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# POKHARA UNIVERSITY Level: Bachelor Semester Fall Programme: BE Course: Digital Signal Processing Year : 2003 Full Marks

## s : 100 Time : 3hrs.

Candidates are required to give their answers in their own words as far as practicable. The figures in the margin indicate full marks. Attempt all the questions. 1. a) Consider the analog signal x a (t ) = 3 cos( 100 t ) i)
ii)

Determine the minimum sampling rate required to avoid aliasing. Suppose that the signal is sampled at the rate Fs = 200Hz. What is the discrete-time signal obtain after sampling? Suppose that the signal is sampled at the rate Fs = 75Hz. What is the discrete-time signal after sampling? What is the frequency 0 < F < Fs/2 of a sinusoid that yields samples identical to those obtained in part (iii)

2 2 2 3 2 3 10

iii)
iv)

b) Define the time-invariance property of a discrete-time system. c) State and explain the stability condition of a discrete-time system. 2. a) Consider a system with impulse response h[n]=u[n]-u[n-N], i.e.,

1, 0 n N 1 h[n] = 0, o t h e r w i s e
The input to the system is x[n]=an u[n], a>0; u[n] represents unit-step function. Calculate the output at a particular index n. b) For a
N k =1

system

described
M k =0

by

the

difference

equation:

## y[ n] = a k y[n k ] + bk x[ n k ], draw the Direct Form II

structure realization. State the numbers of additions, multiplications and delay elements required in the ststem. 3. a) Define z-transform. Determine the z-transform of the signal x[n]=anu[n], a>0; where u[n] is the unit-step function. 1+4

b) c)

Determine the z-transform and the region of convergence (ROC) for the signal: x[n]=sin(won) u[n] Determine the signal x[n] whose z-transform is given by: X(z)=log(1+az-1), |z|>| |

5 5

4. a) Given a three-stage lattice filter with coefficients K1=, K2=, k3=1/3, determine the FIR filter coefficients for the Direct Form structure.
b) Consider the system function: H(z)=

implementation for the above system showing the values of all the parameters. c) Explain the Limit Cycle Oscillation effect. 5. a) With the help of a flow-chart explain the Remez exchange algorithm for the design of FIR filter. Also state the relevant equations. b) Explain the Gibbs phenomenon in the FIR filter design. c) Differentiate between symmetric and anti-symmetric FIR filter. 6. a) Convert the analog s + 0.1 filter with system function: 5 9 3 3 5

1 = 0.9 Z

## 1 . Draw the lattice-form + 0.64 Z 2 0.576 Z 3

into a digital IIR filter by means of 2 ( s + 0.1) + 9 impulse-invariance method. b) c) Explain the z-transformation method of converting an analog filter into an equivalent digital filter. Differentiate between a Butterworth and a Chebychev filter. 5 2*5 5

H a (s) =

7. Write short notes (Any Two) a) Notch filter b) Blackman window c) Pipelined implementation of digital filter d) Overflow error in the representation of binary numbers.