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1. INTRODUCTION Unfortunately a large number of goats are reared in India for the sole purpose of slaughter.

This policy is encouraged by the government in spite of the fact that those people who keep goats do not have any land. The goats graze in the forest and hillsides of common lands and cause a great degree of deforestation by eating the young plants and environmental degradation. In fact entire hill ranges like that of the Aravalis have been completely denuded by goat grazing. However, since goats cannot be wished aw ay, the animal welfare person must learn to deal with their health and management and to see that they are not ill treated - specially during their transporation to slaughterhouses and killing. General goat terms: A female goat is called a doe, males are bucks, and the young are kids. A healthy goat These are the signs of a healthy goat : - Eyes - clear and bright. Tearing or cloudy eyes probably means a pinkeye infection. - Coat - smooth and shiny. A dull coat could indicate parasites. A fluffed up coa t means that the goat is not feeling well. Pc1\D\baby\statis\Animal-hus\book3.p65 - Good appetite - however, it is normal for a doe in labour to refuse to eat. - Alert attitude - a hunched back and droopy tail means that something is wrong. Goat Statistics - Body Temperature: 102.5 F-104 F - Pulse/heart rate: 60 to 80 beats per minute - Respiration rate: 15 to 30 breaths per minute - Puberty: 9 to 12 months - Estrus ("heat") cycle: 18 to 23 days - Length of each "heat": 12 to 36 hours - Gestation (length of pregnancy): 150 days - Breeding season: goats usually go into heat between August and January. - Weight: An adult doe weighs between 125 and 200 pounds. An adult buck weighs between 200 and 300 pounds. Teeth and the age of the goat The eight teeth in the lower front jaw of the goat can help you to tell the goat's age. They are not an exact or perfect guide, as various factors like diet influence the growth of the teeth. Also, every goat is an individual just like human beings. A goat's teeth may grow and fall out at slightly different ages than the teeth of any other goat. There are no upper front teeth in the goat's mouth; instead it has a tough toothless "dental pad". It does have teeth on the top and bottom of the jaw further back in its mouth. T hese back teeth help it to chew the cud. First year (kid): All teeth are small and sharp. They are gradually replaced by larger, permanent teeth, and this process is used to help determine the age of the goat. Second year (yearling): The goat loses the two middle front teeth when it is around 12 months old, and they are replaced by larger, permanent teeth. Third year (2-3 year-old): The teeth next to the middle pair are replaced by permanent teeth when the goat is

about 24 months old. Fourth year (4 year-old): The goat now has six permanent teeth, with only one pair of kid teeth remaining. Fifth year (4 year-old and over): The set of 8 front teeth is complete. The age of the goat beyond 5 years must be guessed from the amount of wear on the teeth. This can vary according to diet. Goats on a rough, coarse diet will grind their teeth away faster than they would on an easily eaten diet. The teeth of does grazing on rough pasture will show considerable wear sooner than barn -fed does on a better quality ration. Teeth spread, loosen and finally drop out as the goat. Hoof Trimming Untrimmed or poorly trimmed hooves cause a goat great discomfort and even result in serious lameness or foot rot. A good way is to check each animal once a month. Use either a small hand pruner or a sharp knife with a blade that will lock in position. If possible, put your animal against a fence or a wall. If you are right -handed, stand on the right side of the goat to trim the front feet. When working on the left hoof, reach across the animal and brace its body against yours. If you are left-handed, stand on the left side and use the same procedure. Work on one toe at a time. Always cut from heel to toe and trim the bottom of the hoof so that it is parallel with the top. With the first cut, remove the outer wall of the hoof. Then level the heel and pad to make the hoof level. It is seldom necessary to remove much of the pad. If it becomes necessary to do so, trim it in thin slices and stop when the pad turns a pinkish colour; if you do not, you may draw blood. When you finish the first toe, begin on the other. Be careful to trim both toes so that when the foot is placed on the ground, they will be the same length. When you trim the rear feet, stand to the rear. Bring the goat's leg through your legs and brace it against your knee. Trim in the same manner as the front feet. If the hoof bleeds while you are trimming it, don't panic. Press on the spot where it is bleeding to help the blood clot. You can also sprinkle blood -clotting powder on it like a pinch of cornstarch. Tools for hoof trimming If the foot is infected and wet and smelly, you should carefully remove the damaged areas so that the infected area is exposed to the air. The infected area should then be painted with tincture of io dine or formalin. Repeat the treatment every 2 days. Remember to use whatever tools you can and look after the animals' feet. If you regularly check the feet and keep them trimmed you will not have any problems. If there is a lot of foot rot in your area, ask your veterinary service for advice and a vaccine against foot rot. . 2. GOAT FEEDING

The goat is a ruminant, having a four-part stomach like the cow and the sheep. The first part, called the rumen, is the largest; it receives food that has been swallowed without much chewing and stores it until it is regurgitated and chewed again. The food eventually goes to the third and fourth stomachs, where it is more completely digested. The rumen contains bacteria that break down plant fibres to soluble sugar and manufacture certain essential nutrients that may be absent from the diet. Digestion is completed in the small intestine. Feeding habits of goats Basically, goats are browsers; they nibble tree and bush leaves and grass. Their digestive system is adapted to extract more nutrients from such feed. Goats should be allowed to graze at least 5-6 hours every day followed by feed supplementation by preparing the ration which should include green cultivated fodder or tree leaves, dry fodder, concentrate mixture (see below) either in the form of mash or pellets. Nutrients required by the goat Carbohydrates, fat, protein, minerals and vitamins are the five major groups of nutrients essentially required by goats in their daily ration for maintenance of the body and production functions. Cereal grains like maize, millet and barley are rich sources of energy and are highly palatable to the goats. Oil cakes like groundnut cakes, linseed cake, sunflower cake, til cake are good source of protein for goats. Leguminous fodders like berseem, lucerne are also rich in protein. Minerals and vitamins are required in small amounts and they can be given as supplements especially to sick goats. Common feed and fodders of goats : Grasses : Dub (panicumdactylonlinn), Anjana (hardwikiarobustabinata), Sawain, Kankauwa (piper methysticum), and Zarga. Tree Leaves : Shrubs, herbs and creepers : Pakad (ficuslacorbuch ham), Bargad (banyan tree, ficusbengalensis), Gular (ficusglomerata), Peepal (ficusreligiosa), DesiBabool (acacia arabica), Jamun (Eugenia jambolana), Chhonkara (prospicsspiclgeralinn), Ber (plum, zizyphus), Jherberi (zizyphus), Neem (azadirachtaindica), Siras (albizziaodoratissima), Karonda (capparis decidua edgew), Punarnara (boerhaariadiffusa), gokhuru (tribulusterrestrislinn), Subabul (leucaenaleucocephala pods). Cultivated fodders and their hay /bhusa : (i) Green fodder :berseem, lobia (black eyed beans), lucerne, bajra (pearl millet), jowar (maize), oat. (ii) Dry roughage :arhar straw (pigeon pea), barley/wheat straw, paddy straw, jowar. Remember: Hay should comprise of the daily diet when goats are kept in confinement or when the pasture is finished. Concentrated feed: Til cake, sesame cake, cotton seed cake, rice polish, gram chuni, sorghum grain, mustard cake can be used as components of the concentrate mixture. While preparing a concentrate mixture for goats, two points must be kept in mind (1) it should be palatable, (2) it should contain all nutrients required by the goats in proper condition. The composition of commonly used concentrate mix tures is given below : INGREDIENTS CONCENTRATE CONCENTRATE MIXTURE I MIXTURE II (%) (%) Maize/barley 40 25 % each

Wheat bran 30 25 Cake 27 22 Mineral mixture* 2 2 Salt 1 1 * Composition of mineral mixture : The mineral should be a mixture of calcium, salt, copper sulphate, cobalt carbonate, and zinc. Ration Formulation: factors to consider The most important factors, which should be taken into consideration while formulating the ration, are: (i) Body weight of the goat : smaller breed of goats whose average weight is 30 kg would need lesser feed than that of larger breeds weighing around 45 Kgs. (ii) Weather conditions : different seasons of the year have different quality and quantity of the fodder, so the ration formulation varies from season to season, for example in April, May, June which is a lean period, there is little and poor quality cultivated fodder, thus the goatherds should have silo (see "feed for the dry season") prepared in the last season. (iii) Stage of gestation: there is a special requirement of concentrate mixture for the last 1 months of pregnancy. The additional requirement is important because of the rapid growth of the foetus during this period. The delete underfed doe at this stage may suffer from pregnancy toxaemia, which may lead to stress and abortion. (iv) Cost of feed: forages are often available in large quantities at relatively low cost. For the formulation of balanced mixture goat farmers should use the ingredients, which are cheap and locally available. Feed for the dry season In the dry season grass becomes scarce and is low in nutrients. When grass is plentiful in the wet growing season you can cut and store it until it is needed in the dry season. The grass can be kept as hay or silage. Hay is a dried grass. The best hay is prepared from young grasses. Cut the grass and leave it to dry in the sun for several days turning it over to make sure it is completely dry when it can be stored until needed. Do not try to make hay in the rainy season. Silage is a grass or other plants that are cut while green and stored without air. To make a silage you will need an airtight container or pit to store it in. Silo Silo 2 metres 2 metres Soil Grass Store. Dig a pit 2 metres deep and 1.5 to 2.0 metres wide. Put a base of larg e stones in the bottom of the silo. Cut grass and fill the silo with it, stamping down the grass with your feet. The silo must be filled in 1 to 2 days. When filled, cover the top of the silo with a sheet of plastic or stones and a covering of soil in orde r to keep out water and air. Leave the silage for a few months before using it. The quality of the silage will depend on the

plants used. Silage keeps well and animals like it. Remember:Do not use any feeds with urea in it because it can cause illness and sometimes death of a goat. Efficient utilization of goat feed and fodder - Grinding and pelleting of cereal grains promote a faster growth rate and a better -feed conversion efficiency than barley grain. - Abrupt change in the feeding schedule should be avoided in order to check the problem of several diseases like enterotoxaemia, bloat (discussed under "Diseases and their medication") and other stomach disorders. Goat keepers should start the new feed with a small quantity only and the amount can be incr eased gradually over a period of a week or 10 days. - Fodder of the 1st and 2nd cut Berseem should be fed to the goats in limited quantity in order to check diarrhoea. - During the surplus period, preserve greens in the form of silage or hay for lean perio ds. - Feeding of silage to lactating does should be avoided as milk picks up the smell of silage very fast. - Fibrous feed, especially the seeds of sunflower may effectively control the dangerous consequences of shortage of fibre in daily feed intake, e.g. enterotoxaemia. Feeding mangers/trough Feeding mangers made of concrete / bricks are cheap and they last long. Partitions with G.I.pipes at a distance of 30 cm helps prevent the entry of goats into the manger and prevents contamination of food. Water Animals need plenty of fresh clean water every day. Always give water before feeding animals and allow them to drink at least three times a day. Do not allow animals to stand in the water at the drinking place. This can cause the spread of disease. Watering The height of the water tanks (for adult and kids) from outside ground level should be 30 cm and 15 cm respectively. Water tanks should be constructed near the main gate from where goats/kids are allowed to go for grazing. For supply of water to the kids (0-3 months), plastic tubs of 10 litre capacity can be used. 3. GRAZING MANAGEMENT

There are several methods under which goats graze: Grazing method Village systems - It is traditional in tropical countries to maintain goats in small areas (1 to 2 hectares) of land. They are tethered for limited grazing or are fed kitchen waste, usually by women and children. Concentrates are rarely used. Primitive extensive systems - These allow limited grazing or browsing on larger areas of land of low crop productivity. Herds of up to 15 animals are usually made up of smaller herds and are controlled and kept together by a goatherd. The goats eat what is immediately available. There are usually one to four animals per hectare. Often the goats migrate from area to area in a pattern that uses the sparse vegetation without continuous grazing. The seasonal movements, inadequate feed supplies, and infection by parasites s eriously affect the weight of the animal and causes high mortality. Very extensive systems of this type are found in Africa and parts of Asia. Semi-intensive to intensive forage systems - The goats graze on cultivated grasses and sometimes on legumes. However, intensive pasture grazing is not very common, mainly because the land is valuable for other purposes. A hectare can support 16 to 60 goats depending on the type of pasture, 15 the amount of fertilizer used, and the presence of legumes. Available farm by-products are sometimes used to supplement the intake from the pasture. Very intensive system (stall feeding) - Requiring higher labour and capital investment, this system is not commonly practiced in the tropics, but has commercial potential. It assumes the continuous management of goats and is justified by the presence of abundant supplies of farm byproduct feeds. This system also enables greater control over the goats. It is common in many countries of Latin America and parts of Asia. Integration with cropping systems - The nature and the extent of integration depends on the types of crops (annuals or perennials) and on the relative importance of goats in the local economy. Usually the integration of goats is more common with perennial or tree crops such as coconuts, oil palm or rubber. It efficiently uses herbage undergrowth, including mainly grasses, weeds and legumes. The dry matter production of the undergrowth is variable (400 to 1,200 kg/ha). An advantage is that the land becomes more fertile due to the return of faeces and urine to the land, less fertilizer used, control of growth of waste herbage, and easier management of the main crop. The success of the system may depend on the amount of dry feed produced from herbage. It is necessary to manage grazing or else free grazing will lead to natural depletion of the soil. Pasture management Pasture management is the control of pasture grazing by all animals. The pasture should be grazed lightly enough to keep the mature grass growth down but not so much that it is cropped to the ground. If the grazing animals do not touch some grasses, pull them up before they flower and produce seeds. The livestock should then be moved off the pasture to allow the growth of fresh grass. Bushes and trees, which goats like to graze on, will also produce fresh growth. It may be necessary to move herds some distance to find new grazing. Buffalo and cattle can travel up to 3 km while goats and sheep travel up to 5 km from watering points in search of fresh grazing. Pasture rotation Pasture can be fenced or hedged to make protected enclosures. This allows animals to be confined to an area while the neighbouring pasture is rested. In this way land can be grazed for 1 to 2 weeks and then rested for several weeks to allow the grass to regrow. This is pasture rotation. Pasture rotation Fourth Week

Third Week Second Week First Week Why manage the grazing of pastures? When the grazing of pastures by livestock is controlled it brings several benefits: - The Herding of animals allow close observation and any problems such as bloat will be quickly noticed. - By preventing animals from overgrazing in the pasture the fertile topsoil will be held in place by the plants and their roots. It will not become eroded and the soil is not w ashed into streams and irrigation channels causing problems for farmers. - Pasture rotation allows the fresh growth of feed plants for the animals. It allows the pasture to be left long enough for grasses to produce good roots and seed. - Fencing areas to keep animals out allows the growing of special feed crops which can later be cut and fed to the animals. - Pasture rotation helps in the control of both internal and external parasites. Do not always keep young animals on the pasture near the water supplies. It is here that large numbers of parasite eggs build up. - Pasture rotation increases the fertility of the soil through the animals depositing dung. Encourage the people in your community to look after the local environment and keep it free from objects that can be a danger to grazing animals and people. Remember that the goat can eat many things as it grazes that can harm it : * Wire and nails can pass through the wall of the rumen into the heart and kill. They can also injure feet. * Plastic bags can choke an animal and block the stomach. * Tin cans and glass can cut the mouth, feet and legs.

4 . GOAT MILK AND MILKING If the goat is being milked, the first stream or two of milk should be directed through a fine wire mesh, such as a tea strainer, into a separate strip cup so that the presence of flaky milk, which is often an indication of mastitis (discussed later) can be detected. Off flavoured goats milk: causes and prevention A persistent objection to goat milk is that it has a peculiar "goaty" odour or taste. The presence of a buck among does at milking time can result in this objectionable feature. Another major cause of off -flavoured milk is lowgrade udder infection (subclinical mastitis). Good goat milk does not have a stronger flav our than good cow's milk. If your goat's milk has a strong or strange taste, check for the following: - Keep the buck in separate quarters at least 50 feet from the milking doe. Although does are almost odourless, bucks can impart an odour or twang to the milk. - Make sure your animal is healthy. She should be sleek-looking, appear alert and without abscesses. If she seems ill, have her checked by a veterinarian. Different illnesses can give different tastes to the milk. A mastitis infection gives milk a salty taste. Internal worms or parasites can impart a bitter flavour. If there is any question about your animal's health, do not drink the milk or feed it to the kids until the animal and its milk have been tested. - Check your feed. Some feeds carry through to the milk more noticeably than others, particularly green grass, silage, wild onions, garlic and turnips, for example. Minimize the flavour by keeping the animal off such feed 2 4 hours before milking. Some feeds, if eaten even 15-30 minutes before milking may be detected in the taste. Mouldy or musty hay or stagnant water can make the milk taste musty. Unclean water or water containers can also impart a bad flavour to the milk. - Check your shelter. Poorly ventilated barns, not generally well kept, can give a "barny" taste to milk. Fly spray, paint, oil, creosote-all this can affect milk flavour. A milking doe should be kept in a clean, dry area with clean hay and an exercise yard of some type. - Keep milking conditions sanitary. This means the goat, the building and the utensils should be kept clean. The animals should be clipped, particularly in the udder area to prevent loose hairs, dust or dirt from falling into the milk during milking. Both the udder area and the milker's hands and arms should be washed and disinfected before milking. - Set aside a special milk area not in the regular quarters. This minimizes dust from alfalfa, dirt and hay, which can get into the milk. A separate building or a walled area is ideal. Thoroughly wash and sanitize all utensils after each milking and keep them in a clean place. Bacteria develop rapidly in equipment that has not been thoroughly cleaned. These bacteria will cause a breakdown in the milk that results in quicker spoilage. A malty flavour can develop from improperly cleaned equipment. Metallic flavours are picked up from old, rusty or exposed copper equipment, milk cans or lids. Milk will also pick up an undesirable taste if the equipment has been sanitized but not thoroughly drained and dried. A residue of s trong chlorine or other disinfectant materials left in the containers will combine with milk to create an unwanted flavour. Milking equipment should include a strip cup, a seamless milking pail, and a milk strainer with a filter that is thrown away after each milking. To produce clean milk it is necessary to have clean equipment, a clean area for milking, healthy goats, clean clothes, and clean hands. The milkman's hands (with short fingernails) should be washed with hot water and soap before starting, and before moving from one animal to another. Hands should be washed after cleaning faeces from the udder. The udder can be washed with a clean cloth, but both the udder and hands should be dried before milking. All-milking equipment should be rinsed in warm w ater immediately after use and then washed in hot water to which a mild chlorine solution and detergent must be added. Finally the utensils should be rinsed in clean, preferably boiling water and kept in a dust-free place to dry. Milking by hand will take from 5 to 10 minutes. The udder should be emptied at each milking and this will stimulate the udder to develop more milk. Always milk the animal quietly. A good time to milk is in the morning before the animal goes out to graze and in the evening. Milking should be done at the same time of the day. Talking, singing or whistling to the goat as it is being milked makes it relax and the milk is let down better.

5. GOAT REPRODUCTION AND CARE

The expected due date is 150 days after breeding. A few weeks before delivery, the goat's udder usually becomes enlarged. A day or two before birth, the udder often fills up and the pelvic ligaments at the base of the tail relax so that the tail feels loose. Frequent urination and low-pitched bleating are also signs that labour will begin within a day or two. The first sign we usually notice that indicates that labour is imminent is the discharge of the mucous plug, followed by small amounts of mucous. It has been experienced that this usually occurs an hour or two before childbirth. In the uterus, the kid is enclosed in an amniotic sac, which is surrounded by a water sac. Usually the water sac bursts 30 minutes to 2 hours before the delivery of the first kid. The amniotic sac might burst a few minutes before delivery. Usually, a kid will be born with front legs and head first, and no assistance is needed. In multiple births, each kid is usually delivered 5-30 minutes after the previous sibling, and the placenta is expelled a few hours later. If the kids does not arrive within two hours after the water sac breaks, or if the kid is not positioned properly, an experienced goat breeder or a veterinarian might be required to assist in the delivery by repositioning the kid or "pulling" the kid out. Pre-kidding Preparations Vaccinations/shots (30 days prior to kidding) (i) 2cc - intramuscular injection - Combination: Perfringens CD & Tetanus toxoid (ii) 1cc/40 lbs - subcutaneous injection - B0-SE (Vitamin E and selenium). Grain/training (15 days prior to kidding) (i) Start the does on goat ration cup - gradually increase to 2 cups. When the doe comes into milk feed grain at the rate of 1 lb per day for maintenance plus lb for every lb of milk produced. Divide the total by 2 for the amount to feed at each milking. (ii) Start training by handling the udder. (iii) Make it a happy time with lots of praiseespecially important for first timers. Kidding pen/supplies & equipment (5 days prior to kidding) (i) Prepare the kidding pen bed with clean dry straw. (ii) Collect kidding supplies * Bucket for warm water * Betadine or provodone scrub * Surgilube or KY jelly * 7% iodine & a small cup * OB loop * Newspaper - separated into single sheets * Scissors * Molasses or dark karo syrup (thick corn syrup)

* Paper towels * Udder wash * Clean towels * Nail brush & nail clippers. (iii) Get the milking equipment ready * Stainless steel bucket and strainer * Gauze milk filters * Teat dip * Paper towels * Scale * Record sheets * Thermometer * Detergent (iv) Collect the kid-feeding supplies * 160z pop bottles * Nipples * Bottle brushes * Funnel * Supply of heat treated colostrum Kidding Preparations Phase I - early labour 1. Isolate the doe on her early due date (145th day) - The normal gestation is 145 - l55 days - It may be necessary to change bedding if the doe is in the kidding pen for more than a day - The favourite time of day for delivery is late afternoon or early evening 2. Signs of early labor : - Appears restless - Eyes luminous - Smells the ground

- Paws the bedding - Looks behind her - Stargazes - Hollows out - Tail lifts up - Rises and lies down frequently - Udder begins to fill - Vulva becomes flabby - White discharge Phase II - actual delivery 1. Prepare the doe - Wash genital area with udder wash - Remove water bucket so babies won't drown - Stay with the doe in case she needs help - Watch colour of discharge carefully 2. Signs of final labor: - Copious discharge - Strong labour pains - about 2 minutes apart - Ears stand out - lips curl - Doe begins to strain - Fluid filled bubble may appear - Water may break - Second bubble may appear - Feet and or nose may become visible 3. Normal presentations: The doe will usually deliver either of the following presentations without assistance: - Head lying on the forefeet with the chin about. The knees and kids back toward the does back.

- Both rear legs in the birth canal with kids back toward the does back. Phase III - cleaning up. 1. Delivery of the afterbirth: - Usually occurs within 3-4 hours. - May take as long as 12 hours. - If not hanging from the doe look around in the bedding - The Doe will sometimes eat the afterbirth. - If the doe does not clean up itself, it may need infusion and/or veterinary assistance. 2. Discharge of excess uterine fluid: - Clear to slightly bloody discharge is normal. - May occur for 2 to 3 weeks after delivery. - If discharge is pus-like or reddish in colour and/ or increasing in volume, the animal may require veterinary assistance. Problems with delivery Possible signs of trouble - The doe repeatedly starts pushing hard but gets up and stops labor, then lies down and starts again - The doe repeatedly gets up and down and arches her back and elevates her rear end as though trying to line up the babies - The discharge is rusty red and beginning to look septic - The parts of a baby are visible but doe is unable to deliver in spite of straining very hard. - The doe is in hard grinding labor for more than 30 -45 minutes with no results. Determining the problem - Wash the doe's vulva with mild soap and water. - Wash your hands and arms and scrub fingernails well. - Lather hands with betadine scrub and squeeze a generous ribbon of surgilube on the fingers. - Have an assistant hold or restrain the doe. - Gently enter the vagina and dilate if necessary. - Feel and identify the parts of the kid that are in the birth canal. - Determine the problem and the corrective action necessary to rectify it. Abnormal presentations - Head first with one foreleg: can be delivered this way but easier on the doe if you reach in and find the other leg and carefully pull it forward so that the head is resting on both legs. The kid should deliver easily now. However, be sure that the head and legs belong to the same kid. - Head first with no legs: cannot be delivered this way. Similar to the previous case, but you will probably have to reach in and push the kids head back to make room for the legs. Slide your hand along the head and neck

until you find the shoulders, then locate the feet and gently bring them forward with the head resting on the legs. The kid should deliver easily now but you may need to help pull. - Breach position with hocks first: cannot be delivered this way but easy to correct. Just reach in and find the feet and carefully pull them forward so both rear feet are together and extended through the vulva. The kid should be delivered easily now. - Breach position with rump and tail: similar to the previous case; but you wi ll probably have to reach in and push the kids rump back to make room for the legs. Slide your hand along the rump until you find the legs, then locate the feet and carefully bring them forward so both rear feet are together and extended through the vulva. The kid should deliver easily now but you may need to help pull. - Front feet first with head upside down: can be delivered this way but may be easier on the kid if you rotate the entire kid so that the kid's back is upward toward the doe's back. Sometimes it is hard to turn the kid around if the feet and/ or head are already visible. Just make sure that the kid curves around the doe's pelvic arch as much as possible even if it is slightly twisted. You will probably need to help pull the kid. - Feet first with head thrown back: cannot be delivered this way. This is probably the most difficult of the abnormal presentations to correct, especially if the doe has been in hard, unproductive labour for a considerable time and/ or the kid is very weak. You will have to reach in and follow along the body and then along the neck until you locate the head. You may be surprised at how long the neck is and how deep you have to go (up to your elbow). The trick is to get the head forward and keep it there! If the kid is weak the head will keep flopping back every time you withdraw your hand to pull on the legs. In this case you will need your OB puller, which is a thin noose made of a nylon cord. Carry the noose in with your hand and slip it over the kid's head. Position the head on the front legs and snug up the loop. Keep tension on the puller with your free hand and then withdraw your hand and grasp the feet. Pull on the feet and the loop at the same time and the kid should deliver just fine. Use plenty of surgilube as this is time consuming and things start to dry out. The kid may be weak and the doe tired. - Two heads with one animal's feet : cannot be delivered this way. Although this situation is somewhat intimidating at first, it is fairly easy to correct. The trick is to match up the head and feet of the same goat. Usually one kid's head will be more advanced than the other so push the other back and feel along the neck to the chest and down each leg until you can locate the feet of the kid whose head is more advan ced. Then carefully bring the feet forward until the head is resting on the legs. The kid should deliver easily now but you may have to help pull the kid. - Mismatched head and feet: cannot be delivered this way. This usually occurs because one kid is present with its headfirst and with it legs back and a second kid's feet and legs have slid under the first kid's head. Since there is no room for the second kid's head it is usually turned back along its side. You will have to push the second kid back to make room to work. Slide your hand along the first kid's head and neck to the chest and then down each leg until you locate the feet. Then carefully bring the feet forward until the head is resting on the legs. The kid should be delivered easily now but you m ay have to help pull the kid. When you go back for the second kid the head will usually be presented normally or will come forward easily so that it is resting on its forelegs. The kid should be delivered easily but you may have to help pull the kid. If yo u have trouble keeping the head forward see the previous discussion on using an OB loop. - No presentation: necessary to determine if the doe is sufficiently dilated and the cervix is open. The os, (opening to the cervix) should be dilated at least three fingers for normal birth. If not dilated then it may be too early. Wait a while and check the doe again. You can not hurt the doe by checking. If the cervix is open and all you feel is a side or ribs the kid is probably dead, but there may be live kids behind it: Push the dead kid back until you can turn it so that it is presented with front feet/head first, or hind feet first.Use plenty of surgilube as the dead kids seems to be dry. You will have to pull the kid since the doe will probably not push very hard. Possible complications that may require veterinary attention : - Infection; if invasion has been extensive or prolonged.

- Excessive swelling. - Tears; either by the doe or the herdsman - Depression; if severe, may need a lot of comforting - An exceptionally traumatic delivery may require several days of treatment including intrauterine infusion of normal saline water. Post-kidding Precautions Care of the doe - Give the doe a warm drink of water to which you might add a little molasses or dark karo syrup (trade name of a thick corn syrup). - Keep the doe in a confined area so that she takes rest. - After the doe has rested a bit take her into the milk room, and milk out the colostrum. When a doe has kids, her system produces a particularly thick rich milk, almost yellow in colour, which is known as colostrum. This colostrum is high in protein, minerals and vitamin A. It contains antibodies that help protect the kids from diseases. It also serves as a mild laxative and helps clean the prenatal residue from the digestive system of the newborn kid. It is very important that the kids receive this colostrum for the first three days after birth. - You may have to help her up to stand. If the doe h as had a really rough kidding, you may have to milk her flat. - After she is milked out, you should medicate her if necessary. - Keep the milk separate for three milkings as it still contains colostrum in decreasing amounts. - Watch the doe's grain and water consumption carefully for the next couple of weeks. If she goes off feed or seems depressed you have to worry about ketosis (pregnancy toxaemia). If you suspect ketosis, ask an experienced herdsman or your veterinarian for advice on treatment. Care of the kid - Clear the newborn kid's nose and mouth of any fluid. Then dry it off with single sheets of newspaper. Later you can use a towel but get as much of the slime off as you can with newspaper. Some herdsmen wash the kids in warm water in the sink and then blow-dry them with a hair dryer. This is a good idea if you have the right set up. If the kid seems weak or chilled use a blow dryer or rub vigorously with a dry towel. Place the baby in a box of clean straw and put a heat lamp on it until it is dry. Kids should be trying to stand up within 10-15 minutes. - Dip the naval with 7% strong iodine. Use a little cup and keep it off your hands, as it is strong. Repeat two or three times within the first hour to make sure the entire umbilical area is covered. If the umbilical cord is bleeding, tie it off with dental floss about 1 inches from the body. If the umbilical cord is too long, tear it off to about 1 inches long. Use your fingernails to tear it. Do not cut with scissors, as it tends to bleed. Redip with strong iodine. - The newborn kid will need 4 oz to 8 oz of heattreated colostrum in the first 4 hours. Keep coaxing the newborn to nurse. They may do better if it is quiet and there are no distractions. Let the baby have all the colostrum. It will drink usually about 4 ounces a feeding. If it refuses or drinks very little, wait hour or so and try again. In subsequent feedings continue to feed colostrum until the baby has consumed at least one pint, and then switch to regular milk after 24 hours. Newbo rn kids should be fed 4 times a day for the first couple of days and then you can cut back to 3 times a day until they are consuming a least a pint at a feeding. Then you can cut them down to 2 times a day. - Kids are usually disbudded when they are 4 or 5 days old, (though it is not compulsory). It seems to bother

them less when they are younger. Many herdsmen use a disbudding box. If you are new to this procedure, it will probably be best to have an experienced herdsman do it for you at first. Have someb ody that knows 37 how to do it coach you until you gain confidence. Dehorning/disbudding This is not recommended. However if the owner is going to do it anyway, it would be better if an animal welfare person did it so that the pain is less. There are several methods used to dehorn goats. Caustic sticks or pastes are difficult and dangerous to handle. The quickest and easiest method is the electric disbudding iron. This can be purchased from a goat dairy supply firm. It looks like a soldering iron with the tip sawed off. - Heat the iron so that at least two inches are cherryred. The hotter the iron, the quicker the job and the better off the kid will be. Centre the iron on the horn bud and apply it with a circular motion and light pressure. About six to ten seconds is sufficient. Apply vaseline to each disk immediately after removing the iron. If you have a bottle of milk ready, feed the kid immediately: it will lessen the pain - To test the iron, heat it until hot and then hold the end against a block of wood . A complete, even ring should be burned into the wood. You will need to test the iron each time you use it to make sure it is hot enough. - Restrain the animal. Your helper must hold its head and pull the ear nearest the bud you are going to remove, down and away from the bud. He must hold the head very still. Cut the hair away from around the bud of the horn. - Test the hot iron and when ready put the iron over the bud and twist it around for about 10 seconds. Continue until the bud feels loose. Reheat the iron if necessary. - Push the bud out by pressing with the iron. Another way of dehorning is by rubbing a silver nitrate stick on the kid's horn and it should be rubbed till there is a pink colour observed on the goat's head. Do not continue further, o r it may bleed. However these procedures are unnecessary and every effort must be made to dissuade the owner from dehorning. Tattooing Tattooing the babies is usually done at the same time that they are disbudded, especially if you use a disbudding box. The tattoo tongs and letter/number sets are fairly expensive so you may want to have an experienced herdsman do it for you at first. After you start producing a lot of babies, you will probably want to get your own tongs. If you share tongs and/or letters with somebody just remember that the tattoo usually bleeds and you want to be careful exchanging blood with other goats. The CAE virus (Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Syndrome) is present in all body fluids of a positive animal. It is a viral disease. In yo ung kids symptoms include a weakness in the rear legs, with no fever, or loss of appetite and it is contagious, Again, this is not recommended at all. The other option to tattooing is colouring which is a gentler method. In this the goats can be marked with the help of a colour dye (natural) on its back or leg. Controlling Coccidiosis It is really important to establish a regular prevention program to control coccidiosis in the baby kids. There are several choices among the drugs that are recommended for the control of coccidia, all of which are easily available. One of the most popular is Corid. The usual regimen is to treat the babies' monthly beginning at the age of one month of age and continuing until they are 7 months old. Treat for 5 consecutive days and then withdraw for 21 days. The simplest way to administer Corid is to add it to the milk at the rate of level teaspoon to a gallon. This works well for an approxi mate 20 lb baby being fed 1 pints of milk per feeding. Larger babies will require proportionately more per gallon. If the babies are weaned then you will have to prepare a drench. Add 1 ounces (5 level tablespoons) of Corid to one quart (32 ounces) of water and then administer 3cc of the mix for every 10 pounds goat, once daily, for 5 days. Vaccinations The babies acquire immunity to most diseases from their mother in utero and are protected for the first 30 days from their birth. After that they need their own vaccinations to remain protected. Assuming the doe received the requisite vaccinations for overeating disease, tetanus, and white muscle disease the babies will need the following vaccinations/shots at 30 days, followed by a booster at 60 days a nd a second booster at 180 days: 1. 2cc - intramuscular injection - Combination: Perfringens CD & Tetanus toxoid 2. 1cc/40 lbs -

subcutaneous injection - B0-SE (Vitamin E and selenium). Checking the navel cord Ideally the navel cord of the newborn animal should be dressed with tincture of iodine or Dettol immediately after birth. This should be repeated 2 to 3 days later. After 1 week the cord should have dried and dropped off. If infection has developed, treat it as a wound. Fostering Fostering of the young animal will be necessary if the natural mother has died or fails to produce enough milk for her young. A sheep or goat can only properly feed two young so any other young must be fostered. Fostering can be do ne in the following ways : - If the foster mother has lost her own child, then take its skin and wrap it round the orphan. Keep it there for a few days and then remove it. - Rub the orphan with the afterbirth and fluids or under the tail of a mother who has just given birth. Allow the orphan to suckle with its back towards the mother's head so that she can smell it. This method is mainly used with sheep and goats. - The foster mother can be tied up by the head in a small pen or shed and the orphan left wi th her. The orphan will usually suckle if the foster mother is prevented from kicking or moving away. This method can be used with sheep and goats but is also successful with cattle and buffalo. In the case of large ruminants tying a rope around the belly will stop the mother from kicking the calf as it suckles. - Place the orphan and the foster mother in a small shed or pen and tie or leave a dog with them. The female will protect the orphan from the dog and will then allow it to suckle. - Or you can bottle feed the baby. Giving new babies their first bottle(s) is sometimes a trial. Just be patient and keep trying until you get the baby to nurse. It is usually easier to hold the baby on your lap for the first few feedings. Most of them will start sucking ri ght away but you may have to pry their mouth open to get the nipple in. Just remember, the baby is 42 programmed to reach up to nurse its mother so you need to elevate the bottle and make the baby reach for it. Keep some tension on the nipple by pulling the bottle slightly away from the kid. Do not push the nipple into the baby's mouth. Apparently, this does not feel natural and the baby will try to back away. Hand rearing orphans If no foster mother is available the orphan will need to be fed by hand. You must make sure that the orphan has colostrum, if possible for 4 days or 8 feedings. Collect the colostrum from other mothers into a clean bottle. Do not boil colostrum, as it will curdle. Kids can be fed warm milk from a bottle fitted with a rubber teat o r nipple. Clean the bottle thoroughly after each feeding. They will need 4 to 6 feedings a day. Kids can also be fed from a bottle but it is best to get them used to drinking milk from a bucket when they are a few days old. To get the kid to drink from a bucket, get it to suck your fingers and then as it sucks gradually put your hand into the bucket of milk. Do this several times, holding the bucket at knee height, and the young one will feed from the bucket after a few lessons. It will need feeding 3 to 4 times a day. Clean and wash all bottles and buckets after each feeding.

6. GOAT HOUSING Orientation The East-West direction for the long axis of the shed is preferred. It means there should be complete walls towards East and West and it should be open towards North and South. Such houses in hot summers remain cool because of short exposure to direct sunrays and protection from the hot wind in summer ("loo"). Type of house The houses should be semi closed type i.e. in East and West, there should be a complete wall up to roof and towards North and South, it should be semi -closed i.e. with the wall up to of its height. The most appropriate height of a goat house is 3 meters in the centre and 2 meters on the sides. Sidewalls of 1-meter height are normally made of mud/bricks. The remaining upper half (1 meter) should be left uncovered and an arrangement should be made to close it using thatched panels or jute curtains in the winter season. A kaccha floor for goat houses is preferred. Sloppy roofs are best for the comfort of goats. Remember: Houses should be disinfected regularly. The kuccha floor should be burnt at least once in three months to prevent contagious and morbid diseases among the goats. Fencing Goats need and enjoy exercise. A fenced area that allows 40 sq meters per animal with a fence 1.5 to 1.8 meters high per animal is common in most tropical countries. Fencing should allow maximum air circulation for hot weather, but should offer some protection in winter against cold winds. Posts should be placed not more than 1.5 meters apart, and the bottom strand of wire needs to be close to the ground to stop kids from crawling underneath. High-tensile fence, barbed wire, timber bamboo and sticks all have pros and cons. Some sizes of wire mesh fence may be hazardous if they allow kids with horns to insert their heads and become trapped. Vertical wood or bamboo pieces also invite trapped heads. Horizontal wire on fencing invites climbing; vertical-only stockade-type fences may be too expensive or keep out cooling winds in the hot weather. Tethering Tethering your goats (putting them on a long leash) is n ot recommended, as it can be stressful. Tethering can also be very dangerous, as goats can hang themselves on a tether. Name of Breed CHEGU Type of Breed Medium sized Agro-climatic zone Temperate Himalayan Region Natural Habitat Lahul- Spiti valley of H.P. and hilly regions of Uttar Kashi, Chamoli and Pithoragarh districts of U.P. Physical White in colour, twisted long characteristics horns, short ears, long lustrous hair with fine undercoat. Body Weight Adult M 39.4 1.57 kg F 25.7 0.33 kg

Body Size Length 68.6 0.98 cm . Height 75.8 1.07 cm Girth 80.7 1.15 cm Twinning % Less than 10% 7. INDIAN GOAT BREEDS Besides local goats (non-descriptive), there are 20 descriptive breeds of goats found in different parts of India based on the agro-climatic conditions. In temperate Himalayan region, the goat breeds found are: Chegu Gaddi Name of Breed GADDI Type of Breed Medium sized Agro-climatic zone Temperate Himalayan Region Natural Habitat Kangra, Kullu valley, Chamba, Sirmur, Simla districts of H.P. Local name Gaddi Changthangi Name of Breed CHANGTHANGI Type of Breed Medium sized Agro-climatic zone Temperate Himalayan Region Natural Habitat Leh region of Kashmir and adjoining areas of Himachal Pradesh. Physical Body is covered with long and characteristics lustrous hair. Colour is white but grey and brown also found. Small pointed ears. Body Weight Adult M 20.37 0.24 kg F 19.75 0.15 kg Body Size Length 49.0 0.29 cm Height 49.8 0.36 cm Girth 63.0 0.44 cm Twinning % Les s than 5% 47 In dry northern are the goat breeds are: Barbari Name of Breed BARBARI

Type of Breed Medium sized Agro-climatic zone North-Western Region Natural Habitat Etah, Agra, Mathura, Aligarh districts of U.P. Physical The coat colour is white with characteristics light to dark brown spots all over the body. Ears are short and erect. Twisted horns and males have beards. Body Weight Adult M 37.85 1.96 kg F 22.56 0.32 kg Physical Well built body with long hairs, characteristics white and black brown in colour, convex nose, alert eyes, long and drooping ears, long spiral horns. Body Weight Adult M 27.4 0.41 kg F 24.7 0.51 kg Body Size Length 61.3 0.84 cm Height 69.5 0.84 cm Girth 72.2 0.68 cm Twinning % 10 -15 % Beetal Name of Breed BEETAL Type of Breed Large sized Agro-climatic zone North-Western Region Natural Habitat Gurdaspur, Amritsar and Firozepur districts in Punjab Local name Amritsari Physical Colour is mainly black or brown characteristics with white patches on the head or body. Long ears, convex face, Roman nose and large udder. Body Weight Adult M 59.1 2.42 kg F 35.0 0.52 kg Body Size Length 85.5 1.41 cm Height 91.6 1.97 cm

Girth 86.0 1.20 cm Twinning % Very less Body Size Length 58.9 0.38 cm Height 56.2 0.37 cm Girth 64.3 0.40 cm Twinning % 56 % Jamunapari Name of Breed JAMUNAPARI Type of Breed Large sized Agro-climatic zone North-Western Region Natural Habitat Chakarnagar (Etawah, UP), Bhind, Morena and Shivpuri districts of M.P. Physical Colouris white with brown characteristics patches. Roman nose, pendulous ears, Parrot mouth, tuft of hair on the backside of the thighs, well developed udder. Body Weight Adult M 45 - 60 kg F 35 - 40 kg Body Size Length 78.2 1.25 cm Height 77.4 1.23 cm Girth 79.5 1.20 cm Twinning % 25 - 54 % The central region has the following goats: Gohilwadi Name of Breed GOHILWADI Type of Breed Medium to large sized Agro-climatic zone North-Western Region Jakhrana Name of Breed JAKHRANA

Type of Breed Large sized Agro-climatic zone North -Western Region Natural Habitat Jakhrana village near Behror in Alwar district of Rajasthan Local name Alwari Physical Colour is black with a typical characteristics white speckles on ears. Face is straight, Drooping and long ears, Strong and thick horns. Natural Habitat Bhavnagar, Amreli and Junagarh districts of Gujarat Physical The coat colour is black with characteristics white marking on the ears. The ears are leafy and drooping. The face is long and slightly convex. Hairs are long, rough and thick. Body Weight Adult M 37.1 1.42 kg F 36.0 0.38 kg Body Size Length 73.4 1.30 cm Height 81.2 1.20 cm Girth 74.7 0.90 cm Twinning % 15-20 % Marwari Name of Breed MARWARI Type of Breed Medium sized Agro-climatic zone North-Western Region Natural HabitatBarmer, Bikaner, Jaisalmer, Jalore, Jodhpur, Nagaur&Pali districts of Western Rajasthan. Physical Colour is black with white markcharacteristicsing, long ears and long hair. Flappy and drooping horns. Body Weight Adult M 46.6 2.63 kg F 30.0 0.25 kg Body Size Length 70.9 1.65 cm Height 74.7 1.61 cm Girth 71.7 1.41 cm

Twinning % 10-13 % Body Weight Adult M 43.5 1.16 kg F 39.3 0.40 kg Body Size Length 84.1 2.11 cm Height 90.4 1.61 cm Girth 86.0 1.91 cm Twinning % 50.0% Mehsana Name of Breed MEHSANA Type of Breed Large sized Agro-climatic zone North-Western Region Natural HabitatMehsana, Gandhinagar, Ahmedabad districts of Gujarat Physical The coat colour is greyish black characteristicswith long and coarse hair. Ears are white with black markings, leafy and drooping. Twisted horns, tail is short and kept upward Body Weight Adult M 37.14 1.51 kg F 32.39 0.38 kg Body Size Length 71.2 1.0 cm Height 80.4 1.2 cm Girth 76.9 1.2 cm Twinning % 10-15 % Sirohi Name of Breed SIROHI Type of Breed Medium to large sized Agro-climatic zone North-Western Region Natural Habitat Sirohi, Ajmer, Bhilwara and Tonk districts of Rajasthan

Physical Colour is brown with dark characteristics brown or tan patches, compact body, flat ears, strong legs, medium leafy ears, curved horns. Body Weight Adult M 50.4 2.52 kg F 22.5 0.17 kg Body Size Length 80.0 1.02 cm Height 85.6 1.40 cm Girth 80.3 1.00 cm Twinning % 12.5% Surti Name of Breed SURTI Type of Breed Medium sized Agro-climatic zone North-Western Region Natural Habitat Surat district in Gujarat and Nasik district in Maharashtra. Physical Small to medium size, white coat characteristicscolour with short and lustrous hair. Ears are medium size and drooping. Medium size horns directed upward. Body Weight Adult M 25 - 30 kg F 22 - 25 kg Zalawadi Name of Breed ZALAWADI Type of Breed Medium to large sized Agro-climatic zone North-Western Region Natural HabitatSurendranagar, Ramnagar and Ahmadabad districts of Gujarat Physical The coat is predominantly black characteristicswith lustrous long shining hair. Screw type horns. Ears are long, leafy and drooping. Body Weight Adult M 38.8 1.46 kg F 32.9 0.32 kg

Body Size Length 75.6 1.05 cm Height 83.3 0.80 cm Girth 76.8 1.10 cm Twinning % 55% Body Size Length 70 - 74 cm Height 60 - 65 cm Girth 65 - 68 cm Twinning% Less then 10% 55 The goat breeds found in t he southern region are : Kanniadu Name of Breed KANNIADU Type of Breed Medium sized Agro-climatic zone Southern Peninsular Region Natural HabitatRamanathapuram and Trinnelveli districts in Tamilnadu Physical Coat colour is black with white characteristics spots. Ears are long and pendulous. Males have horns, udder is small. Body Weight Adult M 32 - 38 kg F 28 - 31 kg Body Size Length 67.3 0.38 cm Height 76.1 0.46 cm Girth 70.8 0.44 cm Twinning % 10 % Malabari Name of Breed MALABARI Type of Breed Medium sized Agro-climatic zone Southern Peninsular Region

Natural Habitat 'Malabar' area of Northern Kerala. Districts of Kasargad, Trichur, Kannur, Kozikkot, Malapuram and Tellicherry. 56 Local name Tellicherry Physical Colour varies from white to characteristics black. Straight face and twisted horns. Males have beard, medium size ears, small udder. Body Weight Adult M 35.0 kg F 28.0 kg Body Size Length 64.0 cm Height 63.0 cm Girth 67.0 cm Twinning % 45 % Osmanabadi Name of Breed OSMANABADI Type of Breed Medium sized Agro-climatic zone Southern Peninsular Region Natural Habitat Osmanabad, Latoor, Ahmadnagar districts in Maharashtra Physical The body colour is black with characteristics white patches on ears, neck and body. The face is straight and ears are medium in size and drooping. Udder is small. Body Weight Adult M 33.7 2.73 kg F 32.4 0.55 kg 57 Body Size Length 67.5 0.38 cm Height 74.8 0.30 cm Girth 72.0 0.04 cm Twinning % 30 % Sangamner Name of Breed SANGAMNERI Type of Breed Medium sized

Agro-climatic zone Southern Peninsular region Natural Habitat Sangamner Tehsil of Ahmednagar district, Pune, Nasik districts of Maharastra Physical Coat colour is white, but black characteristics or brown with spots of different colours. Ears are medium and drooping and horns are directed upward. Tail is thick and short. Body Weight Adult M 35 - 55 kg F 25 - 35 kg Body Size Length 60 - 65 cm Height 62 - 68 cm Girth 58 - 62 cm Twinning % 30 - 40% The following breeds are found in the eastern region : Bengal Name of Breed BENGAL Type of Breed Small sized (Dwarf breed) Agro-climatic zone Eastern Region Natural HabitatMurshidabad district in West Bengal and also found in Assam and Orissa Physical Coat colours are mainly black, characteristics white and brown, but black is most predominant. The face is small. Beards are common. Ears are short, flat and horizontally placed. Body Weight Adult M 32.4 2.74 kg F 20.4 0.16 kg Body Size Length 58.0 cm Height 60.4 cm Girth 58.2 cm Twinning % 61.0% Ganjam

Name of Breed GANJAM Type of Breed Medium sized Agro-climatic zone Eastern Region Natural HabitatGanjam district in Orissa Physical The coat colour is black with characteristics white spots. Tall and leggy animal. Ears are medium in size. Forehead is predominant, males have beards. Body Weight Adult M 44.0 0.13 kg F 31.9 0.37 kg Body Size Length 67.6 0.30 cm Height 77.1 0.30 cm Girth 74.6 0.30 cm Twinning % 45% 8. GOAT DISEASES AND THEIR MEDICATION

The treatment specified for various goat diseases discussed below are to be used only after consulting a veterinarian. Causes of diseases in goats - Unavailability of fresh water - No care taken while goat grazing so that it eats unwanted matter - Contaminated manure - Lack of care while goats are under labour - Insanitary conditions-food, water and housing - No regular vaccination - Non isolation of the sick goat from the rest of the herd - No prevention from cold - No care taken while goats are being transported - Incomplete nutrients in the goats daily feed. First Aid Kit A small tight cupboard hung on an inside wall of the goat barn makes an ide al location for the storage of a few instruments, emergency medication, routine medication and first aid supplies. The cupboard should be placed high enough to be beyond the reach of small children and it should have good latches to keep it securely closed. 61 Necessary supplies stored in your cabinet should include: Instruments - A fifteen-inch piece of 3/4-inch diameter pipe, which can be used as a speculum for giving medication by mouth. - A four-foot long section of 1/2 inch rubber or plastic tubing f or use as a stomach tube. This can be passed through the 3/4-inch pipe that is held in the mouth as far back as the rear molars. The stomach tube can be gently passed beyond it as the animal swallows. The speculum is a good means of holding the head steadi ly in a natural position. - A small funnel can be used for pouring the medication into the tube. - A good hoof shear for trimming feet should be hung on the wall or inside the cabinet door. - A ''caulking gun" dose syringe for dosing goats with Thiabenda zole or other worming paste should also be placed in that location. - A curved serrated scissor for use in removing extra teats should also be hung nearby. - An electric clipper, such as that commonly used for grooming dogs, plus at least one extra blade should be kept in its box on a shelf in the cupboard. - An open hoof groover at least 3/8 inches wide should be placed with the clippers, speculum, and tube and 62 hoof shears. It will be useful for cutting out excessive growth from foot soles and for rem oving foreign bodies

from soles of the feet. - The tattooing equipment and necessary numerals and ink for using it should be placed on this shelf or a natural colour dye. Medical Supplies - A half-pound roll of absorbent cotton, several rolls of 1 -inch adhesive tape and a dozen 4 x 4 inch sterile gauze pads should be kept together in a small carton on a shelf in the cupboard. - Several 10 ml glass hypodermic syringes should be sterilized by boiling for ten minutes and stored in a sterilized dry fruit jar on a shelf. - At least half dozen 18-gauge 1-inch sterile hypodermic needles should be kept in the fruit jar covered by their protective plastic lids for use in administering subcutaneous or intramuscular hypodermic injections. Medicines Necessary liquid medicines should be put together in one location: - An eight-ounce bottle of tincture of Iodine and a small baby food jar with a cover should be placed together for use in disinfecting navels of newborn kids. - Pint bottles of hydrogen peroxide, a four ounce bottle of scarlet dressing or similar wound dr essing (SulfaUrea, etc.), and a four ounce bottle of astringent blue lotion will be helpful for treating superficial wounds. - Dry medicinal powders, magnesium hydroxide (dry milk of magnesia, Epsom salts (magnesium sulfate) and baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) should be kept in one-pound boxes or jars and properly labelled. - 1 bottle of heavy mineral oil and 1 bottle of propylene glycol should be placed together on a shelf. - Pesticides like Coumaphos (Co-Ral), Methoxychlor, or Ciodrin for lice and man ge control should be kept on a bottom shelf in tightly sealed containers. - Any biologics kept for routine use should be kept always under refrigeration. If they are administered carefully (using sterile needles and syringes and their rubber caps wiped thoroughly with the disinfectant before removal of the biologic), they will stay in usable condition until their expiration dates. - Injectable antibiotics, such as penicillin-streptomycin combinations, oxytetracycline (Terramycin), chlortetracycline (Aureomycin), and tylosin (Tylan) should be stored under refrigeration and handled when used in the same way as routine biologics. The condition and kinds of biologics used should be decided in consultation with your veterinarian. He can also advise about stocking and storing other emergency medications. General Supplies Antibiotics Penicillin Naxcel or Excenel (antibiotics available from the vet only) LA 200, Tylan, or Gentamycin (Gentamycin is available from vet only, and is not cleared for food anima ls) Banimine (available from the vet only) Dexamethazone Fortified B Complex - to keep up the appetites

Thiamine (available from vet only)- goats and kids on feed are prone to thiamin deficiency polio. Eprinephrine - for anaphylactic shock when given injections Probiotics - give when off feed or after antibiotic treatment Electrolytes - to prevent dehydration during stress Kaopectate or Pepto-Bismol - for scours / diarrhoea Phazyme and Vegetable Oil - first defense for bloat 50% Dextrose CD&T Toxoid C&D Antitoxin Tetanus Antitoxin Thermometer Stethoscope 3cc and 12cc Syringes 18g x 1" and 22g x 1" Needles Drench gun or syringe Hoof Trimmers - use regularly Stomach Tube for adult goats Hemostats Vitamin supplements (A, C, E) Homeopathic medicines: Acid Nit Aloe Aconitum Carbo veg Camphora Pyrogen Arsenicum album Arnica Ringers solution (IV electrolytes can be given under the skin)

Bryonia Ferrumphos. Phosphorus Cycopodium Belladonna Curare Hypericum Sepia Pulsatile Bacillinum Tellurium

Antimoniumcrudum Sabina Caulophyllum Secale Kresotum Heparsulph Silicea Agaricus Conium Ipecacuanha Colchicum Calceria phosphate Magnesium phosphate Lachesis Sulphur Kali Arsenicum Graphites Kamala

Chenopodium Granatium Hypercal lotion General information on injections Intramuscular (IM) Injected deep within a major muscle (Into the muscle) mass, such as that in the hind leg or on the shoulder. It should be given with an 18 gauge, 2.5 to 4 cm needle, pointed straight into the muscle. Before injecting the drug, always withdraw on the syringe plunger to make sure you have not hit a blood vessel. If this happens, blood will flow into the syringe. To correct, simply replace the needle in the muscle. Injected under the skin, usually in the neck or behind the shoulder. Subcutaneous (S/C) Usually a 1 to 2.5 cm needle is inserted at an angle through the skin. So that you do not stick yourself, pick up the skin with your fingers and insert the needle through the skin while it is pointed away from your fingers. Intravenous (IV) Injected into a vein, usually the (Into the vein) jugular or neck vein. This procedure takes some skill and practice. Become thoroughly familiar with the method before attempting to use it. The vein must be blocked with one hand near the shoulder to enlarge it and make it visib le. Usually a 4-cm, 18 gauge needle is used for IV injections. All IV injections should be given slowly. The heart should be closely monitored as heart block may occur. This may be done by use of a stethoscope, placing your ear against the chest, or by merely feeling the heart beat with your hand. IntramammaryInjected within the milk gland, the (Into the udder) end of the teat through the natural opening. Always wash the teat end with soap and water and wipe it with alcohol before injecting. Use only sterile, blunt, teat infusion needles or "throw -away" mastitis medicine applicators. Unclean material entering the teat will cause mastitis. This type of treatment for goats is of little value. Important Conversions 1 ml = 15 drops = 1 cc 1 Tsp = 1 gram = 5 ccs 1 Tbsp = 1/2 oz. = 15 ccs 2 Tbsp = 1 oz. = 30 ccs 1 pint = 16 oz. = 480 ccs CLASSIFICATION OF GOAT DISEASES Diseases of goats are broadly classified as infectious and non-infectious. The infectious diseases may be of bacterial, viral or parasitic nature. The most common diseases of goats are: Infectious I. Bacterial diseases Johnes disease The disease is caused by an infection of the intestinal mucosa by a bacillus known as Mycobacterium Johnei. The animals pick up infection through minute particles suspended in air. Clinical symptoms: loss of body weight, weakness and emaciation. Frequent diarrhoea in some adult goats. The clinical diseaseis usually observed after 1-2 years of age in goats.

Treatment : The disease is incurable so it is better to take preventive measures: (i) Kids should be reared separately (ii) feed should not be contaminated with manure (iii) immediate isolation of animals who suffer from diarrhoea (iv) Frequent disinfection or burnin g of floor where diarrhoeic animals are kept. Homeopathic treatment: (i) Acid Nit should be given 200c potency one dose three times per week for four weeks 70 (ii) Aloe: suggested potency 30c one dose daily for fourteen days. Colibacillosis / Collisepticaemia By and large it takes place when the kid is deprived of colostrum or has been incompletely fed with it or if the goat has been exposed to prolonged wet or cold. Clinical symptoms: Kids under one month of age are commonly affected. Important symptoms are fever, diarrhoea or dysentery, loss of appetite, dryness of hair and skin coat. In later stages temperature becomes subnormal. Treatment: (i) Provide a solution by mixing Glucose 20g, Sodium chloride 3.5g, Potassium Chloride 1.5g, Sodium Bicarbonate 2.5g in distilled or clean palatable water (1 litre). Give 50-100 ml 4-6 times per day orally. (ii) Furazolidine @ 50-60 mg/kg body weight (BW), Chloramphenicol @ 25 -30 mg/kg BW, Sulfa drugs @ 25 mg/kg BW should be given orally for 3 successive days. Homeopathic treatment : (i) Aconitum helps allay shock and anxiety in cases that show a sudden onset. Suggested potency 1m one dose every hour for four doses. (ii) Carbo veg helps reviving apparent moribund patients. Potency 200c one dose every hour for four doses should be given. (iii) Camphora: suggested potency 6c one dose every hour for six doses. Enterotoxaemia: It is caused by the bacteria Clostridium perfringens. Goats up to 5 -6 months of age are more susceptible to it. Infection spreads through contaminated faces and soil. Clinical symptoms: Loss of appetite, pain in the abdominal region, excitement, convulsions, clumping of jaws, staggering and diarrhoea. Treatment: (i) Kids of 3 months of age should be vaccinated with 2.5 ml S/C and repeated after 14 days. Annual

vaccination is required. (ii) Penicillin @ 2000 IU/kg body weight should be injected I/M. (iii) Rehydration therapy by oral or inject able Dextrose saline, depends upon severity of case. Homeopathic treatment: (i) pyrogen in 1m potency and (ii) Arnsenicum Album 1m may give relief by giving one dose twice weekly for four weeks. It should be repeated after two months. HaemorrhagicSepticaemia: Clinical symptoms: High fever, difficult respiration, coughing and sudden death may occur. Treatment: H.S.Vaccine-an oil adjuvant yearly vaccine is used before monsoon in March/April @ 2 ml deep I/M. Homeopathic treatment: (i) Aconitum: suggested potency 1m one dose every hour for four doses. (ii) Arnica: suggested potency 30c one dose three times daily for three days. Mycoplasmosis Various species of the mycoplasma family are responsible for disease in animals causing mycoplasmosis. Clinical symptoms: there is high-rise of temperature with respiratory trouble. In some cases arthritis, mastitis in lactating goats are the usual clinical features. Treatment: treatment of affected goats with tysolin-1 cc per 25 lbs for 5 consecutive days I/M to be given. Homeopathic treatment : (i) Bryonia 6c giving a dose 3 times daily for 5 days. This should be followed by (ii) Ferrumphos 30c three times daily for 3 days which will be helpful in delaying the onset of pneumonia. (iii) If pneumonia develops Phosphorus 200c and (iv) Lycopodium 1m should be considered 3 times per week for three weeks. Mastitis : It is an inflammation of the mammary gland (udder or milk-giving gland) of animals, usually caused by a combination of factors such as faulty milk management, bacterial infection (Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus, E. coli, Mycoplasma agalactiae, Pseudomonas spp, Listeria spp, Corynebacteriumspp, Candidaspp. and Aspergillus spp.) and injuries.

Clinical symptoms: The udder is enlarged, hot, painful, and milk becomes watery, inconsistent often with flakes of blood, udder becomes hard and milk secretion is reduced. Treatment: after washing with potassium permanganate solution, remove the milk carefully from the affected quarter. Introduce antibiotic I/mammary infusion (like penicillin, streptomycin, sul fa drugs, ampicillin+cloxacillin) leave for 24 hours and repeat for 3 days. Homeopathic treatment : (i) Bacillinum: suggested potency 200c one per week for four weeks. (ii) Tellurium: suggested potency 30c twice daily for 10 days. Note: for all kind sof bacterial diseases sulpha drugs can be given orally to the goats, as they are antibacterial. Sulfonamides are anti-microbial inhibiting both gram -positive and gram negative bacteria. II. Viral Diseases Viruses are different from bacteria as they can penetrate the cells of the body where they replicate and in many instances cause serious disease. Foot and Mouth Disease (F.M.D.) Clinical symptoms: the disease is mild in adult goats. Vesicles appear on the tongue, lips, cheeks, gums, dental pad and on the skin between claws, occasional blisters on teats and udder. Lameness is also seen in adult goats. At times it can result of death in young kids. Treatment: isolate the sick goats and vaccinate the herd immeadiately. F.M.D.Vaccination-Rakshpolyvalent vaccine is given sub cutaneously (S/C) @1 ml in January and July months of every year. It provides 6 months of immunity against the disease. Wash the mouth of the infected goat with mild disinfectants like Alum, Potassium permanganate. Apply boroglycerine on the ulcers. Goat pox It is a skin disease that generally affects weak animals living in dirty, moist and congested places. Clinical symptoms: slight fever, vesicles appear on ear, nose and udder. After some time vesicles containing puss, dry crust are formed. In kids, high temperature is there, but death occurs before development of skin lesions. Treatment: isolate the sick goat and wash the lesions daily with hydrogen peroxide (dilute) with equal part of warm water followed by an antibiotic cream. Homeopathic Treatment: (i) Antimoniumcrudum: suggested potency 6c one three times daily for three days orally. (ii) Cuprum aceticum: suggested potency 6c one three times daily for four days orally. (iii) Hypercal lotion: a dilution of 1/10 should be applied on the skin once or twice daily. Pneumonia Exposure to damp and cold are disposing causes, as also are fatigue and transportation, which leads to pneumonia. Clinical symptoms: cough, dyspnea (respiratory trouble), lagging, lying down. Mouth breathing, tongue protrusion and frothy salivation are symptoms of terminal stages. Preventive measure: Protect animals from exposure to cold. Treatment: (i) Oxytetracycline or tetracycline @ 10 mg/kg body weight I/M for 3 -7 days should be injected. (ii) Injections of Tylosin tartrate @ 10 mg/kg body weight I/M for 3 -5 days. Till date, no commercial vaccine is available in India. Homeopathic treatment: (i) Bryonia: 30c dose three times daily for 4 days orally (ii) Antimoniumtartaricum: suggested potency 200c one dose daily for five days to be given orally. (iii) Phosphorus: suggested potency 200c twice daily for three days orally. Rinderpest It is caused by a morbilli virus .The virus is related to those that can cause measles in humans, distemper in dogs, peste des petits ruminants in sheep and goats. Cloven-hoofed animals are susceptible to the virus. Clinical symptoms: there is mild thermal reaction and diarrhoea. Ulcerative lesions appear on the inside of the lower lips and gums. Treatment: there is no treatment for the infected animals. However, there is a vaccination -tissue culture rinderpest vaccine S/C-that could be used in pockets of infection. The cu rrent vaccine, whilst highly effective, suffers from being heat sensitive. Chlamydiosis

Clinical symptoms: pneumonia, sometimes diarrhoea is present in goats. The pregnant goats may also abort in early stage of gestation. In young kids, arthritis is developed. Treatment: treatment with penicillin is effective. Homeopathic treatment: (i) Sabina in 6c potency should be given 3 times daily for 5 days which would help clear the vaginal discharge when a significant amount of blood is present. (ii) Caulophyllum 30c and (iii) secale 30c should be given 3 times daily for five days. (iv) Sepia 200c one daily for three days will enable the genital tract to recover. Anthrax The disease is caused by Bacillus anthracis. It is a soil borne infection, which causes bact eremia and septicemia in affected animals. The toxin released by the organism causes generalized edema and hemorrhages in body, which ultimately leads to death. Clinical symptoms: sudden high temperature (around 108 degrees F). In a less acute form the go at may live for a day and develop bloody diarrhoea. Treatment: Penicillin @ 10,000 IU/kg body weight should be given for 5 -7 days. Erythromycin 10-mg/kg-body weight should be given for 3 successive days. Pestes des Petits Ruminants (P.P.R.) Clinical symptoms: almost similar to rinderpest. The animal becomes dull, depressed and shows rise of high temperature. Mucopurulent discharge from nose is prominent. Erosions of skin and epithelium in mouth, tongue and nasal cavity, can be observed. Severe diarrhoea is quite common. Death usually follows due to dehydration and/or respiratory distress. Dental pad and tongue erosions mark pathological lesions, corrugation of the caecum and/ or colonmucosa. Treatment: Again, no treatment is available. Due to close antigeni c relationship with rinderpest, tissue culture rinderpest vaccine is administered. Foot Rot An organism called Fusiformisnodosus that contaminates the soil in damp or marshy areas causes this condition. The disease may be found in animals in low lying and muddy areas. In infected goats, necrosis may generally occur which leads to pus formation and lameness. The animal jerks the affected limb while walking so as to get rid off something. Treatment: Clean the affected wound with 5% Potassium Permanganate or 5 % Copper sulphate or 2% phenol. Or soak affected feet in solution of Epsom Salt and dry the hoof thoroughly. Do it 2 -3 times daily till the infection clears up. Administration of Penicillin 4000 IU/kg body weight I/M or Penicillin + Streptomycin 2ml I/M for 5-7 days is quite effective. Homeopathic treatment: (i) Kreosotum: suggested potency 200c one dose twice weekly for four to six hours. (ii) Heparsulph: suggested potency 200c one dose twice weekly for 6 weeks. (iii) Silicea: suggested potency 200c one dose twice weekly for 6 weeks. Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Syndrome (CAE) : Clinical symptoms: In young kids, the symptoms include a weakness in the rear legs, with no fever, or loss of appetite, however, the unused legs lose muscle strength and structure and the infected kids eventually die. In older goats, the same disease is seen as swollen joints, particularly the knees. The disease develops slowly, and after 2 or more years, the animal has difficulty using its legs properly. Infected goats have no f ever, remain alert, and eat well. However, they do not recover from the arthritis. Treatment: There are no corrective procedures or treatment. Isolating kids at birth and raising them on pasteurized goat milk is done to prevent spread of the disease. Homeopathic treatment: (i) Agaricus: suggested potency 1m three times daily for five days. (ii) Conium: suggested potency 30c one daily for 10 days, followed by 200c three times weekly for four weeks. III. Parasitic Diseases : The alimentary tract harbours a variety of protozoan parasites, which in nature mostly occur as mixed infection and are responsible for parasitic gastro-enteritis. The control of parasitic gastro enteritis largely depends upon the routine testing of the worm burden and administering regu lar deworming doses.

Nematode Infection Clinical symptoms:diarrhoea, severe anaemia (white eyes), emaciation and watery swelling under the jaw (Bottle Jaw). Treatment:faecal examination is necessary. Nilverm ICI @15 mg/kg body weight or Panacur @ 5 mg/kg body weight and Thiobendazole 50 mg/kg body weight should be given (see the deworming section under "Preventive Care" ). Fluke infection Clinical symptoms:diarrhoea, emaciation and oedema of throat. Treatment:faecal examination is essential. Zanil (ICI) @10-15 mg/kg body weight and Distodin 20 mg/kg body weight are effective. (see preventive Care deworming section). Tape worm infection Clinical symptoms:diarrhoea and constipation, segments of tapeworms may be seen in the faeces. Treatment: Panacur @ 10 mg/kg body weight is very effective. Kamala 2-3 gm/animal can also be used. (see the deworming section under Preventing Care). Coccidiosis Coccidia are tiny intestinal parasites that attack the intestinal canal producing Oocysts, which passes out in the droppings, and after undergoing a definite life cycle affect the other goats. Clinical symptoms:diarrhoea, anaemia, weakness and death are seen in coccidiosis of kids. Treatment: faecal examination is needed. Sulphametho -xazole 30mg/kg should be given twice daily for 4 -5 days. Homeopathic treatment: (i) aconitum: suggested potency 1m per dose every hour for four doses. (ii) Arsenicum album: suggested potency 1m per dose every hour for 4 doses. (iii) Ipecacuanha: suggested potency 30c one dose three times daily for five days. Ectoparasites These are External parasites on the goat like tics and lice. Clinical symptoms: irritation, anaemia and poor health. They also transmit many diseases. Treatment: regular dipping with 0.5 % Seven or 0.2 % Cythion at monthly interval or whenever needed. Seven dust is also used for lice. Homeopathic treatment: use a 1/10 dilution oh Hypercal and bathe the affected parts of the goat. Mange It occurs due to a mite that parasitizes the skin. Clinical symptoms: flakey, scurfy dandruff on the skin, severe itching, hairlessness develops and the skin becomes thick, hard and corrugated. Treatment: clip hair and wash with warm water and soap. (ii) Apply 0.5% Malathion or 0.5 % seven or 0.06% Lindane as spray, swab or dip thrice at the interval of 7 days. Homeopathic treatment: (i) Sulphur: suggested potency 30c once daily for fourteen days. (ii) Kali arsenicum: suggested potency 30c twice daily for 10 days. (iii) Graphites: suggested potency 30c twice daily for fourteen days. IV Non-infectious diseases Tympany/Bloat It usually takes place due to non-availability of potassium and magnesium in food. Clinical symptoms:inappetence, dullness, depression, increased pulse and respiration rate, distension of abdomen and oozing out of froth from the mouth. The animal becomes restless, repeatedly lies down and dies in a short period. Treatment: drench 28 mg soda in 250 ml of hot water. A cup of mineral oil may also relieve the condition. In acute cases, gas may be released using a trocar and cannula. Drench a quarter of a pint of cooking oil down the throat, then exercise the animal while massaging the sides. As soon as the goat is relieved, give a dessertspoon of dolomite mixed in a pint of cider vinegar which will help replace the missing magnesium and potassium. Homeopathic treatment: (i) Carbo veg: suggested potency 200c one every hour for four doses. (ii) Colchicum: suggested potency 30c one every hour for four doses.

(iii) Lycopodium: suggested potency 200 c one dose twice daily for 5 days. Diarrhoea The most usual causes of diarrhoea are intestinal worms and infection, cobalt, copper deficiency and enterotoxaemia, imbalance in feed or over feeding of milk in kids. Clinical symptoms: frequent loose stool Preventive care:over night wilting of the fodder before feeding the goats is advised. Treatment A dessertspoon of dolomite, a quarter of a teaspoon of copper sulfate and a dessertspoon of vitamin C down the throat should be administered. Poisoning The comm on poisons that goats are exposed to are: (i) Nitrate/nitrite poisoning (found in maize/bajra) Clinical Symptoms: respiratory difficulty, staggering gait, dizziness, tremors, convulsions and at times sudden death. Treatment: An initial injection of 5 to 7 grams of vitamin C followed by a teaspoon of ascorbic acid and dolomite powder, a drench of 10ml of Vitec liquid should be given immediately. (ii) Hydro cyanic acid poisoning (found in jwar/baru) Clinical symptoms: nervous symptoms and sudden death of the goats. Treatment: sodium thiosulphate 2 gm in 15 ml of water and sodium nitrate 1 gm are to be given orally or can be mixed in the water bowl. (iii) Insecticides poisoning (found in aldrin, endrin, chlordane and dieldrin) Clinical symptoms: uneasiness, dizziness and tremors, convulsions, death from respiratory arrest during coma. Treatment: a saline purgative may be given. To control convulsions, phenobarbital or largactil may be given. Calcium gluconate 10 % may be given I/V. A regular supplement of vitamin A, C, E should be given orally-60, 000 units of vitamin A, 20 Grams orally of vitamin C and 10 cc daily by injection and 2,000 units of vitamin Eorally or by injection. Urea poisoning (if taken accidentally) Clinical symptoms: severe abdominal pain , tremors, dyspnea (respiratory problem), and bloat. Treatment: vinegar or 2 % acetic acid is to be given orally in repeated doses. Milk fever The sudden drain of calcium and magnesium from the does system following kidding leads to milk fever. Clinical symptoms: anxiety, uncontrolled movements, staggering gait, collapse and death. Treatment: curing milk fever needs quick action else the doe will die. I/V calcium borogluconate should be injected in 4 doses. Homeopathic treatment: (i) Calcarea phosphate and Magnesium phosphate: a combination of these 2 should be administered. Suggested potency 30c giving a dose three times daily for seven days. (ii) Belladonna: suggested potency: 1m three times daily for two days. (iii) Conium: suggested potency 200c three times daily for four days. Pregnancy toxaemia Also known as Ketosis. This may occur in pregnant does late in their pregnancy. It may occur when the doe is carrying two or more kids, or when the doe is very fat. This disease is caused by the sudden extra demand for energy by the fast-growing kids in the pregnant goat and the inability of the goat to eat enough of her normal diet to provide this energy (due to the kids taking up room in the body). The doe will rapidly metabolize fat from her body stores producing ketones (a toxic by-product) and the symptoms of the disease. Clinical symptoms: The doe may be depressed, weak, have poor eyesight, be uninterested in food and have poor muscle control and balance. If untreated, death follows within a few days. Earl y in the disease, many does will show a positive test for ketone bodies in the urine. Treatment: Ketosis treatment with propylene glycol at two to three ounces twice a day will help. If the doe lies down and cannot stand, treatment is usually not successful unless she delivers at that time. As a preventive measure, do not let the doe get fat early in pregnancy and in the last month of pregnancy provide 1 -2 pounds of grain in addition to hay. Homeopathic treatment: (i) Phosphorus: suggested potency 200c one dose daily for 10 days. (ii) Lycopodium: suggested potency 1m one daily for 10 days. (iii) Magnesium phos: suggested potency 30c twice daily for ten days. Rabies

Clinical symptoms: strange behaviour, frothing salvation after 20 -60 days of the bite, stops eating, drinking, becomes paralyzed. Treatment: There is no treatment except vaccinating the goat soon after the dog bite. Snakebite Clinical symptoms:A snakebite either kills the goat instantaneously by immediate nervous paralysis or, more usually, by slow loss of muscle control, which allows time to deal with the problem. The eye muscle is the f irst to relax; the pupil appears to be spread right across the eye. Treatment: (i) Give 15 cc of vitamin C by injection intramuscularly in the side of the neck and repeat in two hours if necessary. (ii) If the location of the bite can be found do not waste time looking for it until after the vitamin C treatment has been administered rub some sodium ascorbate powder well into it as this effectively stops the pain which can be considerable. Homeopathic treatment: (i) aconitum: suggested potency 1m one dose every hour for three doses. (ii) Lachesis: suggested potency 1m one dose every hour for four doses. Preventive Health Care Minding the goats while they are grazing, supplying fresh water and food with complete nutrients and regular by disinfecting of the house along with regular vaccination (as discussed below) would keep the goat healthy and free from disease. Under preventive health care the following operations should be performed as a standard procedure: Deworming Dipping Coccidiostate Drenching Vaccinating Deworming Deworming is done to check the internal parasitic infestations in the goats. In sheep and goats, parasitic load is a very alarming problem as in some cases animals die immediately or after showing symptoms of diarrhoea and colic may die within 1-2 hours. Their alimentary tract harbours a variety of helminthic and protozoan parasites, which in nature mostly occur as a mixed infection and are responsible for parasitic gastroenteritis. In order to check the infection which is quite prevalent after onset of the rainy season; administer the deworming dose twice in a year as a routine to the goat or the flock. (i) Pre-monsoon : June/July (as per onset of rain) (ii) Post monsoon : October The following broad-spectrum deworming dose may be used for the purpose. (i) Nilverm : @ 15 mg per kg body weight (ii) Panacur : @ 5 mg per kg body weight (iii) Banminth II : 0.25 ml/kg body weight, or Tab : @ 1 Tab per 20 kg body weight or 1 bolus per 100 kg body weight (iv) Nilzan Liquid : 10 ml per 30 kg body weight (for nematodes &Trematodes both) (v) Valbazine : @ 6 ml per 30 kg body weight Liquid To check the infection of liver fluke the following medicines can be given : (i) Zanil Liquid : 10-15 ml as a single dose. (ii) Nilzan : As above doses. In addition to this Distodin Tab &Hexachloroethane Powder may also be used in appropriate doses for liver fluke. Tapeworm To check tapeworms the above broad spectrum drugs are also affective but as a drug of choice following the medicines may be used against cestodes. (i) Dichlorophen 0.5 gm/3 kg body weight (ii) Niclosamide/Niclex in appropriate doses (iii) Arcolinehydrobromide/Neomural (Hoechst) may be given. As a routine, 10% faecal samples of the total number of animals in the flock should b e regularly examined every month to see the parasitic load and if the load is there, drench should be given. Dewormers should always be changed at every drench in order to check the resistance in parasites against the medicines on the 21st day after the first deworming a second drench is needed for complete expulsion of the parasites from the animals. Homeopathic treatment : Kamala, Chenopodium and Granatum in low potency (3c) should be

added in the feed of the goats daily for 14 days and repeated after an interval of one month. Dipping Dipping is an essential component of controlling the ecto -parasite infestation i.e. tics, mites and lice, which suck the blood of the animal causing ill health and mange. Control is possible by better management, treatment of clinical cases and by keeping the sheds clean and disinfected. Dipping may be done as per requirement. The following medicines may be used for the purpose : i) Cythioin/Malathion 0.5% solution in water ii) Seven 0.06 % solution in water iii) Butox 0.1 to 0.4% solution in water iv) Gamaxine powder 5%(1 part + 3 part ash) may be rubbed on the body of the affected animals. v) Ektomin 0.1 % solution in water Animals should be dipped after providing enough drinking water otherwise animals may drink the medic inal solution. A test dipping is also required before performing the dipping. So before 12 hrs; about 10 animals may be dipped in medicinal solution, and after 12 hours if the dipped animals are normal then the whole flock may be dipped; it will check the occurrence of any accidental health hazards/ mortality. In case of poisoning AtropinSulphate 0.3mg/kgbodywt should be given and if required, it may be repeated @0.1 mg/kg body wt. Coccidiostate Drenching Coccidiosis is a protozoan disease caused by Eimeris specially affecting the kids of 1-3 months of age. The kids suffer from servere enteritis/diarrhoea with or without haemorrhages/blood drps with foul smell, abdominal colic, anaemia and loss of body weight Oocystesmaybe detected in faeces. The following m edicines may be used as an anti coccidial drench. i) Sulpha Dimethyl Pyremedine LIQ (Sulmet) Oral Route Dose rate : 30 ml per 23 kg body weight 1 day 15 ml per 23 kg body weight II, III & IV day The above dose is a curative dose after onset of infection but for preventive measures half of the above doses may be given orally i.e. 15ML per 23 kg. body weight 1 day 7.5 ml per 23 body weight x next 3 days ii) Amprolium Powder (MSD) @10mg/kg body weight may be given for six days Avoiding overcrowding, keeping younger stock separate from adult, isolation of infected cses and adopting strict hygienic precautions can control the disease. Vaccination Vaccination is done to protect the goats from bacterial /viral diseases. It is usually done for the following diseases: i) F.M.D: Raksha polyvalent vaccine is given subcutaneously (S/C) @ 1 ml in January and July months of every year. Vaccine provides 6 months immunity against foot and mouth disease (F.M.D.). ii) H.S.Vaccine: an oil adjuvant vaccine is used before monsoon in March/April @ 2 ml deep I/M.Itprovides protection against HaemorrhagicSepticaemia for one year. iii) Enterotoxaemia: Enterotoxaemia vaccine is used @ 2.5 ml S/C and is repeated in the same dose after 14 21 days of 1 st dose. It provides protection for 1 year against Enterotoxaemia infection. iv) Pestes Des Petits Ruminants (P.P.R.) and Rinderpest: there is no specific vaccine of PPR but due to the close antigenic relationship with rinderpest, the tissue rinderpest vaccine can be administered. ANNUAL PREVENTIVE HEALTH SCHEDULE PARTICULARS :Months 1 DEWORMING JUN SEP 2 DIPPING APR OCT 3 COCCIDIOS APR NOV 4 E. T FEB JUL 5 H. S JUN 6 FMD JAN JUL 7 PPR/RP MAR

9.THE TRANSPORTATION OF GOATS : RULES AND REGULATIONS Every care must be taken while goats are to be transported from one place to another. Most often they are subjected to cruel means en route and are treated as mere commodity having no life or enduring no pain. This is not only a gruesome act but also illegal. The following r ules apply to transporting goats by rail or road of journeys of more than six hours duration. These guidelines are laid in Transport of Animals Rules, 1978: A valid certificate by a qualified veterinary surgeon to the effect that the goats are in a fit condition to travel by rail or road and are not suffering from infectious or contagious or parasitic diseases shall accompany each consignment. In the absence of such a certificate, the carrier shall refuse to accept the consignment for transport. Each consignment shall bear a label showing in bold red letters the name, address and telephone number (if any) of the consigner and consignee, the number and types of goats being transported and the quantities of rations and food provided. The consignee shall be informed in advance about the train or vehicle in which the consignment of the goats is being sent and the arrival time. First aid equipment should accompany the goats in transit Suitable ramps should be provided for loading or unloading the g oats. Sufficient food and fodder should be carried to last during the journey and watering facilities should be provided at regular intervals. Material for padding, such as straw, shall be placed on the floor to avoid injury to the animal in case it l ies down, and this should not be less than five centimeters thick. The space requirements for the goats are: Space required in square metres Not more than 20 0.18 More than 20 but not more than 25 0.20 More than 25 but not more than 30 0.23 More than 30 0.28 Adequate ventilation must be provided in every compartment. The upper door of one side of the wagon should be kept open and properly fixed and the upper door of the wagon shall have a wire gauge with closely welded mesh arrangements to prevent the burning cinders from the engine entering the wagon and leading to fire breakout. Goods vehicles like trucks of capacity of 4.5 to 5 tons, which are generally used for transportation of animals, shall carry not more than 40 goats. In the case of large goods vehicles and wagons, a partition should be provided at every 2 or 3 meters across the width to prevent the crowding and trapping of goats. In case of goats and kids under six weeks of age, separate panels should be provided. Goats should not be fettered and their legs should not be tied down. Besides the above, under Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (Transport of Animals on Foot) Rules, 2000 the rules apply to transport of animals on foot when the distance from the boundary of village or town or city of the origin of such transport to the last destination is 5 km or more than 5 km. Every animal to be transported on foot shall be healthy and in good condition for such transport. A certificate of a veterinary doctor should accompany the animal. Newborn animals, diseased, blind, emaciated, lame, and fatigued or having given birth during the preceding 2 hours or likely to give birth during transport shall not be transported on foot. Animals shall be transported in their on-farm social groups (established at least one week prior to journey). First aid equipment should be accompanied with the animals while transported on foot. If the person transporting the animals is not the owner of the animal, then such person shal l carry a certificate as specified in the second schedule of the rules during such transportation. The owner of the animal will make watering arrangement en route during transportation on foot. Sufficient feed and fodder with adequate reserve of such feed and fodder for the animals shall be made available by their owner shall during the transport on foot. No person can use a whip or a stick in order to force the animal to walk or to hasten the pace of their walk nor apply chillies or many substance to any part of the body of the animal for this purpose during their transportation on foot. Any animal needs to be tied during the transport, it should be tied by a rope covered with suitable cushioning such as a cloth around its leg and such animal shal l not be tied by its nose, all legs or any other part of the body except by its neck. If more than one animal is to be tied adjacent to one another by a single rope, the space between any two such animals shall be minimum 2 feet and animals shall be of similar physical conditions and strength and no more than 2 such animals shall be tied adjacent to each other by a single rope. No animal shall be transported on foot beyond the distance, time, rest interval and temperature specified below: SPECIES MAXIMUM DISTANCE MAXIMUM No. OF COVERED/DAY/HOUR. WALKING/DAY OF PERIOD OF TEMPERATURE REST(INTER-VAL). RANGE(MAX. TO

Goats and Sheep.

30 Km per Day,4km/hr.

HOURS(TRAVELLING). 8 hours.

MIN.). At every 2 hours 12 degreeC to 30 for drinking and at degree C. every 4 hours for feeding.

If any police officer above the rank of constable or any other person authorized in this behalf by the central or state government or by the Animal Welfare Board of India, has reasons to believe that an offence has been or is being committed in respect of an animal in contravention of the rules, he may require the owner or other person in charge of such animal to take the animal to the nearest magistrate. If the owner refuses to comply with the demands of the police officer, it shall be lawful for such pol ice officer or such other person to take the animal to the nearest magistrate. Enclosed at Annexure I & II are the Forms for Certificate of Fitness for Transport of Animals. If you find a transporter without these forms filled in, you can confiscate the go ats. 10.SLAUGHTERING OF GOATS : RULES AND REGULATIONS The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (Slaughter House) Rules, 2000 are: Animals cannot be slaughtered except in recognized or licensed slaughter houses. No animal that is pregnant or has an offspring less than three months old or is under the age of 3 months or has not been certified by a veterinary doctor shall be slaughtered. Every animal after it has been subject to veterinary inspection shall be passed onto a lairage for resting for 24 hours before slaughter. No animal shall be slaughtered in a slaughterhouse in sight of other animals. No animal shall be administered any chemical, drug or hormone before slaughter except for a drug for its treatment from any specific disease. Every slaughterhouse shall provide a separate space for stunning of animals prior to slaughter, bleeding and dressing of the carcasses. Knocking section in slaughterhouse maybe so planned as to suit the animal and such knocking section and dry landing area associated with it shall be built that escape from this section can be easily carried out by an operator without allowing the animal to pass the escape barrier. A curbed in bleeding area of adequate size as specified shall be provided in a slaughter house and it shall be so located that the blood can not be splashed on other animals being slaughtered or on t he carcass being skinned. Note: The above are not the only rules .To know more check the rules as given in the slaughterhouse pamphlet. Please Note: Since goats are only grown in this country to be slaughtered for meat , do not encourage reproduction or milk use. The only reason why it has been included is if veterinary help is needed or you see someone keeping his goats badly/cruelly.