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Transformation defines as a complete or partial alteration in form, appearance, nature or character.

The changing of texts is undertaken to suit the modern-day perspectives of audience. Texts are shaped and influenced by the world in that period. The usual aspects that undertake the role of change are characters, language, themes and values. A text does not transform completely, but parallels exist. The amended text would have sequential events from the original text. The importance of literature would be reinforced through the deliberate transformation of texts. The two tragedy plays that have been written in two entirely different periods are Shakespeare s Hamlet and Tom Stoppard s play, Rosencrantz and Guildernstern are Dead. Parallels exist between these two texts but comparatively, many parts have been transformed. These are social and historical context of 1960s also the 1600s, the characters, their language and lastly the theme of death. A text is influenced by the context of the time such as Shakespeare s Hamlet. In 1601, Shakespeare wrote in a time when religion was revered highly. God was seen as the omnipotent, God hath given you one face. people believed God had connection with the monarch, therefore they were much respected. Lord was mainly called to the prince. Hamlet was also written in the Elizabethean Era when the Renaissance movement started. This event promoted humanist values and skepticism as Hamlet conveys in To die, to sleep-no more. Hamlet, who represents the minority, wonders what death is like. Murder and suicidal was immoral in those times and murderers were treacherous. R & G are Dead is a modified text of Hamlet set in the 20th century. Stoppard wrote this modernized play in 1960s, where it was a time of great uncertainty due to events that occurred. During this time, the WW2 have just ended leaving behind the belief in divided ordained universe. People were questioning their lives, not knowing the purpose of living. There were also nihilistic views in which the philosophy of existentialism takes place. Guil s line evokes this idea, then what am I supposed to do here, I ask myself. The Theatre of Absurdism also appeared, which was art highlighting the incongruous nature of humanity and the universe. This notion is depicted in the beginning of Stoppard s play. The recurrence of heads on the coin implies that the world the characters live in is full of devoid and unanswerable as it is an absurd world. Hence, Stoppard has rewritten Hamlet s play in a different time to suit the minds of modern audience. One of the major focuses of the play is the characters from Hamlet. From Hamlet, R and G are set to be the minor characters. The audience can gain a limited profile of these two characters. They are indistinguishable guests, who were even confused by the king. C: gentle Rosencrantz and Guildernstern. G: Gentle Guildernstern and Rosencrantz. Ros and Guil were ordered to gain information for Hamlet s madness. Thus, this implores both to be seen as betrayers, deceiving and manipulative rogues from the audience s view. Of Hamlet s character, the audience seeks him as the modern day hero, who he avenges for his father s death. Hamlet is rich in his language, tis, an unweeded garden that grows to seed, things rank and gross in nature. He uses imagery to indicate Elsinore to be poisoned by a corrupted devious king. This flow of high level of language evokes that Hamlet is an intellectual prince who has a flexible mind. Hamlet is to be desired for he does make mistakes in life proving that he is human.

Ros and Guild are situated to be the majoy role-players in Stoppard s play. Rod and Guil s life have been written out as well asthem to exist because they are controlled by characters such as Hamlet and Claudius. Rod and Guild represents the 1960s average person who does not know their direct purpose in life. Thus, the audience sympathise over them whilst turning away from Prince Hamlet s matters. Stoppard has brought individuality in Ros and Guils characters. Ros exclainms, I want to go home! which shows that he is pragmatic as well as jocular, coming up with silly word games. Guil is pensive, intellectual and passionate, as he uses syllogism and paradox such as wind of a windless day. Hamlet is viewed to be the villain in this play for he takes the lives of Ros and Guil in the end of the play. The key element of the story is the themes that teach the audience. Death presented in Hamlet is shown to be of a serious matter. Hamlet contemplates on what would happen after death in the metaphor, for in that sleep of death, what dreams may come. He also ponders about the undiscovered country as the cause of the impact of his father s death. Before hamlet was about to kill Claudius, he fears that his heels may kick in heaven as he is praying. Hence, he procrastinates and waits for the time for Claudius to be idle. Hamlet is disgusted over the things that humans do. This is exemplified in the rhetorical device, what a piece of work is man! He encapsulates that no one is to be trusted as people lie, kill the innocents, lusts, steal and generate violence. Hence, the depiction of death is very distressing, bloody and solemn. Nevertheless, Ros and Guil are Dead, has a light-hearted atmosphere towards death. This is because of the many events that shaped up this view. Guil sums up, it s the absence of presence, nothing more. He notes death to be nothing terrifying, but rather empty. Again he implores in the simile, it would be just like falling asleep in a box. Here, death is shown to be a universal theme. People asked what happened when they die. In the 1960s, not many had belief in the afterlife as they saw it as the negative picture of eternity . the worst of both worlds. It could be seen that death was not taken seriously or distressing compared to Hamlet. People viewed life as a path that seems predestined. The paradox, wind of a windless day, exemplifies an existentialist s view that sees life as living without purpose. These ideas of devoid could also be evident in the clich, Now you see me now you-And disappears. Thus, death has been viewed differently in both plays. Through the analysis of social and historical context, characters and themes of both plays, Hamlet and Ros and Guil are Dead, transformations have been clarified. The absolute modifying of a text is mainly compelled by the time when they were written in. The characters of Ros and Guil have been given individuality and personality to express the ideas of an average person. The context contributes immensely on the transformation. Both periods experienced turmoil, ambiguity. Themes about death are central in Hamlet as it is inflicted to be a serious topic whereas Ros and Guil are Dead is not. Death has also revolved from being a silent, gloomy theme into a more universal and interest in topic. All these elements are supported by sophisticated language features that help to establish the profound concept of transformations.