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The Database Development Process

Zaldy Adrianto

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Enterprise Data Model


First step in database development Species scope and general content Overall picture of organizational data at high level of abstraction

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Enterprise Data Model


Entity-relationship diagram Descriptions of entity types Relationships between entities Business rules

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Enterprise data model

Enterprise data model describes the high-level entities in an organization and the relationship between these entities

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Information Systems Architecture (ISA)


Conceptual blueprint for organizations desired information systems structure According to Zachman (1987) Consists of: Data (e.g. Enterprise Data Model simplied ER Diagram) Processes data ow diagrams, process decomposition, etc. Data Network topology diagram (like g 1.9) People people management using project management tools (Gantt charts, etc.) Events and points in time (when processes are performed) Reasons for events and rules (e.g. decision tables)
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Information Engineering
A data-oriented methodology to create and maintain information systems Top-down planning: a generic IS planning methodology for obtaining a broad understanding of the IS needed by the entire organization Four steps to Top-Down planning:
Planning Analysis Design Implementation
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Information Systems Planning


Purpose: align information technology with organizations business strategies Three steps: Identify strategic planning factors Identify corporate planning objects Develop enterprise model
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Identify Strategic Planning Factors


Organization goals what we hope to accomplish Critical success factors what MUST work in order for us to survive Problem areas weaknesses we now have
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Planning Factors

Examples
Maintain 10 % per year growth maintain 15 % before tax ROI avoid employee layos be a responsible corporate

GOALS

CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS

High quality products on time deliveries high productivity Inaccurate sales forecast increasing competition stockouts

PROBLEMS AREAS

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Identify Corporate Planning Objects


1.Organizational units departments 2.Organizational locations 3.Business functions groups of business processes 4.Entity types the things we are trying to model for the database 5.Information systems application programs
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Develop Enterprise Data Model


Functional decomposition See Figure 2-2 Enterprise data model See Figure 2-1 Planning matrixes See Figure 2-3
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Decomposition -- breaking large tasks into smaller tasks in a hierarchical structure chart

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Enterprise Data Modelling

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Planning Matrixes
Describe relationships between planning objects in the organization Types of matrixes: Function-to-data entity Location-to-function Unit-to-function IS-to-data entity Supporting function-to-data entity IS-to-business objective
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Business function-to-data entity matrix


Data Entity Types Business Function (users) Business Planning Product Development Materials Management Order Fulfillment Order Shipment Sales Summarization Production Operations Finance and Accounting
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Customer Product Raw Material Order Work Center Work Order Invoice Equipment Employee
X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

Systems Development Life Cycle


Project Identification and Selection Project Initiation and Planning Analysis

Logical Design

Physical Design

Implementation

Maintenance

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Systems Development Life Cycle (cont.) (Figures 2-4, 2-5)


Project Identification Project Identification and Selection and Selection Project Initiation and Planning

Purpose --preliminary understanding Deliverable request for project

Analysis

Logical Design

Physical Design

Database activity enterprise modeling

Implementation

Maintenance

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Systems Development Life Cycle (cont.) (Figures 2-4, 2-5)


Project Identification and Selection Project Initiation Project Initiation and Planning and Planning Analysis

Purpose state business situation and solution Deliverable request for analysis

Logical Design

Physical Design

Database activity conceptual data modeling

Implementation

Maintenance

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Systems Development Life Cycle (cont.) (Figures 2-4, 2-5)


Project Identification and Selection Project Initiation and Planning

Purpose thorough analysis Deliverable functional system specications

Analysis Analysis

Logical Design

Physical Design

Database activity conceptual data modeling

Implementation

Maintenance

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Systems Development Life Cycle (cont.) (Figures 2-4, 2-5)


Project Identification and Selection Project Initiation and Planning Analysis

Purpose information requirements structure Deliverable detailed design specications

Logical Design Logical Design

Physical Design

Database activity logical database design

Implementation

Maintenance

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Systems Development Life Cycle (cont.) (Figures 2-4, 2-5)


Project Identification and Selection Project Initiation and Planning Analysis

Purpose develop technology specs Deliverable program/data structures, technology purchases, organization redesigns

Logical Design

Physical Design Physical Design

Database activity physical database design

Implementation

Maintenance

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Systems Development Life Cycle (cont.) (Figures 2-4, 2-5)


Project Identification and Selection Project Initiation and Planning Analysis

Purpose programming, testing, training, installation, documenting Deliverable operational programs, documentation, training materials

Logical Design

Physical Design

Database activity database implementation

Implementation Implementation

Maintenance

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Systems Development Life Cycle (cont.) (Figures 2-4, 2-5)


Project Identification and Selection Project Initiation and Planning Analysis

Purpose monitor, repair, enhance Deliverable periodic audits

Logical Design

Physical Design

Database activity database maintenance

Implementation

Maintenance Maintenance

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Packaged Data Models


Model components that can be purchased, customized, and assembled into full-scale data models Advantages Reduced development time Higher model quality and reliability Two types: Universal data models Industry-specic data models

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CASE
Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) software tools providing automated support for systems development Three database features: Data modeling entity-relationship diagrams Code generation SQL code for table creation Repositories knowledge base of enterprise information

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Managing Projects
Project a planned undertaking of related activities to reach an objective that has a beginning and an end Involves use of review points for: Validation of satisfactory progress Step back from detail to overall view Renew commitment of stakeholders Incremental commitment review of systems development project after each development phase with rejustication after each phase
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Managing Projects: People Involved


Systems analysts Database analysts Users Programmers Database/data administrators Systems programmers, network administrators, testers, technical writers

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Figure 2-8a Gantt Chart

Shows time estimates of tasks


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Shows dependencies between tasks


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Database Schema
Physical Schema
Physical structures chapters 5 and 6

Conceptual Schema
E-R models chapters 3 and 4

External Schema
User Views Subsets of Conceptual Schema Can be determined from business-function/data entity matrices DBA determines schema for dierent users
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Dierent people have dierent views of the databasethese are the external schema

The internal schema is the underlying design and implementation

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Pine Valley Furniture

Preliminary data model (Figure 2-12)

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Question ???

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Assignment

Kerjakan review question no 1 s/d 5 halaman 72


buku hoer edisi 7

Problem and exercise halaman 73 nomor 4.

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