle of the seventeenth-century sword was even ntore complicated than that of the sixteenth. Many of the handles have quite a profusion of guards, counter-guards, Their shape indicates a decline in pas-d'aoe guards, etc.

from the want of simplicity and severity of design. Several swords of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries have rings intended to be slipped over the thumb so as to

The Germans call them Degen mit Daumringer\ it, For swords c f the epoch called the iron age, see the chapter in which the arms of this period are described. In it will be found the names of the celebrated swords of the heroic " " times, described in sagas and in poems.

Simrds of the Middle Ages.



Sword belonging



3 feet in
very wide,

The handle is in embossed work,
the blade

and with

a blunted end.


the Louvre.


Sword in sheath, of the ninth
century, from the illustrations in the Bible of Charles II. le

Cliauve (840-877). It will be noticed that the pommel is in
the shape of a cross.


the Louvre.



in sheath, of the eighth or ninth century, copied from the Codex Aureus of Saint Gall.


measures about





length, rounded end.

and has a


Anglo-Saxon sword of the tenth
century, about 2 feet in length, found in Hertfordshire.

British Museum.






eleventh century, from a in the British Museum.


measures about 35 inches in It will be observed length.
that Anglo-Saxon swords are
shorter than those of





or fifty inches in length. The handles are always in the shape of a cross. -The sword of the fifteenth century had a longer haft than those of the sixteenth century are those of earlier times

more complicated in the arrangements of the


from which

the simple cross-guard now After this time the disappears. pas-d'dne form began to be used, Braquemart, malchus, coustil cc~croc, epee de passot, are all names that were used to describe the short sword of Italian origin, which had a blade very broad at the top, but gradually tapering towards the end till it came into a point like a tongue, which form seems to have been copied from the This kind of sword belongs to the ancient parazonium. fifteenth century, and in England was commonly known as




flamberg, or Swiss flame-sword, must not be mistaken for the flame-sword intended to be used with both hands, which was a weapon in use in the sixteenth century. The two-handed sword (Zweihander), or real espadon, is no It was the ordinary earlier than the fifteenth century. weapon of the foot-soldier in Switzerland in Germany its use was confined mainly to the defence of besieged towns.


The lansquenette of the sixteenth century was short, wide, The handle was like a truncated two-edged, and pointed. cone, and flattened at the end, which formed the pommel. The verdun was a long narrow weapon, which took its name from the town where it was made. The handle of the seventeenth-century sword was even more complicated than that of the sixteenth. Many of the handles have quite a profusion of guards, counter- guards,

Their shape indicates a decline in pas-d'ane guards, etc. taste, from the want of simplicity and severity of design. Several swords of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries have rings intended to be slipped over the thumb so as to

The Germans call them Degen mil Daumringer\ it, For swords c f the epoch called the iron age, see the chapter in which the arms of this period are described. In it will be found the names of the celebrated swords of the heroic " " times, described in sagas and in poems.

Sivords of the Middle Ages.



Sword belonging



3 feet in length. The handle is in embossed work, the blade is very wide, and with

a blunted end.


the Louvre.



of the ninth ill sheath, century, from the illustrations in the Bible of Charles II. le

Chauve (840-877). It will be noticed that the pommel is in
the shape of a cross.


the Louvre.



in sheath, of the eighth or ninth century, copied from the Codex Aureus of Saint Gall. feet 5$ It measures about 4

inches in length, and has a

rounded end.


Anglo-Saxon sword of the tenth
century, about 2 feet in length, found in Hertfordshire.







eleventh century, from a MS. It in the British Museum. measures about 35 inches in
It will be observed length. that Anglo-Saxon swords are

shorter than those of



Swords of the Middle Ages.

Sword of the end of the eleventh
century, about 38 inches in length, of tempered iron, with the exception
of the

pommel, which


of copper.

of Artillery, Paris. This sword has a sharp point, and


is the same as those carried by the knights in the Bayeux tapestry.


Mussulman sword

of the eleventh


about 34



or French sword, either of the eleventh or twelfth century, found at Saint Agata dei Goti, in



of Naples.


feet in



of Erbach.

German sword

of the twelfth cen-

tury, copied from the frescoes on the dome of the cathedral at Bruns-

wick, which were painted in the reign of Henry the Lion, who died in 1195. This sword is not very
sharp, and six lobes.

has a pommel with


German sword, either of the eleventh
or twelfth century, about 38 inches
in length, with a five-lobed pommel. Museum of Munich. M. le

Comte de Nieuwerkerke has


similar sword, but with straight hilt. There is also another in the


Copenhagen Museum with a threelobed pommel.

Swords of the Middle Ayes.


Indian sabre, probably of the twelfth century. The handle of the weapon is richly inlaid with silver it was excavated


Neumark, in Bavaria, and

most likely brought over by
the crusaders. National Bavarian Museum at Munich. German sword of the thirteenth century formerly belonged to the knight Konrad Schenck de Winsterstetten (1209 It is very large, the 1240). about 8 feet 2 length being inches, and the width 4 inches. The pommel is 4 inches in diameter, the haft 6 inches, and the hilt 10 inches in On the blade the length.








" Konrad viel werther Schenck, Hierbei du mein gedenck: Von Wiusterstetten hochgemuth, Lass ganz kelnen Eisenhut."

(Conrad, be mindful of me. brave Winsterstetten leave no helmet unscathed.) 13. Fragment of a sword of the


thirteenth century. M. le Comte de NieuwerkerJce's


Sword of the thirteenth century, found in a tomb in Livonia. It dates British Museum.
from the time when the knighthood of the Glaive (Schwert-Ritter\ which was eventually conquered by the Lithuanians, was founded in the Teutonic order. The two ends of the guard are curved towards the blade, a fact which indicates it to be of thirteenthcentury date.

15. British

sword in iron, about 30 inches in length, of the thirteenth century, as is indicated by the ends of the hilt, which are curved towards the point. This weapon is called Anglo-Saxon.

Tower of London T ^.


ti words

of Ike Middle Ages.

English sword, thirteenth centhe handle is only tury 2f inches long. This weapon, like the preceding one. hay been wrongly attributed to

the Anglo-Saxon period. No. T f4 Tower of London.



in its sheath, probably of

the thirteenth century, but if of a still earlier date.

This weapon, preserved at Jerusalem, is said to have belonged to Godfrey of Bouillon (eleventh century).


of the thirteenth century,

39 inches long.
ridged, and in the centre. inclination of





the quillons towards the point of the sword denotes the time of its manufacture.
J. 2, Muse'e d' Artfllerie, Paris.


Sword, end of the thirteenth or beginning of the fourteenth It is 41 inches century.


which the

The inscription flattened pommel

of the sword bears,


Gothic leads capitals, us to conclude that it must be prior to 1350, and not
of the fifteenth century, o the catalogue of the Muse'e d'Ai tillerie affirms, where it is exhibited under No. J. 10. This

handsome sword was found
the Bois de Satory.


German sword




copper pommel, 38 inches long, end of the fourteenth century. Found near Brinmen, in the lake of Lucerne. Collection of M. Bwhholzer, curator of the Arsenal of Berlin*

Swords of the Middle Ages.



German sword of the fourteenth
33 inches century, long, and with a thumb ring. If
the ornaments and the armorial

bearings did not point out its origin, it might be reasonably


tliat this

weapon was
of Munich,

of Eastern manufacture.



22 and 25. Engravings on the blade
of the preceding object


Arab sword, fourteenth century the handle silver -gilt and richly engraved. The quittom

are double and curved towards


the point. This weapon bears date 1323 engraved in

Arabic numerals, and resembles in shape the Moorish swords. Spengel Collection, Munich, but now in the Nieuwerkerke Collection.

24. Executioner's

sword of the


teenth century, 27 inches in length the hilt and handle re;

semble the lansquenet swords
of the sixteenth century.


blade has a gallows engraved on it, and the date 1407.


Swords of t he Middle Ages.

Sword of the


fifteenth century, broad, short,

26 blade,* edged inches long without a groove, but with a ridge in the centre.

quillons are very much curved towards the point of the blade.


J. 13,



27. Italian sword, anelace, fifteenth century blade broad, short,

and double-edged, 26 inches
in length.
28. Italian sword, anelace, fifteenth

the blade about 4 century inches broad by 26 inches

long, double-edged, and fluted The guard ivory handle. word "Solla." the bears Ambras Collection. Similar


seen iti the the Count of of M. So'ter, Nieuwerkerke, at Augsburg, and in the Museum of Munich.
collections of

may be

29. Sword,


the preceding but inches long, broader in the blade, sometimes called de "langue



Arsenal of Prince Lobltowitz at Eaudnitz.

J. 476, Muse'e

Sword, like the preceding one, about 22 incites long. d Artillerie de Paris.

These kinds of swords, called " and " anelaces," represent the weapon known in France under the names of " braquemart, malchus, " and " epe'e de passot." coustil a croc f This is the parazouiuni or small sword of the ancient Greeks and Romans, which they carried on the
left side.


Swords of the Middle Ages.


Bohemian sword,

fifteenth cen-

tury, called Dilsack or Tesach,

39 inches long, composed entirely of iron. The wearer had his sword hand protected

by an






gauntlet, the elbow.
32. Iron

which reached

sword in one piece,


teenth century. This weapon, 38 or 39 inches long, and

used in Germany, resembles the Bohemian Dusack. Dresden Museum.
33. Scimitar,





long, from a painting on a table of the fifteenth century,



Museum, Vienna.


or Scottish ivrord of


the fifteenth century, 3 fiwt




sword, fifteenth century, 2 inches long.


of Munich.

The name claymore has been

applied to those sixteenth-century swords which have iron basket-work hilts. These are
in reality

Venetian swords, and were

originally called schiavona,

(Vide No. 69.) The long-bladed swords with similar handles belong to the end of the seventeenth and begin-

ning of the eighteenth centuries. They were used among all nations
as cavalry swords.

The whole length is 3 feet. Sword. * This is the most ancient sword with a pas d'dne which the author has ever met with. pas d'dne.* and counter guard. Munich. fifteenth century. . belonging to a knight of St. in crystal.380 Swords of the Middle Ages. German sword. 38. broad blade and quillon hilt. from an engraving. fifteenth century. end of the with fif- teenth century. Museum of Man 'ch. on the walls of the church of Mon- doneda. Cutlass sabre. Swiss. Cabinet of Engravings. 37. Imperial Arsenal of Vienna. Some frescoes of the end of the fourteenth or beginning of the fifteenth century. fifteenth centur-. 39. fifteenth century 38 inches long the pommel . represent warriors armed with swords with pas d'dne hilts. 36. 3 feet 10 inches long. the pommel and handle are of copper. German sword. Museum of Munich. 4 feet in length . extremely large. 40. German sword. Author's Cullect'on. George. about 3 feet 10 inches in length .

. ditto. on an order of the Em- by Nicholas Glockenand containing all the remarkable arms which were peror. ditto.4. thon. . 44. 42. 41. beginning Sword." three volumes of polychrome watercolour drawings.4. Same period and same source. end of the fifteenth or of the sixteenth century.Swords of ike Sixteenth Century. The Arsenals of the Emperor Maximilian. 43. Ditto. 381 40 A. Ambras Collection. then preserved in the three Imperial Arsenals. Ditto. executed in 1505. ditto. Ditto. Ditto. restored according to a description in the manu' scripts. 45. ditto.

with handle and guard in gilded copper. Ditto. Arsenal of Berlin. W7 46.382 Swords of Hie Sixteenth Century. thus rendering it a curious piece of workmanship. 47. 48. 4. for A calendar is the year 1506 very elaborately engraved on the blade.8 . Sword. ditto. Same period and same source.

Sword. who was amrdered in 1584. 52. . 51. Sword. 383 50. tury. 3 feet 10 inches . all of iron. German. the blade is 2 feet 7 inches long. The ornamented with a crucifix in high relief. Paris. 3 feet 8 is inches long. Sword. Musffe d'ArtiUerie. which blade renders it unsuited for being of Sicimaringen. pas d'dne. J. William the It belonged to Silent. sheathed.Swords of {lie Sixteenth Centunj. beginning of the sixteenth century. Museum 53. Arsenal of Berlin. Dutch. Sword. German. and the handle about 9 inches It belonged to the long. long. with long and broad blade. 52. five and counter-guard with branches. reformer Zwinglius. Swiss. Arsenal of Zurich. sixteenth cenwith quillons. who died in the battle of Cappel (1531).

"II n'y a de vainqueur que Dieu. German. Museum 55. who was dethroned in 1492. 876. The sword in the Cabinet de Me'dailles. hiU. and pommel are cf iron. sixteenth century. the last Moorish king of Granada. belonging lansquenet. at Paris.J 384 Swords of the Sixteenth Century. belonging to the collection of the Marquis of Villaseca. with counter . of the sixteenth century. length is 2 feet 11 inches the blade measuring 29 inches in length and 2 in breadth. at Madrid. Sword." 56. who died in 1578. manufactured at AugsIt is 4 feet 3 inches burg. of Sigmaringen. and one in the possession of Don Fernando Nunez. Two similar swords are to be seen. one in the Cabinet de Medailles. with Moorish ornaments. in length. Museum 57. sixteenth century. sixteenth century. This sword is very like one preserved in the Armeria Real. German. Sword. to a Sword. No. with copper ings. Plain pattern. German. of Sigmaringen. mount- Museum of Carlsruhe. The total guard. and attributed by him to Boabdil. . and attributed to Don John of Austria. The double guard. bears the inscription. Sword. and the pommel and quillons are engraved. Spanish. belonging to a lansquenet. 54. 2 1 feet long.

27. counter-guard. and bears on the guard the initial letter H. Guard J. German. Alonzo de Sahagon of Toledo. with Spanish blade. The quillons are curved towards the point. Paris. Muse'e d'Artillerie. 3 feet 9 inches long. 60. 62. six- J. and with a the handle is of black iron. with a slender blade.Swords of 58. sixteenth cenfrom a picture of that period in the collection of the Count of Engenberg. 385 and thrust. French. Sword. The quillons The handle of Pas d'dne. 59. H Author's Collection. bearing the mark of the armourer. of France himself or to one of his courtiers. beginning of the teenth century. ridge narrow. Muse'e d'Artillerie. and the ornament on the scutcheon is formed by an interlaced with a heart. 47. J. and pas d'dne. Paris. in length . The blade has a double . The ornaments on the pommel consist of H's interlaced. Sword. Tilting tury. German. the pas d'dne 62 2 o . Sword. Musee d'Artillerie. 61. German. shagreen. The blade has three Two guards and a ridges. 63. The quillons are curved: it has a pas d'dne and an openwork pommel. sixteenth cen- tury. in the style of the Spanish rapier blades. Sword. sixteenth cenIt is 3 feet 6 inches tury. cut the Sixteenth Century. Sword. This sword either belonged to Henri II. sword. Paris. are straight. beginning of the sixteenth century.50. edge. cut and thrust.

380 Lilt* is Swords of the Sixteenth Century. C3. * We may again remark called. 40) and in the foot-note. silver allegoric figures representing the M UNSTER ME Danube. The blade bears the inscription. planation of the word pas d'dne in the introduction to this chapter. FECIT SOLINGEN. richly . . It on the blade was . it was by this name that the small guurJ was not until the latter half of the sixteenth century that the pas d'ane was generally adopted. that the pa* See also the exclone dates back even to the fifteenth century. and also at No. inlaid etc. both in the text (No. PETER. Rhine. with . Museum of Sigmaringen. but it may be seen af page 380.

where it is attributed Ferdinand (12001252). to St. Paris. 38. end of the sixteenth century. Museum of Sigmaringen. beginning of the seventeenth century. sixteenth cenfrom the descriptions of 64. 85. Museum of Paris. and straight qutilons. Ich und Maria" It is preserved in the Armeria of Madrid. Sword. beginning of the seventeenth century. 387 German. German. J. Sword. Sword or Spanish hilt rapier. 't>G. Outline of a sword. Basket J. German. with pas d'dne and a " German halte Jesus inscription. There is thus a difference of 400 years between the date of the manufacture and the date assigned to the sword. . the "Noces princieres. 102. Sword. with quillons and pas d'dne.Swords of Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. Muste d'ArtiUerie. Industrial Museum of Vienna. tury. or rapier. 67. inlaid with gold and enamelled." by Wirtzig.

119. 72. Cavalry J. sword. beginning of the seventeenth century. 70. called " schiavcna. Museum of Sig- maringen and Failly tion. In almost all collections it is described as a claymore. end seventeenth century. sword. Collec- In this last-named colthere is lection a schiavona lion stamped with the winged of Venice. 69. Venetian. 71. of the Musie cVArtillerie. Sword. Scottish cavalry century. 96. Muse'e d'Artillerie de Paris. 118. where it erroneously described as a claymore. 2 feet 9 inchei long. * The Vecchia pictures of Pietro della often represent people this armed with kind of swori . Musee d'Artitterie. called claymore." * This sword and the scythed sword were the offensive weapons of the Schiavoni or Doge's guards. Same is as above. Parii.388 Swords of Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. eigherroneously teenth J. Paris. J. which is the Scottish sword with a plain cross hilt.

Museum of Erbach. grooved and measures 7 feet With 2 inches in length. It belonged to Captain Branaulieu-Chaffardin. 135. Sword of the latter years of the seventeenth or beginning of the eighteenth century. 74. Sword of the seventeenth cenwith guard covering the back of the hand. German sword. beginning of the seventeenth century. J. 75. the and Imperial Arsenal of Vienna. in opposite directions. 76. 77. who was killed under the walls of Geneva in 1602. quillons and counter-guard. guillons and pas d'ane. the ends of which are curved tury. It is 5 feet 4 inches in length. Musee dArtillerie.Swords of Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. 389 74- 73. seventeenth century. Paris. Museum of Munich. . Savoyard sword. beginning of the It ia seventeenth century. Arsenal of Geneva. and quillons. Cutlass or mariner's sword.

(17151774). (17781793). 80. Merville Collection. Court sword of the time of Louis XV. 79. n 78. in steel. Merville Collection. Some them have in the eyes of the amateur a great artistic value. XV. A large quantity of these kinds of swords have been made whoso shapes vary but of little. and with d'dne of a peculiar Merville Collection. especially when the date of their manufacture is shown by the stamp* . Court sword of the time of Louis in steel. in polished iron or steel cut in facets. (17151774).39C fficords if Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. Court sword of the time of Louis XVI. with gilt a pas ornament. shape.

407." J. and entirely is made of iron. 453. damascening of the blade is of a yellowish tint. Paris. there are similar swords. 81. Hindoo-Mussulman sword in Khorassan damascened work. hilt are beautifully damascened. . Indian sword called * Kunda de Rajah" * sixteenth century. 80*. The blade the handle. 391 78*. handle of The J. At the Museum and of Tsarskoe- at the Muse'e d'Artillerie. Musce d'Artillerie. guard. Paris. 3 feet 3 inches long. and ornamented with embossed and engraved work. called Konkri Kora. Mutte d'Artillerie. which is the most esteemed. Paris. 79*. The taste diilerence between the Indian and may purely Turkish be seen in the this sword. Author's Collection. Museum of Tsarskoe-Selo. Indian sword called "Johur de the fiojah" beginning of seventeenth century.Eastern Sabres. * Selo. " Nepaul sword.

seventeenth century. 999. which in other specimens is often orna- mented with small chains. of ancient manuJ. Albanian or Arnaut* sword. 84 Turkish sabre with black damas cened blade. Musfe d'Artillerie Paris. Paris. 390. facture of Constantinople. Turkish sabre. and the damascened blade is almost straight in shape. Library of Munich. The handle and sheath of this weapon is inlaid with bright embossed silver. an illustrated copy of the " Schah reign of Nameh" a poem by Ferdusi. Dresden Museum.D.392 'Eastern Sabres. Persian sword from a manuscript of 1600. 85. recognisable by the peculiar shape of the handle. Musee d'Artillerie. * The Turks call the Albanians Arnauts. SH. A. . composed in the Mahmoud. 82.

pas d'ane. cutlass or mariner's Blade 1 foot 4 inches Museum of Sigmaringen. beginning of the fifteenth century. sabre. 86. Matador's sword with which (he toreador on foot bull. Scimitar. 393 85 B. Chinese easily scimitar. like almost all Eastern sabres. Aroea Collection at Paris. 87 . the ends of which curve towards the point of the This guard is in the shape of a heart. fights and kills the The handle of this weapon is bound with a piece of red woollen braid. . and by the pommel. by the absence of quillons. Turkish scimitar. a weapon known. by the handle being corded. counter-guard. 87 A. 87. which resembles the Chinese head-dress. Large sword.Scimitars. like almost all Chinese sabres. long. from a German manuscript. and basket hilt. 6?. which differs greatly from the scimitars of the West in the shape of its guards.

Paris. studded with dice-shaped ornaments. sabre with is curved the handle of carved silver. 90. and rhinoceros horn handle. given to to kill condemned criminals 90 themselves with. and is exhibited in the Musee d'Artillerie. Modem handle is Chinese sabre. wood. Chinese sabre-knife." 91. 414. Japanese sabre called 'Sio- bookatana. Paris. Japanese point . 93. It was part of the spoil taken from Pekin. 89.394 Scimitars and Yataghans. Museum of Betlin. Paris. 8. Tower of London. mounted with J. Muse'e dArtillerie. Musee dArtillerie. 439. Japanese yataghan with damascened blade. J. . Chinese sabre. 92. the of white wood.

Yataghans. like sabres than swords. damascened. J. K\ classification The yataghan. 97. It may be noticed that yataghans. flissas. is plated with bright silver. 95. Turkish yataghan with blade damascened in gold. Horn handle. Paris. etc. flissa as well as the and kandgiar. 95 94. will be noticed that the flissa and yataghan resemble one another. Taken from the Turks before Vienna in 1683. cened blade. like the sheath. are generally single-edged and without guards they are m:*9 . Paris. Muse'e d'Artillerie. which renders difficult. Kabyle flissa. and kandgiars are very like each their other. with handle It ornamented in copper. Muse'e d'Artillerie. Albanian yataghan. Turkish kandgiar. studded with copper damas. r 96. The handle. . 427. embossed and The blade is engraved.

413. Musee d'Artillerie. the forms a handle. 101. Zftnguebar sword is (Eastern Africa). there is also a counter-guard. Sword guard from is Morocco with rhinoceros horn handle. Paris. 98. Arab sword. The blade single-edged. Large Zanguebar sword with crimped leather sheath. The haft. 99.African Suords. The composed of three quillons. tapering towards end and twisted. which is is without either guard or quillons. London. Musee d'Artillerie. but has three grooves. G. 1 foot 10 inches long. Chriety Collection. difficult to understand this singular Low weapon could be wielded. which is indented. Paris. where it is described as an Indian weapon. . The quilIons are curved towards the blade. ornamented with precious stones. exhibited under No. all curved towards the blade. As it is the sword very long. 100. The sheath and handle are in embossed or engraved copper.

and Quiloa.* Musee & Artillerie. 103. f and many of them are tribes inhabit part The Tonarik of the Sahara. Hatchet yataghan of Tonarik d'Artitterie. Scythed yataghan of Tonarikf manufacture. . comprises which may be many named states. Zanzibar. which borders on the Indian Ocean district of . Zanguebar sword. Melinda.African Yataglmns. 97 102. Muste Parit. Paris. Arabs. manufacture. * The coast of Zanguebar is a large it Eastern Africa. 104. among Mago- those of doxo. The inhabitants speak the Caffre tongue. Musfe d'Artillerie. Paris.

tillerie. and bears the date and the German in: " Weich nit von scription " Forsake mir. Two-handed German sword (Zweihdnder fifteenth in German). Museum Museum weapon. 105. . 151. is in the Collection at Lintz. beginning of the seventeenth century. was sword of Edward V. century. o treuer GottT me not. and handle are enriched with polychrome enamels. 106. Swiss or German two-handed sword of the sixteenth century. Musee d'Ar- Paris.398 Two-handed Swords. A Az similar sword 1590. with wavy blade and hooks. 148. in state J. J. The British possesses a similar 5 feet It 8 inches the length. oh true God I" 107. The sheath (14751483). of Paris. Swiss two-handed sword.

Two-handed German sword (Zweihandiges Hiebmesser\ end of the fifteenth century. is This singular weapon. 110. the quillons are curved towards the blade. Arsenal of Vienna. which cutlass -shaped. . 109. about 4 feet in length. is not the blade and straight. end of the sixteenth or beginning of the seventeenth century. fifteenth century. as the curvature of the quillons towards the handle and the ring for the indicate. Swiss two-handed sword. Arsenal of Berne. sixteenth century. Dresden Museum. Two-handed sword. the handle being 18 inches in length . Two-handed German sword with cushions (Faustkappen). Paris. 169. 399 S. with curved and saw-edged blade. 111. thumb seem to Musee d'Artitterie.Two liandtd Sivords. handle incline in opposite directions. J.

it was the parazonium of the ancients. properly so called. and it has been remarked that during the thirteenth century the ends of the quillons were slightly curved towards the point of the blade. or pugnm. as well long haft. are a great help towards fixing the date of their manufacture. while amongst the Greeks and Romans the sword always hung from the right side among the Assyrians and Egyptians. da:ue is the nRme given to the horn which grows on the head of the young stag in his second year hence the name "daguet" given in France to the young stag before he * In venery or first . and was worn on the left side. a fist. The misericorde was a poniard which received its name from being used to give the last or finishing stroke (coup de its triangular blade rendered it grace) to an adversary serviceable for thrusting through the points of the armour. and called in German Dolch) and the dagger* (from the Celtic day. . is smaller and shorter in the blade than the dagger. PONIARD. Grosser Dolch or Dolchmesser) are often so slight that the two weapons are continually confounded one with the other. CREASE. in fact during all epochs. The dagger of the Germans was the scramasax (see under this name). During the bronze period the poniard equally maintained its sway. whether chipped or polished.400 THE DAGGER. a time at which the Danish weapons were the most finished and most artistic. This kind of weapon. The shades of difference between the poniard (from the Latin pungere. It has been seen that the poniard was in use during the ges of flint. it hung on the left. which was identical with the ancient broad and short sword of the early nations. on which account it was called in German Panzerbrecher (cuirass The French misericorde of the fourteenth and breaker). STILETTO. " is three years old. as those of the sword. " hunting terms. in German. point. fifteenth centuries was nevertheless larger than the German Panzerbrecher. the diminutive of the sword the has been in use among all people and war-knife. KCUTTAR. The poniard. on the contrary. . (1603). . to prick. a species of single-edged cutlass with a very The guards of the poniard and dagger. and it was also used in England for planting in the ground and tethering the horse to during the reign of James I. ETC.

while the right was armed with the long rapier." The tongue. The Frankish archers. 485. the shape of which. and worn below The Swiss the girdle. small knife often seen on the sheath of this weapon. was more properly a It was held in the left hand to ward off duelling weapon. and also on the loins. and from thence brought into Italy and France. is the long Spanish poniard. however. The stiletto (Spitzdolch) was a small poy ul which came/ 2 D . were armed with daggers. 401 The dagger with thumb-ring (Dolch mit Daumring\ the ase of which dates from 1410. and was placed on the end of the pike to resist cavalry. end of the fifteenth and beginning of the sixteenth century." which was generally made Verona. and almost all the foot-soldiers of the Middle Ages. so called because it was worn fastened to a ring (annulus). This dagger. The main gauche. which all the Schoeffen were provided. and forming a guard of great length and breadth. end of the fifteenth century it was worn on the right side. as the pictures of that time show. was somewhat long. 28). The anelace. broad above and pointed below. when it was used in the secret sittings of the Free Judges. in which the adversary's sword might be caught and snapped. the foot archers. the guard of which. resembles an oxHence its French name "langue de boeuf. is neither of Spanish nor of Italian it was already origin. and more like a poniard with a steel sheath.Tlie Dagger. Italian main gauche preserved in the Musee d'Artillerie at Paris. is distinguished by the size of the blade. has a large ring Towards the fastened to it in which the thumb was placed. with. The lansquenet dagger. and " at is called bastardeau. believed to be of Spanish origin. During the sixteenth century it had a double thumb-ring. and engraved further on (see No. end of the fifteenth and beginning of the sixteenth century. which was represented by the three divisions of the weapon. J. as compilers have alwajs reprated known in Germany during the fifteenth century. The blows. lansquenet dagger was shorter. at the taking of the oath vowed in the name of the Holy Trinity. " represents one of these weapons called pennated/' with three blades expanding by means of a spring when a button was pressed in the handle. No. . placed above the quillons.

" is " a Javanese dagger. into which the hand is slipped. and are called serpent-tongued. and bayonets in the shape of poniards. secret society. into use during the Middle Ages. " . There are Ithouttars in which the blade is divided into two points. and was used by bandits in assassinations. generally with a wavy or " flaming blade. but a weapon meant for striking with as a tiger strikes with his It was invented in 1659 by Sevaja. and thus diverted suspicion from the real authors of the crime. and which is well known even at this day. Ancient Italian and German daggers and poniards have been known to fetch at the public sales in Paris the high price of a thousand francs.402 The Dagger. The " creese. swords." sometimes written krees. the blades are frequently of pierced work." a Hindoo weapon. into poison. which the Dictionnaire de 1' Academic Fran9aise erroneously spells " crid. with a pointed blade sharpened on both sides. but they are not common. being often incrusted and damascened with silver . has a large blade like the Italian anelace. properly so called. that is. The wounds inflicted by this weapon resembled those made by a tiger. " The " wag-nuk is not a poniard. In more modern times the names of knife-swords and bayonet-poniards were given to the knives. The Italian daggers are celebrated for their fine workmanship in wrought iron. fixed on to a square handle. which the Malay tribes render still more fatal by dipping The khouttar. and thus protected as far as the wrist by this kind of guard or gauntlet. the chief of a claws.


.404 Daggers and Poniards.

British cutlass. Machel Manuscript. and the haft about 5 inches. 14 Tower of London. A of poniard. Museum of the Canton. Museum of the Canton. end of the fourteenth century. thirteenth century. The haft is very long. Iron poniard. Poniard.Daggers and Poniards. Arsenal of Geneva. fourteenth century. Lausanne. Collection of the Count of Nieuwerkerke. . and preserved Munich. Poniards of this shape were manufactured until the sixteenth century. for the ' Feldbuch/ published at that time in the cabinet of engravings at trations. Iron dagger. 11. Collection of Prince Charles of Prussia (see No. Lausanne 3. 7. . 6. It was found in the lake of Morat. Similar Museum and . and the handle is of carved bone. end of the fourteenth century. of the Canton. inches in length. Iron dagger. 405 1. found in Hohenmanuscript of the fifteenth century. 9. about 19 J inches long. Iron dagger. Poniard. beginning of the fourteenth century. 2. Iron dagger. probably Scottish. 5. weapons (found in the Thames) may be seen in the British in the Museum of Sigmaringen. by Egge at Frankfort-ou-the-Main." and prins agile. illuminated by Zeitblom for the Prince of Waldburg. or beginning of the fifteenth century. thirteenth century. also shows this same kind zollern. Iron dagger. 13. Same as above. end of the fourteenth. end of the fourteenth century." It is attributed to Edward II. Lausanne. Museum 8. about a foot long. the blade of which measures about 12. It bears on the blade the names " " Edwardus. beginning of the fourteenth century. contains similar illus- 10. tenth century. about 14 inches in length. Iron dagger. next page) 4.

400 Daggers and Poniards. .

Vagjers and Poniards. or Verona dagger. to resist cavalry. or at the end of a lance. about 14 fifteenth century. 1. and the . dagger. Arsenal of Vienna. No. the handle is of wood See the observations on the claymores. inches long. anelace. 16. Muse'e d'Artillerie. Musc'e d' Artillerie. 1 3. sixteenth century. 20. Dagger of a German lansquenet. Dagger of German lansquenet. Paris. Augsburg. fifteenth century.5. . 14. Paris. 18. sixteenth century. 4. about 14 inches long. Sheath in polished steel. fifteenth century. 407 12. about 16 inches long. Dagger. fifteenth century. Dagger with double thumb ring. Paris. fifteenth century. fifteenth century. sixteenth century. 17. Dagger. Dagger with single thumb ring. Dagger. anelace. d'Artillerie. Scottish dagger. Count of Nieuwerkerke's Collection. of a shape belonging also to the fourteenth century. The two rings were placed there to fix the dagger on a shaft. Maximilian Museum. Author's Collection. Dagger. Musee 19. Soter Collection.

.408 Daggers and Poniards.

These daggers are often provided with small knives. and also in the museums sixteenth Muse'e d'Artillerie. See of Prague and Sigmaringen. The guard has four quillons. 409 21. 20.. Buchholzer of Lucerne. gauche. King of Sweden. the arms of the Free Judges. Arsenal of the City of Vienna. and the Count of Nieuwerkerke at Paris. Stiletto (Spitzdolcli). Collection of Charles 27. century. German. century. Ancient Soltiltoff Collection. 25. Swiss. .Daggers and Poniards. have in embossed work on the sheaths. sixteenth century. Poniard. 28. from the Soltikoff Collection. and for various purposes during the campaign. about 12 inches long. sixteenth century. German. representations of the Dance of Death. German. Dagger. sixteenth century. Main Paris. with wavy blade. Dagger. to pierce holes. XV. instead of the usual hunting subjects. sixteenth century. German. Poniard. 24. which served to cut the thongs of the armour. Paris. brecher. Main gauche. Similar weapons. sixteenth century. belonging to M. 23. or cuirass-breaker. end of the sixteenth In Germany these weapons were also called Panzer- 22. Muse*e d 'Artillerie. Poniard. German. very short and broad.

410 Daggers and Poniards. .

with indented blade for breaking swords. Collection. Large German brise-tfp&e. which Meyrick 31. Main gauche. Main " gauche. German. Collection. of Sigmaringen. Main gauche.. sixteenth century. and quillons curved in inverse directions. with indented blade for breaking the enemy's sword. inches long. with the inscription Viva Felipe V. Count of Nieuwerkerke's Collection. Indented blade of No. Museum 33. 32.Daggers and Poniards. Indented blada of to preceding object. German. sixteenth century. of Dresden Collection." shows that this weapon was in use in the year 1701. 34. Spanish. about 20 The handle is richly engraved. sixteenth century. thumb ring. Main gauche. 29. . Meyrick 35. German. 31. Museum 30. sixteenth century.

36. Stiletto. about 10 inches long. Persian. Musfe d'Artitterie. Poniard. Museum of Sigmaringen. zerbrecher. seventeenth century. Museum 40. This weapon belonged of Sigmaringen. about 12 inches long. called Pan- zerbrecher. to Sobieski. and grated guard as sword-breaker. German. or cuirass-breaker. Poniard. 37. It measures about 25 by 10 inches. sixteenth century. richly studded with precious stones. Museum of Sigmaringen. with indented quill ons. German. . Large main gauche. 38. J. German. National Museum of Munich. called PanThe numbers on serving probably the bore of the for blade measuring cannons. 533. Paris. Poniard.412 Daggers and Poniards. 39.

and the handle of a massive piece of ivory. Javanese dagger. . grooved. The sheath of shagreen is partly covered by plaques of niello-work. Author's Collection. Hindoo khouttar with forked blade.Collection. Javanese krees. ornamented with nail-heads in damascened iron. 46. Turkish kandjar dagger. with damascened blade and ivory handle. 43. 47. 17 The blade is inches long. 42. a Hindoo. but of Indian or Persian workmanship. called " langue de bceuf. and was invented about 1659 by Sewaja.Daggers and Poniards." Muse'e d'Artillerie. and as it counterfeited the wounds of a tiger's claw. of Tsarskoe-Selo. this was an Indian weapon belonging to a secret society. Persian poniard. Paris. 413 *l Wag-nuk. It was fP used for purposes of murder. 41. suspicion from the Meyrick. diverted offender. Museum 45. Hindoo khouttar with blade. 44. or tiger's claw. two and a hall feet in length.

The lances of the tenth and eleventh centuries are conspicuous by the pennons fastened below the socket of the lance-head. with the lance-head fixed by a socket on to the among staff. lance (from the barbarous Latin lancea. for the Swiss method consisted in forming their soldiers into four close rows. which did not appear until the thirteenth century. . From the eighth to the thirteenth century after Christ the lance remained much the same in shape. a simple cylindrical shaft of smooth wood. and gradually tapered towards the head and base. had a handle . whose sockets were strengthened by long stems branching down the shaft.* The tilting lance. In France the use of the lance was forbidden during the reign of Henry IV. it was thicker at that place. in 1605. and was common among the Assyrians as well as the Egyptians. these lances were sometimes twenty-four or even twenty-seven feet in length. PIKE. in German and also Spiess) was in use at a very remote period of antiquity. and was soon utilised in warfare. * In pennons are attached the Bayeux tapestry. about twelve feet long. and in ininiatures of the same period.414 THE LANCE. The spear was a weapon used in hunting the wild boar. to the lances. The Speer. AND SPEAE. The lances of the Swiss foot-soldiers were not often more than sixteen feet long. The lances of the mercenaries known under the name of lansquenets had generally small blades. to which they were fixed by means of screws .

415 1. The same. from the Codex aureus of Saint Gall. and afterwards called Knebelspiess. of the eighth or ninth century. . as also the sword. with pennon. German lance. 2. beginning of the ninth century. Norman * lance. eleventh century. tapestries. it is said. for in the laws of William the Conqueror on the subject of freeing a serf.Lances. 5. copied from the Wessobrun manuscript in the Munich Library. 3. from the Bayeux 4. Tradidit illi arma libera. * The lance. were among the Normans the weapons of free men. scilicet lanceam et gladium. German lance. The same.

tury. 9.416 Lances. Parit . and the haft. The same. from the Arsenal of Rhodes. Lances of Austrian end of the fifteenth Weapons like these century. Arsenal of Zurich. of the eleventh century. Amltras Collection. and belonging formerly to the knights of St. who gave them to the Musee d'Artillerie at Paris. Arsenals of Soleure and Lucerne. called Assagai. Musee d'Artillerie. 11 A. Large spear-head. Slender lance. Anglo-Saxon lance from a miniature in the Aelfric manuscript. and is one inch and a half in diameter. Monsieur Az at Lintz has also a few lances of this kind in his collection. The shaft is about twenty-four feet long. 3 10 A and 10 B. are to be seen in the drawings made by Nicholas Glockenthon in 1505.. from the Arsenals of tlie Emperor Maximilian. Renne' Collection at Constance. four and a half inches. with a long fifteenth censhaft. of the fifteenth century. of the fifteenth and sixteenth 71-$ centuries. Lance of a lansquenet (Lang-spiess in German). Large spear-head. damascened with gold. 43. Lance of Swiss foot-soldiers. 8. 6. F. in the British Museum. 11 B. end of the fifteenth century. 12. The Museum of Salzburg. the blade measuring ten and a half. JO. fifteen inches in length. foot-soldiers. 7. John of Jeru- salem (1522). presented some of them to the Emperor Napoleon III. possessing several similar lances.

of Innspruck. and war lance. Tilting lance. and well regulated. The lance-head is nearly a foot and a half in length. Meyrick 16. 18. Collection. from a piece of tapestry.mentioned 1505. from the illustrated above . Long slender lance. and which are to be found in the Ambras same. said to have been found in the tent of Charles the Bold. . begin- ning of the sixteenth century. Collection. War lance of the sixteenth cen- profusely ornamented with red eagles on a white ground. manuscript of Glockenthon. B. the arms of the city tury. The same. executed in 1505 by Glockenthon. /1 5. at which time the tournaments were frequent. From drawings already mentioned. with vamplate.Lances. 13 14. sixteenth century. Meyrick 17. Tilting Collection. 417 13 A. This fashion does not date farther back than the <?nd of the thirteenth century. All these lances have an indented place in the shaft for the hand to obtain a firm grip. The War lance of the fifteenth cen- tury.

of the sixteenth century. 20. Lance for tilting at the A lance on found in the tion. length. 8 inches in length. 262. Am- German hunting teenth century. Muse-e d'Artillerie. used more especially for boar- hunting. javelin. Point of a German war and it tilting lance. lance." this '* model ring. Paris. length. six- Dresden Museum. hunting spear. 1505. 19. German fanger. in the bras Collection. with three wheel-lock " hallebarde " pistols. 22.1J8 Lances. six- teenth century (Sau or Baren- and also Schiceins- It was feder in German). Hunting spear of the sixteenth century. The same. 24. German spiess. Traite d'Equitaof the reign of Louis XIII. 21. K. called Kndbel- from Glockenthon's manuscript. inches in 23. Arsenal of Berlin. Arsenal of Berlin. : . 25. (1610 1G43). is 7 inches in Dresden Museum. will bo by Pluvinel. 26. The same. and two hooks this weapon was part of the Soltikoff Collection.

and under the name of " fastened to is known celt. Abyssinian lance. The same. 82. base. Arsenal of Berlin. One lance of this kind has a ring it. 29. Paris. . from a very late sixteenthcentury Ferdusi's manuscript copy of of the Schah-Nameh year 999. conspicuous on account of its broad. The shovel-shaped broad point recalls exactly the bronze and iron heads of the "framees." Muse'e d'Artillerie. iron. Lance of the seventeenth tury. 28." belonging to the bronze and iron ages. Chinese lance. Arrow-shaped javelin for throw- ing (Wurfpfeil in German). 419 27. 31.Lances. used for boar-hunting. 30. Double-headed Persian lances.

beginning of the fifteenth century. Library of the Arsenal. 1. Streitkolben in German) a weapon heavy at one end.420 THE MACE. end of the eleventh centmy. or cutting. <^rh 2. not made either for piercing . Burgundian mace. The is inace (from the Latin massa. Library of Berlin. 4. thirteenth century. The same. The same. end of the eleventh century. from the "German Mace. 5. Bayeux Tapestries. . Iron mace. " uEneid of Henry of Waldeck. 3. but only for stunning an enemy it was much used by the cavalry. and there are several representations of it in the Bayeux tapestries. Paris. from a manuscript believed to have belonged to the Duke of Bur gundy.

10 A. 9. Mace. Vil. from a manuscript of the end of the fifteenth century. fifteenth century. Musee d'Artillerie.The Mace. sixteenth century. reign of Henry V. fifteenth century. iron. German mace. The same. Paris. Turkish mace. Meyrlck Collection. 421 6. . composed by the poet Ferdusi in the reign of Mah- moud (999). being a copy. an architectural rose is damascened in the top. Arsenal of Lucerne. middle of the fifteenth century. 8. (1413 1422). Library of Munich. English mace. in iron. French mace. and has the handle wired. illustrated with numerous miniatures. 10 B. of the Schah-Nameh or royal book. English mace. in wood and iron. 7. engraved iron it is about 22 inches in length. .

have even been supplemented with hand cannons. for many museums possess several fragments of these weapons belonging to the age of bronze. they were short in the handle like hammers. the ancients.soldiers. and its head wooden or iron points it was common among . This weapon became very popular on account of the and quickness with which it could be manufactured. studded with iron points. The morning-star was well known and much used in Germany and in Switzerland . 8. few of these little maces. and the Swiss arsenals possess great numbers of them. bristled with This mace had generally a long handle. peasant made it easily with the trunk of a small shrub and a handful of large nails it was also in great request during the wars of the peasantry which have devastated Germany at different times. it received its name from the ominous jest of wishing the enemy good-morning with the morning-star when they had been surprised in camp or city. OR MORNING-STAB. When so provided they are called in German Scliiessprugel. Morning-stars were also made for horsemen.422 THE MORGENSTERN. and generally better manufactured than the long-shafted ones used by the foot. A . facility The . See No.

which dates from the fourth century. Gymnasium of Moral. Ambi-as and Meyrick Collections . at Berlin . . Arsenal of the City of Vienna. and Museum of Sigmarin- gen. 3. studded with spear- heads end of the fifteenth cen. which. Collection of Prince Charles. called in German Schiessprugel . Swiss morning-star of the fifteenth century. The length of the iron. should be among the weapons of the iron age. Morning-star and partisan on a long shaft with iron bands. 7. and has a dart or spike which starts from the handle by means of a spring. Az Collection. 8. Swiss morning-star of the fifteenth century on a long shaft. 1 and 2. 4. end of the fourteenth or beginning of the fifteenth century. with a wooden and a long ball studded with iron spikes shaft. Museum of Sigmaringen. is 18 inches. probably a horseman's. 26 inches in length. It is of engraved iron.Morning -Star. Lintz. tury. Museum 5. Morning-star of 11 feet 4 inches in length. classed Maces. Hand morning-star. 6. for they are copied from the column of Theodosius at Constantinople. which is armed with four blades and a spike. of Berne. Morning-star with hand cannon.

The military flail with a short handle else of the shaft. It was composed of the shaft and .424 MILITARY FLAILS. was also used in England since the period of the Norman conquest (eleventh century). . (1509 1547). and only in the trenches and on board ships. a 7. with three. the latter either with or without iron points . and from the drops of blood which started from those upon whom it was used. or holy-water sprinkler* (from the Latin flagellum and the German Flegel). *h nu>r**g-6tar. is a weapon whose name indicates its shape it was also called holy-water sprinkler from the shape. representing one of the founders. to A belonged more particularly to Eussia and Japan. statue of this epoch in the Cathedral of Naumburg in Germany. or scorpion (also called Scorpion in German). which was very well known in Switzerland and Germany during the fifteenth century. or which was fastened a chain ending in an iron ball. * Some authors erroneously give this name r. though then but little used. is armed with a the statue of the Palatine Oliver. the whips. or a wooden one studded with iron. for the first mention of it is found in the manuscripts of the beginning of the eleventh century. and existed during the reign of Henry VIII. or six chains. The armed whip. The invention of this weapon does not appear to be of ancient date. in the flail. was a kind of hand flail or knout. four. and so is Cathedral of Verona. The flail.

. probably K. Musee d'Artillerie. National Museum of Prague. of the fourteenth century. English flail with chain and spiked ball on long shaft reign of Henry VII. with chain and ball without spikes. 5. 2. Meyrick Collection. 6. 2 feet 7 inches in length. Flail with chain and spiked ball on long shaft. Paris. 1. Mustfe d'Artillerie.Military Flails. 83. Swiss flail with iron hammer on Arsenal of Geneva long shaft. Iron hammer of flail. . 7. 3. Paris. National Museum Munich. with four chains without balls (called Scorpion in German). without points. from the statue of one of the founders of Natnnburg Cathedral. on a long shaft. probably of the fourteenth century. K. 425 German holy (Flegel - water sprinkler of in German) the eleventh century. Scorpion. Short -handled flail. 81. or flail. (14851509). a Hussite weapon of the fifteenth century.

9. painful as it is to us to believe in the existence of such a thing in in Russia for * The knout the present state of civilisation.42(> Military Flails. The handle is only 26 inches in length. actually employed punishments differs but slightly from the ancient instrument. 11. Japanese flail. 8. Dresden Museum. German flail of the fifteenth century on a very long shaft. 10. . It has an iron hammer with twelve spikes. and the chain ball at the is end of the studded with very sharp spikes.* with a short handle. Swiss tury flail of the fifteenth cen- with hammer a squared iron without -spikes. Ancient Russian knout. on a long shaft.

Kriegssense in German) nothing but the agricultural scythe slightly straightened the blade is in a line with the haft . of Voles- Prince Lobkowitz's library. Bohemian crescent-shaped warscythe. War-scythe. the crews of their enemies' called derived their The Austrian troops soname from the river Tschaike. From the manuscript of Wessobrunn. OB WAR-SCYTHE. 145. is . in the library of Munich.427 THE BILL. * In Austria. fourteenth century. as the name glaive indicates. double-edged. 3. Imperial Arsenal of Vienna. thirteenth From the manusc ript lav in century. d'Artillerie. also single-edged. The tvar-scythe (from . the Latin falx. year 810. 2. all smiths detected in turning agricultural implements into weapons were punished with death. War-scythes of colossal dimensions (4 feet to 4 feet 6 inches in the length of the the blade) -were used by Tschaikists of Austria to mow down boats. Swiss war-scythes of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. at Raudnitz. the print slightly curved towards the sharp edge.* it is single-edged. while the scytheknife. Paris. Unstraightened war-scythe. or glaive-gisarme. Arsenals of Zurich and Soleure. during the Jacquerie or peasants' war. has the point curving from the edge to the back the blade of the gisarme. K. Musee 4. . be- ginning of the ninth century. is. like the cut and thrust sword. 1.

was greatly used in France during the fourteenth century. is. ofton confounded with the gisarme. German glaive. with wheel-lock richly inlaid. 2. at the base are Swiss glaire hallebarde blades. and the blade of The point is double-edged." 1. single-edged. the blade of the glaive curves from the edge. which is proved by the especial mention of it in the poem of the " Trente. sixteenth century. It ia National Museum of Munich* .428 THE SCYTHE-KNIFE. being in fact a modified form of the war-scythe. Bnrgundian tury. as has been before stated. OB GLAIVE. but. and at the scythe towards it. fifteenth cena manuscript in the library of the Arsenal at Paris. pistol. and another very like it. : Museum of Sigmaringen. The glaive the base of the blade there is a hook or spur. 3. The scythe-knife. but in reality a breach knife. like the war-scythe. From glaive.

very large size. Dresden. 7. and was used as late as the eighteenth century. the Order of the Golden letter F. of the seventeenth German weapon century. MusJe d'Artillerie. and the Collection. Fleece.* ornamented with the armorial bearings of King Ferdinand. of enormous dimensions. or "Ranseur. Collection. Kleinm 5. A Imperial Arsenal of Venice.. It was especially common in Austria and in other parts of Germany. Scythes. Scythe trident. being 5 feet by 4. Meyrick 6.War 4. seven- teenth century." for charging (Sturmsense in German). Paris. and the Bavarian arms. It bears the sixteenth century. German glaive. K. but in reality it was nothing but a scythe-knife. 429 Glaive called Cracouse. * This kind of weapon is also called breach-knife (Brechmesser in German). 156. German glaive. date 1580. .

<g this weapon hamstring the knights' horses. Olivier de la Marche. The origin of the glaive-gisarme dates from the age of bronze among the Keltic and Germanic nations. is simply a glaive fixed on a shaft. . The gisarme is quite different from the war-scythe and breach-knife. born in 1426. a name derived from cleddyr or gleddyr.430 T1I12 GISARME. In some parts of Germany the name of Gleefe has given place to the more modern one of Sensen mit Spitzen. and believes this weapon to originate in the habit of fastening a dagger to the blade of a battle-axe. The French name of guisarme is apparently derived from the guisards or followers of the house of Guise. a chronicler. or glaive-gisarme (Gleefe. The Welsh called them llawmawr. and also schinder * in German). who were armed with them. at which time many tribes were in the habit of fastening glaives or scramasax swords to long shafts. * Ross-scliinder : this name was given to to the foot-soldiers who were in the habit of u*i. as it is double-edged and armed with hooks. The gisarme. maintains that the name of gisarme is of great antiquity. which almost all British authors confound with the halberd.

V Gisarmes. 6. Museum of Sigmaringen. 2. English gisarme is (Gleefe and of Ross-schinder in German). Arsenal of Soleure. Arsenal of Zurich and Wittmann Collection at Geisenheim. 4. at Lausanne. . English gisarme "bill." fifteenth century. 5. at Paris. 3. thirteenth cen- Troy on Collection in the Museum of the Canton. The Chinese use this weapon at the present day. end of the fifteenth century. Swiss tury. gisarme. Swiss gisarme "bill.'* end of the fifteenth century. Swiss gisarme. which mention made in the twelfth-century manuscripts of Westminster. Swiss gisarme "bill. "end of the fifteenth century. as may be seen from the specimens in the Musee d'Artillerie. 1.



7. Italian

glaive," richly gisarme engraved, end of the fifteenth



Meyrick Collection.

Gisarme on long



The blade

feet in length,


and bears the X. IVANI. X. Az Collection, Lintz.





sixteenth century.


of Sigmaringen.

10. Italian

gisarme "glaive," belonging to the Doge's guards they were armed with this weapon, and with the basket:

hilted sword, called Schiavona, which in almost all collections

has been erroneously catalogued as a claymore, but the Scottish sword has a simple guard without either a pas d'dne or basket hilt.



Though very rarely met with now, this weapon was one of the most ancient among the Swiss, and also much sought after in France during the fifteenth century, at which time there existed a regiment of infantry called voulgiers, who
were armed with this broad-bladed and long-hafted weapon. A large number of archers also carried them. Some few
authors wrongly give the name of voulge to the boar-spear, the shape of which bears not the least resemblance to the voulge of ancient warfare.


Swiss voulge, about 16 inches hi length, found on the battlefield of

Morgarten (1319).
Arsenal of Lucerne.


Swiss voulge with teenth century.

hook, four-


Swiss voulge, fourteenth century. Arsenal of Zurich.





voulge may be seen in a fifteenth-century manuscript of the Hauslaub Collection.




Swiss voulge, end of the fourteenth century.

Meyer Biermann
at Lucerne.




voulge, end of the teenth century.



Collection, Lintz.


Saxon voulge, taken

at the battle

of Miihlberg (1547).

Imperial Arsenal of Venice.


Austrian voulge, about 2 feet in It is of the time of length.
the Jacquerie or peasants' war,

(1620-1 625), when it was forged out of a ploughshare.


Collection, Lintz.



Fixed on a long shaft, the pole-hammer has been known Germany and Switzerland under the name of Luzerner Hammer, as it was a favourite arm of the people of Lucerne. Jt is called pole-hammer in English from the fact of having the spiked hammer placed at the end of a long shaft or polo.

The may

war-hammer is of great antiquity, as we hammers of the so-called stone and bronze ages; and Charles Martel (715 741) owes his name to this

see in the

formidable weapon, which became general during the fourteenth century. The French poem of the Combats des Trente mentions the war-hammer and its weight


Oil combattait d'un mail qui pesoit bien le quart De cent livres d'acier, si Dieu en moi part."

This war-hammer, of twenty five pounds' weight, belonged to Belefort. They were also used in the passages of arms, as Olivier de la Marche, born in 1426, remarks in his " Memoirs," where he also makes mention of the passage of arms of the " sire Hautbourdin et de Delalain." The short-handled horseman's hammer (Reiterhammer in German) which the knights carried, like the mace, at their Some saddle-bow, is almost as ancient as the pole-hammer. atantique bas-reliefs at the Louvre represent Amazons tacking their enemies with shore-handled double-edged poleaxes (?), one of which is, in armourer's phraseology, falcon or the parrot-beak shaped, a term used however when was long-handled.



War Hammers for

Foot soldiers.


war-hammer on long








2. Steel

war-hammer on long


fifteenth century.


Swiss steel war-hammer on long This shaft, fifteenth century.

weapon, of which there are a


in the Arsenal of

Lucerne, Luzerner


type of the



of Lucerne.

Meyer Biermann



of Sigmaringen.


war-hammer on long

end of the

fifteenth, or begin-

ning of the sixteenth century. The sword which forms the apex of the whole is more than 3 feet in length. K. 88, Musee d'Artitterie, Paris

Swiss steel war-hammer on long shaft, from a drawing of Hans

ing the combat d'Arx.

Holbein 1445-1 554), representof Theibaut


of Vienna.


Hammer-pike. This long-shafted weapon was carried by the
subalterns in charge of the flag under the First Empire (18041814).

K. 275, Musee

d'Artitierie, Paris.


War Hammers.



Horseman's war-hammer (Reiterhammer in German), 2 feet in length iron handle studded with copper ornaments of Gothic

character, denoting the the fifteenth century.

end of

War-hammer, 3

feet 4 inches in length, belonging to a Hussite chief of the fifteenth century, serving at once the purposes of a weapon and a rod of office.

The handle, about 16 inches in length, is covered with red feet long velvet. dart 2 springs from the hammer on








of Sigmaringen.



parrot -beaked warend of the fifteenth



Horseman's parrot-beaked war-


in chiselled iron, orfleurs-de-lys

namented with
22 J inches

in length, sixteenth

Arsenal of Berne.

Horseman's parrot-beaked war-

1 2.

hammer, sixteenth century. 69, Musee d'Artillerie, Paris.

Seal ing war-ha mmer taken from

the Savoyards under the command of Branaulieu Chaffardin in 1602, under the walls of Geneva, in an unsuccessful

night attack. Arsenal of Geneva.

Horseman's war hammer with very long spike of iron and The shaft is wood, copper.

handle ivory




Dresden Museum.


The battle-axe (from the German HacJcen, and not from the Latin ascia) was generally called Streitaxt in German, but when the handle was greatly lengthened and used by foot-soldiers it became a pole-axe, and was called FnssStreitaxt. This cuneiform weapon, like the common hatchet, from which it is modified, is one of the most ancient and best known during the so-called ages of stone and bronze, and was the favourite weapon of all Germanic nations. The Frank hatchet, the well-known francisque, was shorthandled, while that of the Saxons was fixed on so long a shaft that among the Anglo-Saxons it was named pole-axe. At the battle of Hastings (1066), where Harold was defeated by William the Conqueror, the Saxons at first repelled with success the repeated attacks of their Norman foes, whom they overthrew in large numbers with their long battle-axes, etc., a weapon which among them was generally about five feet in length. In the Bayeux tapestries are many representations of battle-axes without either point or hook, in this resembling the domestic hatchet and the
foot- soldier's battle-axe of the fourteenth century considerably from the weapon of an earlier date. Though on one side an axe, it becomes on the other a warhammer, either with a saw edge or a sharp point, but generally large and curved, called falcon-beaked ; whilst the term parrot-beaked was applied when the weapon was short in the handle and belonged to a horseman. The battle-axe sometimes was provided with a long dart or sword fixed at the top. The short-handled horseman's axe (Reiteraxt and Bartlie in German) is found to have sometimes a gun-barrel encased in the handle, either the primitive hand- cannon or the wheellock pistol. The short-handled battle-axe as well as the war-hammer appears to have been known to the ancients. It is sometimes seen in engravings of Assyrian war-chariots and in


sculpture which represents Amazons.

Foot-soldiers' Pole-axes.






Foot-soldier's long-shafted f uss-Streitaxt in

German), end of the eleventh







end of the fourteenth century. K. 93, Musee d Artillerie, Paris.





fifteenth century.

From a wood

engraving. Cabinet of Engravings, Munich.





fifteenth century.


of Munich, Collection of Charles XV. of Sweden, and Mey-

rich Collection.


Swiss foot-soldier's pole-axe, fifteenth century. Arsenal of Lucerne.

Foot-soldiers' Pole-axes.



German foot- soldier's pole-axe, fifteenth century.
Cabinet of Engravings, Munich.



The same.
foot- soldier's pole-axe, called Bardiche. K. 95, Muse'e d'Artitterie, Paris.



Russian* foot-soldier's pole-axe, with which theStrelites or Strelitzen were armed. Museum, of Tsarsltoe-Selo.
Venetian pole-axe with sawsixteenth hammer, edged




Swiss pole-axe with saw-edged

hammer, sixteenth century.
Arsenal of Berne.





and dart
Arsenal of Berne.

Long-shafted Scottish Lochaber axe, the national weapon of

Collection Berlin.

of Prince Charles at

14:. German pole-axe, fifteenth century.f Historical Museum of Monbijou at Berlin.

The modern battle-axes of the inhabitants of the Caucasus are of this same shape this may be seen from the weapon of Schamyl, also in the Museum of Tsarskoe-Selo,






engravings in the Cabinet of Engravings at Munich. t Nos. 9 and 14 might be classed


the voulges.







axe, sixteenth century.

1G. Scottish or

English foot-soldier's

pole-axe. K. 96, Mustfe d'ArtiUerie, Paris.

German horseman's


led battle-axe (Reiteraxt and Barthe in German), end of the
fifteenth century.

Dresden Museum.

Turkish horseman's battle-axe, end of the fifteenth century;





Mahomed Ben



reigned from 1495 to


inscription in

Sultan, the

letters says,


victorious king, the father of

Mahomed Ben
the servant of




be glorified in him."
is also


in Cufic characters the





times reCollection.


19. Sclavonic

horseman's battle-axe.


a drawing by Albert

Horseman's iron battle-axe, beginning of the sixteenth century.

21. English horseman's battle-axe,





beth's reign (1558).

Horsemen's Battle-axes
22. Austrian battle-axe
is tlie handle about a yard in length, and bears the date 1623 and a wheel, a sign for gathering themselves together adopted

in the Jacqueconquer which the aid of the Bavarian horsemen were calle>I in.

by the peasants
rie rebellion, to

23. Short

Collection, Lintz.





bound with



beginning seventeenth century.




Mcyrick Collection. English executioner's axe, end of the sixteenth century, with which the Earl of Essex was beheaded in the reign of Elizabeth (1558-1603). Tower of London.


Saxony miner's

axe, for show,

Bergbarthe, with the date 1685; the handle is inlaid with ivory, and the blade

pierced in open work. These arms are only intended for the festival day processions of miners' corporations, and not
for actual use.







small hand cannon, fifteenth century. small hand 27. Battle-axe with cannon, 34 inches in length it belonged to the reformer Zwingli, who died in the battle of Cappel in 1531. Arsenal of Zurich.



battle-axe with wheel lock pistol, inlaid with ivory and silver, end of the fifteenth

Szokau Museum (Hungary}, and


of Sigmaringen.

29. Battle-axe with flint-lock pistol, end of the seventeenth cen-


30 and


Chinese battle-axes.


d'Artillerie, Paris.


The halbard may be derived from the German Halbe-Barthe, half battle-axe or from Helm, casque, and Barthe, battle-axe ; in Germany and Scandior from Alte Barthe, old battle-axe navia it dates from the earliest centuries of the present era, though it was not known in France until the Swiss introduced it in 1420. ^The president Fouchet, whose writings are about the end of the sixteenth century, attributes the introduction of the halbard to Louis XI. (14611483). " ordered " This at Angiers and other prince," he writes, This cities some new war-blades called halberds/'/ good assertion is confirmed by miniatures of the fifteenth century in which the halbard is represented, though the shape varied greatly according to the time and country.

1, 2,

and 3. Three kinds of hal bards, somewhat like the ranseura,

From the eleventh century. Psalterium, a manuscript in the
Stuttgard Library.


Swiss halbard, fourteenth century.

5, G, 7,



Four German hal-

bards of the fourteenth century. National Museum of Munich.

end of the sixteenth century. beginning of the sixteenth century. 15. Museum of Sigmaringen. end of the fifteenth century. end of the fif- teenth century. Mtyrich Collection. Authors Collection. Arsenal of Berne. Swiss halbard. Swiss halbard. German tury. 16. 12. Imperial Arsenal of Vienna. Swiss threehalbard with pronged hammer. sixteenth cengilt.414 Halbards. Venetian halbard. . 10. sixteenth cen- tury. middle of the sixteenth century. beginning of the fifteenth century. Author s Collection. Arsenal of Berne. Swiss halbard. 11. \ 9. German halbard with threepronged hammer. engraved and a very handsome weapon. halbard. German halbard. 14. 13. Soter Collection in the Maximilian Museum at Augsburg.

the Glockenthon manuscript. of the fifteenth K. but coming originally from Corsica it has been called in France corseque. or roncone. 1 . German tury. . German the ranseur. Four-sided ranseur. Ranseur. Paris. Arsenal of Berlin. Ranseur. The ancient Ceremonial Fran^ais says that it was a long and broad javelin with two barbs. Arsenal of the city cf Vienna. Ambras 1. beginning of From sixteenth century. 2. who made facsimiles of the arms in the arsenals of Maximilian I. This same ranseur is found in drawings made in 1505 by Glockenthon. end century. The ranseur is a kind of partizan. Collection. and also by some authors roncone. sixteenth cen- 6. Museum of Sigmaringen. Collection. 3. Musfe d'Artillerie. Paris. the weapon was well known in Germany during the fifteenth century. Italian tury.445 RANSETJRS. ranseur. sixteenth cen- Nieuwerherke 5. Library of the Arsenal. ranseur. above a yard is The in point length. 7. Ranseur. from miniatures in a fifteen tli- century manuscript. seventeenth century. beginning of the seventeenth century. 98. 8. Burgundian ranseur.

1509. in his Exercitiorum atque Artis Militaris Collectanea. and his successors were armed. but its invention is not earlier than 1400. where even spontoons and langue-de-boeuf bayonets have been placed in the category of partizaus. or perhaps simply from the French partisan. (1461) until the end of the seventeenth 1'ietro century. and is a species of halbard. an error which has been committed in our days in the catalogue of the celebrated Meyrick Collection at partizan is The from pertuis. . opening. Goodrich Court. 01 on account of the large wounds made by it. Milan. who has particularly wished to describe this weapon. The iron is long. but barbs in the style of the ranseur. Monti. The partizan was known in France since the time of Louis XI. has confounded the partizan with ranseurs and halbards.44G THE PARriZAN. broad. and also Bohmischer Ohrloffel. derived from the Spanish partesana. and double edged there is no axe. with which the guards of Francis I. in German called Partisans. .

fifteenth century.. Musee 5.Partizans. fifteenth century. richly engraved. Biermann Lucerne. Meyrick Collection. It dates probably from the early years of the fifteenth century. Swiss partizan with armourer's mark. and bearing the date 1615 and the order of the Golden Fleece. K. 447 German partizan (Partisane or Bohmischer Ohrlo/el in Gtrman). 166. Meyer Biermann Collection at Zurich. Swiss partizan with armourer's mark. It belonged to the guards of the Palatine of the Rhine. whose iron measures H| inches. German partizan . sixteenth century. 4. reign of Francis I. 2. d'Artillerie. . National Museum of Munich. French engraved partizan. Paris. Collection at 3.

authors of encyclopaedias and dictionaries. weakens. This \vas the side-arm joined to the firearm. when it replaced the pike in certain regiments. bayonet-sabres. There are langue-de-boeuf bayonets. who died in 1682. whose blade serves at the same time for a screw to draw the charge. or horn. A triangular bayonets. which latter invention has been wrongly attributed in England to Mackay. etc. etc. it had been already adapted to the arquebus. his rival. At the present day the bayonet is composed of the blade and socket with collar.ythe-bayonets. The bayonet was already known in France about 1570. which was sloped so as to turn on the collar. iron. and in France to Vauban but it was at first a simple handle in wood. which Couhorn.. called musket-gun or fusil-musket. but was not universally adopted until about 1640.448 THE BAYONET. made towards the end of the sixteenth century. wheel-lock musket. . from Nearly tlie habit of copying one another. for this firearm possesses a long bayonet with socket and collar. however. in 1691. intended to fix into the barrel. and attributed to Vauban. and even perhaps to the earliest portable firearms. Subsequently the bayonet was fixed at the end of the gun by means of the socket. Bohemian sc. the supposition that Vauban was the inventor of the socketed bayonet. and preserved in the Culman Collection at Hanover. Nevertheless this sort of dagger or sword has not been carried at the end of a fusil only. Spanish knife bayonet*. introduced among the Dutch infantry about 1680. all . have repeated that the bayonet (Bajonnet in German) was invented and manufactured at Bayonne by Puysegur.

and in 4. Hanover. It bears the inscription " No me saches sin rason : Ne me embainez sin honor. socketed collar. Sb'ter Collection at about 15 Augsburg." (Unsheath honour. Bayonet-poniard with handle and sword-breaker.handled triangular bladed bayonet-poniard. 2 G . 419 1. 5. English Iangue-cle-bo3uf plugbayonet (Pflug Bajonnet in German). Swiss Arsenals. total length 14 inches. Spanish wooden-handled knifebayonet. end of the seventeenth Tower of London. German bayonet with Culmann Collection.t Bayonets. sixteenth century. Wooden . 3. seventeenth century. 2. century. inches in length. similar one in the same A museum bears the inscription " God save King James the 2d. nor sheath me without without Meyrlck Collection.) me not reason." : 1686. end of the sixteenth century . Soter Collection at Augsburg. seventeenth century.

The Arsenal of Geneva possesses several Italian scaling-ladder forks taken The military fork is also from the Savoyards in 1602. under the command of Yauban. assaulted a breastwork and carried To recompense their bravery away the Austrian forks. in 1691. gave the sergeants of that regiment the right of carrying a fork in place of the halbard. This weapon (Sturmgabel in German) began to appear towards the end of the fifteenth century. where the grenadiers of the elder Dauphin's regiment. mentioned in the accounts of the siege of Mons. Louis XIV. .452 THE MILITARY FORK.

made in 1505 from the arsenals of Maxi- milian I. . 453 I. Az Collection. Scaling-ladder fork from the second siege of Vienna in 1683. Arsenal of Geneva. fork. beginning of the sixteenth century. Three-pronged military fork. seven- Arsenal of Geneva. 4. Munich. 6.Military Forks. 3. Double military fork. 2. Italian scaling-ladder fork taken from the Savoyard troops under the walls of Geneva in 1602. Simple military teenth century. seventeenth century. Lintz. seven- teenth century. Military fork. 7. 5. From the original collection in the Cabinet of Engravings. From water-colour drawing of Glockenthon's. fifteenth century. German a military fork.

teenth centuries it is Museum of Sigmaringen. inlaid. found among the ruins of the fortified castle of Erperath. and Imperial Arsenal of Venice. Dresden Museum. sixteenth centhe name Bar- Dresden Museum. Berlichingen. from the Walturius of 1472 and a manuscript of the beginning of the fifteenth century in the Haus- laub Collection at (See 3. sixteenth century attributed to Gotz of . 4. 7. Tower of London. This terrible weapon was intended to catch the knight by the throat and unhorse him. 5. Articulated iron hand. near Neus and "ttas Diisseldorf. 1. German). Battle-hook. Hunting spear with spring and double knife. National there is a Long-shafted hook used by the besieged in a town to tear away burning arrows. Museum In the of Sig- maringen. bearing tolam Biella. It is about 2 feet in height. 6. sixteenth century. and six- 14 inches in length. six- Dresden Museum.454 Arms and Utensils of War and the Cliase. Hunting spear with a spring- blade on either side.) German catchpole (Fangeisen in fifteenth . the chapter on Vienna. . tury. German double teenth century. sixteenth century. catchpole. Museum of Sigmaringen. Museum of Munich similar hand. which destroyed by the Swedes. war- engines. 2. and fixed on to a long shaft.

The miniatures in the Codex Aureus of Saint-Gall. pp. which was destroyed towards the end of the thirteenth century. The Musee d'Artillerie at Paris possesses two bows of balistas from the castle of Damascus. Blindes. and the onagre in old . Engines and Besieging Weapons. represent inflammatory machines in the shape of fish carried on the points of lances. and the ancient tolleno or see-saw with two baskets. MusSe d'Artillerie. Tauten. Gotthard in Hungary. Collection. and a variety of other names. The archives of Mons.War 8. who commanded. make mention of war engines. Katzen (cat). intended to shoot large arrows the catapult or tormentum of the Latins. to designate different kinds of machines whose names and shapes were modified according to their respective provinces. 29. WAR ENGINES AND BESIEGING WEAPONS. and the Cabinet of Antiquities at Zurich several iron rods of balista arrows. drawings of which are met with in all the manuscripts of that time. 455 Hunting sword with cross-piece near the point of the blade. and a modification of it called in French trebuchet. 54 and 55. 31. Igel (hedgehog). found with many broken bits of these machines in the ruins of the Castle of Russikon. (1664). particularly in the fifteenth -century drawings of Zeitblom. Tribocs. a Brandenburg brigade at the battle of St. In Germany were also used different sorts of engines with the names of Manges. Small Turkish drums covered with human skin. in the year 1406. (See Introduction. have been copied from fchose of the ancients. sixteenth century. 9. The war engines (Antwerc in German) which were employed during the Middle Ages. ninth century. which shot forth stones and pieces of rock. Paris. Patrarias. the battering ram. in Prince Waldburg Wolfegg's library. during the grand elector's reign. . probably made in the time of the Crusaders.) We recognise the balista. taken by General Rauchhaupt. Arsenal of "Berlin and Authors. French. which deposited the combatants within besieged places. 171. J. and before the time of largecalibred firearms. 30.

cats. was transformed into an incendiary torch by these terrible inventors. besiegers have arrived at the place. inventors of war engines were at that time particunew methods of setting fire to besieged places. and even The cock himself. Codex Aureus of Saint-Gall. piece of the lansquenets. the fiery torches are probably not made with gunpowder or other explosive material. . the beloved and living timebirds. larly occupied in discovering The Two hand torches. The engine which the horseman carries at his lance's point is shaped like a As the manuscript represents it as vomiting fire before the fish. and even went so far as to devise portable fire machines indented to be fastened to dogs. ninth century.456 War Engines of the Middle Ages. but simply of resin. who never quitted them in their campaigns.

that. in the library of Prince Waldburg Wolfegg. The simple trebuchet was put in motion by means The trebuchet with a sling was conof a rope pulled by four men. which shot stones by the backward and forward motion of the beam called rod was always loaded while (verge). 457 War engine to shoot large stones. Machine for shooting stones and making a breach. a hook fastened to the long end of one of the ropes. . from the drawings of Zeitblom. Authors of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries have drawn a large number of these machines. balls. and the 'German Bleydenri). from Zeitblom's drawings. with this moment. or arrow (fleche). but so varied in their construction as to appear productions of fancy rather than copies from actual objects. called treluchet. at a given the beam let fly manner as the simple trebuchet. fifteenth century. fifteenth century. or pieces of rock (this was the catapult or tormentum of the ancients.War Engines of the Middle Ages. structed in much difference. the French onagre. At that time there were double trebuchets. and the stone was shot forth from the the same tangent of the circle described. one end of which the other returned. Library of Prince Waldburg Wolfegg.

which. . War engine for shooting arrows (the balista of the ancients. being drawn down by ropes wound round posts.War Engines of the Middle Ages. and the Belagerungsbalester of the Germans). and thus propels the arrow. Hauslaub Library at Vienna. copied from the Walturius printed at Verona in 1472. springs back against the boarn as soon as the ropes are loosed. This machine shoots off the arrow by means of a very strong piece of wood.

. 459 Engine with gear. whose blows could only have made a hole in the wall. break. which must have been far more efficacious than the battering ram. Ireca. .War Engines of the Middle Ages. while the impetus of this machine must This drawing is copied from have often broken down the entire side those in the Pyrotechnic de I'Ancelot Lorrain . or from the Keltic brech. opening). the same engine is also drawn in the Walturius of the Hauslaub Library at Vienna. for battering in breach (from the German Breclien.

who has copied notes of the administration of the Roman armiea in the East and West. discharges the projectile. Notitia.460 War Engines of the Middle Ages. from a manuImperial Library at Paris. 1552. This is one of the simplest engines the end of the beam. . Bale. from the Notitia Utraque The author of this Orientis turn Occidentis. and giving impetus to the sling. freed from the holder. rises with rapidity as the other end is weighed down. Four-wheeled balista (Balista quadrirotd]. script. has added drawings of balistas which he copied eum from machines or pictures of his time. Recueil d'Anciens Poetes. etc. in the . Slinging engine with backward and forward motion.

llll il ! .ll ill i ).) . 461 ' ' .l iJ.1111 J. 1552.lll }).! j. Bale. in which the wheels are moved by cxen.ll ) J.llD. where it is called balista fulminatrix. In the same work may be seen a wheeled boat called by the author Libourna. This engine is interesting on account of the men inside wheels who form its motive power. Wjgj etc. engine from the Notitia Utraque cum Orientis turn Occident!*. War .D.War Ihigines of the Middle Ages.

probably intended to imitate leather. 1573. Vienna. from a fifteenth -century manuscript in the Haus- laub Collection. 14. covered with small pieces of horn. . which was destroyed towards the end of the thirteenth century. from the castle It is of palm- wood. 10 B. In the illustration the figures are century manuscript quite black.War Engines of the Middle Ages. 10. from of FronsKriegsbuch perger. Bow of Damascus. Iron of a balista arrow. in the Zurich Canton. Paris. Besieging or miner's basket. wicker. 12. Diver's dress from a fifteenth in the Ambras Collection. 13. The same. found under the ruins of the castle of Russikon. 11. Mmee d'Artillerie. 5^ inches long. of a balista. the Iron of a balista arrow.

Ages.War 15. etc. and enter into his mouth. Chariot of intrenchment. derven unter die Feind geworfen mit Krafften dass die Hafen zerbrechen und unter sie streun gleich wie man das Weihwasser giebtkommt dann in denn Muudt. Hauslaub Library. published at Frankfort in 1573 : "Soil man fiillen ein Theil mit Aschen unt ungeloeschten Kalk der Klein ist wie Mehl. a 17. Bird. Vienna. etc. 463 Armed dog Hamlaub carrying a torch to set fire to a camp. Collection. and thrown with strength against the enemy." (These jugs should be filled with ashes and powdered quicklime. &c. Jug cover. fire to 16.) the 18 6/8. Vienna.. when broken they scatter their contents and sprinkle enemy as with holy water. beginning of the fifteenth century. . Leonard Fronsperger explains the use of this seemingly childish projectile in his Kriegsbuch (War book). Cabinet of Antiquities at Zurich. and filled with quick- lime. in baked earth without a 18. used in the seventeenth century in the war against the Turks. Cat with torch to set besieged place. Engines of the Middle Ages. which the besieged used It was against the besiegers. Incendiary barrel used by the besiegers in the Middle From a manuscript. 19. The same. found in the Ketzerthurm.

23.ladder with joints and articulations. Iron scaling-ladder (Sturmleitel in German). 21. so as to touch the top of the walls of besieged places. with scythe-knife. with joints and articulations (Stormstige in Danish). Vienna. This preof instrument. is on a long shaft having at the lower end a furrow or channel which may screws on to other shafts.464 War Engines 20 of the Middle Ages. seventeenth century. from a fifteenth century. German scaling-ladder. and be lengthened at plea- sure. Dating from the war against the Turks. 20. beginning of the Hauslaub Library. Danish iron scaling-ladder. it the teeth hooks by means of in the moveable of The length is the moveable knife about 2 feet . to which knife. Museum of Copenhagen. Dresden Museum. German iron scaling . German manuscript. 22. the fixed Museum Munich. beginning of the seventeenth ingenious served in century.

used in Saxony 27. from the wars of the French republic. found at Rosna. Collection. from a manuscript of the sixteenth century in the Hauslaub Library. beams Klemm 28. The hole in the blade was intended to put a piece of stick through. Arsenal of Berlin. so as to form a handle to screw the knife. knives were screwed War These on to of wood and placed under water in moats. Calthrop of tlte Middle Ages. Calthrop from the water-colour drawings made by Glockenthon in 1505 of the arms in the three arsenals of Maximilian I. of Sigmaringen. from the Prague arsenal. Calthrop during the Seven Years' (eighteenth century). about 9 inches long. Museum 25. (Fussangel in Ger- man). Ambras 26. Dresden.War Engines 24. was usea 29. Vienna. Calthrop Collection. Cheval de frise. knife (FussangelMesser in German). Arsenal of Berlin. This engine as protection against a charge of cavalry. eighteenth century. 2 II . Cheval de frise (Spanischer Reiter in German).

in German) was composed of the shaft. had each their regiments of slingers.. Stock Schleuder. and even The After placing the missile in the socket. which was anciently written fonde. sling. to thro\? . and there are those among them who have succeeded so far as sometimes with it to resist successfully the tire of a carbine. ployed to throw grenades. Romans. and a leathern sling fixed on to one end. and Carthaginians. fustibale orfustibalm. The Greeks. 1648 1652. however. with the bow. the equipment of by far the greater number of foot-soldiers. whose French name offronde was derived from the Latin funda (Schleuder in German). retaining the other. at which time it constituted. the slinger whirled his weapon round and round. The slinger held it with both hands. stick. gave its name to the party who took up arms against the court during the minority of Louis XIV. The use of the sling has continued even among European armies until the sixteenth century. gradually augmenting the speed until the greatest possible amount of swiftness had been attained. as well as the Germans. was much used by the ancients and during the Middle Ages. nuve always adhered to the sling. and the Greek /3aA/\o>. The staff sling (in French.466 THE SLING AND THE STAFF SLING. is of remote antiquity. fire-balls. like that of the bow and arrow. and could hurl stones This weapon was subsequently emwith great violence. The name fustibale was also given to large engines which were a species of catapult intended to hurl heavv missiles. Savage nations. at which time they were employed to hurl grenades. The inhabitants of the Balearic Islands were celebrated for their skill with this weapon. The sling. . about a yard in length. The sling is a weapon whose origin. Made of rope or of a leathern thong. the sling is used to hurl stones. when he loosed one of the cords. the range of which was generally above five hundred paces. from the Latin /tirftft.

Ambras Collection. 8. born at the end of the twelfth century. intended From a to hurl grenades. from a tenth-century manuscript.The Sling and Staff Sling. 2. 4. manuscript century. one with the thong loosened. of who was the author a Historia Major Anglix from 1066 to 1259. . Slinger with his staff sling. from a manuscript of Mathieu Paris. of the sixteenth Library of the Chevalier von Haus laul at Vienna. 467 Two illustrations of slings. Staff sling from a manuscript of the beginning of the fifteenth century. Long-shafted staff sling. an English chronicler. the other with both thongs held in the slinger's hand. died in 1259.

The modern ones now employed to kill the little feathered songsters are divided into several pieces. while the Germanic races used it only for the chase with the Huns. however.4G8 THE BLOWPIPE. shoots off the arrow in the endeavour to straighten itself. BOWS AND ARROWS. shoot poisoned arrows. Parthians. the bow. The blowpipe. in German Bogen. weapon of offence called in Latin crrcws. according to tho . the place of manufacture. and from the Latin canna. During the twelfth century the archer generally carried two cases. . This weapon is a simple tube or pipe. bent by the drawing of the string fixed at each end. Greek fire which scattered sparks. prove that the bow was among the Normans and Britons. reed . The Bayeux tapestries. an instrument of war. one was the quiver. it is needless to give an illustration. in German it is called Blasrohr. which latter word is derived from Carpi. through which small earthen balls As a war weapon the blowpipe was used to are blown. in Italian cerbotana. At the present day the blowpipe is only used to hunt small birds. or shooting tube. besides several miniatures. served both purposes. which was wholly composed of horn.) The Scythians. is called in French cane. as well as among the Kelts and Gauls. joining together like a fishing rod. and Thracians were as much celebrated in ancient times for their skill in the handling of this weapon as the English archers were during the Christian Middle Ages. varying only in length and thickness. The bow. is a formed of an elastic piece of metal or wood slightly depressed in the centre. from the old German Flitz. but called at that time. and which. containing the arrows (fleclies in French. as soon as the archer looses the string he has drawn towards him. Cretans. As the blowpipe is nothing but a tube. from the old French word cowiV. and small shot. The arrow in German is called Pfeil.

the other was the bow case. even later it was still popular. bodies of French archers were formed. the rain slackened the string of the cross-bow. (1514) being the last body of archers in France. after the defeat of Poictiers. which in after years superseded the bow. and even four points. with two. Besides this. shoot three bolts during the time in which a skilful archer might discharge from ten to twelve arrows.Bows and Arrows. Arrow-heads of the long bow were generally like the quarrells of the cross-bow. soon acquired so great skill as to excite the envy of the In England the bow nobles. pilles and sayettes) . when. and in 1356. When bent the English bow measured about half that size. and seldom missed his aim at two hundred and forty yards. which in a well-proportioned man would equal his height.'s time (1422 1463) a law was passed for the planting of yew-trees in all the Norman churchyards. but seldom barbed like the arrows of ancient days. the length of a bow was the breadth of the archer's span between his outstretched arms. The bodies of horse and foot archers were maintained for a long period. The length of the bow and arrow varied according to the country and the height of the In England. the royal regiments under Louis XII. The wood most sought after in France for the making of bows was the yew. which was also employed for cross-bows. more difficult to bend. by whom they were dissolved. partly the result of this accident (1346). on account of the greater simplicity and surenens The cross-bow. where the archer shot at least twelve archer. which was then in great favour among the French. thereby taking away all strength. "~In Charles VII. the inferiority of the cross-bow in this respect was who again shown. . The bow was used until the introduction of fire-arms and guns . so that wood might never fail for the new weapon. and preferred to the cross-bow. for the French cross-bowmen could hardly make any return to the arrows of the English archers. arrows in a minute. but the long bow-string was easily The loss of the battle of Crecy was protected from damp. of the weapon. three. 469 chronicles of Saint Denis. The cross-bowman could only necessarily took more time. They were square (carrels and carreaux in French). and the arrow was a yard in length.

Jn 1627. the Chapters on Arms of the Stone. we hear of English Archers. at the siege of La Rochelle. at that time in its In the reign of Elizabeth (15581603) the orinfancy. for ancient bows.470 Bows and Arrows.) . Iron. and Bronzo Ages. mercenaries in the pay of Richelieu. > (See. they were all provided with brigantines and casques. They are mentioned in the attack on the island of Be. was used much later than on the continent. the English archers being so skilful that they long looked with contempt upon the rude and heavy hand-gun. ganisation of bodies of archers had attained the greatest degree of perfection .

Library of Berlin. printed at Verona in 1472. Arm-brace. 2. Persian bow case. 4 early part of the It Middle Ages. probably of the time of the Christian Middle Ages. Paris. 89. from the German Mneid of Henry of Waldeck. 3. from a sixteenthcentury manuscript. Vienna. 8. German quiver. steel. 97. German bow. Persian quiver. an illustration in the Walturius. of the Middle Ages . L. The same. 10. Musife d'Artilkrie. Paris. Ivory arm-brace (Spannarmband in German) to protect the left arm from being struck with the bow-string.Boivs 1. they were often of steel. manuscript of the thirteenth century. 5. and Arrows. L. 9. a copy of the Schah Nameh. 471 German bow. Italian from bow. end of the Middle from Glockenthon's Ages. 7. Italian bow. was about and made generally of elm or oak. 6. 4. . drawings in the Ambras Collection. and about 4 feet 8 inches in length. feet 8 inches in length. Munich Library. fifteenth century. Eastern bow. The same. Hauslaub Library. Musfe d'Artillerie.

28. Ditto. Dresden. Flower-shaped with short barb. crescent-shaped. Ditto. Ditto. graved. 26. gilt and enincendiary arrow. Vienna. 22. German at Vra<-h. larger moon-shaped. Iron arrow-head. 13. Museum of Sigmarlngen. It 24. Ditto. of Sigmaringen. Ditto. German barbed arrow-head. 23. was used to hamstring both men and horses. Museum 25. fifteenth century. German Author's Collection. Ditto. Ditto. 20. fifteenth century. 11. Ditto. Frons- Kriegsbuch. arr6w-head. 3 inches long.shaped arrow . 16. fifteenth century.172 Arrow-heads. fourteenth century. barbed arrow-head. Soter Collection. 21. Shell-framed arrow-head. and copper octagonal 19. Hatchet . 17. The same. Iron and copper screw arrowhead. This head bears the German eagle. fifteenth century. Ditto. The same. Museum 27. sixteenth century. Augsburg. Klemm 12. 29. fifteenth century.head. 1573. The same. The same. Hussite arrow-head. Manuscript in the Hauslaub Collection. 14. Manuscript of Glocken- thon. Collection. The same. 18. found of Sigmaringen. . fourteenth century. Italian arrow - head. 15. Ambras perger s Collection.

held in 1139. portray only archers. in the British Museum. (See the Greek arms. . short time after. a word which is derived from the two Latin words arcus and balista* is believed by M. and The Princess Anna Comnena (10831148). who but the Bayeux died in 1195. on the other hand. represent cross-bowmen tapestries. which does not appear to have been used in China until the reign of the emperor Kien-Long (1736). for aiming the winding key. 30. An Anglo-Saxon manuscript of the eleventh century. the Germans The German ballestre was generally used to shoot pebbles. with nut the sight. as I consider) to have existed among the Greeks. and a mural painting in the Cathedral of Brunswick. . . lastly. executed in the time of Henry the Lion. . it * When bullestre. in which the prohibition of the second council of the Lateran was renewed. and that they called the weapon gastrafetes. This tzagra. There can be no doubt on this point. a bow we are not acquainted with" etc. the stock (Hiistung in German). or spring and. because the cross-bowman rested it on the pit of the stomach. In England Kichard Cceur de Lion (11571173) furnished a large number of his foot-soldiers with cross-bows. prohibits the use of the cross-bow against Christians. was already well known in France during the life of Louis le decree of the second council of the Gros (1108 1137). The cross-bow composed of the bow . Anna Comnena is not the only author of her time who speaks of the cross-bow it is mentioned also by William of Tyre. and see also p. however. A A called the cross-bow was above the ordinary size.* Lateran.473 THE CROSS-BOW. of the end of the eleventh and beginning of the twelfth century. but allows it for the purpose of killing miscreants and infidels. 55 to 59). This weapon. for she says in her " memoirs. of the cross-bow string is in all probability an invention of the nations stigmatised as barbarians. pp. . only knew the cross-bow from seeing the weapon used by the Northern men-at-arms of the first crusade. heedless of the bull of Innocent IIL. Philip Augustus (1180 1223) organised in . Bodies (wrongly. called in French arbalete. The cross-bow. from which it derived its French name galet.

prevented the wheel from unwinding when the pressure on the key was relaxed. arbalete of Agincourt (1420). In Germany these cross-bows were sometimes from twenty to thirty feet in size. The stock of the windlass crossbow. and was particularly used for shooting at a mark. because that part of it intended to be fixed to the stock to draw the string was often battlemented like a tower. The illustrations represent the cross-bow with the stirrup. the difference being easily seen by the position of the two rests close to the nut (for the purpose This weapon was constructed of fulcrum to the lever). B. As it is needless to repeat here what has already been spoken of in the historical chapter. The wheeled gear. archers were armed with this kind of cross-bow at the battle a tours. which was also extremely in request the Belgians. was fixed to the stock of the cross bow in a groove. which replaces the windlass and goat's-foot lever. when the detached mechanism to draw the bow-string is provided with two cranks and two pulleys. Franco the first regular bodies of cross-bowmen. A. the author never having met specimens in any collection. and consequently collecting his knowledge of them from fifteenth-century manuscripts. but is always worked by a stirrup. The cross-bow with goafs-foot lever. sometimes fastened to the stock. and for the defence of ramparts. in which the windlass This (called in French cranequiri) is not fixed to the stock. is sometimes detached. The crossbow with wheeled gear is an exceedingly rare kind. The windlass was called a tours. who became of great importance. which machine is intended to string the bow. it is sufficient to describe the different kinds of cross-bows.474 Tlie Cross-low. has no fixed The Genoese rests. cross-bow is distinct from the one with goat's-foot lever. A . as the windlass has a much longer catch than the goat's-foot. by reason of the two rests being placed about six inches below the nut.) foot. and de passot. The cross bow with windlass. either with or without a stirrup. both horse and (See pp. 463 to 470. among D. C. and was wound catch. exists in a capstan. The cross-bow with windlass is called in French arbalete de passe. such as up by means of an equally stationary key.

The barrelled cross-bow was used during the seventeenth century. G. This contrary curve was employed to increase the strength of the bow when bent. The barrelled cross-bow. stock the appearance of a gun. The Chinese cross-bow with sliding chamber. The missiles used for all cross-bows. as the steel arm does. F. which between the nut and the bow was generally curved. This weapon of medium strength is bent by means of a lever fixed to the stock. and is not of much strength it is bent by means of a stick. so called because the groove through which the quarrell slips is covered by a half tube. which killed without shedding blood. or simply with the hand. 475 French. manufactured in layers of wood and horn. which supplied twenty arrows in succession . Another kind (matras. their spoils uninjured. when the hunters desired to preserve . Instead of quarrells or cross-bow bolts this weapon shot leaden balls. were for a long time considered to be phalli of elephants. this might be termed a repeating or revolving cross-bow. because the missiles used were stones) of the sixteenth century is the next in order. when the weapon is not bent.Tlie Cross-low. instead of towards it. were called quarrells or bolts (Bolzen in German). or carreau assommeur in French Fogelbolzen in German) ended in a round knob. . so as to regulate the flight by giving a rotatory movement. The bows of the cross-bow. was often made of iron. with the exception of the pebble shooting cross-bow. The cross bow (a galet in modern cross-bows. especially against feathered game. There are some German cross-bows which. E. or with the hand alone. and has served as a model for the manufacture of . The stock. One kind of quarrell was feathered (vireton in French). curve outwards from the stock. It was used in hunting. This tunnel gives the leaving a passage for the string. and even stones.

arrows.476 The Cross-"boio. German cross-bowmen. century. Vienna. Hauslaub Library. . from a manuscript. as well as fiery One of the soldiers already carries a hand-cannon. beginning of tlie fifteenth The cross-bow with windlass may be noticed.

exhibited. Cross-bow with goat's-foot lever fixed to the stock. The catalogue of the Museum of Copenwhere this weapon is hagen.The Cross-loiv A.* * similar weapon in iron wood. Cross-bow with goafs-foot lever (Armhrust mit Geisfuss. This valuable cross-bow once belonged to M. but is at present in the collection of the Count of Nieuwerkerke. Juan Deneinas. which cannot sides possibly belong to it. for the cross-bow with windlass has the rests x placed at least six inches below the nut. : A Spanish armourer.sixteenth century. proved by the inscription on the bow Dom Fernando rei de Romano. 4. 2.. followed by four Golden It bears the name of the Fleeces. Goat's-foot lever (Geis/uss to in German) intended bend the preceding cross-bow. the lever of the windlass being much longer than that of the goat'sfoot. Hebtlarmbrust in German). . . It may be noticed that the rests x are placed close to the of the nut. Library of the British Museum. at Munich. 1. / Cross-bow with goat's-foot lever. belonging to Ferdinand I. Cross-bow with from a mural Cathedral of cuted in the the Lion. 4 Us. goat's-foot lever. from an Anglo-Saxon miniature of the eleventh century. lias engraved it along with a windlass. or Cross-bow with goat's-foot lever. Spengel. exereign of Henry died in 1195. who 3. painiing in the Brunswick.

5 and . Cross-bow with windlass (TTt'ft- denarmbrust in German). Windlass bow. description a* for Nos. Vienna. Imperial Gewehrkammer. Same 7. German cross-bow with windlass. 5. 5.478 Tlie Cross-low. fifteenth century. fifteenth century. for the preceding cross- 9. Windlass for the preceding bow. end of the fifteenth century. The rests x are placed about 6 inches below the nut. Same de- scription as No. B. 6. Tyrolese cross-bow with windlass. 8. Swiss cross-bow with windlass. 7. Vienna. cross- Imperial Gewehrkammer.

in the shape of a battlemented tower. Cross-bow with windlass. 479 10.The Cross-bow. Muse'e d'Artillerie. sometimes styled simply Latch ( Flaschen- zug Armbrust in German). G Cross-bow witli latch. Paris. for the preceding cross- 13. 11. i. . as the grip of the windlass requires more space than the goafsfoot lever. There are no rests. 12. It will be remarked that the rests x are placed from 4 to about 6 inches below the nut. Cross-bow with the windlass applied to the stock. Cross-bow with windlass fastened on. for the windlass is fitted to the foot of the stock. Windlass (Flaschenzug in Ger- man) bow. Part of a windlass.

. beginning of the fifteenth century. Prodd. six- or (SteinKugelarmbrust. a light cross-bow. Wheel cross-bow with gear and catch (Zahnradarmbrust. 1472. 15 A. 15. used chiefly in field sports. with windlass. Ambras Collection. in German). Prodd to shoot pebbles. E. from the Walturius. from a manuscript. also Battetre in German).480 The Cioss-low. beginning of the fif- This huge weapon. D. teenth century 16. somewhat over 4 is feet 6 inches. Cross-bow to shoot two arrows at a time. Hauslaub Library. exhibited in the Arsenal of the city of Munich. about 4 feet 8 inches. 15 B. whose stock measures teenth century. Wheel cross-bow with gear. Bow of a German cross -bov. Vienna.

Mus& d'Artillerie. 72. 20. Barrelled cross-bow (Lant.or ftinnen-Armbrust in German). a very rare kind. for shooting twenty arrows successively. Steel chain of a prodd . Lintz. Grooved or barrelled cross-bow.The Cross low. L. Paris. Mustfe d'Artillerie. seventeenth century. G. Az Collection. Chinese cross-bow with sliding chamber. 18. 19. F. Paris. 2 i . Iron prodd. Chinese cross-bow with sliding chamber (Chinesische Repetitions Armbrust in German). end of the seven- teenth century. 481 17.

National Museum of Munich. a twofold purpose. 21. once I. or cross-bow bolt (Bolzen in German). belonging to (15031564). Arsenal of Geneva. shown by the name Ferdinandus and his coat of arms engraved on the barrel and on the steel bow. Four pointed and feathered cross-bow bolt. 25. . for battle.482 Tlie Cross-low and QuarreU. u 24. for battle. Quarrell. Gun brust in cross-bow (Pistolen-Ann* German). sixteenth century. Treble-pointed and feathered cross-bow bolt. Single pointed and feathered cross-bow bolt. for battle. 22. measures 30 inches by 22^. used at the battle of Sempach (1386). serving Ferdinand This cross-bow. 23.

30. Arsenal of the City of Munich. flattened at the top. is is The steel head three-sided feather made of and the leather and slightly curved. 28. for hunting chamois. 2 in Ger7 inches long. 32. 29.QuarreTU. or Bolts. so as to strengthen the arrow's flight by a rifled or rotatory move- ment. 27 Tyrolese feathered cross-bow bolt. for feathered cross-bow hunting chamois. War cross-bow bolt. with a small steel square rising in the centre. The same. German barbed and bolt feathered (GewiderhaM feet man). with a single point. 33. 31. The cross-bow to which this bolt belongs is about 5 feet 2 inches by 4 feet 11 inches. Arsenal of Zurich. Bird bolt (Vogelbolzen in GerThe circular head is man). . Fiery cross-bow bolt. Tyrolese bolt. 26 483 Harbed (GewiderhaU in Ger- man) and feathered cross-bow bolt. for war and chase.

Quiver for bolts (Bolzen-Kocher in German). Quivers. Quiver for bolts. Steel quiver for bird-bolts. at Berlin. Berlin. Collection of Prince Charles. Meyrick Collection. Historical Museum in the Palace of Monbijon. 37. twelfth century. end of the six- teenth or beginning of the seventeenth century. leather and wood. 34. who died in 35. leather and wood. Henry the Lion. reign of 1195. from a mural painting in the Cathedral of Brunswick. .484 34. 36. Quiver for bolts.

sulphur. and rendering more doing away with the use also rethe vertical pointing. charge by means of a movable the muzzle-loading cannon. PORTABLE OR HAND FIRE-ARMS. compound its . he made a small hole at the further end of this kitchen mortar. chamber by portable * Cannons loaded by means of a movable chamber are used at the from the ramparts taken in the present day in China. vented the first fire-arm. the tyro found a mixture of himself blown backwards by the explosion which resulted from the pounding. the common kitchen and charcoal. and that the first fire-arm was a large bored mortar. of the also appear the trunnions. or can). which received . which was loaded at the breech the cannon. . wards added. name derived from the German Kanne or Canne. cannon. and fore-carriages placed stationary . from the beginning oi Originally made of forged iron. of the butt. pot. without personal danger. dating ance in Europe at the commencement of the fourteenth 59 to 74.* and. The first . in fact. . FIRE-ARMS FIRE-ARMS OF LARGE BORE. We may then fairly consider the morcalibre tar to be the shape of the first. Turning the lesson to good account. know that it is impossible to fix the date of the invention of gunpowder. or small hand cannon. has been given at pages has been explained in a detailed manner. . supporting the weight period besides preventing the recoil against the gun-carriage.485 VII. is ol fire-arm. invented fire-arm of heavy -a it was followed in succession by the cannon (from quennon. and each illustration century. Movable gun-carriages easy wore soon afterones. In crushing weapon . THE : from its first appearhistory of the fire-arm. for the cannons in the Husee d Artillerie at Pan* a Lmpaign of 1860. and thus inso as to fire the saltpetre. finally. at which the fifteenth century fire-arms were cast in bronze. which could not figure Two things we at so great length in the historical chapter. and preserved almost all of this description.

The species differing by the mechanism of their locks are : The first hand cannon. These weapons were fired by means of a detached match. both being invented in the beginning of the fourteenth century. TJw serpentine gun. Tlie springless matchlock (Hit Schlangenhahn-Luntentrdger nnd Drucker. in German). middle of the fourteenth century. ohne Feder noch Drucker. have seen that the fire-arms of large bore may be reduced into four distinct classes. ohne Feder. the improvements of the lock. century. fire-arms constructed with a view to accuracy of aim. The serpentine generally represents a dragon's head. without including which should be quite put aside. These We different kinds may be reduced to twelve. From henceforth the match was always held by the serpentine or linstock. . had sometimes a small hinged plate cover.loading cannon. the touch-hole also is on the . TJie portable hand cannon . and used by cavalry. and not explosion of gunpowder. end of the fourteenth century. to preserve the priming from damp. notwithstanding the diversified descriptions of those authors of the sixteenth century who have often described the same weapon in a dozen different ways. with which better aim eould be taken. or the hair trigger (Stacker). and paying no heed either to varied forms or fanciful names. as tb<* propelling power is pneumatic force. among whom it was introduced by the Europeans of the east coast towards the end of the sixteenth. same date as the breech. and the touch-hole (Zundloch in German). in German). which may be adapted to all either the air-gun. erroneously called in France la double detente. in short (Gewehrschloss in German) . placed above the charge. invented about 1424. This weapon was of forged iron. intended to be shouldered . and fastened it could not be raised to the to a heavy block of wood shoulder. but without trigger or spring (Hit Schlangenhahn-Luntentrager. When made shorter it was called petronel.* * This arm is still used among the Mahrattas of India. This one differs from its predecessor by the wood being more shaped and provided with a stock (Kolbe in German). right of the barrel. roughly made. The classification of the portable fire-arm may also be sim plified by considering only the varieties in the mechanism required for discharging the piece.486 Fire-arms.

Fire-arms. at Leipsic. new category of arms. at Vienna or Nuremberg. in 1498 according to others. They were sometimes fixed to a stand with iron points. invented in the second half of the fifteenth This is the first invented weapon capable of century. as arquebus (Biichse in German). The hair trigger (Stecher\ invented at Munich in 1543. or with For this wheels. The was invented in Germany according to some. It differs from the matchlock on account of the two serpentines striking downwards on opposite sides by means of two The barrels of these weapons meatriggers and springs. or arquebus. by Gaspard Zollner or Kullner. calibre. TJte matchlock. was the forerunner of the flint lock. and erroneously called in France the double trigger.barrelled The rifled barrel . which worked by means of ths sulphurous pyrites. is an ingenious construction. . end the cannons were provided with hooks (Haken). The snaphaunce gun (Schnapphahn in German) derives its a pecking fowl. / The double matchlock (Doppelhaken in German). and sometimes placed on the rampart wall. As for the wheel-lock musket (Muskete in German). and has nothing in common with the matchlock. 487 ' from the old German. which differs in hardly any respect from the matchlock gun. (See pages 69 and 70. mit Dr ticker und Feder).) The snaphaunce lock. sured from a yard and a half to two yards in length. It is remarkable by the wheel-lock. it differs from the arquebus only in the greater size of the rifle. invented in Nuremberg. and dates from the sixteenth century. The barrel was generally about a yard taking a steady aim. the match being replaced by the sulphurous pyrites (Schwefelldes in German). name from . composed of ten pieces. intended to render the motion produced by the snapping of the ordinary trigger hardly perceptible. in length. The harquebus (Schlangenhahn-Luntentrager. from which may have been derived the old German term of Hackbusse. TJie matchlock arquebus. 1515. The wheel lock gun (Itadschlossbuchse in German). but cannot be considered a it may be adapted to all gun-locks.

of the lock (Schloss in German). about the middle of the fourteenth century. weapon)^ which has a rifled barrel. and to facilitate the pointing. which had been gradually brought to a high degree of perfection. calibre . and whose name is given in Germany both to the small cavalry weapon and to the hunting weapon. . the opening through which the powder is fired (Zilndloch German) trigger (Druck&r in German).488 * Fire-arms. (termed by English gunsmiths the lump'). is called queue in French . and derives both name and existence from the same source. the farther end of which was called ehamber. probably invented in France between 1630 1640. (See pages 71 and 72. the mortar was forged of iron and without trunnions (Zapfen in German). invented in 1827 by the German Nicholas Dreyse. and the stock (Schaft The extreme end of the barrel. invented by the Scottish gunsmith Forsyth in 1807. the nearer. as the casks of the present day are made. It is simply a rifled-barrelled arquebus. without the pivots placed under the barrel of the cannon. to prevent the recoil on the guncarriage. from the Latin mortarium (Mdrser or Bohler in German). namely. joining it to the stock in German). The percussion. does not form a different category.) THE MORTAK.) The needle gun. the common mortar used to pound solids. is the most ancient European fire-arm. and the diameter of the barrel. mouth. the piece of iron which moved the spring (Fader in German) to snap the cock (Halm in German). TJie carbine (from the Arab Karab. was composed of the barrel (Lauf in German). The mortar. When first invented. 59 to 66. This important benefit dates from the fourteenth century. The French flint-lock gun (Flinte in German). touch-hole inis . (See page 74. See page 70. at which period the armourers began to cast cannons instead of manufacturing them with iron bars bound together by See pages hoops. * This fire-arm.capped gun. that is to say.

and 3 feet 6 inches in diameter. It was found in the drawings made by Glockenthon of the armour contained in the arsenals of the Emperor Maximilian I. Bronze mortar with ring. has a shield placed between the handles. and about 1 foot in diameter. from and was taken by the whom the Ausit trians recovered 2. with rings. but without trunnions end of the fifteenth century. 3. Turks. 489 1. Arsenal of Berlin. . German bars. but without trunnions middle of the fourteenth century.Bolder or Stein-Morser in German). Stone mortar (Stein. Epinal Museum. The cannon was forged at Stier in |[jjPr__^ $~E^3a Austria. This cannon. Amlras Collection. Mortar. in 1529. . the shape of which indicates the beginning of the fourteenth century. . This cannon has trunnions (Zapfen in Ger- man). Mortar. forged iron. 4. 5. and cannot be earlier than the beginning of the fifteenth century.The Mortar. manufactured of iron which being placed lengthwise from end to end are fastened by circles of iron. monster cannon or mortar. Imperial Arsenal of Vienna. forged iron. . 2 feet 8 inches in length.1505). 7 feet 10 inches in length. from the siege of Waldshnt (14G8).

(See pages 59 to 67).490 THE CANNON. fauconneaux. The . are called handles . Serpentines. The barrel of this fire-arm is generally of a conical shape . basilics. often in the shape of dolphins. are the vague names by which the same kind of cannons are often described in different localities. now termed first . apirales. surmounting the cannon. faucons. demi-coulevrines. the diameter of the bore is the calibre . cascabel. the opposite end to the mouth is the breech. The name trunnions is given to the large pivots placed under the gun to prevent the recoil against the The half gun-carriage. and then by the muzzle-loading cannon. reed : the cannon is the follower of the mortar. the name is derived from the German Kanne and Kanone. rings. passe volants. coulevrines. and also to facilitate the pointing. bombardes. breech-loading cannons were called bombardes and pierriers these were shortly followed by the movable chamber system. and not from the Greek Kai/m. finished by the button.


492 Stone Mortars in Forged Iron. .

It is well known that during the fifteenth centuryred-hot shot. was lowered during the loading. beginning of the fifteenth century. or pieces of iron wrapped in wet linen. 1525. nor Etienne Bathory. Breech-loading cannon. or recoil piece. The butt. Collection. which the artilleryman red-hot shot. Breech-loading cannon. King of Poland. represents the breech. Breech-loading cannon. or mantlet to a breech-loading cannon (Schirmdach in German). * The illustration in this manuscript shows that neither Franz von Sickingen.Stone Mortars in Forged Iron. Blind.* is about to load with Manuscript. though they did not become general until the seventeenth century. English. 2. 3. Ambras 5. Breech-loading cannon. were shot into besieged towns to bum them. Ambras Collection. . 493 1. fifteenth-century manuscript. open at both ends. forged iron. A . fourteenth century. were the first to use red-hot shot. second half of the fourteenth century. 4. B the muzzle. open at both ends from the battle of Crecy (1346). From a manuscript.

494 Mortars and Cannons. 6 .

Museum of Lausanne. wrought iron. Burgundian cannon has no trunnions. taken from the Mary Rose. comes from Rhodes. This . and the granite ball or shot 10 inches in diameter. Gymnasium of Morat. and 8. Wrought-iron cannon. George Endorfer cast me. diameter 1 foot 8 inches. Breech-loading cannon. 495 6. The length is 4 feet 8 inches. the diameter is 2 inches. Museum 9. anno 1404. Wrought-iron cannon or mortar. I punish injustice. Flemish breech-loading cannon. already with handles and showing traces of a cover to the lock. This curious engine. barrel. The length of the cannon is 2 feet 6 inches. The length is 12 feet. . Length 4 feet 6 inches. made at Ghent German cannon cast in bronze. Tower of London. 10. 11. beginning of the fifteenth century. a ship sunk at the beginning of the sixteenth century. The cannon bears the following inscription in German My name is Catherine. the diameter 2. fifteenth century. Archduke of Austria. is of forged iron. and there are no trunnions.Mortars and Cannons. Also: : Sigismund. the diameter 8 inches the gun-carriage is 2 yards long. taken at the battle of Grandson (1476). whose fire- chamber screws into the between 1404 and 1419. with wheeled gun-carriage. is now in the Musee d'Artillerie at Paris. Wrought-iron cannon. taken at the battle of Grandson (1476). from the battle-field of Morat (1476). beware of my contents. This cannon. of Lausanne. 7.

14. fifteenth century. De machinis libti breech-loader. with movable chamber from Martinus Jacobus. German. Italian. elbow-shaped. where it was placed after the battle of Morat Martinus (1476). . 16.. Hauslaiib Library at Vienna. fifteenth century. printed at Rostock. Mortar or cannon. 1449. {De machinis 1449)* gives libri the drawing of a similar cannon. * St. by Nicolai Marescalchi. Switzerland.loading from . .iron cannon without trunnions. Jacobus decem. 1 7. and the engravings of the Institntionum reipublicse militaris. 12. Breech .loading wrought . with movable chamber breech . &c. elbow-shaped. 1515. decem.406 Mortars and Cannons. Manuscripts in the library of Mark at Venice. without trunnions. from the Chateau de Sainfe Ursane. 15. The same. Mortar or cannon. end of the fifteenth This piece is still century. Breech-loading cannon with wheeled and roofed gun-carriage.

497 Breech-loading cannon. chapter. name the 2 K . No. from the German Vogler and Vogelfauger. 18.Mortars and Cannons. A. of Brussels the and Manuscript Hauslaub Library at Vienna. English cannon with movable chamber. Vienna. * See at the explanation of this beginning of the for the veuglaire. Hausluub Library. See also. 1. fifteenth century. Wrought-iron cannon with movable chamber and trunnions. fifteenth manuscript a century. from the The muz- zle is raised to the wished-for Museum in height. Cannon with movable chamber.* The movable chamber is missing. 34. Paris. 19. Tower of London. 23. MusJe d'Artillerie. The movable chamber. loaded by means of a movable chamber. Wrought-iron cannon. fifteenth Manuscript in the century. Vienna. from in the Ambras Collection. 22. 21 . and Flemish Vogheler. 20. fifteenth century. Wrought-iron cannon with movable chamber. Called in French veuglaire. No.

but on a movable guncarriage with toothed rack . Id. German (in 24. fifteenth century. . but has the toothed rack for rais- ing and depressing the cannon. without trun- from a manuscript by Zeitblom. 25. 26. various.Cannons. Still without trunnions. nions. German gun-carriage. muzzle-loader. German muzzle-loading cannon. cannon or culyerin German. 27. Library of Prince Waldburg Wol/egg. id. 28. Feldscldanye). fitted with small cannons. German verin muzzle-loading (in cul- German. but on without truna movable <*im- carriage with toothed rack. Still Feld- Bchlange).. nions.

the end of which contains a wadding Soleure. German muzzle-loading cannon. Swiss cannon rammer. without century. the same kind of loading rod from Fronsperger's book. English muzzle-loading cannon. 41J9 29. 33. without trunnions. called century. trunnions. farther on. lanterne. 31 . and on grooved rack. without trunnions. . Burgundian muzzle-loading cannon. screw. 32. but on a movable gun-carriage with toothed this rack. weapon was brought from the field of Nancy (1477). English muzzle-loading cannon. sixteenth century. Tower of London. .Arsenal of See also. various. end of the fifteenth century. and is at present at Neuveville. fifteenth Hauslaub I/ibrary at Vienna.Cannons. 30. fifteenth copper. on a long shaft.

from the reproductions des armes de IFm- in 1505. various. or death iron. " " See. from the drawings by Glockenthon. the organs of the seventeenth century.. wrought with five century. drawn by Nicolas Glocken- Ambras Collection.serpentine organ with forty cannons. Cannons with trunnions. J4-. . appearance in the fifteenth 37. 36. at p. Museum of Sigmaringen.loading barrels. German. See also No. German : serpentine cannons (called Orgdgescliiitz German the Todtenorgel. 23. middle of the fifteenth organ). farther on. which make their first the middle of century. thon.500 Cannons. German cannon with chamber and separate trunnions. 65. see also. Ambras Collection. pereur Maximilien J. 85. A and in B. each muzzle . A.

501 38. German war chariot.Cannons. From Glockenthon's drawings. Ambras Collection. called in French Ilibaudeqw'n. various. . fortified with arrows and four bronze falconets.

various. .502 Cannons.

diameter. Two small falconets or cannons. 42. Basilium weighing 75 hundredweight. iron. and drawn horses. various. of sixteenth cen- 41. of the cannon. while the by 25 Prussians had for some time used a prepared charge or cartridge. The rammer and sponge are still used. The breech is grooved. from Gl jcken- thon's drawings. Arsenal of Zurich. sometimes The artillerycalled lanterw. a tury. Length. cannon with Senftenberg. The Austrian army still used the loader at the battle of Mollwitz in 1741. man takes his level by means of a square. Ambras 40. Breech-loading Collection. . which closes the end calibre. from a of artillery at Dantzic manuscript . already mentioned under No. Muzzle-loading cannon with trunnions. By the side is a section of the chamber. carrying 70 Ibs. 33. 3 inches. called his Kriegsbuch. By the side is the loading rod of copper. published at Frankfort in by Fronsperger. with trunnions. 6 feet 4 inches. 1573. end of the sixteenth century.Cannons. commander trunnions. Breech-loading and rifled cannon with trunnions. of iron. 7 inches. 503 89. in .

loading serpentine cannon. made copper encased a thick coating of lime. Paris. . Emperor Joseph cannon. and the whole covered with leather. Small Swedish muzzle-loading cannon. 4 inches. and easy to carry in mountainous districts the length is 7 feet it belongs to the seventeenth century. 43. wired outside.Cannons. various. 3 feet diameter. In the Imperial Arsenal at Vienna is a leathern gun lined with a bronze tube. Ham- Musee d'Artillerie. Muzzle-loading trunnions. Arttnal of Bdl* cannon. 47. 44. . 1014. which the city of Augsburg offered to the I. Swiss breech-loading serpentine with the maker's name. and the whole covered with leather this was: a light weapon. two cannons. Length. Arsenal of Zurich. 45. Zell Blasi. with of a tube of in (1705-1711). Arsenal of Soleure. . is formed of a thin copper tube. with to forty- be fired six at once. The barrel Arsenals of Berlin and burg. seven8 inches teenth century. . seventeenth centuryArsenal of Soleure. 46. with trunnions. Swiss breech. and collection of the King of Sweden. Serpentine organ. seventeenth century.


Jo S . various.506 Cannons.

1742. from the memoirs of Colonel Wurstemberger. Gustavus Adolphus. Welten. invented by H. Paixhana. 49. 51. Inventor.507 48. Breech loading cannon of the eighteenth century. . 0. Arsenal of Zurich* 50. adapted for firing ten successive The length is 27 inches. Small iron breech - loading cannon. and it bears the signature of charges. Paixhans howitzer cannon. This piece was left at Munich Small copper cannon (Swiss). Drelibasse). on revolving gun-carriage in 1632 by (German.

various. .Cannons.

Camions. various. so as to is loaded with solid closely into the fit 55. Krupp's principle." with a leaden casing. of steel. same power rifling. Prussian rifled field-piece. which is pressed by a turn the key. as the shot. Armstrong gun. Krupp. . and the breech closed at the momeD* of firing. Large breech-loading Prussian cannon. Breech of preceding guns. effected of The closing is by means of a lateral shield. exhibited in Paris in 1867. 509 52. 53. loaded at the breech. It weighs rather under 50 tons. on M. This cannon. It is of cast steel. invented by Sir William Arm- & Co. covered French " piece de douze. and was invented by M. projectile. Krupp. which is of the 54. and the shot 1192 pounds. 600 strong Ib. cast in the foundry of M.

Interior view of the preceding shot. Luntenstock French. Linstock (German. . 57. Interior view of preceding shot. chaine 63. Grape-shot Itagel). Inner casing of the preceding grenade. A grenade enclosed in a canvas : this bag. Chain -shot ramfe). Woolwich Arsenal. 64. (German. Shot united together. 60. Trauben- sixteenth century. Grape-shot composed of eighteen balls. . It consisted of sixteen balls placet! around a wooden stem. (French. 62. and enclosed in a bag.510 Projectiles. sixteenth century was discharged from a mortar. 61. Porte-meche). JJ 59. 56. 58. Double shot with connecting rod. 65.

Ztindon the upper part of the cannon. from a manuscript in the ancient library of Burgundy.e. from a MS. till the beginning of the sixteenth century. articulated plate armour characteristic of the latter half of the fifteenth century. of the arms of the Emperor Maximilian I. as may be seen from the drawings. and even as the flint and steel arquebuses and muskets. 4. from a manuscript of the year 1472. (1505). chapter. Hand Fire-arms. though the bassinet has a is The These hand movable vizor. of the end of the fourteenth century. 3. in the library of Hauslaub at Vienna. touch-hole (German. Hand cannon for a knight. cannons were in use at the same time as the serpentine arquebuse. Araenal of Berne. called a petronel (see historical chapter). Hand cannon The for foot soldier in cast iron. belonging to the first half of the fourteenth century. i. and National loch] is 2. .ll The hand fire-arms has been already given at and continued at the beginning of this 1. Hand cannon for foot soldier. The touchhole is on the top of the cannon. Museum of Prague. f.Portable or history of pages 67 to 74. by Glockenthon. Hand cannon for foot soldier.

2 inches in diameter. Eight-sided hand cannon with The touch. of Dresden. of the end of the fourteenth century. Ambras 6. The touchhole is still on the upper part the cannon. Collection. 9| inches in length. This cannon is 54: inches in length. or end of the It is only fifteenth century. In the Germanic Mu- seum. Persian . in the Library of Munich. It is of the end of 8.Hand Fire-arms. Angular hand cannon on stock to be used in defending ram. Gorman hand cannon. Museum 10 B. done in 1505. Gymnasium is of Morat. fixed on wooden boards or stands. is It is a little over 6 feet in length. This piece was used in the defence of Morat against Charles lo Te'meraire (1479). Hand cannon in wrought iron. which stock. of the in fluted beginning of the sixteenth century. to be used by a knight. Museum of Artillery. parts. From the drawof ings of Glockenthon. and the balls or bullets It about 1 inch in diameter.hole. 5. called a petronel. copied from the Schdh-Nameii. and is fixed on to a piece of oak about 5 feet in length. where it is wrongly as- cribed to the fourteenth century. belonging to the beginning of the sixteenth century. Hand cannon with stock. and the touch-hole on the top of the cannon. on the top of the cannon. 7. the fifteenth century. Paris. matchlock cannon. belongs to the first part of the fifteenth century. 10. German hand cannon iron. has a cover moving on a pivot. 9. The touch-hole is on the top of the cannon.

Hand 11. without trigger or spring. Serpentine or guncock for match. Visir und Kern). Hakenbuchse] or hand cannon. with butt end and serpentine lock. as a rule. 2 L . The is match no longer loose. front and back sights (in Ger- man. or beginning of the fifteenth century. 15. but fixed to the serpentine. without trigor spring. 513 Hand cannon on stock. but 16. Serpentine lock. Hand cannon with serpentine. Hackbuss lock with spring and trigger. 13. and it is usually provided with a hook. It belongs to the second half of the fifteenth century. end of the fourteenth. invented about ger the year 1424. spring. a match-holder. without trigger or spring. 14. better made. which springs back by means of the This sort of cannon trigger. Serpentine with without trigger. is generally about 40 inches in length. 18 Hackbuss (in German. Serpentine without trigger. In this piece the touch-hole is on the right side. The hackbuss without a hook is. 12. but with spring. Fire-arms. and was subsequently called arquebuse It had also with matchlock. 17. so that when it is placed on a wall it cannot slip back.

a weapon belonging to the beginning of the sixteenth century. of the "Triumph of the Emperor Maximilian I. loaded breech by means of a revolving chamber. loaded from the breech. Gdbel). Hackbuss and gun fork (German. or for match arquebuse. from the Hackbuss. and was generally used in barrel defending ramparts. falling from opposite points. feet in length. Museum of Zurich a double arquebuse. Double arquebuse (in German. or dogheads. 19. Chinese arquebuse. 20. Arsenal of Berne. 21. . and has a wheel-lock and serpentine. and 10 feet In the is there in length. Tower of London. the was usually from 5 to 6 22. for using on ramparts.514 Hana Fire. was used a long time together with the wheel-lock arquebuse.arms. 23. Swiss arquebuse of the second half of the fifteenth century. had two serpentines. It is of the end of the sixteenth century. from the drawings of Glockenthon it may also be seen in the engraving . This weapon Doppelhahen). Arsenal of Scha/hausen." From this we see that the hackbuss.

27. Eye protector. Museum * It of Dresden. It is entirely of iron. also called arquebuse. and A the barrel 5 inches in It preceded the diameter. who was also said to have invented gunpowder. Serpentine 7. Hand cannon with rasp. The musket is distinguished from the arquebuse by its larger dimenlink or busses.Hand Fire-arms. . by the side of a fleur-de-lys. belonging to a musket in the Arsenal of Geneva. called fourquine in French. 26 Us. This little weapon is about 11 J inches in length.* Tower of London. and appears to have suggested the idea of it. loaded from the breech by means of a revolving chamber. rasp scatters sparks from the sulphurous pyrites by friction. It is also J J furnished with a fork. 26. 25. Tower of London. also called musket. may be noticed that the author has classed all the serpentine and called arquebuses match fire-arms as hackthough they were sometimes and link muskets. and is called Monchslmchse (monk's arquebuse). and bears the initials W. and to have belonged to a monk named Berthold Schwartz (1290-1320). early part of the sixteenth century. Hackbuss or musket. wheel-lock. 515 24. It dates from the year 1537. H. For a very long time it was wrongly thought to be the first fire-arm ever made. Serpentine hackbuss with match. hackbuss with link. * 9 coons. with link.

This engraving costumes. and German arquebusier. Ambras Collection. 28. of Glockenthon of the three Arsenals of the Emperor Maximilian I.516 Hand Fire-arms. while was still very interesting on account of the study of the proves that the simple hand cannon of a large size used along with flint and wheel lock arquebuses. is it . Hand cannon on From the designs rest.

Serpentine hand cannon and German soldier. from the designs of Glockenthon. This weapon appears to have three barrels.Hand Fire-arms. but as only one serpentine most likely the two other barrels were discharged by means of a detached link. spoken of in the preceding page. 517 29. is visible. .

The ammunition pouch The hackbuss has worn on the right side. from the designs of Glockenthon.518 Hand Fire-arm*. mentioned in the preceding pages. German soldier with hackbuss. above the lansquea serpentine or dog-head. 30. is . nette.

which he believes to date from the year 1509. Very elaborate serpentine and wheel-lock.* pieces. 32. 35.Hand 31. Serpentine and wheel-lock. * . Mr. It is in ten and is not at all like the serpentine locks. Same as above (inside view). Fire-arms. Schwefelkies). Wheel-lock schloss'). an English colhas a wheel-lock. Rad- II invented at Nurem- berg in 1515. Pritchett. Key for wheel-lock. 34. (in German. 36. 33. for the match is superseded by the sulphurous pyrites (in German. Same as above (outside view). lector.

It is loaded from the breech by means of a revolving chamber. Rest of wheel-lock musket (in German. of the Paris. Wheel-lock musket of the teenth century. 38.520 Arquebuses and MusJccfs. Museum of Sigmaringen. . six- Museum of Artillery. The Museum a similar one. Musketen Gabel\ of the beginning of the seventeenth century. Museum of ArtiUei y. Wheel-lock arquebuse sixteenth century. Paris. 39. Wheel-lock musket of the sixteenth century. 37. Museum 39 of Sigmaringen. It is about 5 feet 10 inches in length. of Dresden has 40.

way as the The blun- is 27 inches in length. Rest for musket beginning Gabeldegeri). barrel nearly 2 inches in diameter. and re- sembles the preceding one.Arquebuses and Muskets. This weapon belongs to the sixteenth century. Historical Museum of the Moribijou Palace at Berlin. of the of the seventeenth century. and fastened to it is a wheel-lock pistol. It is a three-sided dart of steel damascened with gold. derbuss and Museum of Sigmaringen. Rest for musket. 42. Blunderbuss with wheel-lock covered leathern and copper over with a barrel. . 13. 521 41. about 5 feet 2 inches in length. thick casing in the same Swedish cannons. Collection of Prince Charles at Berlin.

Same as above (inside view> . Flint-locks. or trigger of precision (Stecher in German). Flint-lock. 47. Flint-lock of French gun of tha year 1670 (outside view). 49. invented in the year 1543 at Munich. 48. with the sulphurous 46. Same as above (inside view). between 1630 Ancient model and (out- side view). probably invented in France 1640.SnajoJiaunces and 44. It could be fixed to all kinds of wheellocks. 45. Supplementary trigger. Snaphaunce lock to be used pyrites.


.524 Mint-lock Guns and Revolver Arms.

firing four end of the eighteenth century. German repetition gun. and bayonet gun. Museum 53. German revolver. the organizer of the Prussian infantry. In 1730 an iron ramrod was added to this weapon. grooved and adapted for firing six shots successively. an addition which contributed greatly to the victory of the battle of Mollwitz. of Sigmaringen. Flint-lock 51.Jflint-lock Guns and Revolver Arms. had already introduced the iron rarnrod in his own regiment in 1698. Prince Leopold I. French. of the seventeenth century. time of Frederick the Great. of Anhalt-Dessau. with turning cylinder. Museum of Sigmaringen. 52. . shots. 525 50. of the seventeenth century. Prussian flint-lock and bayonet gun.

.52 b* Flint -lock Guns and Etvolvcr Arms.

Arsenal of Berlin. shots. made on the Lefancheux system. .Flint-lock Guns and B&volver Arm*. Same as above. for 55. Forsyth. 56 A and B. 527 54 Carbine revolver. 57. Eaquette gun of the eighteenth century. invented in 1807 by the Scottish gunsmith. with turning cylinder. firing eight cavalry use. Piston and percussion locks. This engraving represents the gun open and ready to receive the charge. Breech-loading percussion gun. 58.

60. with a gun adapted for repeated discharges. invented by M. The weapon open is repreto sented and ready receive the charge. born in 1827. The gun is represented open and ready to receive the charge. upon the Dreyse model. M. It was invented by Messrs. Prussian need]e-gun. his son has taken up the inven- up. invented by a German named Nicolas Dreyse. This sort of gun was a German invention originally. Spencer repetition gun of the middle of the nineteenth century.528 Flint-lock Guns and Revolver Arms. 52). Dreyse had already made several experiments. but finding it inferior to it his needle-gun he gave tion. and continues ments his experi- . Chassepot in 1866. of his own invention. as may be seen from the weapon pre- served (see page 524. died in 1868. French needle-gun. Spencer of Winchester. 61. Nevertheless. 59. in 1828. No.

pistallo. 2 M . the small hand cannon with a rasp. cannot be called inventions. with a wheel-lock. and not from Pistoja. I i * The Eoman span is about 7 inches. but at Perugia. The coup de poing. and in the introduction to this one. The Mdnchsbiichse in the Dresden Museum. existed in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. for it appears not to have been first made at Pistoja.529 THE PISTOL. This weapon probably derives its name from the word which means pommel. amongst which the Colt revolver is the most celebrated. which is the most ancient weapon of this kind at present in existence. appears to have preceded the wheel-lock pistol. as well as revolver guns. spoken of in the historical chapter. but only improvements on an old invention. of the sixteenth century. is not a modern invention. It is made entirely of iron. a small pistol. that is.* I do not know of a single Museum which possesses a matchlock pistol. and those made at the present day. The revolver pistol. and the barrel is only 6^ inches in length. where they made some small hand cannons a hand's span in length. for the author has one of the same kind. which the Germans call Terzerol.

64. pistol. Wheel-lock pistol of the sixteenth century. and also the Bitter. Wheel-lock shots. 65 . Tower of London. end of the sixteenth of Zurich. century. firing seven Museum of Sigmaringen. or knights. German by 65. similar ones with double wheel-locks and 66. Arsenal The Dresden Mu- seum has some three barrels. This was the sort of pistol used by the cavalry. Double wheel-lock. beginning seventeenth century. 67. 68.530 Pistols. Barrel of the preceding pistol. Wheel-lock pistol with double of the barrel.


Pistols .

invented by Samuel Colt.Pistols. Flint-lock pistol. 72. 70. in 1835. Wheel-lock and mortar It is pistol of the seventeenth century. entirely of iron. Pistol with flint-lock. Le Mat. Colt's revolver. Tower of London. 73. . pistol. 533 69. called in German Katzerikopf. 74. Mat revolver. of the United States. invented a short time back by M. of the Arsenals of Woolwich and Berlin. on the Wilhelmshohe near CasseL 71. of Prague and Gewehrliammer (Museum) at Dresden. Wheel-lock and mortar seventeenth century. end of the seventeenth century. of the Museum beginning of the eighteenth century. Castle of Lowcnberg.

for wheel- Arsenal of Berlin. 7fi 75. Author's Collec- Similar ones are to b seen in the historical of the Palace of museum at Monbijou Berlin.534 Pistols and Various Appliances for Fire-arms. tion. 76. Powder eprouvette with screw and rack. Arquebusier's ammunition bag. and in the collection of arms of the Prince of Lobkowitz at Raudnitz in Bohemia. Same as above. 88. end of the fifteenth century. 81. from the designs of Glockenthon. 78. or appliance trying the flint powder with lock. Priming turn* crew lock pistol. Matchlock case for musketeer. Powder eprouvette with pendulum action. Matchlock case for Bohemian grenadier. Priming turnscrew lock pistols. Ambras Collection. Powder for eprouvette. Collection at Berlin for wheel- Ternow 77. Museum of Prague and Spengel Collection at Munich. . strength of and wheel- 79. 80. 82.

Collection. therefore conclusively that this belt must have belonged to a musketeer. made of inlaid with ivory and gilt copper. Meyrick 87. 86. German powder-flask for arque- busier. 88. It is made of gold. 85. second half of the six- teenth century. and a bug for bullets and links. end of the sixteenth century. This baldrick also fitted with a priminghorn.Belts and Powder. Same is as above. Italian Collection. end of the sixteenth century. as it sules fitted with wooden capis ^German. primer. belonging to a musketeer. Baldrick. or touch-box (Zundpulverflasche).flaahs. Meyrick. . 84. Pulvermassen).* fitted with wooden capsules (PatrotienGurtel in German). German oak primer. or cross-belt. * In loading the arquebuse the We see powder-flask was used.

Museum of Sigmaringen. German powder-flask in ivory. German powder-flask of the sixteenth century. .536 Powder-horns. Museum of Sigmaringen. about 12| inches in length. called Pulverliorri). German powder-horn (German. 92. Authors Collection. iron. Saxon. end of the sixteenth century. 93. The light part of the horn is ornamented with some excellent carved work. Museum of Sigmaringen. 90. German powder-horn of the beginning of the seventeenth century. ornamented with 91. . Powder-flask (Pulverflasche) in boiled leather. German powder-horn ll in ivory. inches in length. It is made of buck-horn. 89. and is 9 inches in length. Museum of Sigmai ingen. of the seventeenth century it is 7 inches in length. It is 17 inches in length. The mountings are in iron. 94.

Fachter of Liege. Bate of England. C. is an explosive weapon. This gun. and became the special weapon of some regiments. John and Nicholas Bouillet of Saint-Etienne. because some of the barrels of these guns are able to contain as many as twenty bullets. Futter of Dresden. Two sorts of air-guns are known of one in which the air is compressed in the butt-end. the other in which it is contained in a copper ball. Windbiichse). Schreiber of Halle (17601769).537 VIII. rpHE air-gun (German. by Contriner of Vienna. ought to be classed amongst the weapons adapted for successive discharges. placed above or below the barrel. Miiller of Warsaw. to be fired in succession without reloading. the use of which is forbidden in France. invented by Guter of Nuremberg in 1560. Vrel of Coblentz. Werner of Leipsio (1750 1780). being compressed by an air-pump. THE AIR-GUN. Martin Fischer of Suhl. which. fired by the air. and others. It was used in tho : Austrian war at the end of the eighteenth century. and improved on successively by Gerlach and by Sars of Berlin. G. Facka Speyer of Holland. is allowed to escape rapidly. . Valentin Siegling of Frankfort-on-the-Main. Gottsche of Merseburg.

.538 Air guns.

In the Museum of Artillery at Paris there are several air-guns with the receptacle for air placed in the butt-end.Air-guns. but bearing the sigas above. is in the Museum of Artillery in Paris. No. Same An air-gun of the same make. 1348. . 2. 539 1. Air-gun. with the receptacle for air placed in the butt-end. Sarsj Berlin. Paris. is on exactly the same principle. 4. 1349. T. No. made by Contriner of Vienna. in which the receptacle for air is placed on the upper part of the barrel. in the Museum of Artillery. 3. C. Air-gun. Arsenal of Berlin. with copper barrel and ball barrel. . nature. the latter is placed below the Arsenal of Prince Lobhowitz at Raudnitz in Bohemia. Air-gun. Arsenal of Berlin.

and even Java had attained to a great perfection in the arts of enamelling. bismuth galena. or Schmelz or Tauchierarbeit} is in laying small pieces and ornaments of black enamel (galena) in precious metals and Galena is a mineral composition of lead. Hindustan. than to the ancients. for it adopted designs \ ^ means a maker of defensive arms. Persia. and northern nations of recent civilization. must not be steel. while an arquebusier was a maker of portable and large firearms. and mock galena. in other materials. At the end of the fifteenth century the embossers of Central Europe had already excelled the Persian and Greek armourers in respect of their art. are very Damasked .* MONOGBAMS. also called Indian or Wootz steel. and damascening. and earthy substances. and at a time when the greater part of Europe made use of rudely-forged arms. On the other hand. The Benaissance of art. can only be said to have brought about a decadence. iron galena. The words enamelling. inlaying. belongs much more to the Christian Middle Ages. confounded with embossed steel.t inlaying ( Taucliierarbeit in German). the influence of which showed itself in an elaborate method of working up details and in beautiful chasings (Ausgestochene Arbeiten). Formerly only a maker of armour was called armourer. Khorassan. sulphur. f Enamel-work (Email. There is an antimonial galena called silver galena.540 IX. and to eastern of '-* people. THE ABT OF THE ABMOUBEB AND ABQUEBUSIEB. and damascening. for it is steel waved or watered in different shades. the knowledge of embossing iron. and had also arrived at the highest degree of art combined with great practical strength and durability of work. INITIALS. rrVELE East has always been famed for the beauty of her J_ pageantry weapons. and making complete suits of articulated armour. /""Damascening on steel is the inlaying of small threads of gold or silver - At the present day the word armourer and offensive (into iron or steel. AND NAMES OF ABMOUBEBS.

who was able to make the bell of a helmet in one entire piece without the aid of machinery. and Germany in the cening was known and practised in Italy. which. Middle Ages and during the Renaissance period. chasing (Ausstechen\ one for the other. they wood and other all mean inlayvegetable matter is Damascus steel is melted steel on which many waved patterns are formed by the presence of carburet of iron. and engravEmbossing (Treiben in German). black. or palladium. which is brought out by means of acids. Damascening is an entirely different w ork from the damas. Clouet. which is done in the following As soon as the blade or plate. being manner only inlaying. which were not at all in harmony with the new inventions and improvements. Other waved or watered patterns are made by means of small quantities of metals. ing on metal. he engraves with a tool the he inlays ^a narrow in the crevice subject he wishes to represent thread of metal. which water the steel when mixed with it. often confounded one with another. for. for beauty of workmanship and for ingenuity of design. will always make an imitator despair. : . though the ing (Stechen). and brown damasks.Armourers and GunmaJcers. Spain. had also in many cases designed suits of armour. There are grey. which he works in with a blunt chisel as soon as the he goes over the whole with a very fine file. even for the common ones. just as inlaying on tailed marqueterie. such as platina. Conleaase. in 1804. and particularly by Stodart and Faraday in 1822. was the first man in France to imitate damascus steel. silver. : workman has fired the steel . guns. The armourer of that time. The town of Liege used the ribbon damask for a very long time in the manufacture of their cannons. the fact is. Guryey. The factories of the Bouches du Rhone sent their damascened blades to the East. 541 of a past age. It was not introduced into France until the reign of Henri IV. and they sold them at an almost incredibly cheap v r rate. and carbines used in hunting. the production of which has been very greatly improved on by Degrand. are words otfen mistaken difference is reat and very important. Damasdesign is filled in.

In Spain. Badajoz. ones were the best. the maker of the famous shield of Charles V. and English workmanship. and for Francis I. ticularly at the period of the Renaissance that Italian armour attained its highest perfection .. As far as regards portable fire-arms. besides which shows us an armourer making a helm this the Weisse Konig. because their signatures are stamped on arms which have been collected from every quarter on account of their superior workmanship. about the end of the fifteenth century. Italy (where pistols were probably first invented) holds the highest place. of the seventeenth century. a Milanese. during the Middle Ages it could not bear comparison with German. copied from those on arms. Saragossa. Antonio Piciniuo. represents the complete workshop of one of these armourers. and farther on will be found more than two hundred monograms. Catugel. Filippo Nigroli and his brothers. who worked for Charles V. Seville. - French. Hispano-Moorish. for sword blades. Italy and Germany have been especially celebrated for the manufacture of defensive arms.5 i2 Armourers and Gunmdkers. Ghinello. Ventura Cani. Mutto. Valencia. Giocatane and Cotel r of the eighteenth century. there is a representation of an illumination of the thirteenth century (p. Cordova. In Italy this manufacture was conducted on so large a scale. and Fiatti. are none of them of an ^ . that the armourers of the single town of Milan were 1 Macalo (1427). Very few documents relating to the armour of the Middle Ages have come down to us. Bernardo Civo. after the battle of soldiers. to which naines may be added _ It was more parFigino. for fire-arms are names that cannot be forgotten. Colombo and Badile. Francino. John Ambrogio the elder. whilst Spain has been renowned for the manufacture of blades. are the most celebrated Italian armourers. which. Pellizoni. however. In the chapter which treats of complete suits of armour of this time. Orgoz. Lazarino Cominazzi. Andrea di Ferrara. and Hieronimo Spacini. and particularly Toledo. Cuella. Saint-Clement. amongst which Toledo . Quenga. Bilbao. 178). a work written entirely by the Emperor Maximilian I.. Madrid. are the cities most celebrated for their manufactories of blades. to supply in a few days arms and armour for 4000 cavalry and 2000 infantry able. Valladolid. Bonisolo. Berselli.

a sum which. The admirable suit for horse and rider in Museum. and Francis L. de Hefner..Armourers and Gunmakers. . as nearly all the industry of the Spaniards was. of Lorenz Plattner. are fairly due to armourers from beyond the Rhine. Kollmann flourished about 1532. the magnificent armours of Maximilian I.Alteneck has published.* 86 of the 170 Indian-ink sketches. which preserved. M. but it must be mentioned that in several of these places there' were some made as early as the thirteenth which was due. Charles V. who held at that time perhaps the highest rank among armourers. 543 earlier date than the second half of the sixteenth century . in The steel. is still armour of great beauty. of which all the defensive improvements. gau. by which riveted mail. or suits a points d'orges. German). appears truly gigantic for a single suit He held one of the highest ranks amongst of armour. H." published "Dessins originaux de maitres Allemands pour Arm ures deluxe by J. were brought within the reach of almost every man-at-arms. and others. by Bruckmann of Munich. century. to Philip of Spain. or rather iron. After Eudolf of Nuremberg had in 1306 discovered the art of wire-drawing (Drahtziehn. representing * destinees a des rois de France. in the fourteenth century. and probably the very invention. however. even then unfavourably influenced by foreign admixture. in Breis- first step in European artillery) was famous already during the second part of the Middle Ages. towards the end of the Middle Ages. and received for this suit fourteen thousand crowns. on which the artist has represented the Dresden the Labours of Hercules. used great measure to the Moors. in these manufactories. German armourers of that time. Wilhelm Seussenhofer. in all probability issued from the workshop of Kollmann. or in the In the hands Renaissance. which date he furnished. had made the at Seussenhofer died in 1547. among others. Germany (where the monk Schwartz t)f Freiburg. of Desiderius Kollmann of Augsburg. a high degree of perfection.. jointed plate armour. and no less so during the Kenaissance period. attained. the taste of which was. rose to the dignity of objects of fine art. bearing in mind the relative value of money at that age. was brought from the mines of Biscaye and Guipuscoa. do Hi fuer Alteneck.

544 Armourers and Ounmal-ers. s I \ v s -*) **&j *&*') i / y \ I .

. which were designed by the painters Schwarz (who died in 1597). selected indiscriminately).. which bear evident traces of having boen used. Van Achen. to the researches of M. and in which all indicates the work of the artists above named.* Spain also obtained from Munich some of the most costly of the suits of armour now in the Armeria real de Madrid. de Werthern. Thanks. government architect at Paris they were all bought in 1840 at the sale of the collection of State Councillor Kirschbaum. died in 1572). Folio. BrocJcberger. hitherto : falsely ascribed to Italian or Spanish armourers.. there marked as Italian and Spanish arms. * These drawings. . however. le Baron G. for the armourers of Munich and Augsburg.Armourers and Gunmdkers. Henri II. and to M. Several other of these designs belong to General von Hauslaub at Vienna. Destailleur. the Prussian photographed at the photographic institute of Frederick Bmckmann at Munich. 545 more than 25 proposed complete suits of armour for man and horse. are the designs for each separate piece in the armours of Francis I. and John Millch (born at Munich in 1517. as known to us through German engravings (vide the last two illustrations. and the Emperor Kodolph II.

546 ambassador." And farther on " M. which have fully confirmed my suppositions. la Anuentas de Por pagas compradas an Aqueta. 755 escudos de oro por diez copas de plata donado warpradoc aqui a razon de 17 y 16 Flonucel marco. Por ciertas armur que ha de hacer Maestre Buffi veino de Lanuete (wheel-lock musket) 1UO escudos de 22 ba9or. le Baron de Werthern : " We had here last winter two of our countrymen. : " Madrid. DE WERTHERN. Munich. " I send you the result of these researches. Armourers and Gunmakers. Friedmann. 100 escudos de oro. Bergenroth recollects perfectly having seen in the records of the reign of Charles V. 30 May. M. 1549. Simancas Estado. 33.. This is the copy of the by M. gave me the idea of engaging M. 1720 due." TEXTUAL AND AUTHORIZED EXTRACT FROM THE ARCHIVES. 15-19. Bergenroth and M.. Brus.. Aug. Fol. " BABON G. and Philip II.. 1565. the style and workmanship of which seemed to indicate the hand of a German influence artist. . 18 Julio. no farther doubt can exist letter written on the matter. Friedmann to examine the accounts of tho reigns of Charles V. 19 Sept. (Signed) " Prussian Ambassador. Bergenroth concerning the of German art in Spain. Por 8 arcabuzes a Pater Pah von Minichen. Augsburg. 1550. capa de don Philipe de Austria principe de Espana. Antwerp. 1549. "He has promised me that on his return next winter I shall have a copy. to see if there were not the names of German armourers who must undoubtedly have been the makers of some of the beautiful suits of armour preserved in the Arsenal of Madrid. Aug. 25 Hebr. Augsburg. 13th April. 1866. who had been sent by the English government to examine the records of Madrid and Simancas. Augsburg. " A casual observation of M. among the archives. several accounts which show also some other names of celebrated German armourers. Leg.

80 escudos.* city it was received with great state. 40 escudos por ciertos 28 Abr. 1551. is that made by the Archivist of Innspruck.. 400 due en Augsburg.. 1551. Another important discovery in the history of original works of art. 52 escudos por ciertos Ascabuzer Aug. the present was finished it was not sent. arquebuzes. 20 Ag. where it is thought .. 1550. 1651. in whicli I. Augsburg.. 22 Oct. bearing on the fame of German armourers of this epoch. escudos por A Colman. 19 Marco. Augsburg. Munich.. 27 Febr. of Innspruck. 200 por unas armas doradas que ha de hacer y 25 por uuas pillar que hin por un harneo bianco que havia hecho para mi personio. had orders to make a magnificent set of harness. 1550. as belonging to Francis II * This suit of be Italian.Armourers and GunmaJcers. ciertas A Maestro Haur (Staur?) de Augusta 50 ducados por armas que muado hacer y quedavoii con il Augusta. A A Peter Pah por quatro carabuzes 41 escudo. 225 escudos. master armourer and heraldic engraver of Ferdinand I. pieces de Malla. 1551. Peter Pah de Munich. Munich. King of France. 1551. which his master : intended for Francis Nevertheless.. il 547 Augsburg. A M.000 que ha de aver por unas arniur que haze pasu mi sevoais. 2 Mayo. A Colman (Kollmann) armero de Augusta 2. 10 Oct. A Pedro de Minich. caused to be removed from the Ambras Collection at Vienna. M. A ^Munich. 30 escudos por un arcabuz y 20 los mogos de Colman de Merced.. 12 Mayo. Aug. A Desiderio Colman armero de Augusta. Munich. 7 Abril.. A Maestro Vulff (Bolfe? Bulf?). 1551. Pedro Mullero de Munich 114 escudos por ciertos Aug. armour is at present in the Louvre. Augsburg. 1550. 650 escudos por una armas. Munich. Maestro Bolfe (Bui/) 250 escudos por unas armas que haee por mi persona 24 mace y 150 mas por ciertas armas que hace por don Antonio de Toledo. 10 de Abril. Sch onherr found amongst the records of the capital of " the Tyrol proof that Joerg Seusseiihofer. cuenta de loque a de aver por unas armas negras que haze para mi Augusta. Munich.. A M. A Camargo por 5 sacabuches (Passauer Schwerte) nor Augusta. and it was this identical harness which Napoleon I.000 escudos de oro en cuenta de 3. Augusta. and sent to Paris. Munich. when I. 1551. Pedro arquebuzes de Minich.

from the Emperor Charles IV. which are preserved in various museums and collections. which have already been spoken of in the first part of this chapter. however. "The beautifully-finished "precision" arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.548 Armourers and GunmaJcers. Another very usual mark is a wolfx* which is believed to have been granted by the Archduke Albert in 1349 to the armourers' guild of Passau '. by his township. where each armourer was obliged to bring his manufactures to be proved and stamped. Passau and Solingen were celebrated at a very early time -p~ for making blades of weapons. For a long time Solingen had its stamp -office in the large market-place of the town. J Two Damascening and inlaying. Arms were also made in the last-named city as early as the latter half of the twelfth century. Georg Springenklee. artist. a celebrated armourer of the town of Piissau. This custom was. the quality of which was as highly esteemed as those of Toledo. when the art was first introduced by Styrian armourers. other sets of harness were. are all of them German. Seussenhofer also made six sets of harness for the court of France. and many suits of armour for the kings of England and of Portugal.. obtained at the beginning of the fourteenth century. but not being finished in time. however. the ornaments were placed on a black ground. In portable fire-arms. in which city the armourers Clement Horn and Johann Hopp flourished at the commencement of the sixteenth century. it is also to be seen on some of the earlier arms made at Solingen. a place famous for its arms as early as the thirteenth century. suppressed by the French. a fact which can be proved by examining the magnificent suits of armour in the Imperial Arsenal of Vienna. and their process was a much more solid one than that adopted by the Spanish armourers. The groundwork of these harnesses was intended to have been in gold. actually made by this and sent to the sons of Francis I. . were carried on in Germany at the end of the Middle Ages. armorial bearings to be used These arms were two crossed swords. with the * The swords with this mark are very much sought after by the inhabitants of the Caucasus. Germany may be said to have no rival.

Armourers and GunmaJcers.


a few Italian and French .exception productions, remarkable for the beautiful chiselling and carving on them.



however, were intended only for pageants and



early as the sixteenth century the manufacture of

arms had spread to such an extent over Germany, that there was not a single town, however small, in which there was not an armourer able to make an arquebuse without the aid of machinery. Valentin, Stephan Klett, and Clauss Keitz,
at Suhl, in the province of Henrraberg, had, as early as 1586, established two such large manufactories, that they were able to supply Switzerland with 2000 fire-arms of different

and 500 precision muskets.


have seen that the

and snaphaunce in the sixteenth century, as well as the air and the needle-

rifling of the barrel had been invented in end of the fifteenth century, the wheel-lock


at the

gun in

later times.

France, which most certainly must have had skilful armourers, has allowed their names to fall into obscurity, for, notwithstanding long researches, I have not been able


either the

armourer of an

earlier date than the

names or monograms of any French commencement of the

seventeenth century. Nevertheless, Chamblay (Oise) was famous in the Middle Ages for the manufacture of certain coats of mail, which ancient authors wrongly describe as having a double mesh, the fact being that there does not exist but one kind of mesh, which is more or less close, according to the fancy of the maker. We may mention that the flint-lock, which took the place of the snaphaunce with the sulphurous pyrites, was invented in France at the beginning of the seventeenth century, but it is not known where or by whom. Amongst the modern French armourers must be mentioned
Delvigne, Minie, Lepage, Gastine-Renette, Lefaucheux, and Chassepot. Amongst the ancient English armour there are some beautiful tilting and war helmets called heaumes, which are noticeable on account of their solid make and great thickness of steel. of the able makers Unfortunately, not a single name of any of these helmets has been found, and the monograms are
also extremely rare.

the names of


Armourers and Gunmakers.

The same remarks apply

Switzerland and Flanders,

though this latter country has held an important place in the manufacture of heavy fire arms ever since the invention of cannons, and at the present day is renowned for hunting appliances and arms, which are manufactured at Liege. The city of Toula in Kussia distinguished itself by its factories for casting arms in the year 1712. The Hindoos had at a very remote period attained a high reputation, particularly for shields. These were manufactured at Delhi, being wrought when cold, in two separate pieces for the centre and the rim, and preserve their traditional
reputation down to our own days. It is a remarkable fact that the more elaborately the Indian shield was ornamented the less was its value, for the inlaid and damascened flowers served but to hide the defects of workmanship. Gwalior and Lushlmr were celebrated for the blades of

weapons, Nurwur and Lahore for fire-arms, Nurwur and Shahjehanabad for damascened arms and coats of mail, as well as for the superiority of their offensive weapons. In Persia and Hindostan the manufacture of damascened

weapons is still continued, and casques, arm-guards, round bucklers, breastplates, and mail shirts (many of the latter being of the class termed grains d'orge), are still produced, the shapes of which rival in beauty those of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The principal manufactories of portable fire-arms at the

end of the eighteenth century were In Germany, those of Saint Blaisien iti the Black Forest, Dantzic (established in 1720), Chemnitz, Essen, Harzberg in Hanover, Klosterdorf, Linz, Olbernhau, Prague, Eemscheid, Solingen, Spandau (established in 1720), Suhl, Teschen, and

Wiener -Neustadt.
In Italy, those of Brescia, Florence, Milan, and Turin. In Spain, those of Esqualada, Oviedo, Plascencia, Sililos, and Toledo. In France, those of Abbeville, Charleville, Saint-Etienne, Haubeuge, and Versailles. In England, those of Birmingham, Sheffield, and London. In Belgium, that of Liege. In Russia, that of Toula.

Armourers Monograms and Names.





of an armourer in the epic


of Percival.

SCHOYT, son of the above (Willehalm, 356-16). KINN DE MUNLEUN, another armourer, mentioned



Monogram found on

tho blades of two swords belonging to the fourteenth century, preserved in the Arsenal of Zurich It is probably the wolf badge, that was used by the armourers of Pussau and Solingen toward the end of the thir,

teenth century.

Monogram of a German armourer, on a suit of armour in the Ambras Collection, No. 87, said to be of the year

Badge or mark

of the embossers (Tauchiere) of





of the beginning of the sixteenth century.


of Solingen this signature occurs on some swords of the sixteenth century in the Museums of Artillery of Paris and

CLEMENS HORUM is the Latin form (or meant as such) of the same name, and it has been found on a two-handed sword in the Museum of
Artillery at Paris.


K. Raised letters on a wheel-lock arquebuse with rifled barrel, of the beginning of the sixteenth century. Museum of Artillery, Paris. AND VV. Raised letters on a wheel-lock arquebuse with rifled barrel, of the middle of the sixteenth century, in the Museum of Artillery,




as above.

F. L. F. H. V. Z. Z.


as above.


Armourers Monograms and Names. PER JUNGE. Name found on a wheel-lock pistol, dated
Raised letters on a wheel-lock with

1569, in

the Tower of London.


O. V. G.
dated 1590.


of Artillery, Paris.


on a sword blade, which has likewise the wolf

The name of this armourer, who lived in the sixteenth century, as well as that of his brother, ANDREAS MUNSTER, ia also The name ot found on some swords in the Dresden Museum. PETER MUNSTER exists al^o on a magnificent sword in the Museum of Sigmaringen.


with a crown above it is the mark of the renowned armourer; PLATTNER, who constructed the armour of Maximilian I., as also the sword of that monarch, both of which are now in the Ambras
It forms the This monogram is not an armourer's. initials of Maximilian II., and was found on a halbard dated 1566.

Museum of Artillery,


Monogram found on

a halbard of German manufacture, of the end of the sixteenth century, bearing the arms of Austria.


of Artillery, Paris.

(J. A. V.) is the name of a celebrated armourer of Munich, lived in the sixteenth century. Many of his works are in the arsenal of that city.


AMBROSIUS GEMLICH and WILHELM SEUSSENHOFER, both of Munich, were armourers of Charles V. (1516 1558), and of Ferdinand I.

JoRG SEUSSENHOFER and KOLLMANN (Helmschmidt*), PLATTNER (makerg of armour) of Augsburg, lived in the sixteenth century, and exported a great quantity of arms to Spain.

FRANZ GROSSCHEDL, of Landshut, lived about the year 1568; to whom the Duke of Bavaria paid 1325 florins for a single cuirass.

MARTIN HOFER, of Munich, lived about the year 1578. ANTON PFEFFENHAUSER, of Augsburg, about 1580. PAUL SCHALLER. about 1606. ANTONIN MILLER, of Augsburg, about 1592. PAUL VISCHER, of Landshut, about 1 600. JOHANN ALLICH. MEVES BERNS, of Solingen.


of helmets.

Armourers Monograms and Names.



of Meseue.

PETER WERSBERG. The above fifteen

armourers' names are to be found on arms are mostly of the sixteenth century, in the Dresden Museum.




is the name of an armourer which has been found on a wheel-lock arquebuse with rifled barrel, the woodwork of which is inlaid with engraved plaques. Mark found on a hunting German arquebuse with wheel-lock, of

the end of the sixteenth century.


Museum of Artillery, Paris. Signature found on a sword of the sixteenth century.

Monogram and

of Artillery, Paris.

German arquebuse
teenth century.

found on a small of the end of the sixof Artillery, Paris.



of German armourer of the end of the sixteenth century, found on the rack of a cross-bow.


as above.


Signature found on a glaive, or sword of justice, of the sixteenth century. Museum of Artillery, Paris.

J, P. 1595.

On a



fire-arm in the

Erbach Collecrifled

H. C. R.

Kaised letters on a wheel-lock arquebuse, with dated 1600.


of Artillery, Paris.


Armourers Monograms and Names.
Monogram :n wheel-lock arquebuse with German '?)
rifled barrelt


as above.

These two arms, in the Museum of Artillery, Paris, may very probably not have been German. JOHANN GEORG HOFFMANN. Signature found on a wheel-lock arquebuse with rifled barrel, in the Museum of Artillery, Paris.

ANDREAS M. SIGL. Same as above. GEORG AND ANDRE SEIDEL. Same as H AND S. Same as above.


1612. Signature of an armourer of Nuremberg with found on an engraved suit of nobleman's armour, easily known in the Imperial Arsenal of Vienna by the peculiar backpiece, which has been hammered into bosses to suit the unlucky

proportions of


patrician wearer.

M. H.




found on a German halbard, dated 1613.*

J, K, 1629.


and date found on a

Museum of Artillery, Paris. flint-lock gun, in the Erbach


Monogram from

a German halbard, which also has the arms of the Prince Palatine, Duke of the Deux-Ponts, and the date 1613.


of Artillery, Paris.

Signature found on a wheel-lock arquebuse with There is a similar signature on another rifled barrel, dated 1616. arquebuse of the same sort, dated 1621. Museum of Artillery, Paris. H.F". 1638. Found on some fire-arms. JOHANN KEINDT, of Solingen. Signature found on a soldier's sword, belonging to the first half of the seventeenth century.


f LEGER. Signature rifled barrel, dated 1632.

Museum of Artillery, Paris. found on a wheel-lock arquebuse with


of Artillery, Paris,


date appears to


doubtful, for the flint-lock was not intro?

duced into France

about 1640. t Sic in orig. : but quaere if not a printer's error for Hieronimus TRANSLATOR'S NOTE.

Armourers' Monograms and Names.
T. A. M. H. V. Initials on



a fire-arm in the Erbach Collection.

German arquebuse with

wheel-lock, used


It is dated 1656.

wheel-lock arquebuse.

Signature of a

Museum of Artillery, Paris. German* armourer oil a


Museum of Artillery, Paris. Signature on an arquebuse with rifled barrel, dated Museum
of Artillery, Paris.

barrel, in the

of Frankfort, 1063.
fire-arm in the


a fire-arm with rifled

Erbach Collection.



On a



I lL


probably, of the

Emperor Leopold (16GO


on a breach-knife (German).


of Artillery, Paris,


On a wheel-lock arquebuse, used for hunting, in the Arsenal of Berlin.
SOMMER, of Bamberg, 1685, famous for his arquebuses. Signature on the rifled barrel of an arquebuse dated



of Artillery, Paris.


a fire-arm in the Erbach Collection.
rifled barrel,


Signature on an arquebuse with


Museum of Artillery,

Signature on an arquebuse with

rifled barrel,


ICH ULRIOH TILEMANN, of Marburg, 1676. lock gun in the Erbach Collection.

of Artillery, Paris.

Signature found on a


at Prague, second half of the seventeenth century.

Tower of London.
NIC. MARKLOFP, of Hanau, 1680.





in the




ETCH, seventeenth century

the signature


in the


of Artillery, Paris.



r Signature found on a cross-bo w dated 1669. Museum of Artillery, Paris,


man was

probably Swiss.


Armourers Monograms and Names.

1677. The signature occurs on both a small and a large rampart gun, dated 1677. CLEMENT POETER, of Solingen. The signature occurs on a sword of the seventeenth century. Museum of Artillery, Paris,



of Mossbrunn, armourer, engraver,
signature occurs on

and etcher of



an arquebuse with

barrel, date 1684.


of Artillery, Paris.

LEONHARDIES BIESLINGER, of Vienna. Signature on an arquebuse with it is dated 1687. rifled barrel, and serpentine match

DANIEL ECK, of Nordlingen.
rifled barrel,

Museum of Artillery, Paris. Signature on a wheel-lock arquebuse

dated 1668.

Signature on a musket with

of Artillery, Paris.
rifled barrel, of the


end of the seventeenth century. Signature on a carbine dated 1675. Tower of London. 1678. On a harqtiebuse in the Tower of London. p. V, SIMON KUEF, or RVEF in Filwang(?). Signature on a wheel-lock arquebuse with rifled barrel, dated 1689.

H, P.

United in a monogram


another mark On the same arquebuse.

A. WASUNGEN, 1690.


a flint-lock gun in the Erbach Collection.

buse with

rifled barrel,

Signature of an armourer on a wheel-lock arquedated 1691. Museum of Artillery, Paris


Signature on a wheel-lock arquebuse with dated end of the seventeenth century.

BAISSELLMANS SCHACHNER, of Innspruck. with rifled barrel.

of Artillery, Paris.


a wheel-lock arquebuse

buse with

Museum of Artillery, Paris. Signature of armourer on a wheel-lock arqueSignature of armourer on a wheel-lock
rifled barrel.

rifled barrel.


of Salzburg.
rifled barrel.

arquebuse with

of the


a wheel-lock arquebuse with

buse with

of Artillery, Paris.



Signature on a wheel-lock arque-

rifled barrel.


of Artillery, Paris.

Armourers' Monograms and Names.
\vith rifled barrel.


Signature on a wheel -lock arquebuse


of Artillery, Paris.

T. P. C, D, G, E. B,
the Erbach Collection.



found on a



chase, dated

Signature on a suit of

German armour.
No. J, Towtr of London.

Armourer's name on a flint-lock gun for the




Tower of London. on a German spontoon of the reign of Charles VI. (1711



of Artillery, Paris.


of Charles VI.


These two monograms occur on a German spontoon they are the initials of Marie Therese and Francois of LorThe last is raine, who married the Empress in 1738.

very similar to that of the Palatine Charles Theodore. Museum of Artillery, Paris.

Escutcheon on a German boar-spear used
the seventeenth century.


hunting in

Museum of Artillery,

Signature on a wheel-lock arquebuse of the eighteenth



Museum of Artillery, Paris. Signature on a small German sword belonging to a Prussian officer of the reign of Frederick II. (1740

UTTER, of Warsaw.

Signature on a wheel-lock arquebuse with


barrel, dated 1759.


of Artillery, Paris.

The initials and the signature of a German A. JOSEPH GRAF. armourer, found on a carbine.

TURSCHEX-REITH. Inscription on a carbine. ULRICH WAGNER, of Eychstett. Same as above. HARTMANN. The name of a German armourer who worked in Amsterdam. In the Museum of Artillery there is a flint-lock musket by the same maker.


Armourers Monograms and Names.


Signature on a wheel-lock carbine, dated 1797. Tower of London. DANIEL HEISCHAUPE, of Ulm, an armourer of the middle of the eighteenth century. He made the flint-lock carbine preserved in the Museum
of Artillery in Paris,

marked M.



Signature on a flint-lock carbine.

EOKAUT, of Prague. Signature on a flint-lock carbine. PCERTTEL, of Dresden. Signature on a flint-lock carbine. JOHANN HEREITER, of Salzburg. Signature on a carbine with
barrel in the



of Artillery in Paris.

RIEGEL, of Zweibriicken, an armourer of the eighteenth century, whose signature is on a flint-lock gun in the Museum of Artillery, Paris.




Signature on a

SPAZIERER, of Prague.


German hunting-gun. Museum of Artillery, Paris.




of Artillery, Paris.



of Artillery, Paris.
of Artillery, Paris.


of Ottingen.

ERTEL, of Dresden.




of Artillery, Paris, and also Erbach Collection.

CHRISTIAN, of Vienna.

G. F. L. L. hunting-gun.
I .

M. 1297, Museum of Artillery, Paris The initials of an armourer of Bayreuth on a German


of Artillery, Paris.
of Artillery,

of Vienna.

Signature in the



Museum of Artillery,



KULNIC, of Munich.


of Artillery,



the eighteenth century.

of Artillery, Paris.

VALENTIN STEGLTXG, of Frankfort-on-the-Main, maker

an air-gun


Fi. BOSIER, of

of Artillery, Paris.
of Artillery, Paris. of Artillery, Paris.
of Artillery, Paris,


VREL, of Coblentz.


GERLACH, of Berlin,


Armourers' Monograms and Names.


GEBLACH, of Meerholz.


of an air-gun.


MULLER, of Warsaw.

CONTBINER, of Vienna.

of Artillery, Paris.

STEPHAN STOCKMAR, of Potsdam, died
his guns.
J. C. SABS, of Berlin, celebrated for his air-guns.

of Artillery, Paris.

in 1782


he was celebrated

C, Z, with

half a carriage wheel, is the badge of the manufactory of ZIEGLEE at Dresden, in the eighteenth century, famous for sword

VALENTIN MAKL, a German armourer, who lived
signature occurs on a flint-lock pistol.





of Artillery, Paris.

A. KUCHENREITER, of Regensburg. Signature on a flint-lock This armourer is held in very high repute in Germany.


of Artillery, Part's.


a flint-lock gun, early present

Museum of Sigmaringen.
I. I.

BEHR. Signature on a rampart gun of the eighteenth century, (See page 560).

MAY, of Manheim. Same as above. GEORG KOINT. Same as above.
Signature on a rampart gun, dated 1793.

Signature on a rampart gun. C. NUTERISCH, of Vienna, is an armourer of the second half of the eighteenth century, whose signature is on a carbine. Tower of London.


0, E.
H. T.


Initials of

an armourer on a



in the




BELEN, ALGUSTE HORTEZ, F. G. GrRz, ISIDORE SOLER, N. O. and F. R. Bis. are all German armourers, whose names and monograms, as they occur on the arms preserved in the Almeria Eeal of Madrid, nve been given by Don Jose' Moria Marchesi in the table of monograms of armourers who lived at Madrid from 1684 to


MANUEL SOLER, MARTIN MANUEL, SAMUEL TILL, and FERDINAND DEZ .names of German armourer* collected from the list of armoureia who vitiitf'i Madrid, collected by the same author as above.


Armourers Monograms and Names.

HfiiNBiCH ALBRECHT, of Darmstadt.

ANSCHUTZ, of Suhl.
AKGEXS, of Stuttgardt.


DAVID ARNTH, of Mergentheim. V. BARTHOLOMAE, of Potsdam.
BAITMANN, of Villingen.

BEHR, of Wallenstein.




BERG ii.
CALVIS, of Spandau.

CLAUS, of Halberstadt.




DINKEL, of Hall. Erbach




KBERT, of Sonclcrshausen.




ECHL the elder, younger, and ECHL (von der), of Berlin.

third, of Berlin.

LEOPOLD ECKIIAKD, of Prague. M. FELBER of R-ivensberg.
of Fiirstenau.

of Furstenau.



of Berlin.





Erbach Collection. Erbach STARK.Armourers? Monograms and Names. of Altburg. J. Erbach TOLL. of Cothen. of Spandau. of Dolp. of Sclimalkalden. STACK. GORGAS. PRESSELMEYEB. M. 0. MANFBIED REICHERT. of Bamberg. DAVID REME. Erbach ZURICH. \ Collection. Erbach Collection. Erbach CHRISTIAN VOIGT. in Lippe-Detmold. Erbach J. of Perleberg. of Vienna. Erbach J. VETT. . of Vienna. Collection. J. WAAS. of Ballenstadt. PFAFF. Collection and Dresden Museum. RASOH. WALSTER. PETBE SAETER. of Saarbruck. PFAFF. of Posen. AND. 561 GEORG. of Brunswick. JUAN ZERGH. of Willingen. TANNER. QUADE. of Ballenstadt. Collection. JEAN GRENET. of Carlsbad. of Vienna. J. RISCHER. of Stuttgardt. of Sahl. Erbach Collection. of Eberndorf. of Vienna. KENEB. of Cassel. WEBTSCHGEN. Collection. Collection. of Carlsbad. Jos. ULRIOH. C. A. RECHOLD. POTZI. Collection. Erbach Collection. POLZ. of Lemgo. of Carlsbad. Collection. ROSCHER. Erbach GOTTSCIIALCK. Erbach Collection 2 o . PieroR. Erbach JOH. Erbach Collection.

HIRSCH. of Cotheii. SCHACKAU. MULLER. LICHTENFELS. of Grambach. JACK. Erbach H. . JUNKER. HARZ. of Carlsbad. Erbach Collection. LIPPERT. MATHE. Museum KEMMERER. of Bonn. of Bamberg.562 Armourers' Monograms and Names. of Wisterberg. a German armourer established at Warsaw. DAMIEN MARTER. of Posen. C. Collection KAUFMANN. HAUSER. SCHIRRMANN. of Wurzburg. of Ratibor. GEORGE KAYSER. G. SCHEDEL. Erbach J. of Stuttgardt. Erbach Collection. KRAWINSKY. KNOPF. of Zelle. MARTER. FR. KALB. SPALPECK. of Cranach. HEBER.Van der). of Bernberg. of Carlsruhe. of Vienna. of Potsdam. KLETT. Collection. of Thorn. Erbach Collection. Collects LAMMERER. CHRIST. SCHULZE. of Vienna. Erbach Collection. Erbach JUNG. MULLER. of Artillery. of Stettin. JAIEDTEL. H. of Manheim. KLEINSCHMIDT. Paris. of Breslau. Erbach Collection. J. LIPPE (. of Cranach. Erbach Collection. of Salzthal. of Vienna. KAPPE. SCHRAMM. maker of a double gun with damasked barrel. of Cologne. of Steinau. GEORG KECK (17691782). F. KRUGER. of Speier. of Basewalk.

in the Museum of Artillery. JOHANNES DE LA ORTA. of Wiesbaden. of Brandenburg. Signature on a rapier marked No. B. of Gassel. OTTO. though a little varied. which. Paris. Museum of Artillery. which has also the arms of the Montmorency family. They are the first letters of the words Senatus Populus qne Romanus. of 1475. a celebrated armourer of the sixteenth contury. A. NEUREUTER. S. ORTEL. AND KAMI'S OP ITALIAN ARMOURERS. in a monogram of about ditto. DANIELO DE CASTELO MILANO. $. A. found on a weapon in the Dresden Museum. B. Paris. wrongly classed among Spanish arms. belonging to the middle of the sixteenth century. Najoie of an armourer in the Dresden Museum. of Milan. Signature on a damascened hunting weapon Dresden Museum. Monogram of an Italian armourer of the beginning of the sixteenth century. JOHANNES DE L'OBTA. is wrongly said to be that of a Spaniard. of Berlin. 1480.Armourers Monograms and Names. London. It is called the Scorpion mark. of the beginning of the seventeenth century. B. NORDMANN. found on an Italian gisarme in the Soter Collection at Augsburg. preserved in the Tower cf * . OIT. of about 1522. PHILIPPI NIGROLI. 9 563 JOH. Signature on a sword of the middle of the sixteenth century. ANTONIO ROMERO.. St Pi Ri Initials found on a round Italian shield. INITIALS. M. MONOGRAMS. ditto. ANTONIO PICCININO. of Salzburg (a very famous maker). of Dresden. in the author's opinion. The same signature. established at Amsterdam. in the Q BARTOLAM BIELLA. NAUMANN.

and on a gun of the eighteenth century. lived about 1640 . Signature on a wheel-lock arquebuse. Museum of Artillery. Signature of a celebrated armourer on some pistols in the Sigmaringen Museum. Monogram of armourer on a Venetian sword. GERONIMO MUTTO or MOTTO. O ANDREA. JOHANDY. of Rome. COLOMBO. both lived about tho and were celebrated lor their flint-lock CARLO CONTINO. Name of an armourer found on a Erbach Collection. Tower of London. . Signature on a pistol of the eighteenth century. Museum of Artillery. Signature on an Italian wheel-lock arquebuse. LAZARINO COMINACO. LAZARO LAZABONI. Signature of the same armourer on a wheel-lock arquebuse of the second half of the seventeenth century. GEO. FKANCINO. Paris. Signature on a wheel-lock gun. Paris. a small musket. No. Paris. LAUO ZAHINO. or LAZARO LAZAIUNO. according to the signature on a gun in the Tower of London. No. of the second half of the seventeenth century.* of the claymore shape. J. Name found on an Italian musket of the seventeenth century. of Spezzia. his fire-arms. gun in the * These sorts of swords were used by the guard of the lio&se'. Paris. Signature on a pistol of the beginning of the eighteenth century. A pistol with the same signature id in the BOKSELLI. and on a pistol. LAZARINO COMINAZZI (sometimes COMMAZZO). 118. in the Museum of Artillery. tire-arms. Signature on a pistol. preserved in the Museum of Sigmaringen. latter part of the eighteenth century.564 Armourers' Monograms and Names. wrongly called a claymore. of Venice. M. MATTEO BADILE. of the seventeenth century. an armourer of about the year 1740. Paris. were called Schiavona. Museum of Artillery. of the middle of the eighteenth century. GIOCATANE. VENTURA CANI. as well as on a flint-lock gun in the Erbach Collection. the Museum of Artillery. he was celebrated for of Ferrara. BAT. of the second half of the seventeenth century in . JJARTOLOMEO COTEL. ANTONIO BONISOLO. Same as above. 113 and 1285. and POSTINDOL. Paris. of Brescia. Signature on a sword. and a wheel lock arquebuse. of the beginning of the seventeenth century. in the Museum of Artillery.

From this we learn that several of these armourers worked also at Madrid. C. The following are the monograms : .Clement. and their stamps. Cuella. was made about the year 1533. the wolf or the goat (No. Saragossa. in the Spengel Collection at Munich. Badajoz. MARTINEZ DEIVAN. 76. in raised letters on some arms in the Dresden Museum. Name of an armourer of the sixteenth century. as well as their monogram.Armourers Monograms and Names. and Bilbao. in the Dresden Museum. Orgoz. Seville. and the No. A. and Saint. 9 565 MONOGRAMS AND NAMES OF SPANISH AND PORTUGUESE ARMOURERS. engraved either on the blade or on the tang. who has made an exact copy of the records of Ayuntamiento. Of the 99 monograms the most sought after are the scissors (No. Lisbon. Valladolid. The name of an armourer which occurs on the crossThis I. Saint-Clement. MORA. JUAN VENCINAS. bow of Ferdinand With regard to the armourers of Toledo we know the names of the most celebrated. used by Lupus Aguado. about 1586. JOHANNES RUCOCA. thanks to the work of Don Manuel Eodriguez Palarnino. SEBASTIEN HERNANDEZ. 21). 59). weapon THOMAS DI AJALA. about 1599. Saragossa. but the principal towns that were celebrated for the manufacture of Spanish arms were Toledo. Cuen9a. The Spanish armourers used often to have their name. found in the Museum of Dresden. from the second half of the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. Seville. found in the Museum of Dresden. Catugel. in the Dresden Museum. Cordova.

A A A .566 Armourers Monograms and Names.

Anton Anton Guttierrez. Andres Martinez. lived about 1570. senior. Saint-Clement. 12. junior. and they have been placed in the following order : 1. Orgoz. Catugel. son of Zabala. Badajoz. Alonzo de Sahagun. Cuella.Armourers Monograms and Names. Alonzo de Caba. lived about 1570. Madrid. 2. Andres Herraez. 5. 3. Guttierrez. Saragossa. Antonio de Buena. 11. who worked at Toledo and Catugel. 6. . 567 All these monograms belong to the armourers of Toledo. 8. and Bilbao. Andres Garcia. Seville. who worked at Toledo and Ctier^a. 7. 10. Alonzo de los Rios. CuenQa. Andres Munesten. Valladolid. 4. Alonzo Perez. who worked at Toledo and Cordova. Cordova. 9. Alonzo de Sahagun.

Joannez Joannez Joannez Joannez de la Horta. brother of Antonio. 53. who worked at Toledo and Saint-Clement. 29. Maleto. Juan Martin. senior. Francisco Ruiz. 45. junior. Gonzalo Simon. 27. Joanuez. ]!>. 21. Juan de Alman. Francisco de Zamora. who worked at Cuella and Badajoz. 22. Ditto. Juan de Lcizade. who worked at Toledo and Madrid. 54. de Alquiviva. 35. 16. ditto. 49. 40. senior. 59. who worked at Toledo 30. 60. Domingo. Juan Martinez Menchaca. Domingo Rodriguez. senior. 43. Domingo Maestre. Julian del Rey. Juan Martinez. 23. Francisco Ruiz. C. who worked at Toledo and Seville. Anton. 18. 56. 46. Hortuno do Aquirre. 24. Favian de Zafia. 52. 41. Juan de Vergos. Juan Martus de Garata Zabala. de Toledo. 32. who worked at Toledo and Cuen^a. who worked at Toledo and Seville. son of Pedro Toro. junior. 58. 36. Joannez Uriza. 57. Domingo de Lama. 15. 51. 55. 38. and Madrid. 44. junior. 26. 14. 33. who worked at Toledo and Valladolid* Ditto. who worked at Toledo and Lisbon* Juan Ros. ditto. Francisco Lourdi. who worked at Toledo and Saragoaw. senior. Juan Martinez. who worked at Toledo and Madrid. Gil de Alman. Juan de Toro. Giraldo Reliz. Francisco Gomez.568 13. sou of Hortuno. Domingo Corrientez. Domingo di Orosco. Francisco 31 . senior. senior. 34. Juan de Maladocia. Domingo Sanchez Clamade. 47. 25. Julian Garcia. 48. 37. 17. 50. Juan Ruiz. 61. of Aquirrc. ditto. who worked at Toledo and Lisbon. Alcado di Nieva. Francisco Cordoi. Bartholome di Nieya. Armourers Monograms and Names. 28. Juan de Salccdo. Ruy. 42. 39. . Francisco Perrez. who lived about 1545. 20. Adrian de Lafra. Julian Zamora. Domingo Maestre. 62. Josepe Gomez. de Alcoces.

Armourers' Monograms and Names.
Josepe de la Hera, 64. Josepe de la Hera, 65. Josepe de la Hera, 66. Josepe de la Hera, 67. Josepe de la Hera,
63. senior.



grandson. great-grandson. son of Sylvester.

68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78.

Ygnacio Fernandez, senior. Ygnacio Fernandez, junior. Louis de Rivez. Louis de Ayala. Louis de Velmonte. Louis de Sahagun the 1st. Louis de Sahagun the 2nd. Louis de Nieva. Lupus Aguado, who worked at Toledo and Saint-Clement. Miguel Cantero. Miguel Suarez, who worked at Toledo and Lisbon.

ditto. 79. Ditto, 80. Nicolas Hortuno de Aquirre. 81. Petro de Toro.

82. Petro 83. Petro

84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90.

de Arechiga. de Lopaz, who worked at Toledo and Urgos. Petro de Lopez, who worked at Toledo and Seville. Petro de Lazaretta, who worked at Toledo and Bilbao. Petro de Orezco. Petro de Vilmonte. Rogue Hernandez. Sebastian Hernandez, the elder, who lived about 1637. Sebastian Hernandez, the younger, who worked at Toledo and

Seville. 91. Silvestre Nieto. 92. Silvestre Nieto, the son. 93. Thomas Ayala, who lived about 1625 (a fine sword by this armourer is in the Munich Arsenal). 94. Zamorano, surnamed El Toledano. 95 to 99. Five monograms belonging to some armourers of Toledo

whose names are unknown.


Armourers' Monograms and Names.

Marks and monograms of armourers who lived at Madrid from 1684 to 1849. A list of these was published in 1849 " by Don Jose Maria Marchesi, in his Catalogo de la Eeal Anneria ;" they belong to the following German and Spanish

Armourers Monograms and Names.






LOPEZ (F. E. C.) LOPEZ (G. E. E.) SANTOS (S. E. V.) Soro (JUAN DE). TARGARONA. ZEGARRA. ZULOAGA, and some others, as AUGUSTE HORTEZ, ISIDORE SOLER, BELEN, N. O. and F. K. N. Bis, German armourers established




(on a sword).

DANIEL DE. COM. (on a dagger). LEON (on a dagger). JOAN DE OIPE me fecit (on a cross-bow).

SALADO (on a fire-arm). These six names of armourers are mentioned by the same author, and all of them occur on arms in the same
armoury, but with no indication of epoch or nationality. APORICIO (A.)














Armourers' Monograms and Names.

SOLER (MANUEL), German. TIL (M. S.), German. These twenty-one names of armourers are to be found in the list of names and monograms in Marchesi's book, where they are described as having worked for a short time at Madrid no date is mentioned, but they have all been found on arms which are in the Museum of Madrid.

With regard to the marks and monograms which have been collected at random from swords, daggers, lances, hal" Armeria bards, bucklers, etc., in the Real," and published without any notes respecting the time of by M. Marchesi, their manufacture or nationality, I have not tKought it necessary to speak of them here, as they could be of no
historic use.


is the name of an armourer on a fowling-piece of the sixteenth century in the Museum of Dresden.

BASTTAN ARMANDO. DE PEDRO DE BELMONTE, armourer of the king. HISPANGO. C. A. MofcA (1586). FRANCISCO, ANTONIO, and FREDERTCO PICINO are armourers of Toledo of the sixteenth century; their named occur in the Museum of Dresden, but they are neither in the records of Ayuntamiento, published by Manuel Rodriguez Palamino, nor in the catalogue of



Armourer's mark found on a suit of Spanish armour richly inlaid with gold, of the sixteenth century, in the Arsenal of Vienna.


of the end of the sixteenth century, was also, according to Jager, one of the most celebrated armourers of Toledo his name has been omitted in the list of records.


at Toledo about the last years of the eighteenth century. CAMO. Name of armourer on a sword of the seventeenth century, in the Museum of Artillery, Paris.

and V.


Monogram and initial on a Spanish partizan of the beginning of the seventeenth century.


of Artillery, Paris

Armourers' Monograms and Names.


LASINTO LAUMANDBEU, of Manresa he worked about the year 1739, according to the signature on a revolver in the Tower ot London.
G. MOBINO, a Spanish armourer who signed and dated (1745) a gun now in the Tower of London.

T\<n)/T Monogram
found on a suit of French (?) armour of the reign of Louis XIII. (16101643), in the Museum of Artillery, Paris. It is marked in three places.

r^ *> ^

Monogram found on a

hatchet with hammer and long handle, a weapon which appears to be Uurgundian. Collection of Colonel Heyer-Bfermann at Lucerne.

Monogram found on a sword





of the reign of Louis XIV. 133, in the Museum of Artillery,




pistols in the



Signature on a wheel-lock arquebuse of the first half of the seventeenth century. Museum of Artillery, Paris. ABBOTS, probably the name of the town of Arbois, found on a cuirass of the sixteenth century.


of Luneville. lock, dated 1627. in the


found on an arquebuse with wheel-

Name of an armourer of the seventeenth century, on a pistol Museum of Artillery, Paris. PIEBRE BABOY, who died at Paris in 1780, was the inventor of an
ingenious four-barrelled flint-lock gun, which
is in

the Arsenal of

PIEBBE BEVIER, a watch-movement maker and armourer of the beginning of the seventeenth century, invented a double pistol-lock of
peculiar character, in the


of Artillery, Paris.


freres, of

XV. (1715 DE THUBAINE, of Paris, made XV. (17151774).'

Saint-Etienne, were armourers in the reign of Louis 1774;, celebrated for their air-guns.

a flint-lock carbine in the time of Louis

BBEZOL-LAINE, of Charleville.


Name of armourer found of Artillery, Paris.

on a blunderof a

MABCHAN, of Grenoble, armourer of the eighteenth century, maker flint-lock gun in the Museum of Artillery, Paris. #


Armourers' Monograms and Names.

PHILIPPE LE SELIER, armourer of the eighteenth century, and maker of two flint-lock guns preserved in the Museum of Artillery, Paris. There is another in the Erbach Collection.




of flint-lock pistols of the eighteenth cenId.

LIOUVILLE, of Paris.

LAME, of Mezieres, maker of flint-lock gun in the Erbach Collection. Id. CHATEAU, of Paris BOUTET, armourer of Marseilles, end of the eighteenth century

FRAPPIER, of Paris.


a pistol in the


of Artillery, Paris.




on a

pistol with flint-lock, in the

Museum of Artillery,

J BAN DUBOIS, of Sedan.



an armourer on a

Signature of an armourer found on a large rampart gun, brought from the citadel of Blaye. Museum of Artillery, Paris. GIVERDE, HILPERT and RUBERSBURG, of Strasburg, were armourers celebrated for their fire-arms in the latter part of the eighteenth

HUBERT, of Bordeaux.



On a flint-lock gun in the Erbach Collection. JEAN GRIOTTIER, maker of a double-barrelled gun in the Erbach

JEAN RENIER, armourer of the middle of the eighteenth century, whose name is engraved on a pistol in the Museum of Artillery in Paris.
rifled barrels so that the ball

since 1826 has been continually improving on need not be hammered with a mallet.

celebrated for their breech-loading guns.

In addition, MM. ROBERT MANCEAUX and VIELLARD, and last of all M. CHASSEPOT, are names well-known in the army for their improvements
in fire-arms.

RADOC, an armourer of the end of the sixteenth century, whose name is known on account of a payment which was made to him by the chamberlain of the city of Norwich, as compensation for changing the wheel-lock on a pistol for a snaphaunce.

MULER is the name of an armourer on a musket with rifled which is ornamented with the arms of England and other inlaid work. It is probably of the reign of James II. (16851689).
barrel, the stock of


nf Artillery, Parit.

Armourers' Monograms and Names.
with a crown,


is the mark of the company of armourers London of the reign of George I. (1714 1727).


A. R.

initials are on two rampart guns of the years 1739 1740, in the Tower of London.


STEPHEN, of London, an armourer of the end of the eighteenth century, whose name is on a wheel-lock gun, as well as on an air-gun, preserved in the


of Artillery, Paris.

N. THOMSON, born in England, and established at Kotterdam, about the end of the eighteenth century, celebrated for his fire-arms.

BATE, an armourer whose name
air-gun in the
piston gun.


engraved on the supposed lock of an


of Artillery, Paris.

FORSYTH, a Scotch armourer, who invented in 1807 the percussion

JOSEPH EGG, an English armourer, who was inventor of the percussion

Mark found on a Swiss halbard

of the fifteenth century, in


the Author's Collection.

Mark found on a Swiss halbard
the Author's Collection.

of the sixteenth century, in

Mark found on a

partizan, probably of the beginning of the sixteenth century, in the Collection of Colonel Meyerat Lucerne.


description as for preceding one.

ZELL BLASI, 1614. Signature on a serpentine in the Arsenal of Bale. WYS, of Zurich, who died in 1788, was celebrated for his fire-arms. STRANGLE and MICHEL, father and son, who lived in the last years
the eighteenth century, were celebrated for their fire-arms.



Armourers' Monograms and Names.

FBORRER, of Wiuterthur, and HUSBAUM, of Berne, were celebrated at the end of the eighteenth century for their fire-arms.
VITT, of Schaffhausen.


a fire-arm with rifled barrel, in the Erbach

FAULT, of Geneva, who invented about the year 1808 a percussion-gun which differed from that of Forsyth, and which was a breechloader.

JACOBUS VAN OPPY, of Antwerp. Signature on a rampart gun of the middle of the seventeenth century, in the Tower of London.

JOHANNES WYNDD. Found on an infantry sword of the seventeenth century, which has the badge of the hare.

Artillery, Paris.

J. 103, Museum of Artillery, Paris. Signature on a flint-lock gun and on a pistol of the end of the seventeenth century, in the Museum of


of Liege. Signature found on a pistol with flint-lock, of the eighteenth century, in the Museum of Artillery, Paris. L. GOSUNI, of Liege. Signature on a musket. of Maestricht.



Collect ion.


of Maestricht.

Id. Id.

on a flint-lock gun.


of Utrecht, on a flint-lock.

MERCIEB, of Liege, on a double-barrelled damasked musket. FACHTER, of Liege, celebrated for his air-guns.

FACKA SPEGER is the name of a Dutch armourer, occurring on an airgun of the eighteenth century, the air-chamber of which is in
the butt.


of Artillery, Paris.

a large number of Christian and Turkish arms taken from the ancient church of Saint Irene at Constantinople, where the Arsenal of Mahomet II. was. The arms may be of the end of the fifteenth, or beginning of the sixteenth century. The mark is not an armourer's badge, but probably the stamp of the Arsenal, and means, in Cufic character, Allah. This monogram is also on u janissary's cuirass in the Museum of Artillery at Paris.


Armourers' Monograms and Names.
HUSSEIN, of about the year 1094 of the Hegira (1680).


This mark is supposed to have been on sword blades that the Crusaders had had either made or stamped at Jerusalem. I have found it, however, on a sword in the Arsenal of Berlin, the handle of which indicates the sixteenth



name of a town in Central India where there was a manufactory of fire-arms in the eighteenth century. This name


has been found with the
the date


A. D.

of the armourer, and


of the

Hindoo era (1786 of the Christian


on a gun with match-lock in the Tower of London. SHAHJEHANABAD. The name of a town of India where a manufactory of arms once flourished. The name occurs on some damascened armguards, at present in the Tower of London.

GWALIOR and LUSHKUR are names of towns famous for their manufactory of blades. The names frequently occur on the weapons, and that of


occurs on fire-arms.



and date engraved on a halbard in the of London.



latter part of the

Signature found on a cuirass in the Tower seventeenth century.

date, about the

by the

on a

side of a punch mark in the shape of a swan, engraved pistol in the Museum of Artillery, Paris.


Signature on a wheel-lock pistol of seventeenth century date, in the Museum of Artillery, Paris.


Monogram on a bayonet

of the time of Louis




of Free Tribunals (Felimgeri elite) (the must be ascribed to the disorder and excessive consequent from a rigid enforcement of the feudal system) does not date as far back as Charlemagne, the period usually assigned to it ; but there is little doubt that it practically resulted from the want of harmonious legislation in the wide dominion of that monarch. Notwithstanding the partial enforcement of the Jus Romanum, the remembrance of national rights claimed and exercised in broad daylight by freemen (the origin of trial by jury), as well as that individual character which is so innate in the Germanic races, gave rise, as soon as regular justice had been rendered nugatory by physical force, to this speedy and terrible means of administrating justice, a law at once secret and powerful, and which romance has clothed with

THE subdivision origin of which

buch terrors and mystery. If, as has been lately shown, many places where these tribunals used to sit were openly known, historical researches have yet failed to disprove their secret administration of justice, as well as their summary and dread punishments. The " Eedland," a name used to designate, in the symbolical

language of the members, Westphalia, the place where these secret tribunals were first organized, and where every magistrate or free judge (Frelsclwffe) was enrolled and initiated, was literally a laud dyed with human blood.

There is also tolerable proof that a large number of courts organized in addition to the regular courts, used to sit in In places known only to the initiated (die Wissenden). such places hatred, envy, and private vengeance, had full scope for action under the mask of justice. The arms attributed to the tribunals of Free Judges are rarer in collections than the instruments of torture used by

Arms and Monograms

of the Free Judges.


them to extort confessions from their victims, and even these few, as well as the alphabets, ciphers, and marks, are of very dubious authenticity. The dagger with three forks belonging to the Museum of Signiaringen, and attributed to these Free Judges (Fehmrichter), is in every respect similar to the mains gauches with springs, which were in use from the fifteenth to the seventeenth centuries.


Arms and Monograms of the Free


Executioner's sword of the Free Judges. On the blade are engraved three circles, the centre one being described around a Greek cross with four crescents,

and possessing a symbolical meaning in these secret tribunals; the other two have an S
inscribed in each, these being the initial letters of the words
Sacrificiuin Sanrtum.


of Sigmaringen.


Dagger of the Free Judges, with an inscription nearly obliterated.
blade divides into three on the pressure of a small button which communicates with a spring. It is probable that this weapon was used in administering an oath in the name of the Trinity. Its length is about 18 inches.


Museum of Sigmaringen.



cross (about 8 by 15 inches) of the Free Judges. It was in use among them as a sign of the justice of their tribunal. It was usually inserted in a tree above the victim, and was also employed in summoning the accused to appear before his judges. In the latter case the cross was inserted in the door of the house or castle above


summons (Ladung}. Museum of Sigmaringen.

The double S

separated by a cross generally supposed to denote, as mentioned above, Sacrificium


s. .+. 581 by The three following alphabets are supposed to have been used three of these tribunals (Freistiihle) in Westphalia : s.Arms and Monograms of the Free Judges.

fr H L -v fl V *? T 90 7\ .582 A 9 O & K f ? 6 J.

and greased to stop all .Advice to Amateur Collectors. should be immersed from eight days to a month in a bath of benzine. and again moistened. which would be further action. should be exposed to the air for one or more days. after being dipped in this corrosive solution. and easily removed by wat^r. a view to avoid the constant cleaning which iron stee l arms nave usually to be subjected to. every portion touched by the ink will be kept free from rust. Bteel . while the acid eats away the rest of the surface. essential oil. it is iron. In order to rust pieces of armour which have been restored. muriatic acid diluted with water should be used. All arms elaborately damascened. ADVICE TO AMATEUR COLLECTORS. and afterwards rubbed briskly with woollen rags.Every piece of armour after being cleaned should be dried before a fire. 583 XI. amelled. previously diluted in essential oil. or en- TTTITH VV or damaged by rubbing with emery. To obtain little inequalities in the surface. . Steel can easily be distinguished from iron by dropping on the polished surface a little diluted sulphuric acid . if the liquid produce a black stain. engraved. Through this all the niceties of workmanship can be clearly seen. until the required amount of oxydization is obtained it should then be rinsed in spring water. and to produce cavities such as accumulate through age. due to charcoal. . Iron. it will be necessary to sprinkle the iron with lithographic ink . the metal is if the stain be greenish. and lightly moistened with oil. it is advisable to cover them with a light coat of colourless copal varnish. and spirits of wine. Iron is easily cleansed from rust by rubbing with emery powder or paper which has been dipped in a composition oi petroleum or benzine. polished.

is Cast iron. which in some counterfeit productions difficulty distinguishable with from wrought iron. has often puzzled amateurs. The file must be used to detect the grain. . appears at once coarser and brighter. and which can even be rendered malleable.584 Advice to Amateur Collectors. which. when subjected to the microscope.


Abyssinian arms. 265. 60. 487. 352. 156. 195. manufacture of arms 550. 25. 487. 500. 416. 283. 95. 441. 121. 346. 270. 518. sculptures at. a*id Babylonian weapons. 198. Armorial bearings. 322. 211. 552. 465. 416. Armstrong. 418. Amussette of Marshal Saxe. Albanian arms. 538. 9. 308. 419. 222. 100. 110. 196. 218. 109. 318. 503. Air-guns. 124. see Acinace. 365. for horses. 349. 501. 247. 194. 22. Museum of. at. 368. 551 to 557. with rifled barrel. 520. 84. collection of the Archaeo73. 205. 325. Arinet. Antenna. sa coat of arms. pavois. 238. 462. 127. 216. 582. 416. Arquebus. 537. 68. 581. Aretin. 445. 381. 160. of the Renaissance. 50!). 196. Baron. of the iron age. 353. . 106. 49. sculptures in the. logical Society in. with wheel lock. 150. Augsburg. Akinace. 145. 401. 129. 248. 188. Alphabets of the Free Judges. Gustave. 204. 29. 360. 75. 77. Amentum. 168. 304. 329. 330. 539. 323. 278. with snaphauuce lock. Arnaut. 214. 493. American arms. 471. 365. 364. Arosa. 349. Museum of. 534. 512. 16. 109. Assagai (lance). 351. Armet in leather. Alliambra. 68. found from page 551 to page ABBEVILLE. 297. 377.INDEX. Ant were. 100. Armour in detail. 480. 455. 303. Arab arms. 423. 328. city 193. An^lo-Saxon arms. 168. Ambras Collection. 487. 378. 59. 372. 278. Anelace. 69 and 70. 392. 47. Avenches. of the stone age. 517. 336. antiquities in the of. NAMES of armourers and gunsmiths will be 557. with matchlock. 516. 393. Arm guard. Armourers. of the Christian middle ages. 13. names of. of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. see their names. Amsterdam. of bronze and iron. 487. 88. Arms Amalzen (monk). 407. see Albanian. Acinace. of different nations. of the bronze age. 396. 273. 28. 167. Assyrian and Babylonian equipments. 414. Angers. 378. 347.

Bilbao.' 431. 335. British 269. 247. 253. Buff coat. 432. 376. 423 Calthrop. arms in.449. 166. 257. 363. 465. Az Collection. Arsenal of. Brayette. 455. Belvedere. Museum of. 545. 312. 103. 258. 344. Baldrick of a musketeer. 504. 539 Library 420. 465. Barbed bolts. 350. Basilics. 454. see Munich. Calibre. 137. Capsules for muskets. 409. 78. 179. 72. hand. 484! Cabassets (casques). 262. Bayon. 39$. 249. 259. sculpture at. 136. 73. Bayonet. 61. 326. 352. of.>0. 440. 24. 253. 14. 294. 257. 181. 366. 354. Brockberger. 521. Museum of the. Buskin. 110. at. Bridles and bits. chymist. Braquemart (sword). 398. 78. Basle. Camail. 22. Museum. 106. 490. 276. 495. Bouldure (chymist). 535. 367. 356. 374. 398. 409. 171. leather. Arsenal of. 383. Aventizum. 116. 105. 348. 511. 278. 405. Bassinet. 72. 64. 157. ^Cannons. Berne. 105. . 309. bassinet. 360. Besieging basket. Bohemian arms. 315. 483. 259. 130. 379. 373. 63. 15. 419. see 587 Avenches. Arsenal of. 115. 95. Berthollet (chymist). Bessettes (of a bridle). 6(?. 15. Battering rams. ( Barde (horse armour). 434.287. Burgundian arms. 349. 349. 174. Bombardus (cannons). 317. Bavaria. 268. 415. Bastardeau. 258. 550. Cap in mail. Breastplate. 66. 246. 301. 439.471. 420. 267. 542. 535. 66. 492. 267. 153. Museum of. 255. 70. 87. 450. 229. 444. 44. 124. 138. 272. 49. 166. 407. 344. Brittany. 437. 154. Bergbarthe (miner's hatchet). 550. 490. 11.440. 23. 167. 468. 442. 254. 441. 363. manufacture of arms at.Index. 277. 108. 270. 293. 318. 227. 43.416. 261. 274. 112. Blind. 442. Belgian arms. Birmingham. 276. Bonstetten Collection. 375. 481. Museum of Montbijou at. 371). 39. 300. 290. Baclajoz. 440. 542. 61. 31. 93 to 100. 401. 257.84. 77. 347. 113. 346. . 168. 15. Museum of. 226. 492 to 509. 72. 534. Brioude. 155. 445. manufacture of arms Caparisons. small. mural paintings in the Cathedral of. 65. 367. 56. 114. 109. Berlin. Brunswick.550. British armour and arms. Beejanuggur. covered with 462. 172. 238. 180.361. large. Bardiche (pole-axe). 511 to 517. Buchholzer Collection. 263. 177. 246. small. 394. 504. 294. 149. Brazilian arms. Blow-pipe. 368. 423. 485. 250. 448. Bogaert Collection. 405. 245. 399. 251. 174. Bayeux tapestry. 375. 293. Bore (of a cannon \ 4 . 440. Bi-lobed sword. 453. 363. 349. 37. 72. 26. 30. 455. 267. Brigiintine jackets. 43. Balista. 162. manufacture of arms at.442. Boss of shield* 113. 418. 388. 249.

see Scandinavian. 133. 316. 10. 479. 47^ 477. 58. 318. Destailleur Collection. Chain shot. 71. 384. 550. 58. Catugel. 43. collection Demmin Collection. 365. 405. 556. arms. Crupper. 320. Charles XV. Daggers. 131. 527. manufacture of arms at. 454.. 409. Casques. 58. 385. 353. 528. 464. 299. 521. 26. 31. 74.. 441. 71. 400. manufacture of arms at. King of Sweden. Doghead. 477. 394. 481. 41. 540. 58. lection of. 22. 140. . 496. 474. Cascabel of the cannon. 402. 490. Anna. Cassel. 66. Christy Collection. 202. 78. 380. Cuissards. 112. Charles II. Caucasian arms. Claymore. 58. 236. 344. 379. Centurion. 36. 510. 164. Chainbly. 474. of Versailles. Cordova. Cartridge. 53 A. 488. 71. 478. Chemnitz. arms of. 262. Museum 268. Index. 542. 121. 127. 78. 413. er cuishes. 114. see Assy326. 121. Chassepot. 444. 36. 441). or croupiere. 316. Epinal Museum. 324. 391. Erbach Museum. 473 to 482. with latch or windlass. 226. Celt (weapon). 344. 104. 374. manufacture of arms at. 193. Museum of. 480. 437. 58. 286. Colt. rian.Danish arms.442. 169. 123. 101. Culeman Collection. 411. 393. 78. Denon. 480. 371. 173. Chevaux de frise. Chinese. from the antique. afc. 79. 15. 231. 465. 455. of. 364. 12. 133. 440. 512.485. 246. 555. 302. 363. 345. 475. Elbow-shaped cannon. 484. 132. to shoot pebbles. Cuirasses and coats. 234. Dutch armour. Cremation. Dress (of a diver). 218. 549. 151. 'Dhilderic. 379. 326. 550. 237. 392. % Catapults. 455.514. arms of. 275. Divers objects of war and chase. 389 561. 155. manufacture of arms at. 440. arms of. 103. Comnena. 418. 370. Cliarleville. 101. Chinese arms.82. 158. barrelled. 143. 235. 454. revolver. 335. 135. or prodd. Museum of. with goafs-foot lever. 157. 83. 374. 118. 399. 317. of. 396. 426. 349. 340. 73. 239 to 287. Charles. 318. Clouet. 77. 291. Dacian arms. Chamfron. 368. damascener. Prince of Prussia. 553. Colichemarde (sword).. Museum of. Creese (dagger. 419. 368. 423. 545. 14. 244. Dresden. 301. Damascened work. Dolmens.588 Carbine. 351. Carlsruhe. <fCross-bow. 135. . 58. 489. 69. 319. 274. Copenhagen. 515. 133. 139. Egyptian equipments. 407. 462. 348. 481. 325. 8. manufacture of arms 542. 141. 83. 56. 347. 413. 367. 280. 481. 131. 472. 4. Compenhouten. 218. 475. 309. 185. 475. Darmstadt Library. 82. 36. Chaldean equipment. 317. 36. 357. 536. col. German. 310. Cluny Museum. 259. 551. 533. 30. Collar. 533. 15. 69. 560. 74. 55. Charlemagne. 327.

mitten. Fire-chamber. 75 to 79. Forsyth. 573. shield. 487. bolt. 328. 156. 78. 153. 385. 131. at. 64. Flails. Museum of. revolving. 230. 202. 574. 286. 576. 334. 216. Fiery cross-bow fish. Gun-carriages. 71. 231. Halbards. 424. 186. 316. Ferguson. 202. 129. Hamata. equipment. . Hallstatt cemetery. 157. 421. ferreus. 281. 550. 114. Geneva. 517. 482. armourers. 32. 64. Free Judges. 510. 437. 108. armourers. 164. equipment. Gunpowder. needle. 512. 418. 278. 213. Falcon or parrot-beaked war-hammers. 170. standard. 522. 149. 46. 154. 443. 196. 198 199. ooO. Essen. 512. 528. 200. 452. 201.Index. Guard and counter-guard. 578. 72. 61. 150. Flint weapons. Gambeson. 206. 431. fixed. 483. or Gamboison. 222. Fore carriages. 64. 175. 331 to 336. to 84. shot. percussion locks. 33. 453. Frankish arms. 329. 388. 156. 519. 488. 259. 528. 61. Geneva. Flaming dagger. Guard for the arm. Museum of the. . 495. 337. Failly Collection. 490. Porte de Gauntlet. 487. 425. 211. movable. Fourcroy. Golden casque. 438. 208. Grape at. Fulminates. snaphaunce locks. 525. Guns. 447. 450. 330. 16. 169. 130. and on almost every succeeding page. articulated. 32. German arms. at. 354. 436. 231. 209. 144. Flanchard. Gallic arms. 269. 197. 203. 265. 89. manufacture at. Hall. 80 Flissa. wheel lock. - Fragment of Frame work cuirass. for the leg. 181. armourers. helmet*. manufacture of 550. 219. for hats. manufacture of arms 550. polished. 405. 430. 487. arms Florence. 72. chipped. 165. 90. Germanic Museum Germanic arms. 432. 520. Garde reins. 488. Gun. 170. 389. 525. 48. 182. Gisarmes. of arms Esqualada. raquette. match lock. Francisque. Greek arms. 353. 550. 514. Greaves. 28. 402. 28. repetition. 369. Flemish arms. Fork of a gun. 204. Gwalior. French arms. helmet. 151. 525. 157 163. b52. 527. Flint-lock gun. 106. Hague. 409. see Calthrop. 15. Fluted armour. 205. 176. 72. 589 Museum of. 195. 134. 515. 456. Handles fof the cannon). 168. 42. Museum of the 66. 91. 525. 78. Forks. military. 77. 64. 194. 212. 178. 437. 36. at Nuremberg. Fribourg. 395. 27. Hameus 29. on wheels. 272. manufacture of arms Etruscan arms. salade. 82. 551 to 563. 150. 83. Arsenal of. 155. 527. 335. 174. 550. 169. 210. with flint locks.

collection in the Tower of. 87. 11. 220. manufacture of arms 550. Lucerne. 497. 138. Iron hand. Arsenal of. white. Hindoo arms. 456. 540. 497. Hauberk. at. Keltic arms. 129. Iberian arms. 462. Index. 106. Klosterdorf. 471. 98. Japanese arms. Hungarian armour. 541. 250 to 255. 78. 105. at. 135. 108. 215. 135. 365. 564. 274. 219. 463. 299. Helvetian and Swiss arms. 475. 118. sculptures in the cathedral of. equipment. 351.465. 80. 487. 371. 421. 87. 183. 495. 155. 4G3. 359. 472. 319. 93. Liesthal. 109. double. 134. 78. 514. 327. 431. 530. 321. 272. 250. 26. 150. 315. Lahore. 454. 550. Joust. 131. 309. 550. 439. 325. 73. of. 376. 99. 26. 100. 375. 187. 157. 110. Javanese. 405. 154. 83. Lobster tails. 459. 285. 543. 82. 167. Koukri. 447. Arsenal of. Italian arms. 255. 395. manufacture of arms at. 378. Liutz. 87. 450. 414 to 419. 405. Latch cross-bow. Kandgiar. 264. 149. Harquebus. 402. 340. Liege. Leathern casque. 246. 277. small. 545.Al tern 'ck. 83. 286. 144. Ilungul stones. 170. Khorassan. 344. Lacustrine dwellings. 445. 184. Lausanne. 11. 284. 96. Museum of the. 20. 311. Lochaber axe. 496. Jackets. 535. swords. Kitchen midden. Heimburg. Ivory arm brace. Louvre. 413. 325. 413. 154. 144. 157. London. Kabyle flissa. 375. . 155.429. 339. 433. 440. 511. Khouttar. 83. 108. Lances. Hauslaub Collection. 479. 285. 458. 337. 480. 432. 321. 286. 442. great. 97. 315. 122. 278. 426. armourers. 465. 487. 360. 20. 440. 533. 344. 253. 314. Javelins. 499. 244. 454. 375. 391. 394. 132. 87. 471. 155. 24. 42. Heaumes. 344. 15. 354. 440.472. Lowenberg Collection. Klemm Collection. Museum of the city 77. Langues de boauf daggers. 273. 15. Hewitt. 315. Kensington Museum. for horses. Indian or Hindoo arms. 286. 258.590 Hanover. 207. 550. Guelph Museum 301. Janissaries. 240. 319. Imbricated coats. manufacture of arms at. 471. 192. 123. sculptures at. 111. for horsemen. . Hildesheim. author. 391. 495. 260. 373. 513. at. 272. 550. 221. manufacture of arms 550. 31. 295. Hefner. 433. 563. 262. Collection. Leggings. 550. Museum of. 69 to 72. 398. 257. 83. 550. Knout. 395. 418. 341. 552. 150. Locks of firearms. 464. Harzberg. Hoplites. 533. 151. 413. 53. Hastarius. Hunting spears. Incendiary torches. 78. 431. 515. 297. 550. manufacture of arms at. 364.110. 449. 348. 108.

183. . death. 327. 542. 411. Musket with wheel lock. 245. 110. 183. 74. 182. 552. 235. case. 171. 302. Museum of. 276. 324. 274. 110. bird bolt. 131. Malta. 405. 423. 374. 352. coat. 447. 512. 515. at. Muzzles for horses. 318. 550. 377. 59. Naples. 91. 421. tilting with. 378. 351. 83. 191. 439. 29. 520. Morning 321. 821. Maximilian armour. Museum of. Monograms of armourers. 390. 55. Museum 108. 347. 400. 345. 413. 249. 412. 100 of 169. 344. Matchlock Massettes. 368. 135. 256. 483. sculptures at. Mains gauches. Museum of. 457. Napoleon III. Nieuwerkerke Collection. 276. 495. 155. 528. 237. 320. 165. Misericorde (dagger). 170. 344. 202. 316. at. 422. 480. 89. 12. 285. gymnasium of. 535. 67. 440. Bishop's. 257. 134. 282. 38. 197. 172. 360. of. Olbernhau. 155.471. Neuveville Museum. 262. 314. Mortars. 317. Mundoneda. 300. 407. Norman arms and equipments. 360. 550. 252. 375. 281. Neuchatel. 488 to 497. 238. Nuremberg. 360. Morions. 380. double. 69. Ossine. 302. Armeria 387. of. 437. Cabinet of engravings at. 374. 441. 377. 114. 184. 238. Mail. 187. 409. Lund. sculptures at. 15. 315. 316. 389. of. 290. 109. 70. 296. 149. 251. 446. 153. Mexican arms. 197. 118. Meiningen. 411. Organs. 378. 411. 444. 311. 15. manufacture of arms 550. 217. Museum 355. Onagre. 65. 384. 379. Morat. Library 421.115. Maces. 236. 65. 300. 258. 425. Museum of. Monchsbiichse. Macled coat. 401. 420. Mackay. Baron. 427. 11. 285. General.Index. Mahratta arms. 84. 421. 262. Matras. 429. 417. 321. 357. 591 154. manufacture of arms at. 551 to 577. 321. 488. Meyer Biermann Collection. painting at. 324. 15(1. 550. 313. 88. 357. 13. 499. 439. manufacture of arms at. Germanic 359. Ocrese. Arsenal of the city at. Neville Museum. 351. Milan. Mantle. 310. 484. 285. Museum 550. manufacture of arms at. of. Meyrick Collection. 375. 512. 346. 130. Maubeuge. Naumbourg. 121. star. 445. 362. at. 163. 323. 323. 82. Madrid. Olivier de la Marche. 113. 363. Merville Collection. 184. the Muyenfisch. 434. of. 578 to 581. Obsidian. 454. Orange. 346. 280. 76. Odet Collection. Mongolian casque. collection Emperor. 412. 276. Needle gun. 351. see Persian. Mayence. Arsenal of.. Oil paintings. Arch of. 534. 430. 354. 298. 123. 316. Mazis Collection. 277. manufacture of aims Munich. 275. 40. of the Free Judges. National Museum of. 436. 155. 78. 477. 90. 137. 440. Lushkur. Median equipment. 302. 409. Mundavien. manufacture of arms Lyons. 432. Nurwur.

115. 258. Persian arms. 399. Prague. 285. Pavois (shield). 409. 109. 533. Pas d'ane Ranseurs. 577. 14. 202. 558. 322. 285. library at. 152. 395. 67. 27. 527. 451. Palettes. 378. Passau. 122. 49. 383. 390. 559. manufacture of arms at. 235. Pennated dagger. 394. Padua. 409. 274. 396. at. 574. 365. 103. Pot helms. Receipts for amateurs. 293. 573. 347. 387. 387. Peabody. 121. 266. 229. 348. 349. 372. manufacture of arms at. 30. 481. 249. 35. 282. 251. 112. 197. Polish arms. 278. 548. 363. 446. 550. Imperial Library 166. 12. Pennons. 409. 135. 68. Passot. 228. 327. 575. 123. 66. Index. 455. 300. 447. 388. 295. 520. 436. Cabinet of Medals at. 536. 397. 301. 535. 283. 427. 282. Rapier. Oziersky Collection. 441. Raquette gun. 114. 296. 211. Pikes. 284. 431. 273. 378. Prisse d'Avesnes. 108. 203. 359. 227. 320. 35. Plascencia. 261. 204. 78. 420. 113. 497. 418. 34. 67. 413. 372. Paw-shaped soierets. 511. manufacture of 550. 124. 73. 254. 262. Puyse'gur. 105. 554. Pistol. epe'e de. 398. 177. 385. 365. 413. 268. 263. 550. Peascod armour. 440. Paris. 259. . 155. 550. 389. 223. leather cuirass. collection of anna at. . 482. 437. 556. Quadi equipment. Powder horns and flasks. 253. 234. 3<Jl. 427. 238. 448. Museum 268. Penguilly THaridon. Polygar arms. 217. 272. 12. 154. see Assyrian. 369. 401. 232. 445. 144. 73. 346. 252. 550. 242. Ratisbon. 357. 412. equipment. ancient arms. arms at. 69. 251. 341. 244. 153. 74. 539. 462. Library of the Arsenal at. 125. 512. 471. 479. (of a sword). 29. 71. Partisan. 156. 557. 564. 348. 563. 580. 286. 385. of. 364. 281. manufacture of arms at. 576. 298. Petard. 370. 429. casque. 539. 392. 110. manufacture of arms at. Remschied. Library of. 334. 115. 121. 378. 189. 255. 321. 340. 354. Poignards. 450. 320. Poulaine. 135. 294. 81. Potronel. 303. 292. 276. 374. 555. 293.592 Oviedo. 415. 387. 297. 376. 250. 389. 269. Museum of Artillery at. Quarrels. Pilum. Puffed armour. 442. 529. coat of mail. 323. 327. 144. 400. 553. 425. 416. Perugia. 552. 321. 68. Pyrites. 96. 428. 325. 534. 351. or bolts. 551. 483. 407. 111. 198. 266. Pear-shaped casque. 260. 439. 471. Parazonium. 248. 71. 109. 368. 134. 211. 230. 582. Raudnitz. 535. 392. 284. 419. 203. 264. Quillons (of a sword). 65. 425. 445. 151. 380. 150. Pulvermassen. 321. 384. 227. 572. 442. 206. Polyspastes. 270. Paixhans. Parham Collection. 277. 280.

580. Ringed coat. Roman arms. Solerets. 386. Samnite arms. 262. Bodies. 440. 510. 259. at. 437. 431. 388. 314. 130. 84. Sollen Collection. Sheffield. 550. 65. 370. Snaffle. 359. Scimitars. 449. 313. 288. hand cannons. Clement. Rustred coat. Rodolph of Nuremberg. Sacken. 378. 427. 161. SchwL-rin. Castle of. 144. 273. 181. manufacture of arms at. 322. Schaffnausen. at. manufacture of arms *42. Sabre. 292. 318. 359. 152. 400. 510. 231. 384. 291. 169. 451. Shot. 371. 348. 454. 472. 326. 593 Renne Scramasax. Scala librorum. 409. 550. Soleure. Serpentine cannons. 346. 12. boar. 129. 41. 418. armourers. 63. 530. 44K 2 Q . 388. with connecting conical. Skirted armour. 293. 520. 25tf. Spandau. 269. <. 355 to 360. Ribaudequins. 188. Salades (casques). 15. Saddles. 155. Schiavona (sword). Scaled coat. 565 to 573. 182. Sclavonic arms. 365. 316. 393. 313. red hot. 231. 116. Scottish arms. 55. Romano. 63. 504. Baron. 35. Saragossa. 237. Rondache. 389. 366. 337 to 341. 152. 501. cannon. iron. 423. 139. 442. 50. 525. Collegio. 195. 73. 393. Soltikoff Collection. 211. 550^4. Snaphaunce. 500. 155. Spears. 117. of. 379. 347. Revolvers. 157. Museum of. 144. 407. 123. at. 226. 297. 412. manufacture of arms 550. 17B. 189. Russikon.^173. of. 150. Scaling ladder. 543. 444. 245. Museum of. 15. Library 244. 283. 542. 151. 2H. 525. 432. 367. 527. Salzburg. 35. Spanish arms. 418. 122. 428. 262. 465. 267. Seville. 521.Index. Museum of.536. 156. 153. 268. 542. 77. 166. united together. Skull cap. 124. Small buckler. 164. 10. 10. Arsenal of. 63. 64. Six Collection. chain. Shahjehanabad. Gall. of. 370Sabres of Mohammed. Museum of. 466. 455. 388. 436. 270. Germain. Schiespriigel. 48. manufacture of arms at. 431. 416. 384. Collection. Museum 84. 416. 405. 510. Sigmaringen. 256. Saracenic arms. 125. link. 153. Soter Collection. 131. 179. Maurice. 363. 185. 441. Museum 150. 63. 13. 74. 472. curiosities found 165. Size of men in the Middle Ages ? 45. Sedan. 393. 15. Signum. 428. Shoulder plate. 121. 517. 162. 387. 283. Saint Blaisien. 348. 128. 362. Sling and staff sling. Savoyan arms. 437. - Scandinavian arms. 73.!& Scorpion. 550. 542. 294. 445. 347. 134. 325. 260. 25. 122. 49. 529. manufacture of arms at. 500. 449. 268. 261. 63. J32. 424. Etienne. 383. 15. 409. Span. Russian arms. 464. 411. leaden.

206. 22. 436. 71. 237. 342 to 340. 284. 104. 389. of. Spontoons. 457. 254. hammers. Vamplate Vannes. 209. Touarique arms. of. 377. 455.594 531. King manufacture of arms at. of lance. 489. War engines. 478. 269. at. Wiener Neustadt. 116. Tormentum. Spurs. 208. 428. 192. 108. 110. Valladolid. drums. sculptures at. 73. 255. Arsenal of the city of. Waldburg-Wolfegg. see Collection of Charles XV. Gewehrkammer of. Museum of. 455. Theodosian Column. 72. 71. 238. Museum of. 210. 418. 82. Library 443. 300. Tombs.413. 165. Toledo. 392. 369 to 399. construction of. 548. 270. 409. Veuglaire. 298. 384. 550. 433. 332. 483. 220. Spengel Collection. . 419. 109. 228. Touch-hole. 118. 397. 132. 298. 323. Tyrolese bolts. 435. Tortoise. 260. Swiss Arsenals. Imperial Library Industrial 186. 361 to 368. 498. 167. Library of Troyon Collection. 407. Weapons in flint. Voulge. 440. Tilting heaumes. 54. Vauquelin. 393. Turin. 149. 235. 122. 31. 13. 69. 401. 442. Strasburg. 413. of. 535. 351. of. 82. 50. 43. 222. 402. Turin. 229. Swords. 199. Targes. 275. 27. Sweden. 75 to 84. Winglets. 387. 542. 163. 369. armourers. Vigna Ammandola. 269. glaive. carbine of. or surcoat. 550. 228. Museum Prince. Umbrians. 412. Sword-breaker. 201. 444. Valencia. 113. 399. Index. Cabinet of Antiquities at. 103. Villaseca Collection. 279. 12. 238. Armeria 273. of. 429. Imperial arsenal of. 271. 133. Waffenrock. 455 to 465. 213. Ternow Collection. Tzarskoe Selo. 575. 61. Tang (of a sword). Velites. 55. 423. 534. 153. hats. 181. 135. Venice. 15. 71. 32. Touch-box. Szokau. 212. 15. of. Tail guard for horses. 235. 10. Museum Vauban. Squamata. 431. Volant piece. 550. Arsenal Stuttgard. two-handed.285. 117. 427. 423. 294 to 298. Stirrups. Turkish arms. 236. 550. Surcoat. 441. 215. 84. 202. 445. 29. 380. 29. 411. Strap of buckler. 542. Museum 270 Teschen. 129. Tassets. Wolf mark. 263 to 269. 324. 255. 451. 283. 353. 301.409. 302. 266. Tzagra. 15. 61. Vienna.391. 109. 437. Museum of the Belvedere at. 125. 576. 550. 448. Stiletto. Versailles. 275. 473. 179. obsidian. 221. 302. 181. 131. 159. 436. 126. 454. 379. Terzerole. Wagnuk.

504. Yataghan. 416. : W. Museum of Antiquities at. Zauguebar sword. 66. 322. 431. 394. 157. 83. 397. STAMFORD STREET..E. 595 25. 155. DUKE STREET. 84. Zurich.Index. 483. 463. 150. LIMITED. Wooden swords. Arsenal of. 395. AND GREAT WINDMILL STREET. . LONDON PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS. 266. 396. S. Zend language. 442. THE END. 383.







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