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BJC/OR-133

Empirical Models for the Uptake of Inorganic Chemicals from Soil by Plants

This document has received the appropriate reviews for release to the public. Date: 9/23/98

BJC/OR-133

Empirical Models for the Uptake of Inorganic Chemicals from Soil by Plants

Date IssuedSeptember 1998

Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management

BECHTEL JACOBS COMPANY LLC managing the Environmental Management Activities at the East Tennessee Technology Park Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Oak Ridge National Laboratory Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant under contract DE-AC05-98OR22700 for the U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

CONTENTS
FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v EXECUTIVE SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii 1. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2. METHODS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2.1 DATABASE DEVELOPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2.2 MODEL DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3. RESULTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.1 MODELING RESULTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.2 VALIDATION RESULTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 3.3 MODELS INCORPORATING VALIDATION DATA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 4. DISCUSSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1 ARSENIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 CADMIUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 COPPER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4 LEAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5 MERCURY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6 NICKEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.7 SELENIUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.8 ZINC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 25 26 26 26 27 27 27 28

5. RECOMMENDATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 6. REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 APPENDIX A. DATABASE OF BIOACCUMULATION CONCENTRATIONS . . . . . . . . . . A-1 APPENDIX B. PROCEDURE FOR CALCULATION OF PREDICTION LIMITS FOR ESTIMATES GENERATED BY THE SIMPLE REGRESSION MODELS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1 APPENDIX C. SCATTERPLOTS OF BIOACCUMULATION OF CHEMICALS FROM FIELD-CONTAMINATED SITES AND SALTS-AMENDED SOILS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-1 APPENDIX D. SUMMARY STATISTICS FOR SOIL-PLANT UPTAKE FACTORS FOR MISCELLANEOUS CHEMICALS FROM THE VALIDATION DATASET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-1 iii

FIGURES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Scatterplots of arsenic concentrations in vegetation versus soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Scatterplots of cadmium concentrations in vegetation versus soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Scatterplots of copper concentrations in vegetation versus soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Scatterplots of lead concentrations in vegetation versus soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Scatterplots of mercury concentrations in vegetation versus soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Scatterplots of nickel concentrations in vegetation versus soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Scatterplots of selenium concentrations in vegetation versus soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Scatterplots of zinc concentrations in vegetation versus soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Distribution of soil-plant uptake factors for selenium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

TABLES
1. 2. 3. 4. Summary statistics for soil-to-plant uptake factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Results of regression of ln (conc. in plant) on ln (conc. in soil) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Results of regression of ln (conc in plant) on ln (conc. in soil) and pH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Comparison of quality of general estimation methods as determined by the proportional deviation (PD) of the estimated values from measured values . . . . . . . . . 5. Comparison of quality of conservative estimation methods as determined by the proportional deviation (PD) of the estimated values from measured values . . . . . . . . . 6. Summary statistics for soil-plant uptake factors following inclusion of validation data . . . . . 7. Results of regression of ln (conc. in plant) on ln (conc. in soil) following inclusion of validation data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. Results of regression of ln (conc. in plant) on ln (conc. in soil) and pH following inclusion of validation data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. Comparison of geometric mean uptake factors from Baes et al. (1984) and the present study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. Recommended application of bioaccumulation models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 29

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Regression models and uptake factors for use in estimating the uptake of inorganic elements by above-ground plant tissues from soil were derived. These included models for arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, and zinc. Models were developed using published data from soil contaminated in the field, after it was demonstrated that patterns of uptake of inorganic salts by plants were different from those of contaminated soils from waste sites. Models were validated using measured concentrations from two contaminated sites. Single-variable regression models of concentrations in plants versus concentrations in soil are generally recommended over simple uptake factors for use in estimating plant uptake of inorganic contaminants in ecological risk assessments. Multiple regression models with soil concentration and pH as the variables are also recommended for estimating the uptake of four chemicals (cadmium, mercury, selenium, and zinc) by plants. Models for use in screening risk assessments, i.e., the upper 95% prediction interval on the regressions, are recommended as conservative models of uptake of inorganic chemicals by plants. Two previously published reports, Development and Validation of Bioaccumulation Models for Earthworms (Sample et al. 1998a) and Development and Validation of Bioaccumulation Models for Small Mammals (Sample et al. 1998b), provide a similar function for estimating uptake of contaminants by earthworms and small mammals as components of the wildlife diet.

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1. INTRODUCTION
The major pathway of exposure of terrestrial wildlife to contaminants in soil is through food ingestion. The prediction or estimation of risks to wildlife requires knowledge of their diets, body weights, habitats, and concentrations of contaminants in all ingested media (food, soil, and water). The direct measurement of chemical concentrations in wildlife food is advisable to minimize uncertainty in ecological risk assessments. However, site-specific data on the bioaccumulation of contaminants in vegetation and other biota that comprise wildlife diets are often not available because of constraints in funding or time. At a minimum, concentrations of inorganic and organic chemicals in soils are measured at contaminated sites prior to a risk assessment. The challenge is to develop models that estimate concentrations of chemicals in plants from these concentrations in soil. The simplest linear model for estimating the concentrations of chemicals in vascular plants is the soil-plant uptake factor, the ratio of the concentration of a chemical in a plant or portion of a plant to that in soil. The concentration of a contaminant in plants at a particular location is estimated by multiplying the measured concentration in soil by the soil-plant uptake factor. Chemical concentrations in plants and soil are assumed to be at equilibrium; thus, exposure time is not considered. The usefulness of uptake factors lies in the ease by which distributions can be developed and conservative (e.g., 90th percentile) values chosen. However, the evidence below suggests that uncertainty in uptake model predictions may be minimized if: (1) nonlinear models are employed and (2) environmental factors and other sources of variability are incorporated in the model. Uptake factors would be most useful if they did not vary with soil concentration. Although the uptake relationship between soil and plants is probably valid for narrow ranges of chemical concentration in the relatively nontoxic range (e.g., Jiang and Singh 1994, Carlson and Bazzaz 1977), some evidence demonstrates that uptake factors are dependent on soil concentration. Baes et al. (1984), who developed soil-vegetative tissue uptake factors that are often used in human health and ecological risk assessments, found that the uptake factors for copper and zinc were inversely correlated with soil concentration. These metal contaminants are also nutrients, and it is not surprising that they would be regulated by plants. Alsop et al. (1996) showed that the use of Baes factors underpredicted the uptake of lead and zinc by oats at concentrations within background ranges in soil and overpredicted metal concentrations in the plants at concentrations exceeding background levels. Clearly, nonlinear models would sometimes be more useful for risk assessments than the Baes factors. Both Neuhauser et al. (1995) and Sample et al. (1998a) have obtained significant regressions for the uptake of inorganic elements by earthworms using log-transformed concentrations, so it is reasonable to assume that log-transforming soil and plant concentrations could result in a statistically significant relationship. Inorganic chemicals are passively taken up by plants from soil water, with the additional possibility of active uptake in the case of required nutrients, such as copper and zinc. Soil properties such as pH, clay content, and organic matter strongly affect the concentrations of inorganic chemicals in soil solution. For example, the amount of zinc in soil water and plant tissues is generally observed to increase with decreasing pH and cation exchange capacity (Bysshe 1988). Cadmium uptake by plants has been shown in numerous studies to decrease with increasing pH (He and Singh 1994, Miller et al. 1976). Sims and Kline (1991) found significant multiple regression models between nickel, copper, and zinc in wheat and soybean and soil metal concentrations and pH, but not with soil metal concentrations alone. The type of soil is significant for accumulation of chemicals by plants, with arsenic uptake in crops dependent on soil 1

type (Jiang and Singh 1994) and cadmium uptake by soybeans related to the sorptive capacity of soil (Miller et al. 1976). In this report we present: (1) single-variable regressions using ln-transformed, above-ground plant and soil concentrations, (2) multiple regressions of ln-transformed plant concentration on ln-transformed soil concentration and pH, and (3) summary statistics for and distributions of soil-plant uptake factors for eight inorganic elements: arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, and zinc. Measurements of chemicals in plants and collocated soils from Bartlesville, Oklahoma (PTI Environmental Services 1995) and the Clark Fork River floodplain in Montana (PTI Environmental Services 1994) are used to validate the uptake models.

2. METHODS
2.1 DATABASE DEVELOPMENT Field and greenhouse studies which report concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, or zinc in both surface soil and collocated, aboveground plant tissue were identified. Most plant species were agricultural crop plants. For some elements, many studies were pot studies in which inorganic salts were added to soil. Information regarding soil and plant concentrations, soil parameters, exposure time, chemical form, dry or wet weight, extraction method, plant species, and plant part was compiled in a spreadsheet. Only studies in which concentrations were expressed on a dry weight basis were used. Some soils were air dried rather than oven dried. Although most studies reported that plant material was washed, studies were not excluded if the extent of washing was not stated in the paper. Studies were used even if the individual investigators observed no correlation between concentrations of contaminants in soils and plants (e.g., arsenic in Norway spruce, Wyttenbach et al. 1997; copper in Sitka-spruce seedlings, Burton et al. 1984; copper in radish foliage, Davies 1992). Concentrations of chemicals in soil or plants were sometimes estimated visually from a figure, but only if estimates could be made within about 10%. Studies were not used if the only plants tested were those known to hyperaccumulate elements. Each plant species or variety, soil type, location, concentration of the test element in soil, and form of an added element represented an independent observation in the dataset. Differences in exposure duration or above-ground plant part did not constitute separate observations. That is, concentrations in soils or plants that differed on the basis of one of these two variables were averaged. (The number of observations in these means, which ranged between 1 and 6, was not retained in the subsequent statistical analysis.) For example, concentrations of nickel in upper and lower leaves of bush bean (Sajwan et al. 1996) and concentrations of lead in corn leaves and stalks (de Pieri et al. 1997) were averaged and each constituted a single observation. Also, concentrations of lead in spruce needles (Nilsson 1972) and cadmium in clippings of red fescue (Carlson and Rolfe 1979) after different periods of exposure were averaged. A pattern of higher levels of accumulation with increased exposure time was not generally observed. The database of bioaccumulation concentrations is presented in Appendix A. Concentrations of contaminants in soil at the time of plant sampling were used if known. If these concentrations were not measured (as was often the case in pot studies), the initial concentration of the element measured in or added to soil was assumed to be equivalent to the final concentration. In field experiments, the change in soil concentration of an element over time was assumed to be minimal (e.g., 2

selenium in van Mantgem et al. 1996). However, total soil concentrations of elements in pot studies have been observed to change as much as twenty percent during an experiment. The concentration of an element in soil prior to the addition of the salt in a pot study was often not stated. Thus, the added concentration was often assumed to be equivalent to the total concentration. Experimental treatments or field studies in which aerial contaminants potentially contributed to uptake were excluded from the database. In some early field studies with lead, aerial exposure to lead additives from gasoline was likely (e.g., Parker et al. 1978). In other field studies, ongoing exposure to metal contaminants from smelters or other sources was possible, though data from the vicinity of a smelter or other air source were not used unless it was demonstrated in the study that air was not a significant route of contamination. Observations were included in the database if the total chemical concentration in soil was measured, either by extraction with strong acid or by extraction with moderately strong acid (e.g., 4 N sulfuric acid) sometimes accompanied by heat. In one study, it was shown that extraction of arsenic with 6M HCl for 2 h under constant rotation gave the same recovery as digestion in aqua regia, a mixture of concentrated nitric and hydrochloric acids (Otte et al. 1990). Studies in which concentrations of contaminants in soil were determined by a partial extraction with DTPA (diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid), weak acids or water were excluded from analysis, unless DTPA was used only to extract the background fraction of the element, and salts were added. Although concentrations of DTPA-extracted contaminants from soils sometimes correlate with those taken up by plants (Sadiq 1985), this estimate of bioavailability has been observed not to be valid for some metals (Sadiq 1985, Sadiq 1986, Hooda and Alloway 1993) or for comparisons of soils of varying pH (Miles and Parker 1979). For studies in which contaminant concentrations at multiple depths were measured, the concentration at the 0-10, 0-15, or 0-20 cm depth interval was recorded. However, where only a single soil depth was measured, it ranged from 5 to 70 cm. An exception was the one-to-two-centimeter depth samples in Severson et al. (1992) which represented A horizons of the Frisian Islands, which have no B horizon development. Soil depth was not a factor in the derivation of the uptake model. A distinction was made in the dataset between freshly added inorganic salts and other forms of the chemicals. Non-salts studies are referred to as field studies, though some were undertaken in pots and involved fresh additions of non-salt materials. Non-salts studies included the following sources of contamination: mine waste, smelter deposits, vehicle and other urban emissions, other industrial sources, wastewater effluent, compost, fertilizer, dredged material, sewage sludge, fly ash, and flue dust. In addition, some measurements were taken from background locations. As stated above, only data in which aerial uptake was not a major contributor to the bioaccumulation were included. For example, smeltercontaminated soil was typically added to a pot in a greenhouse before the accumulation of contaminants by plants was measured.

2.2 MODEL DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION Bioaccumulation data were assigned to two groups: the model dataset used for initial model development and the validation dataset, employed to test the accuracy and predictive utility of the bioaccumulation models (Appendix A). The division of studies into the two datasets was arbitrary and based on the sequence of when copies of the studies were obtained. The final two studies from Bartlesville, Oklahoma (PTI Environmental Services 1995), and the Clark Fork River watershed in 3

Montana (PTI Environmental Services 1994) were the final datasets obtained and comprised the validation dataset. Also, data from these studies were obtained for use in ecological risk assessments, the expected primary use of the models developed in this report. Because sampling and analytical variability and environmental characteristics are likely to be correlated among data from the same study, it was assumed that data from wholly independent studies (i.e., studies from which no data were included in the initial model development) would be unbiased and would provide a better test of the uptake models than would randomly selected observations extracted from the total dataset. Using data in the initial model dataset, preliminary analyses were undertaken to determine whether bioaccumulation tests using inorganic salts should be used in the derivation of regression models and uptake factors for contaminants in the field. Linear regressions of the natural-log transformed plant and soil concentrations in the salts dataset were performed and compared to regression models developed from the non-salt ("field") observations using the F-test procedure for comparing regression lines described in Draper and Smith (1981). Differences were considered significant if p#0.05. In addition, concentrations from salt and non-salt studies were plotted to permit visualization of the relationship between plant uptake data from salts and other studies. Because salt and non-salt regression models differed significantly for all chemicals considered, salts-associated data were excluded from all further analyses (see Sect. 3.1 Modeling Results). Soil-plant uptake factors were calculated for each observation in the initial model dataset (with salts data excluded). Summary statistics were generated for each chemical. To facilitate the use of the uptake factors in probabilistic risk evaluations, the distribution of the calculated factors for each chemical in the database was evaluated. The Shapiro-Wilk test (PROC UNIVARIATE; SAS Inst. Inc. 1988a) was applied to the untransformed and natural-log transformed uptake factors for each chemical to determine whether the distribution of uptake factors was normal or log-normal, respectively. To evaluate the relationship between the contaminant concentration in soil and plants, single-variable and multiple regressions were performed using SAS PROC REG (SAS Inst. Inc. 1988a). Contaminant concentrations in both soil and plants were natural-log transformed prior to regression analyses. Because data concerning the number of individuals and samples included in composites or means were not available for all observations, a weighting of observations was not applied. Linear regression models of ln-plant concentration on ln-soil concentration were developed for each chemical. Multiple regression models incorporating soil pH were also developed for each chemical, though pH was not available for all observations. Uptake factors and regression models from the initial model dataset were applied to the soil concentration data in the validation dataset, and estimated contaminant concentrations in plants at the observed contaminant concentration in soil were generated. To evaluate the appropriateness and accuracy of various models for generating estimates for general application, estimated concentrations in aboveground plant tissues were generated using the median uptake factor and single-variable and multiple regressions developed in this study. Because conservative estimates are needed for some purposes (e.g., screening assessments), estimates were also generated using the 90th percentile uptake factor and the upper 95% prediction limit (95% UPL) for the single-variable regression model from this study. The 95% UPL was calculated according to a method from Dowdy and Wearden (1983) that is presented in Appendix B. For each chemical and model, differences between estimated and measured concentrations in validation observations were evaluated using Wilcoxon sign-rank tests (PROC UNIVARIATE; SAS 4

Inst. Inc. 1988a). Differences were considered significant if p(H0=0)<0.05. Relative accuracy and quality of different estimations were evaluated by calculating the proportional deviation of the estimate from the measured value: PD = (Mi - Ei) / Mi where PD = proportional deviation Mi = measured concentration for chemical in plant at soil concentration i Ei = estimated concentration for chemical in plant at soil concentration i Negative values for PD indicate overestimation of the measured values by the modeled values, while positive PD values indicate underestimation. The percentage of estimated values that exceeded their corresponding measured value was also tabulated by each chemical and estimation method. Relative quality of general estimation methods was evaluated by the following criteria. 1. 2. 3. 4. median PD closest to 0 (indicates that estimates center around measured values) PD with narrowest range (indicates relative accuracy of method) percentage overestimation closest to 50% (indicates that estimates center around measured values) difference between estimated and measured values not significantly different, as determined by Wilcoxon sign-rank tests.

Estimation methods were evaluated using these criteria in a weight-of-evidence approach. The fourth criterion was weighted somewhat less than the other three. Relative quality of conservative estimation methods was evaluated by 1. smallest, negative median PD value (indicates that method overestimates while minimizing the degree of overestimation) and PD with narrowest range (to minimize the degree of overestimation).

2.

Linear regressions of the natural-log transformed concentrations in the plant and soil validation dataset were performed and compared to single-variable regression models (i.e., soil concentration only) developed from the original observations using the F-test procedure for comparing regression lines outlined in Draper and Smith (1981). Differences were considered significant if p#0.05. Following validation analyses, the initial model and validation datasets were pooled, even if they differed significantly, and uptake factors and single and multiple regression models were recalculated. These results were reported as the final uptake factor or regression model. Data for additional chemicals were present in one of the validation datasets (PTI Environmental Services 1995) that were not represented in the initial model dataset. Uptake factors were generated, and summary statistics and distributions were determined for those chemicals. Because these data represent a single study, regression models were not fit to the data. These data are presented in Appendix A. 5

3. RESULTS
3.1 MODELING RESULTS Based on preliminary analyses, regressions of plant concentrations versus soil concentrations using salt data differed significantly from those using field data. Significance values (p) were 0.035 for arsenic, 7.9 x 10-15 for cadmium, 4.5 x 10-5 for copper, 0.0017 for lead, 0.0059 for mercury, 0.00011 for nickel, 7.2 x 10-29 for selenium, and 0.0013 for zinc. For some of the chemicals (arsenic and nickel), the salt uptake data were within the 95% prediction limit of the field data regressions (Appendix C). However, for most chemicals, several data points were outside of these bounds. Most concentrations of selenium in plants when the source of selenium was selenate or selenite were higher than most concentrations of selenium in plants in the field studies (Appendix C, Fig. C.7). For some chemicals, such as arsenic, cadmium, and zinc, the plant concentrations associated with salts additions were comparable to the highest plant concentrations from the field dataset. For other chemicals, such as mercury, the range of soil concentrations in the salts dataset was simply too narrow to give a good regression line (Appendix C, Fig. C.5). However, because for some chemicals, salts-amended soils were generally associated with higher chemical concentrations in plants than chemicals in field soils, the decision was made to exclude salts data from the models for uptake of all chemicals by plants. All results below are for field data only. Soil-plant regression models and uptake factors were developed for eight inorganic chemicals: arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, and zinc (Figs. 1 to 8). In the initial dataset with salts data excluded, the number of observations ranged from 99 for arsenic to 164 for zinc (Table 1). The number of studies incorporated in the models ranged from seven for nickel to twenty for zinc. Six of eight distributions of uptake factors fit a lognormal distribution more closely than a normal distribution, though only the distribution of uptake factors for arsenic, lead, selenium, and zinc fit the lognormal form well (Table 1). Median uptake factors for all chemicals were less than one; however, the maximum uptake factor for all chemicals exceeded one. The distributions of uptake factors for the eight chemicals spanned at least two orders of magnitude; e.g., for copper the range of uptake factors was less than three orders of magnitude and for arsenic the range was greater than five orders of magnitude. An example of the cumulative distribution of uptake factors for selenium is presented in Fig. 9. [Note: the mean and standard deviation of the natural-log-transformed uptake factors are presented as parameters for describing the uptake factor distributions for chemicals where the distribution is lognormal (Table 1). Whereas these untransformed uptake factors are best fit by a lognormal distribution, the natural-logtransformed uptake factors are normally distributed. These parameters may be used in two ways. They may be applied to normal

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Fig. 1. Scatterplots of arsenic concentrations in vegetation versus soil. Concentrations include both those from the initial model dataset and those from the validation dataset. The single-variable regression for the initial model dataset and the 95% upper prediction limit on the regression are depicted.

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Fig. 2. Scatterplots of cadmium concentrations in vegetation versus soil. Concentrations include both those from the initial model dataset and those from the validation dataset. The single-variable regression for the initial model dataset and the 95% upper prediction limit on the regression are depicted.

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Fig. 3. Scatterplots of copper concentrations in vegetation versus soil. Concentrations include both those from the initial model dataset and those from the validation dataset. The single-variable regression for the initial model dataset and the 95% upper prediction limit on the regression are depicted.

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Fig. 4. Scatterplots of lead concentrations in vegetation versus soil. Concentrations include both those from the initial model dataset and those from the validation dataset. The single-variable regression for the initial model dataset and the 95% upper prediction limit on the regression are depicted.

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Fig. 5. Scatterplots of mercury concentrations in vegetation versus soil. Concentrations include both those from the initial model dataset and those from the validation dataset. The single-variable regression for the initial model dataset and the 95% upper prediction limit on the regression are depicted.

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Fig. 6. Scatterplots of nickel concentrations in vegetation versus soil. Concentrations include both those from the initial model dataset and those from the validation dataset. The single-variable regression for the initial model dataset and the 95% upper prediction limit on the regression are depicted.

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Fig. 7. Scatterplots of selenium concentrations in vegetation versus soil. Concentrations include both those from the initial model dataset and those from the validation dataset. The single-variable regression for the initial model dataset and the 95% upper prediction limit on the regression are depicted.

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Fig. 8. Scatterplots of zinc concentrations in vegetation versus soil. Concentrations include both those from the initial model dataset and those from the validation dataset. The single-variable regression for the initial model dataset and the 95% upper prediction limit on the regression are depicted.

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Fig. 9. Distribution of soil-plant uptake factors for selenium.

Table 1. Summary statistics for soil-to-plant uptake factors. Uptake factors are calculated from concentrations expressed on a dry weight basis
Mean of ln-transformed values -3.069 -0.247 Std. Dev. of transformed values 2.665 1.364

Chemical Arsenic Cadmium

N (studies)

N (observations)

Mean 0.555 1.700

Standard deviation 1.522 2.656

Minimum 0.000056 0.0107

Median 0.0472 0.833

90th percentile 1.185 3.806

Maximum 9.074 22.879

Distribution lognormal neither (lognormal closest) neither (lognormal closest) lognormal neither neither lognormal lognormal

9 99 17 155

Copper

17 125

0.443

0.909

0.0135

0.200

0.710

7.400

-1.687

1.253

Lead Mercury Nickel Selenium Zinc

19 133 12 142 7 90 14 156 20 164

0.343 1.508 0.911 2.276 1.261

1.078 2.480 3.052 8.740 3.185

0.000113 0.00145 0.00217 0.02 0.00855

0.117 0.663 0.0136 0.700 0.430

0.563 5.000 2.361 3.012 2.571

10.601 12.230 22.214 77.000 34.286

-2.488 -1.051 -3.420 -0.566 -0.853

1.832 2.099 2.375 1.536 1.468

16

distribution functions in Monte Carlo simulation software, however the output from the sampling from this distribution must be back-transformed. Alternatively, the parameters may be incorporated into the LOGNORM2 function in the @RISK1 Monte Carlo simulation software (Palisade Corp. 1994b). Use of the LOGNORM2 function requires no back-transformation. Comparable results are obtained using either approach.] Regression of the natural log of chemical concentrations in plants versus the natural log of those in soil produced significant model fits for seven of eight chemicals using the initial model data (Table 2). The exception was arsenic, though the P value was almost low enough to be significant (Table 2). Slopes of all significant regression models were positive. r2 values for the significant models ranged from 0.12 for nickel to 0.68 for mercury. The slopes of all regression models were positive. Intercepts differed significantly from zero for all eight chemicals.
Table 2. Results of regression of ln (conc. in plant) on ln (conc. in soil) Chemical Arsenic Cadmium Copper Lead Mercury Nickel Selenium Zinc N 99 155 125 133 142 90 156 164 B0+SE -1.7540.601b -0.3040.084c 0.5730.246a -1.0880.334b -0.9580.122c -2.1220.597c -0.6760.142c 1.8920.328c B1+SE 0.4420.230NS 0.5290.045c 0.4680.054c 0.6660.071c 0.5380.037c 0.7370.110c 1.1060.068c 0.5020.057c r2 0.7684 0.4549 0.4091 0.4385 0.6763 0.119 0.6305 0.3226 P model fit 0.0573 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001

model: ln (conc. in aboveground plant) = B0 + B1 (ln [conc. in soil]), where concentrations (mg/kg) are expressed on a dry weight basis. a 0.01 <p#0.05 b 0.001<p#0.01 c p#0.001 NS p>0.05

The soil pH was not available for many observations in the database; thus the inclusion of this variable in the regression models resulted in decreases in sample size (Table 3). Consequently, the single-variable and multiple regression models are not directly comparable. The addition of soil pH in the regression model resulted in significant model fits for all chemicals except nickel. pH contributed significantly to the model fit for copper, lead, mercury and selenium (Table 3).

1 Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof.

17

Table 3. Results of regression of ln (conc in plant) on ln (conc. in soil) and pH


Chemical Arsenic Cadmium Copper Lead Mercury Nickel Selenium Zinc N 24 117 85 103 79 36 146 167 B0+SE -4.8522.740NS 0.7040.635NS -0.6670.470NS -3.3981.046b -4.1191.155c -0.4282.329NS -8.9360.733c 2.2800.505c B1+SE 0.6820.305a 0.5440.056c 0.2860.067c 0.6830.077c 0.6350.063c 0.1280.117NS 0.9840.050c 0.5710.082c B2+SE 0.4030.555NS -0.1660.100NS 0.2720.084b 0.3110.147a 0.4190.187a 0.6200.354NS 1.1820.107c -0.1280.101NS r2 0.7684 0.4549 0.4091 0.4385 0.6763 0.119 0.8469 0.8447 P model fit 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.1235 0.0001 0.0001

model: ln (conc in aboveground plant) = B0 + B1(ln[soil]) + B2(pH), where concentrations (mg/kg) are expressed on a dry weight basis. a 0.01<p#0.05 b 0.001<p#0.01 c p#0.001 NS p>0.05

3.2 VALIDATION RESULTS Data for model validation were available for all chemicals, but the two observations of selenium in soils and plants, which were identical concentrations, were insufficient for the construction of a regression model. A comparison of single-variable regression models for the log-transformed contaminant concentrations from literature studies and the validation data indicated that the models were statistically significantly different for cadmium (p=1E-8), copper (p=1E-5), lead (p=2E-16) and zinc (p=0.02)). The predictive utility of soil-plant uptake factors and regression models was measured by evaluating statistically significant differences between measured and estimated values. Using the validation dataset, significant differences between measured and estimated concentrations were observed for 6 of 7 chemicals using the median uptake factor; such a difference was not observed in the case of mercury (Table 4). (Selenium was not included in the analysis because the validation data, 2 points, were not sufficient to construct a regression.) Significant differences in concentrations measured and those estimated using the single-variable regression model were observed for arsenic, copper and lead, but not cadmium, copper, nickel or zinc (Table 4). Significant differences between concentrations measured and those estimated using the multiple regression model with pH were found for lead and nickel only. All three general estimation methods overestimated measured plant concentrations for over 50% of soil concentrations for all chemicals except for the uptake factor for nickel (10% overestimation) and the single-variable regression model for arsenic (17% overestimation). Median proportion deviations of estimated values from measured values ranged from -0.19 for the multiple regression model for Zn to a maximum of -48.61 for the multiple regression model for nickel (Table 4).

18

Table 4. Comparison of quality of general estimation methods as determined by the proportional deviation (PD) of the estimated values from measured values. PD = (measured - estimated)/measured Single-variable regression Regression model with model pH Median PD (range) 0.48c (-0.38 to 0.88) -1.82NS (-46.33 to 0.95) -1.25c (-18.17 to 0.92) -11.42c (-67.58 to 0.40) -3.92NS (-10.79 to 2.82) -0.27NS (-3.54 to 0.70) -0.21NS (-5.29 to 0.91) % over estimated 17 Median PD (range) -3.46NS (-43.90 to 0.95) -1.65NS (-43.90 to 0.95) -0.65NS (-7.17 to 0.97) -11.01c (-60.75 to 0.70) -1.02NS (-6.19 to -0.92) -46.81c (-224.39 to -16.90) -0.19NS (-4.60 to .90) % over estimated 65

Median uptake factor Chemical Arsenic N 23 Median PD (range) -1.85c (-14.83 to 0.11) -4.64c (-94.83 to 0.7417) -2.28c (-180.37 to 0.80) -24.16c (-179.97 to -0.02) -1.65NS (-18.00 to -0.66) 0.656c (-0.36 to 0.94) -1.20c (-8.58 to 0.77) % over estimated 96

Cadmium

52

90

67

69

Copper

55

85

85

67

Lead

56

100

95

91

Mercury

100

100

100

Nickel

21

10

67

100

Zinc

56

82

55

59

Estimate not significantly different from measured as determined by Wilcoxon signed-rank test (p<0.05) Estimate significantly different from measured as determined by Wilcoxon signed-rank test (0.01<p#0.05) b Estimate significantly different from measured as determined by Wilcoxon signed-rank test (0.001<p#0.01) c Estimate significantly different from measured as determined by Wilcoxon signed-rank test (p # 0.001)
NS a

Using the selection criteria outlined in Sect. 2.2, the best estimates for the uptake of arsenic and nickel are provided by the single-variable regression model, and the best estimates for copper and mercury are provided by the multiple regression with pH. Criteria for cadmium, lead, and zinc are comparable for the single-variable and multiple regressions. (These results do not constitute a recommendation of these models. A test of significance of the variable of pH [see below] was also required.) Among conservative estimation methods, both the 90th percentile uptake factor and the 95% upper prediction limit for the single-variable regression model significantly overestimated measured concentrations in plants for all chemicals except mercury. The 95% upper prediction limit produced the best, conservative estimate (i.e., smallest negative median and smallest range proportional deviation) of chemical concentrations in above-ground plant tissue for arsenic, copper, and zinc, with percent overestimates ranging from 96 to 100% (Table 5). The best conservative estimates for cadmium, lead, 19

and mercury were obtained using the 90th percentile uptake factor. Conservative estimation methods were approximately equivalent for nickel.
Table 5. Comparison of quality of conservative estimation methods as determined by the proportional deviation (PD) of the estimated values from measured values. PD = (measured - estimated)/measured Upper 95% prediction limit for simple regression model Median PD (range) -38.11c (-99.27 to -7.647) -85.13c (-12886.84 to -604) -9.82c (-90.51 to 0.60) -209.36c (-1159.20 to -9.09) -217.53NS (-252.21 to -135.30) -59.58c (-216.27 to -13.37) -8.04c (-46.16 to 0.31) % over estimated 100 100 98 100 100 100 96

90th percentile uptake factor Median PD (range) Chemical Arsenic Cadmium Copper Lead Mercury Nickel Zinc
NS a

N 23 52 55 56 3 21 56 -70.64c (-396.75 to -21.31) -24.78c (-436.65 to -0.18) -10.66c (-643.88 to 0.28) -119.94c (-838.87 to -3.92) -19.00NS (-142.33 to -11.50) -58.88c (-234.78 to -9.95) -12.16c (-56.23 to -0.39)

% over estimated 100 100 98 100 100 100 100

Estimate not significantly different from measured as determined by Wilcoxon signed-rank test (p<0.05) Estimate significantly different from measured as determined by Wilcoxon signed-rank test (0.01<p#0.05) b Estimate significantly different from measured as determined by Wilcoxon signed-rank test (0.001<p#0.01) c Estimate significantly different from measured as determined by Wilcoxon signed-rank test (p # 0.001)

3.3 MODELS INCORPORATING VALIDATION DATA Final regression models and soil-plant uptake factors that incorporate data from both the initial model and validation datasets were calculated for all chemicals. Uptake factors based on the combined dataset were generally similar to those based only on the model dataset, though the median uptake factors of the combined dataset were always lower than those from the initial dataset except in the case of nickel (Table 6). Distributions of uptake factors for most chemicals more closely resembled a lognormal than a normal shape. No median uptake factor was greater than one, though for six of eight chemicals, the 90th percentile uptake factor was >1. (Table 6). In general, results of simple regression analyses differed little between the original and combined datasets. The model fit for arsenic was improved (and became significant) after the addition of the validation data to the dataset (Table 7). Slopes and intercepts of single-variable

20

Table 6. Summary statistics for soil-plant uptake factors following inclusion of validation data N (studies) 11 19 N (observns) 122 207 Standard Deviation 1.386 2.386 90th percentile 1.103 3.250 Mean of lntransformed values -3.295 -0.666 St. dev. of lntransformed values 2.470 1.547

Chemical Arsenic Cadmium

Mean 0.454 1.359

Minimum 0.00006 0.0087

Median 0.0375 0.586

Maximum 9.074 22.879

Distribution lognormal neither (lognormal closest) lognormal neither (lognormal closest) neither neither lognormal lognormal

Copper Lead

19 21

180 189

0.341 0.245

0.777 0.916

0.0011 0.00011

0.124 0.0389

0.625 0.468

7.400 10.601

-2.095 -3.278

1.442 2.063

21

Mercury Nickel Selenium Zinc

14 9 16 22

145 111 158 220

1.481 0.749 2.253 1.021

2.461 2.766 8.686 2.784

0.00145 0.00217 0.02 0.00855

0.652 0.018 0.672 0.366

5.000 1.411 3.012 1.820

12.230 22.214 77.000 34.286

-1.068 -3.375 -0.567 -1.028

2.086 2.163 1.526 1.371

regressions for all chemicals became highly significant (p#0.001), even if they were not significant prior to the inclusion of the validation data.
Table 7. Results of regression of ln (conc. in plant) on ln (conc. in soil) following inclusion of validation data Chemical Arsenic Cadmium Copper Lead Mercury Nickel Selenium Zinc N 122 207 180 189 145 111 158 220 B0SE -1.9920.431c -0.4760.088c 0.6690.213c -1.3280.350c -0.9960.122c -2.2240.472c -0.6780.141c 1.5750.279c B1SE 0.5640.125c 0.5460.042c 0.3940.044c 0.5610.072c 0.5440.037c 0.7480.093c 1.1040.067c 0.5550.046c R2 0.145 0.447 0.314 0.243 0.598 0.371 0.633 0.402 P model fit 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001

model: ln (conc. in plant) = B0 + B1(ln[conc in soil]), where concentrations (mg/kg) are expressed on a dry weight basis. NS Not significant: p>0.05 a 0.01<p#0.05 b 0.001<p#0.01 c p#0.001

After the inclusion of the validation data, the multiple regression model for nickel that included pH became significant (Table 8). Thus, multiple regression models for all eight chemicals were significant. pH dropped out as a contributor to the regression for copper and lead, but became a contributor to the regressions for cadmium and zinc (Table 8). The slope of the regression for nickel, which was not significantly different from zero prior to the inclusion of validation data, became significant after their inclusion. With the inclusion of the validation data in the multiple regression with pH, the intercept for arsenic became significant, and the intercept for lead became insignificant. Chemicals not included in the above models, but for which concentrations in soil and plants and soil pH were measured in the validation dataset from Bartlesville, Oklahoma (PTI Environmental Services 1995) include: aluminum, antimony, barium, calcium, chromium, cobalt, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, silver, sodium, and vanadium. Summary statistics for distributions of soil-plant uptake factors for this site are presented in Appendix D, Table D-1.

22

Table 8. Results of regression of ln (conc. in plant) on ln (conc. in soil) and pH following inclusion of validation data Chemical Arsenic Cadmium Copper Lead Mercury Nickel Selenium Zinc N 47 170 140 159 82 57 148 193 B0SE -2.5560.763b 1.1520.638NS 0.5130.492NS -1.9291.030NS -4.1861.144c -2.0642.534NS -8.8310.723c 2.3620.440c B1SE 0.6940.057c 0.5640.047c 0.3620.045c 0.5610.075c 0.6410.062c 0.5740.104c 0.9920.050c 0.6400.057c B2SE 0.0180.124NS -0.2700.102b 0.0120.076NS 0.0430.141NS 0.4230.186a 0.2620.388NS 1.1670.106c -0.2140.077b R2 0.780 0.462 0.331 0.272 0.677 0.364 0.847 0.409 P model fit 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001

model: ln (conc. in plant) = B0 + B1(ln[conc in soil]) + B2(pH), where concentrations (mg/kg) are expressed on a dry weight basis. NS Not significant: p>0.05 a 0.01<p#0.05 b 0.001<p#0.01 c p#0.001

4. DISCUSSION
The measurement of chemicals in vegetation at specific hazardous waste sites is recommended, but such samples are often not obtained for remedial investigations. To estimate concentrations of inorganic chemicals in above-ground plant tissue, risk assessors must use empirical models. Such models usually consist of soil-plant uptake factors. In this study, uptake factors, single-variable regressions of logtransformed plant concentration on soil concentration and multiple regressions incorporating pH as well as soil concentration were generated for eight common inorganic contaminants of soil, using published measurements of chemicals in soil and above-ground vegetation. All single-variable and multiple regressions in which validation data were incorporated (but salts data were excluded) were significant. Interestingly, in some of the individual studies from which data were drawn, such a significant relationship between soil and plant concentrations was not observed, but this lack of a relationship could be due to: (1) the narrow range of chemical concentrations (x-values) or few data points in an individual study, (2) soil characteristics that were dominant contributors to variability, (3) plant regulatory control over the uptake of essential elements, or (4) inappropriate measurement of exposure concentrations, e.g., for trees. In the multiple regression incorporating soil pH, the variable of pH was significant only for cadmium, mercury, selenium, and zinc, though the multiple regression incorporating soil concentration and pH predicted the plant concentration of copper and lead in the validation dataset better than other models. The good predictions for copper and lead were likely a chance occurrence. The original dataset of plant and soil concentrations included measurements from studies where inorganic salts were added to soil in a laboratory or greenhouse. Statistically, these data were significantly different from field data. It was also clear from visual examination of the graphs of chemical concentration in soil versus that in plants that uptake of some chemicals was generally higher from salts23

amended soil than from other chemical forms in the field. The use of these salts data in the calculation of empirical uptake models would be a source of hidden conservatism. Thus, these data were determined not to be useful for developing regression models for use with field data. Although common wisdom is that salts freshly added to soil in pots are more bioavailable to plants than field contaminants, few studies have actually confirmed this relationship. It is notable that some of the data from the uptake of salts by plants were comparable to those from the uptake of contaminants from waste sites, but further analysis or research would be necessary to determine why. Distributions of soil-plant uptake factors for the chemicals were developed because of the extensive use of this type of model by risk assessors and for two additional purposes: (1) to provide a nonconservative estimate of plant concentration through the use of the median uptake factor and (2) to provide a conservative estimate of plant concentration through the use of the 90th percentile soil-plant uptake factor. It is not surprising that uptake factors did not lead to the best estimates of plant tissue concentrations in the validation dataset. Uptake factors are a specialized case of the log-transformed single-variable regression model, where the slope is one. The closest slope to one in a log-transformed single-variable regression model in this study was the slope for selenium, 1.104. The differences between calculated slopes and 1 were not estimated. For all chemicals except selenium, the calculated slope was less than one, suggesting that the uptake factor should generally decrease with higher concentrations of the chemical in soil. Moreover, for four of eight chemicals, the distribution of uptake factors was neither normal nor lognormal; thus outputs of wildlife exposure models using Monte Carlo analysis and these distributions would be somewhat uncertain. In Table 9, median soil-plant uptake factors are compared to Baes factors for vegetative components of plants (foliage and stems) (Baes et al. 1984), which are used widely in risk assessments. The source of any discrepancy between factors is unknown because the data used in the derivation of the Baes factors are not published. The use of the two sets of uptake factors could lead to substantial differences in the estimation of risks associated with chemicals such as selenium and zinc.
Table 9. Comparison of geometric mean uptake factors from Baes et al. (1984) and the present study Chemical Arsenic Cadmium Copper Lead Mercury Nickel Selenium Zinc Present study 0.0371 0.514 0.123 0.0377 0.344 0.0342 0.567 0.358 Baes et al. (1984) 0.04 0.55 0.40 0.045 0.90 0.06 0.025 1.5

The amount of variability explained by the regressions as expressed through the r2 values was not very high. The high scatter around the regression lines and the high variability in uptake factors for single chemicals may be reduced by accounting for the other factors that influence uptake (e.g., soil parameters, plant taxa, exposure time, extent of tilling, and other biases of the data from which the models were 24

derived). For example, numerous multi-crop studies found differential uptake of inorganic contaminants among the crops. It has also been observed that deciduous trees typically accumulate greater concentrations of heavy metals in foliage than do conifers (Greenleaf-Jenkins and Zasoski 1986). However, it is difficult to sample the appropriate soil surrounding tree roots to estimate their exposure. The physiological differences that explain variability in accumulation of different inorganic chemicals by different plant species are largely unknown (Peterson 1983), though in a study of radiocesium, the rooting depth of plants was most important (Guillitte et al. 1994). Additionally, temperature is expected to affect the uptake of all contaminants. For example, ryegrass grown at 25E C accumulated more cadmium and lead than that grown at 15EC (Hooda and Alloway 1993). Environmental factors that may control the accumulation of chemicals by plants are discussed on a chemical-by-chemical basis below. A large potential source of measurement error for soil concentrations used in all uptake models is the depth to which soil concentrations were measured. The depth interval at which various plants in different environments obtain water and nutrients, and the relative biomass of feeder roots at different depths are unknown. This uncertainty is particularly true for trees, given that their rooting depths are deeper and probably more variable than those of herbs and grasses. Nonetheless, concentrations of a chemical in the top 5 cm of soil versus that in the top 15 cm of soil may vary as much as an order of magnitude, particularly if the source of soil contamination was aerial deposition. For example, the concentrations of cadmium in the top 5 cm, 15 cm, and 40 cm of soil which has been irrigated with wastewater are: 1.16 mg/kg, 0.87 mg/kg, and 0.39 mg/kg, respectively (Shariatpanahi and Anderson 1986). At one semiarid location in Utah, lead concentrations in the top 5 and 15 cm of soil were 230 and 100 mg/kg, and arsenic concentrations were 59 and 30 mg/kg (Sharma and Shupe 1977). In the large majority of studies from which the models in this study were derived, concentrations of chemicals in soil were provided with respect to a single soil depth. More than half of the field studies reported concentrations in the top 15 cm of soil. Measurements of accumulation of chemicals by plants are usually taken at a single time without knowledge of whether or not vegetation may be in equilibrium with the soil with respect to chemical movement. However, longer exposure does not necessarily lead to higher plant concentrations. Both the age of the plant and seasonal processes apparently affect uptake. For example, for all leafy and root crops grown in a muck soil, heavy metal concentrations were greater in young crops in the early summer than in mature crops (Hutchinson et al. 1974). Moreover, the selenium content of birdsfoot trefoil exposed to natural levels of the element decreased with each cutting until midsummer, after which it remained constant (Lessard et al. 1968). On the other hand, selenium uptake by timothy increased until maturity. In the sections below, the regressions of plant concentration on soil concentration (and pH) are discussed. In addition, potential sources of variability in uptake of the chemicals by plants are discussed.

4.1 ARSENIC As with most inorganic chemicals, the uptake of arsenic by crop plants has been observed to vary with plant species and soil type (Otte et al. 1990). Additionally, phosphorus concentrations in soil have a large and complex effect on the uptake of arsenic by plants. The arsenic concentration in ryegrass (Jiang and Singh 1994) and that in the roots of Urtica dioica (Otte et al. 1990) were positively correlated with phosphorus in the soil, but in the latter case, negatively correlated with the concentration of arsenic in soil. In a second species, Phragmites australis, arsenic concentrations in the plant were measured at a level that was not correlated with concentrations of arsenic or phosphorus in soil (Otte et 25

al. 1990). A better regression may have been obtained in this study if soil phosphorus were included as a variable.

4.2 CADMIUM The uptake of cadmium has been observed to vary with plant species (Haghiri 1973). Cadmium uptake by plants has been shown in numerous studies to decrease with increasing pH (He and Singh 1994, Miller et al. 1976), so it is not surprising that the multiple regression with pH was significant in this study. Uptake by soybeans is also related to the sorptive capacity of soil (Miller et al. 1976). Lead has been widely observed to increase cadmium uptake; for example, the addition of both lead and cadmium increased the foliage content of each contaminant in American sycamore over the uptake values observed with a single metal added (Carlson and Bazzaz 1977). Lead has also increased the uptake of cadmium in rye and fescue (Carlson and Rolfe 1979) and in corn shoots (Miller et al. 1977). However, Miles and Parker (1979) found only low-level and inconsistent synergistic and antagonistic effects among cadmium, lead and other heavy metals in uptake by little bluestem and black-eyed Susan. A better regression may have been obtained in this study if soil lead were included as a variable.

4.3 COPPER Prior to this study it was not known whether a significant regression of plant concentration on soil concentration could be derived. Copper is a plant nutrient, and plants would be expected to exert control over uptake at certain ranges of soil concentration. As with other chemicals, in some previous investigations, no correlation was found between copper in plant foliage and underlying soil (Burton et al. 1984, Davies 1992). In contrast to the results in this study (in which pH did not contribute significantly to the multiple regression), pH has sometimes been shown to contribute to the variability in uptake of copper from different soils. Sims and Kline (1991) found a significant regression model between copper in wheat and soybean and soil copper and pH, but not with the copper concentration in soil alone.

4.4 LEAD Lime has been observed to reduce the uptake of lead by lettuce and oats (John and Laerhoven 1972), suggesting that pH is a variable which controls the uptake of the element from soil. In contrast, Davies (1992) found that lead uptake by radish was best predicted by total lead in soil, and the regression of plant lead on soil lead concentration in that study was not improved by adding other soil characteristics. Similarly, in this study, pH did not contribute significantly to the multiple regression. The uptake of lead by plants has been found to be increased (Carlson and Bazzaz 1977), unaffected (Carlson and Rolfe 1977), and decreased (Miller et al. 1977) by increased concentrations of cadmium. Additional contributors to the variability in uptake of lead are: exposure time (Nilsson 1972) and plant taxon. While the attempt was made to exclude aerial exposure of lead, the use of lead in gasoline may have contributed to aerial exposure of plants to lead in some studies.

4.5 MERCURY

26

Prior to the analysis in this study, it was uncertain whether a relationship between the concentrations of mercury in soil and plants from multiple studies would be significant. Both the speciation of mercury and the uptake route via air were expected to contribute large uncertainty bounds to any empirical relationship. In contrast to other metals, most mercury in above-ground plant tissue is taken up as volatile, elemental mercury through the leaves (Bysshe 1988, Siegel and Siegel 1988, Lindberg et al. 1979), with limited accumulation from the soil via the roots and transpiration stream. However, significant relationships between soil and plant mercury have been observed previously. For example, a significant correlation between soil mercury and tissue concentrations was observed for several plant species found in mining areas (Siegel et al. 1987) and near chloralkali plants (Lenka et al. 1992 and Shaw and Panigrahi 1986). Although the contribution of pH to the regression was significant for mercury in this study, little information is available on the role of pH in the uptake of mercury. Differences in the uptake of mercury have been associated with different chemical species (Bache et al. 1973) as well as different plant taxa (Bache et al. 1973, Du and Fang 1982, John 1972). In addition, inorganic selenium added to soil decreased the uptake of mercury by tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) (Shanker et al. 1996).

4.6 NICKEL In contrast to the results of this study, an association of nickel concentrations in plants and pH has previously been observed. Sims and Kline (1991) found significant multiple regression models between nickel in wheat and soybean and soil metal concentrations and pH, but not with soil metal concentrations alone. Reducing the pH of soils led to increased uptake in several plant species (Sauerbeck and Hein 1991). Thus, it is surprising that pH did not contribute significantly to the variability in the present multiple regression model. Because nickel is hyperaccumulated by some plants, it was expected that the distribution of uptake factors would be bimodal and that regressions would be different at high nickel concentrations from those at lower concentrations in soil. This expected effect was not observed, perhaps because hyperaccumulating plants are tested only in soils with very high nickel levels.

4.7 SELENIUM Major determinants of the uptake of selenium include chemical form and soil properties. Selenate is taken up more effectively than selenite (Banuelos 1996, Hamilton and Beath 1963, Gissel-Nielson and Bisbjerg 1970, Smith and Watkinson (1984)), and the uptake of organic selenium is lower than that of inorganic forms (Hamilton and Beath 1963). Banuelos (1996) suggests that soils of high redox in arid regions probably have selenate as the primary species in solution, whereas acid or neutral soils are not likely to have much selenate. Thus, because the present regression model was generated predominantly using data from western sites, the uptake of selenium by plants may be somewhat lower in non-arid environments. pH is a determinant of selenium species and therefore of uptake (Banuelos 1996). This is consistent with the finding in this study that pH was able to explain a significant amount of variation. Liming of the soil led to lowered plant uptake of selenium that was added in the form of selenate (Carlson et al. 1991). Selenium accumulation was elevated in plants growing in soils with lower clay and hydrous oxide content than in other soils (Carlson et al. 1991). 27

Sulfate and elemental sulfur depress the uptake of selenium, as most plants cannot distinguish between inorganic selenium and sulfur (Williams and Thornton 1972). Selenium-accumulating plant species may preferentially take up selenium compared to sulfur ions (Wu et al. 1997). As with nickel, it was expected that the pattern of accumulation of selenium by hyperaccumulating plants would be different from that of non-hyperaccumulating plants. This expected effect was not observed.

4.8 ZINC pH has commonly been observed to be a controlling variable in the uptake of zinc. An increase in soil pH was associated with a decrease in the zinc content of radish tops (Lagerwerff 1971). Similarly, a decrease in soil pH was associated with an increase in the concentration of zinc in kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), though the mass taken up was unchanged with pH, because the pH decrease was associated with a reduced yield (Xian and Shokohifard 1989). Both of these results are consistent with the relationship derived from data in this study. In contrast, in a study of the uptake of zinc by radish (Raphanus sativus), the regression was improved by including pH as a variable (Davies 1992). However, the positive value that was obtained for the pH term would suggest that raising soil pH increases accumulation of zinc, a result opposite to that found here. Lorenz et al. (1997) found that total soil zinc concentration alone did not predict zinc concentrations in radish leaves, but multiple regressions including zinc concentrations in bulk soil and rhizosphere solution did. Treatment with cadmium has been observed to increase the uptake of zinc by several plant species in nutrient solution (Turner 1973). As with most inorganic chemicals, the uptake of zinc by plants has been observed to vary with plant species; for example, some plants hyperaccumulate zinc (Ebbs et al. 1997).

5. RECOMMENDATIONS
Measurements of contaminant concentrations in plants at a specific waste site are always superior to estimates of these concentrations for assessing risks to herbivorous or omnivorous wildlife. Even a small number of samples (e.g., 10 or 20) from which site-specific uptake factors can be developed would probably give more precise and accurate estimates of concentrations of chemicals in plants at the site than the use of models recommended below. However, in the absence of these data, regression models or uptake factors should be used. Our study demonstrates that regression models are generally superior to uptake factors for estimating concentrations of chemicals in plants from concentrations in soil. Single-variable regressions of the natural log-transformed chemical concentration in plant on the log-transformed concentration in soil are recommended as good tools for estimating concentrations of contaminants in plant tissues for all eight chemicals tested (Table 10). Multiple regressions with chemical concentration in soil and pH are recommended as good tools for estimating the uptake of cadmium, mercury, selenium, and zinc. Although multiple regressions were good predictors of plant concentrations of copper and lead in the validation dataset, pH was not a significant variable in the final combined models. For mercury, the multiple regression with pH was the best predictor of the plant concentrations in the validation data.

28

Both the 90th percentile uptake factor and the 95% upper prediction limit for the single-variable regression were adequately conservative for screening ecological risk assessments. Indeed, for data from the two validation studies, these models were arguably too conservative, overpredicting 100% of the measured values for most chemicals. The appropriate level of conservatism should be agreed upon by regulatory agencies, risk assessors, and site managers in the DQO sessions and work plan approval process. The 95% upper prediction limit for the single-variable regression is recommended as the better of the two models for providing conservative estimates of plant uptake of contaminants. The method provided the best, conservative estimate for four of eight chemicals. For three others, the 90th percentile uptake factor provided the best conservative estimate, though one of these comparisons (for mercury) was based on only three samples. The 95% upper prediction limit would be expected to be the better model for a wide range os soil concentrations. The log-transformed regression models consistently proved to be better than uptake factors for estimating chemical concentrations in plants, and the slopes were apparently different from one, indicating that uptake factors are not the best models to use. Therefore, conservative bounds on the regression models should be better conservative estimates of uptake for most random datasets than the uptake factors. With the validation data included, the final regression models should provide 95% upper prediction limits that are more representative conservative models than the prediction limits prior to the inclusion of the validation data.
Table 10. Recommended application of bioaccumulation models. All recommendations are from dataset with initial model data and validation data combined Chemical Arsenic Cadmium Copper Lead Mercury Nickel Selenium Zinc
1

For general estimates single-variable regression single-variable regression or multiple regression with pH single-variable regression single-variable regression multiple regression with pH1 or single-variable regression single-variable regression single-variable regression or multiple regression with pH single-variable regression or multiple regression with pH

For conservative estimates 95% upper prediction limit for the single-variable regression 95% upper prediction limit for the single-variable regression 95% upper prediction limit for the single-variable regression 95% upper prediction limit for the single-variable regression 95% upper prediction limit for the single-variable regression 95% upper prediction limit for the single-variable regression 95% upper prediction limit for the single-variable regression 95% upper prediction limit for the single-variable regression

preferred

Additional recommendations for use of the models include the following: The models developed in this study are not recommended for use in estimating contaminant concentrations in fruits, seeds, or roots. Plants typically bioaccumulate inorganic elements in these structures to a different extent than in foliage or stems (Greenleaf-Jenkins and Zasoski 1986, Jiang and Singh 1994, Sadana and Singh 1987, Sauerbeck and Hein 1991, Baker 1983). 29

It is recommended that these models be used with soil concentrations that represent accurate exposure to plants, with knowledge of the depth of feeder roots, the length of exposure, and how soil concentrations have changed during that time period. Soil-plant uptake factors derived from only the validation dataset from Bartlesville, Oklahoma, (Appendix C) are not recommended for use, except at sites with similar soils and other environmental variables.

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Vergnano Gambi, O., R. Gabbrielli, and L. Pancaro. 1982. Nickel, chromium and cobalt in plants from Italian serpentine areas. Acta Oecologica Oecologica Plantarum 3(17): 291-306. Wallace, A., E. M. Romney, G. V. Alexander, S. M. Soufi, and P. M. Patel. 1977. Some interactions in plants among cadmium, other heavy metals, and chelating agents. Agronomy J. 69: 18-20. Williams, C., and I. Thornton. 1972. The effect of soil additives on the uptake of molybdenum and selenium from soils from different environments. Plant and Soil 36: 395-406. Wu, L., Xun Guo, and G. S. Banuelos. 1997. Accumulation of seleno-amino acids in legume and grass plant species grown in selenium-laden soils. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 16(3): 49197. Wyttenbach, A., S. Bajo, V. Furrer, M. Langenauer, and L. Tobler. 1997. The accumulation of arsenic, bromine, and iodine in needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) at sites with low pollution. Water, Air, Soil Pollut. 94:417-430. Xian, X. 1989. Effect of chemical forms of cadmium, zinc, and lead in polluted soils on their uptake by cabbage plants. Plant and Soil 113: 257-264. Xian, X., and G. I. Shokohifard. 1989. Effect of pH on chemical forms and plant availability of cadmium, zinc, and lead in polluted soils. Water, Air, Soil Pollut. 45:265-273. Ylaranta, T. 1996. Uptake of heavy metals by plants from airborne deposition and polluted soils. Agricultural and Food Science in Finland 5:431-447.

38

APPENDIX A DATABASE OF BIOACCUMULATION CONCENTRATIONS

final-for-appendix98

Chemical Form As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field-background salt field-fly ash field-fly ash field-fly ash field-fly ash field-fly ash field-fly ash field-fly ash field-fly ash field-fly ash field-fly ash field-fly ash field-fly ash field-fly ash field-fly ash field-fly ash field-fly ash field-fly ash field-fly ash Na2HAsO4 NaAsO2 Na2HAsO4 Na2HAsO4

Total Soil soil Conc (mg/kg) depth (cm)soil type 2.4 2.4 2.7 2.7 2.9 3.3 3.6 3.7 23.6 30.7 2.1 2.4 2.4 2.7 2.7 2.9 3.3 3.6 3.7 3.7 23.6 30.7 4.6 7.1 8.8 9.5 8.8 9.5 8.8 9.5 8.8 9.5 8.8 9.5 8.8 9.5 8.8 9.5 8.8 9.5 8.8 9.5 10 10 250 250 Ghana Ghana Ghana Ghana Ghana Ghana Ghana Ghana Ghana Ghana Ghana Ghana Ghana Ghana Ghana Ghana Ghana Ghana Ghana Ghana Ghana Ghana silt loam silt loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sand sand sand loam

pH

ExposureCommon (days) Name

Species

Plant tissue

Plant Conc Uptake (mg/kg) factor 1.4 1.3 1.5 6.5 3.2 7.2 1.5 2 15.2 27.4 2.1 2.7 2.8 3.2 24.5 3.2 27.8 4.5 6.2 30.4 22.8 50.2 0.217 1.053 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.8 0.2 0.4 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.2 0.5 0.2 1 0.1 0.5 0.2 0.4 2.5 3 14 6.5 0.58333 0.54167 0.55556 2.40741 1.10345 2.18182 0.41667 0.54054 0.64407 0.89251 1 1.125 1.16667 1.18519 9.07407 1.10345 8.42424 1.25 1.67568 8.21622 0.9661 1.63518 0.04717 0.14831 0.06818 0.04211 0.02273 0.08421 0.02273 0.04211 0.02273 0.03158 0.04545 0.05263 0.02273 0.05263 0.02273 0.10526 0.01136 0.05263 0.02273 0.04211 0.25 0.3 0.056 0.026

Citation

Dataset

Field or salt form field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field salt field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field salt salt salt salt

unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown

6 5.9 6 5.9 6 5.9 6 5.9 6 5.9 6 5.9 6 5.9 6 5.9 6 5.9 5.6 5.6 5.6 4.9

365 365 365 365

elephant grass Pennisetum purpureum above-ground elephant grass Pennisetum purpureum above-ground elephant grass Pennisetum purpureum above-ground elephant grass Pennisetum purpureum above-ground elephant grass Pennisetum purpureum above-ground elephant grass Pennisetum purpureum above-ground elephant grass Pennisetum purpureum above-ground elephant grass Pennisetum purpureum above-ground elephant grass Pennisetum purpureum above-ground elephant grass Pennisetum purpureum above-ground water fern Ceraptopteris cornuta above-ground water fern Ceraptopteris cornuta above-ground water fern Ceraptopteris cornuta above-ground water fern Ceraptopteris cornuta above-ground water fern Ceraptopteris cornuta above-ground water fern Ceraptopteris cornuta above-ground water fern Ceraptopteris cornuta above-ground water fern Ceraptopteris cornuta above-ground water fern Ceraptopteris cornuta above-ground water fern Ceraptopteris cornuta above-ground water fern Ceraptopteris cornuta above-ground water fern Ceraptopteris cornuta above-ground above-ground? 60 soybean Glycine max 60 soybean Glycine max above-ground? above-ground alfalfa Medicago sativa alfalfa Medicago sativa above-ground above-ground birdsfoot trefoil Lotus corniculatus birdsfoot trefoil Lotus corniculatus above-ground brome Bromus above-ground brome Bromus above-ground above-ground cabbage Brassica oleracea above-ground cabbage Brassica oleracea corn Zea mays foliage corn Zea mays foliage millet Echinochloa crusgalli foliage millet Echinochloa crusgalli foliage orchard grass Dactylis glomerata above-ground orchard grass Dactylis glomerata above-ground sorghum Sorghum bicolor foliage sorghum Sorghum bicolor foliage above-ground timothy Phleum praetense timothy Phleum praetense above-ground barley Hordeum vulgare L. straw barley Hordeum vulgare L. straw barley Hordeum vulgare L. straw barley Hordeum vulgare L. straw

Amonoo-Neizer et al. 1995 model Amonoo-Neizer et al. 1995 model Amonoo-Neizer et al. 1995 model Amonoo-Neizer et al. 1995 model Amonoo-Neizer et al. 1995 model Amonoo-Neizer et al. 1995 model Amonoo-Neizer et al. 1995 model Amonoo-Neizer et al. 1995 model Amonoo-Neizer et al. 1995 model Amonoo-Neizer et al. 1995 model Amonoo-Neizer et al. 1995 model Amonoo-Neizer et al. 1995 model Amonoo-Neizer et al. 1995 model Amonoo-Neizer et al. 1995 model Amonoo-Neizer et al. 1995 model Amonoo-Neizer et al. 1995 model Amonoo-Neizer et al. 1995 model Amonoo-Neizer et al. 1995 model Amonoo-Neizer et al. 1995 model Amonoo-Neizer et al. 1995 model Amonoo-Neizer et al. 1995 model Amonoo-Neizer et al. 1995 model Cataldo and Wildung 1978 model Cataldo and Wildung 1978 model Furr et al. 1978 model Furr et al. 1978 model Furr et al. 1978 model Furr et al. 1978 model Furr et al. 1978 model Furr et al. 1978 model Furr et al. 1978 model Furr et al. 1978 model Furr et al. 1978 model Furr et al. 1978 model Furr et al. 1978 model Furr et al. 1978 model Furr et al. 1978 model Furr et al. 1978 model Furr et al. 1978 model Furr et al. 1978 model Furr et al. 1978 model Furr et al. 1978 model Jiang & Singh. 1994 model Jiang & Singh. 1994 model Jiang & Singh. 1994 model Jiang & Singh. 1994 model

Page 1

final-for-appendix98

As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As

NaAsO2 NaAsO2 Na2HAsO4 Na2HAsO4 NaAsO2 NaAsO2 Na2HAsO4 Na2HAsO4 NaAsO2 NaAsO2 Na2HAsO4 Na2HAsO4 NaAsO2 NaAsO2 Na2HAsO4 Na2HAsO4 NaAsO2 NaAsO2 PbHAsO4 PbHAsO4 arsenate arsenite PbHAsO4 (CH3)2AsO2Na PbHAsO4 PbHAsO4 (CH3)2AsO2Na PbHAsO4 field-mine-waste field-mine-waste field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot

250 250 50 50 50 50 10 10 10 10 250 250 250 250 50 50 50 50 127 127 25 20 25 20 5.32 22.48 23.22 5.09 20.23 22.48 52.5 52.5 10 11 12 12.5 13 14 15 18 2 2.5 23.5 4.5 6 6 7 7.5 8 9 9

sand loam sand loam sand loam sand loam sand loam sand loam sand loam sand loam sand loam sandy loam sandy loam clay silt loam

5.6 4.9 5.6 4.9 5.6 4.9 5.6 4.9 5.6 4.9 5.6 4.9 5.6 4.9 5.6 4.9 5.6 4.9

365 365 365 365 365 365 365 365 365 365 365 365 365 365 365 365 365 365

4.9 7.3

sandy loam loamy sand sandy loam clay loam clay loam loamy sand sandy loam clay loam sandy loam loamy sand sandy loam loamy sand loamy sand loamy sand sandy loam sandy loam sandy clay loamy sand loamy sand

barley barley barley barley barley barley ryegrass ryegrass ryegrass ryegrass ryegrass ryegrass ryegrass ryegrass ryegrass ryegrass ryegrass ryegrass bean . pea rice rice 49 common reed 49 common reed 49 common reed 35 stinging nettle 35 stinging nettle 35 stinging nettle unknown forbes unknown grasses 25 corn 25 corn 25 corn 25 corn 25 corn 25 corn 25 corn 25 corn 25 corn 25 corn 25 corn 25 corn 25 corn 25 corn 25 corn 25 corn 25 corn 25 corn 25 corn

Hordeum vulgare L. Hordeum vulgare L. Hordeum vulgare L. Hordeum vulgare L. Hordeum vulgare L. Hordeum vulgare L. Lolium perenne L. Lolium perenne L. Lolium perenne L. Lolium perenne L. Lolium perenne L. Lolium perenne L. Lolium perenne L. Lolium perenne L. Lolium perenne L. Lolium perenne L. Lolium perenne L. Lolium perenne L. Phaseolus vulgaris Pisum sativum Oryza sativa Oryza sativa Phragmites australis Phragmites australis Phragmites australis Urtica dioica Urtica dioica Urtica dioica

Zea mays Zea mays Zea mays Zea mays Zea mays Zea mays Zea mays Zea mays Zea mays Zea mays Zea mays Zea mays Zea mays Zea mays Zea mays Zea mays Zea mays Zea mays Zea mays

straw 15 0.06 Jiang & Singh. 1994 model straw 12.5 0.05 Jiang & Singh. 1994 model straw 5 0.1 Jiang & Singh. 1994 model straw 2 0.04 Jiang & Singh. 1994 model straw 6.5 0.13 Jiang & Singh. 1994 model straw 4 0.08 Jiang & Singh. 1994 model above-ground? 2 0.2 Jiang & Singh. 1994 model above-ground? 3 0.3 Jiang & Singh. 1994 model above-ground? 5 0.5 Jiang & Singh. 1994 model above-ground? 1 0.1 Jiang & Singh. 1994 model above-ground? 23 0.092 Jiang & Singh. 1994 model above-ground? 7 0.028 Jiang & Singh. 1994 model above-ground? 15 0.06 Jiang & Singh. 1994 model above-ground? 8 0.032 Jiang & Singh. 1994 model above-ground? 7.5 0.15 Jiang & Singh. 1994 model above-ground? 5 0.1 Jiang & Singh. 1994 model above-ground? 10 0.2 Jiang & Singh. 1994 model above-ground? 4 0.08 Jiang & Singh. 1994 model leaves 1.92 0.01512 MacPhee et al. 1960 model vine 2.14 0.01685 MacPhee et al. 1960 model Onken and Hossner 1995 model aboveground 2.54 0.1016 aboveground 2.69 0.1076 Onken and Hossner 1995 model shoot 0.127 0.02387 Otte et al. 1990 model shoot 0.9737 0.04331 Otte et al. 1990 model shoot 0.749 0.03226 Otte et al. 1990 model shoot 0.3 0.05894 Otte et al. 1990 model shoot 4.79 0.23678 Otte et al. 1990 model shoot 2.4 0.10676 Otte et al. 1990 model whole plant? 1.9 0.03619 Pascoe et al. 1994 model whole plant? 6.7 0.12762 Pascoe et al. 1994 model above-ground? 0.037 0.0037 Sadiq. 1986 model above-ground? 0.020 0.00182 Sadiq. 1986 model above-ground? 0.080 0.00667 Sadiq. 1986 model above-ground? 0.058 0.00464 Sadiq. 1986 model above-ground? 0.055 0.00423 Sadiq. 1986 model above-ground? 0.060 0.00429 Sadiq. 1986 model above-ground? 0.010 0.00067 Sadiq. 1986 model above-ground? 0.055 0.00306 Sadiq. 1986 model above-ground? 0.020 0.01 Sadiq. 1986 model above-ground? 0.023 0.0092 Sadiq. 1986 model above-ground? 0.020 0.00085 Sadiq. 1986 model above-ground? 0.035 0.00778 Sadiq. 1986 model above-ground? 0.056 0.00933 Sadiq. 1986 model above-ground? 0.032 0.00533 Sadiq. 1986 model above-ground? 0.035 0.005 Sadiq. 1986 model above-ground? 0.041 0.00547 Sadiq. 1986 model above-ground? 0.048 0.006 Sadiq. 1986 model above-ground? 0.027 0.003 Sadiq. 1986 model above-ground? 0.028 0.00311 Sadiq. 1986 model

salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field

Page 2

final-for-appendix98

As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As

field-background field-background field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field Na2HAsO4 field Na2HAsO4 field Na2HAsO4 field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field

1.1 1.1 7.63 10.3 10.5 10.8 12.2 12.9 13.6 14.5 14.8 15.1 16.3 28.3 30.3 36 36.7 50 57.4 351 25 50 50 150 200 250 500 2.96 5 6 8 12 14 14 14 15 17 27 54 108 79.2 87.4 120 211 240 272 369 417

1-2 cm 1-2 cm

sand 5.3 sand 5.3 ? (semi-arid) unknown ? (semi-arid) unknown ? (semi-arid) unknown ? (semi-arid) unknown ? (semi-arid) unknown ? (semi-arid) unknown ? (semi-arid) unknown ? (semi-arid) unknown ? (semi-arid) unknown ? (semi-arid) unknown ? (semi-arid) unknown ? (semi-arid) unknown ? (semi-arid) unknown ? (semi-arid) unknown ? (semi-arid) unknown ? (semi-arid) unknown ? (semi-arid) unknown ? (semi-arid) unknown unknown clay loam 8 112 7.9 112 unknown clay loam+waste site unknown clay loam 8 112 unknown clay loam+waste site 7.8 112 unknown clay loam 8 112 7.8 112 unknown clay loam+waste site unknown waste site 7.8 112 rooting zone refc rooting zone refc rooting zone refc rooting zone refc rooting zone refc rooting zone refc rooting zone refc rooting zone refc rooting zone refc rooting zone refc rooting zone refc rooting zone refc rooting zone refc 7.5 6.9 6.8 7.8 6 6.7 7 7

dune grass willow various various various various various various various various various various various various various various various various various various Scots pine Scots pine Scots pine Scots pine Scots pine Scots pine Scots pine spruce spruce spruce spruce spruce spruce spruce spruce spruce spruce spruce spruce spruce redtop redtop redtop redtop redtop redtop redtop redtop

Ammophilia arenaria Salix repens

Pinus sylvestris Pinus sylvestris Pinus sylvestris Pinus sylvestris Pinus sylvestris Pinus sylvestris Pinus sylvestris Picea abies Picea abies Picea abies Picea abies Picea abies Picea abies Picea abies Picea abies Picea abies Picea abies Picea abies Picea abies Picea abies Agrostis stolonifera Agrostis stolonifera Agrostis stolonifera Agrostis stolonifera Agrostis stolonifera Agrostis stolonifera Agrostis stolonifera Agrostis stolonifera

clipping 10cm above soil 0.05545 0.061 surf leaves 0.49 0.44545 above-ground? 0.6 0.07864 above-ground? 3.3 0.32039 above-ground? 0.6 0.05714 above-ground? 5.6 0.51852 above-ground? 2.5 0.20492 above-ground? 5.1 0.39535 above-ground? 3 0.22059 above-ground? 4 0.27586 above-ground? 2.3 0.15541 above-ground? 4.8 0.31788 above-ground? 4.2 0.25767 above-ground? 6.4 0.22615 above-ground? 6.6 0.21782 above-ground? 12.4 0.34444 above-ground? 93.7 2.55313 above-ground? 4.5 0.09 above-ground? 5.5 0.09582 above-ground? 46.2 0.13162 3 0.12 2 0.04 5.5 0.11 7 0.04667 22 0.11 11 0.044 22 0.044 needles 0.00174 0.00059 needles 0.012 0.0024 needles 0.011 0.00183 needles 0.009 0.00113 needles 0.005 0.00042 needles 0.015 0.00107 needles 0.016 0.00114 needles 0.024 0.00171 needles 0.006 0.0004 needles 0.01 0.00059 needles 0.02 0.00074 needles 0.022 0.00041 needles 0.006 5.6E-05 above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground 2.5 2.4 2.7 2.9 1.7 4.5 14.9 1.8 0.03157 0.02746 0.0225 0.01374 0.00708 0.01654 0.04038 0.00432

Severson, et al. 1992. model Severson, et al. 1992. model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sheppard et al. 1985 model Sheppard et al. 1985 model Sheppard et al. 1985 model Sheppard et al. 1985 model Sheppard et al. 1985 model Sheppard et al. 1985 model Sheppard et al. 1985 model Wyttenbach et al. 1997 model Wyttenbach et al. 1997 model Wyttenbach et al. 1997 model Wyttenbach et al. 1997 model Wyttenbach et al. 1997 model Wyttenbach et al. 1997 model Wyttenbach et al. 1997 model Wyttenbach et al. 1997 model Wyttenbach et al. 1997 model Wyttenbach et al. 1997 model Wyttenbach et al. 1997 model Wyttenbach et al. 1997 model Wyttenbach et al. 1997 model PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation

field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field salt field salt field salt field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field

Page 3

final-for-appendix98

As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd

field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field-smelter field-smelter CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 field-background CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 field-background CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 field-bckgd field-bckgd field-bckgd field-bckgd field-bckgd field-bckgd field-bckgd

456 483 626 641 688 870 202 31.3 160 225 303 359 507 514 1970 2.7 35 0.54 0.83 1.57 17.33 2.50 3.93 8.40 10 100 25 5 50 0.40 0.50 1.40 10.40 50.40 100.40 0.40 0.50 1.40 10.40 50.40 100.40 0.124 0.124 0.124 0.124 0.323 0.323 0.323 at 5 cm at 5 cm

7.2 5.9 6.7 5.4 4.9 6.2 4.8 6.5 3.7 5.3 4.9 4.4 5.8 6.2 6.5 stony loam 5 stony loam 5.9 peaty+sand 3.3 peaty+sand 3.3 peaty+sand 3.3 peaty+sand 3.3 peaty+sand 3.3 peaty+sand 3.3 peaty+sand 3.3 silty clay loam silty clay loam silty clay loam silty clay loam silty clay loam silt loam 5.9 silt loam 5.9 silt loam 5.9 silt loam 5.9 silt loam 5.9 silt loam 5.9 silt loam 5.9 silt loam 5.9 silt loam 5.9 silt loam 5.9 silt loam 5.9 silt loam 5.9 sand silt? 6.2 sand silt? 6.2 sand silt? 6.2 sand silt? 6.2 silt clay? 7.2 silt clay? 7.2 silt clay? 7.2 unknown unknown 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 90 90 90 90 90 10,20,30 10,20,30 10,20,30 10,20,30 10,20,30 10,20,30 10,30 10,30 10,30 10,30 10,30 10,30 14,49 14,49 14,49 14,49 14,49 14,49 14,49

redtop Agrostis stolonifera above-ground above-ground redtop Agrostis stolonifera redtop Agrostis stolonifera above-ground above-ground redtop Agrostis stolonifera above-ground redtop Agrostis stolonifera redtop Agrostis stolonifera above-ground redtop/tufted_hairgrass 2 spp. above-ground slender_wheatgrass Agropyron trachycaulum, prob above-ground tufted_hairgrass ira or Deschampsia above-ground A tufted_hairgrass ira or Deschampsia above-ground A tufted_hairgrass ira or Deschampsia above-ground A tufted_hairgrass ira or Deschampsia above-ground A tufted_hairgrass ira or Deschampsia above-ground A tufted_hairgrass ira or Deschampsia above-ground A tufted_hairgrass ira or Deschampsia above-ground A various foliage leaves various foliage leaves sitka-spruce Picea sitchensis shoot sitka-spruce Picea sitchensis shoot sitka-spruce Picea sitchensis shoot sitka-spruce Picea sitchensis shoot sitka-spruce Picea sitchensis shoot sitka-spruce Picea sitchensis shoot sitka-spruce Picea sitchensis shoot American sycamore Plantanus occidentalis leaf L. American sycamore Plantanus occidentalis leaf L. American sycamore Plantanus occidentalis leaf L. American sycamore Plantanus occidentalis leaf L. American sycamore Plantanus occidentalis leaf L. red fescue Festuca rubra L. clipping red fescue Festuca rubra L. clipping red fescue Festuca rubra L. clipping red fescue Festuca rubra L. clipping red fescue Festuca rubra L. clipping red fescue Festuca rubra L. clipping rye grass Lolium perenne L. clipping rye grass Lolium perenne L. clipping rye grass Lolium perenne L. clipping rye grass Lolium perenne L. clipping rye grass Lolium perenne L. clipping rye grass Lolium perenne L. clipping durum wheat Triticum turgidum leaf durum wheat Triticum turgidum leaf durum wheat Triticum turgidum leaf durum wheat Triticum turgidum leaf durum wheat Triticum turgidum leaf durum wheat Triticum turgidum leaf durum wheat Triticum turgidum leaf

3.2 2.3 2.4 24.9 16.6 8.2 1.85 1 3.2 5.6 16.1 8 2.9 6.9 5.87 2.3 8.1 5.9 7.0 6.4 25.1 12.9 14.4 17.4 1.5 2 2.5 2 3.5 2.5 2 4.5 7.4 29.3 47.3 1.3 4.4 5.9 17.4 30.25 61 0.3816 0.4719 0.1586 0.00335 0.80125 0.6258 0.3958

0.00702 0.00476 0.00383 0.03885 0.02413 0.00943 0.00916 0.03195 0.02 0.02489 0.05314 0.02228 0.00572 0.01342 0.00298 0.85185 0.23143 10.9259 8.43373 4.07643 1.44836 5.16 3.66412 2.07143 0.15 0.02 0.1 0.4 0.07 6.25 4 3.21429 0.71154 0.58135 0.47112 3.25 8.8 4.21429 1.67308 0.6002 0.60757 3.07742 3.80565 1.27903 0.02702 2.48065 1.93746 1.22539

PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994

validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation

field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt field salt salt salt salt salt field salt salt salt salt salt field field field field field field field

15-collexn 15-collexn 15-collexn 15-collexn 15-collexn 15-collexn 15-collexn

Beyer et al. 1985 model Beyer et al. 1985 model Burton et al. 1984. model Burton et al. 1984. model Burton et al. 1984. model Burton et al. 1984. model Burton et al. 1984. model Burton et al. 1984. model Burton et al. 1984. model Carlson and Bazzaz, 1977. model Carlson and Bazzaz, 1977. model Carlson and Bazzaz, 1977. model Carlson and Bazzaz, 1977. model Carlson and Bazzaz, 1977. model Carlson and Rolfe, 1979.model Carlson and Rolfe, 1979.model Carlson and Rolfe, 1979.model Carlson and Rolfe, 1979.model Carlson and Rolfe, 1979.model Carlson and Rolfe, 1979.model Carlson and Rolfe, 1979.model Carlson and Rolfe, 1979.model Carlson and Rolfe, 1979.model Carlson and Rolfe, 1979.model Carlson and Rolfe, 1979.model Carlson and Rolfe, 1979.model Cieslinski et al. 1996 model Cieslinski et al. 1996 model Cieslinski et al. 1996 model Cieslinski et al. 1996 model Cieslinski et al. 1996 model Cieslinski et al. 1996 model Cieslinski et al. 1996 model

Page 4

final-for-appendix98

Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd

field-bckgd field-bckgd field-bckgd field-bckgd field-bckgd field-bckgd field-bckgd field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field-background field-flue-dust-added field-flue-dust-added field-flue-dust-added field-flue-dust-added field-background field-flue-dust-added field-flue-dust-added field-flue-dust-added field-flue-dust-added field-background field-flue-dust-added field-flue-dust-added field-flue-dust-added field-flue-dust-added CdSO4 CdSO4 CdSO4 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2

0.323 0.124 0.124 0.124 0.323 0.323 0.323 0.27 0.3 0.36 0.46 0.97 0.17 0.3 0.65 0.96 0.22 0.24 0.34 0.35 0.99 1.09 0.41 1.09 0.35 0.53 0.3 3.2 7.1 54.4 106.5 0.3 3.2 7.1 54.4 106.5 0.3 3.2 7.1 54.4 106.5 10 100 50 10 2.5 10 2.5 10

15-collexn 15-collexn 15-collexn 15-collexn 15-collexn 15-collexn 15-collexn 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20

silt clay? sand silt? sand silt? sand silt? silt clay? silt clay? sand silt?

7.2 6.2 6.2 6.2 7.2 7.2 6.2 5.7 5.4 6 5 4.7 5.1 6.1 5.5 5.3 5.5 7.2 6.2 6.2 4.4 4.8 4.4 5 6.7 5.1

14,49 14,49 14,49 14,49 14,49 14,49 14,49

sandy 7 sandy 7.2 sandy 6.9 sandy 7.4 sandy 7.4 sandy 7 sandy 7.2 sandy 6.9 sandy 7.4 sandy 7.4 sandy 7 sandy 7.2 sandy 6.9 sandy 7.4 sandy 7.4 silty clay loam+quartz . 42 silty clay loam+quartz . 42 silty clay loam+quartz . 42 silty clay loam 6.7 117 silty clay loam 6.7 117 silty clay loam 6.7 112 silty clay loam 6.7 112 silty clay loam 6.7 37

95 95 95 95 95

durum wheat flax flax flax flax flax flax cabbage cabbage cabbage cabbage cabbage carrot carrot carrot carrot cauliflower cauliflower corn corn corn corn lettuce lettuce turnip turnip barley barley barley barley barley clover clover clover clover clover grass grass grass grass grass white clover white clover white clover celery celery green pepper green pepper lettuce

Triticum turgidum Linum usitatissimum Linum usitatissimum Linum usitatissimum Linum usitatissimum Linum usitatissimum Linum usitatissimum Brassica oleracea Brassica oleracea Brassica oleracea Brassica oleracea Brassica oleracea Daucus carrota Daucus carrota Daucus carrota Daucus carrota Brassica oleracea Brassica oleracea Zea mays Zea mays Zea mays Zea mays Latuca sativa Latuca sativa Brassica rappa Brassica rappa Hordeum vulgare Hordeum vulgare Hordeum vulgare Hordeum vulgare Hordeum vulgare Trifolium pratense Trifolium pratense Trifolium pratense Trifolium pratense Trifolium pratense Poa pratensis Poa pratensis Poa pratensis Poa pratensis Poa pratensis Trifolium repens Trifolium repens Trifolium repens Apium graveolens Apium graveolens Capsicum frutescens Capsicum frutescens Latuca sativa

leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf,stalk leaf,stalk leaf,stalk leaf,stalk leaf leaf leaf leaf straw straw straw straw straw cutting cutting cutting cutting cutting cutting cutting cutting cutting cutting shoot shoot shoot leaf,stalk leaf,stalk

leaf

0.37125 1.03185 0.84287 0.5551 1.5935 1.617 1.87495 0.35 0.4 0.9 0.78 0.57 0.63 0.81 0.39 0.38 0.28 0.22 0.325 0.295 0.125 0.12 0.28 0.39 0.98 1.2 0.34 0.35 0.5 2.02 2.4 0.19 0.34 0.68 1.07 1.14 0.24 0.36 0.66 1.29 1.51 0.49 2.95 1.42 12.82 4.8 6.28 3.82 27.10

1.14938 8.32137 6.7973 4.47661 4.93344 5.00619 5.8048 1.2963 1.33333 2.5 1.69565 0.58763 3.70588 2.7 0.6 0.39583 1.27273 0.91667 0.95588 0.84286 0.12626 0.11009 0.68293 0.3578 2.8 2.26415 1.13333 0.10938 0.07042 0.03713 0.02254 0.63333 0.10625 0.09577 0.01967 0.0107 0.8 0.1125 0.09296 0.02371 0.01418 0.049 0.0295 0.0284 1.282 1.92 0.628 1.528 2.71

Cieslinski et al. 1996 model Cieslinski et al. 1996 model Cieslinski et al. 1996 model Cieslinski et al. 1996 model Cieslinski et al. 1996 model Cieslinski et al. 1996 model Cieslinski et al. 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1997, de Pieri 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1997, de Pieri 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1997, de Pieri 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1997, de Pieri 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1997, de Pieri 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1997, de Pieri 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1997, de Pieri 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1997, de Pieri 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1997, de Pieri 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1997, de Pieri 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1997, de Pieri 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1997, de Pieri 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1997, de Pieri 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1997, de Pieri 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1997, de Pieri 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1997, de Pieri 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1997, de Pieri 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1997, de Pieri 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1997, de Pieri 1996 model Dudka et al. 1996 model Dudka et al. 1996 model Dudka et al. 1996 model Dudka et al. 1996 model Dudka et al. 1996 model Dudka et al. 1996 model Dudka et al. 1996 model Dudka et al. 1996 model Dudka et al. 1996 model Dudka et al. 1996 model Dudka et al. 1996 model Dudka et al. 1996 model Dudka et al. 1996 model Dudka et al. 1996 model Dudka et al. 1996 model Gildon and Tinker, 1983.model Gildon and Tinker, 1983.model Gildon and Tinker, 1983.model Haghiri, 1973. model Haghiri, 1973. model Haghiri, 1973. model Haghiri, 1973. model Haghiri, 1973. model

field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt

Page 5

final-for-appendix98

Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd

CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 field-background field-background field-sludge field-sludge fertilizer fertilizer fertilizer fertilizer fertilizer fertilizer fertilizer fertilizer fertilizer fertilizer fertilizer fertilizer fertilizer fertilizer fertilizer fertilizer fertilizer fertilizer fertilizer fertilizer fertilizer fertilizer fertilizer fertilizer fertilizer fertilizer fertilizer fertilizer fertilizer fertilizer fertilizer fertilizer fertilizer fertilizer field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field

2.5 10 2.5 0.06 0.06 2.28 2.28 0.253 0.253 0.253 0.263 0.263 0.263 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.047 0.047 0.047 0.253 0.253 0.253 0.263 0.263 0.263 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.047 0.047 0.047 0.253 0.253 0.253 0.263 0.263 0.263 0.253 0.253 0.263 0.263 10.4 11.6 14.0 24.7 35.3 38.9 9.00 0.75

silty clay loam 6.7 37 silty clay loam 6.7 26 silty clay loam 6.7 26 999 unknown 999 unknown 999 unknown 999 unknown loam 4.8 . loam 5.2 . loam 5.9 . loam 4.8 . loam 5.2 . loam 5.9 . sand 4.8 . sand 5.2 . sand 5.9 . sand 4.8 . sand 5.2 . sand 5.9 . loam 5 . loam 5.9 . loam 6.8 . loam 5 . loam 5.9 . loam 6.8 . sand 4.8 . sand 5.2 . sand 5.9 . sand 4.8 . sand 5.2 . sand 5.9 . loam 5 . loam 5.9 . loam 6.8 . loam 5 . loam 5.9 . loam 6.8 . loam 5.9 . loam 6.8 . loam 5.9 . loam 6.8 . collected,15-cm loam 6.1 42 sandy collected,15-cm loam 5.5 42 sandy collected,15-cm loam 5.0 42 sandy collected,15-cm loam 6.8 42 sandy collected,15-cm loam 6.4 42 sandy collected,15-cm loam 6.7 42 sandy collected,15-cm loam 7.5 42 sandy 5 unknown grassland 999 unknown

lettuce Latuca sativa radish Raphanus sativus radish Raphanus sativus grass Poa spp. grass Bromus japonicus grass Poa spp. grass Bromus japonicus carrot Daucus carota carrot Daucus carota carrot Daucus carota carrot Daucus carota carrot Daucus carota carrot Daucus carota oat Avena sativa oat Avena sativa oat Avena sativa oat Avena sativa oat Avena sativa oat Avena sativa oat Avena sativa oat Avena sativa oat Avena sativa oat Avena sativa oat Avena sativa oat Avena sativa ryegrass Lolium multiflorum ryegrass Lolium multiflorum ryegrass Lolium multiflorum ryegrass Lolium multiflorum ryegrass Lolium multiflorum ryegrass Lolium multiflorum ryegrass Lolium multiflorum ryegrass Lolium multiflorum ryegrass Lolium multiflorum ryegrass Lolium multiflorum ryegrass Lolium multiflorum ryegrass Lolium multiflorum spinach Spinacia oleracea spinach Spinacia oleracea spinach Spinacia oleracea spinach Spinacia oleracea soybean Glycine max soybean Glycine max soybean Glycine max soybean Glycine max soybean Glycine max soybean Glycine max soybean Glycine max fine-leaved grasses

leaf top top above-ground? above-ground? above-ground? above-ground? leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf straw straw straw straw straw straw straw straw straw straw straw straw above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf above-ground

11.50 16.13 10.20 0.4 0.15 0.85 1.7 1.25 0.855 0.565 1.35 0.925 0.665 0.065 0.035 0.045 0.1 0.090 0.08 0.09 0.093 0.147 0.109 0.123 0.15 0.11 0.1 0.04 0.16 0.125 0.11 0.053 0.215 0.257 0.092 0.231 0.381 2.9 1.6 3.1 2.35 8.8 20.6 8.2 7.5 26.2 18.4 3.6 0.23

4.6 1.613 4.08 6.66667 2.5 0.37281 0.74561 4.94071 3.37945 2.2332 5.13308 3.51711 2.52852 1.75676 0.94595 1.21622 2.12766 1.91489 1.70213 0.35573 0.36759 0.58103 0.41445 0.46768 0.57034 2.97297 2.7027 1.08108 3.40426 2.65957 2.34043 0.20949 0.8498 1.01581 0.34981 0.87833 1.44867 11.4625 6.32411 11.7871 8.93536 0.84615 1.77586 0.58571 0.30364 0.74221 0.47301 0.4 0.30667

Haghiri, 1973. model Haghiri, 1973. model Haghiri, 1973. model Hall et al. 1990 model Hall et al. 1990 model Hall et al. 1990 model Hall et al. 1990 model He and Singh, 1994. model He and Singh, 1994. model He and Singh, 1994. model He and Singh, 1994. model He and Singh, 1994. model He and Singh, 1994. model He and Singh, 1994. model He and Singh, 1994. model He and Singh, 1994. model He and Singh, 1994. model He and Singh, 1994. model He and Singh, 1994. model He and Singh, 1994. model He and Singh, 1994. model He and Singh, 1994. model He and Singh, 1994. model He and Singh, 1994. model He and Singh, 1994. model He and Singh, 1994. model He and Singh, 1994. model He and Singh, 1994. model He and Singh, 1994. model He and Singh, 1994. model He and Singh, 1994. model He and Singh, 1994. model He and Singh, 1994. model He and Singh, 1994. model He and Singh, 1994. model He and Singh, 1994. model He and Singh, 1994. model He and Singh, 1994. model He and Singh, 1994. model He and Singh, 1994. model He and Singh, 1994. model Heggo, et al. 1990. model Heggo, et al. 1990. model Heggo, et al. 1990. model Heggo, et al. 1990. model Heggo, et al. 1990. model Heggo, et al. 1990. model Heggo, et al. 1990. model Hunter and Johnson 1982 odel m

salt salt salt field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field

Page 6

final-for-appendix98

Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd

field field field field field field-background Cd(NO3)2 field-background Cd(NO3)2 field-background Cd(NO3)2 field-background Cd(NO3)2 field-background Cd(NO3)2 field-background Cd(NO3)2 field-background Cd(NO3)2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 + CdO CdCl2 + CdO CdCl2 + CdO field soil in pots field soil in pots field soil in pots field soil in pots field field-background field-background CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 field-background field-background CdCl2

3.1 5 unknown grassland 999 unknown 999 unknown 8.5 5 unknown grassland 0.75 5 unknown grassland 999 unknown 999 unknown 3.1 5 unknown grassland 999 unknown 8.5 5 unknown grassland 2.58 muck 999 . 320.20 muck 999 . 2.58 muck 999 . 320.20 muck 999 . 2.58 muck 999 . 320.20 muck 999 . 2.58 muck 999 . 320.20 muck 999 . 2.58 muck 999 . 320.20 muck 999 . 2.58 muck 999 . 320.20 muck 999 . 2.58 muck 999 . 320.20 muck 999 . 200 silt loam 5.1 60 40 silt loam 5.1 60 200 silt loam 5.1 130 40 silt loam 5.1 130 200 silt loam 5.1 70 40 silt loam 5.1 70 200 silt loam 5.1 35 40 silt loam 5.1 35 200 silt loam 5.1 100 40 silt loam 5.1 100 200 silt loam 5.1 95 40 silt loam 5.1 95 200 silt loam 5.1 45 40 silt loam 5.1 45 0.5 loamy sand 4.5 ca. 42 50.5 loamy sand 4.5 ca. 42 100.5 loamy sand 4.5 ca. 42 0.55 5.9 42 0.55 7.2 42 2.8 5.9 42 2.8 7.2 42 0.3 humus layer andy loam 2.9 lifetime s 0.33 sand 4.80 84 2.32 sand 7.82 84 10.33 sand 4.80 84 12.32 sand 7.82 84 20.33 sand 4.80 84 0.33 sand 4.80 84 2.32 sand 7.82 84 10.33 sand 4.80 84

fine-leaved grasses above-ground fine-leaved grasses above-ground ground cover veg above-ground ground cover veg above-ground ground cover veg above-ground carrot Daucus carrota leaf carrot Daucus carrota leaf corn Zea mays leaf corn Zea mays leaf lettuce Latuca sativa leaf lettuce Latuca sativa leaf oat Avena sativa leaf oat Avena sativa leaf onion Allium cepa leaf onion Allium cepa leaf parsnip Pastinaca sativa leaf parsnip Pastinaca sativa leaf radish Raphanus sativus leaf radish Raphanus sativus leaf broccoli Brassica oleracea leaf broccoli Brassica oleracea leaf carrot Daucus carota top carrot Daucus carota top cauliflower Brassica oleracea leaf cauliflower Brassica oleracea leaf leaf lettuce Latuca sativa leaf leaf lettuce Latuca sativa leaf husk,leaf,stalk oat Avena sativa oat Avena sativa husk,leaf,stalk pea Pisum sativum vine pea Pisum sativum vine radish Raphanus sativus top radish Raphanus sativus top radish Raphanus sativus shoot radish Raphanus sativus shoot radish Raphanus sativus shoot radish Raphanus sativus top radish Raphanus sativus top radish Raphanus sativus top radish Raphanus sativus top Norway spruce Picea abies needles black-eyed Susan Rudbeckia hirta shoot black-eyed Susan Rudbeckia hirta shoot black-eyed Susan Rudbeckia hirta shoot black-eyed Susan Rudbeckia hirta shoot black-eyed Susan Rudbeckia hirta shoot little bluestem Andropogon scoparius shoot little bluestem Andropogon scoparius shoot little bluestem Andropogon scoparius shoot

1.1 2 0.4 1.6 3.6 1.5 15.5 0.7 10.2 1.9 38.0 0.8 6.0 1.5 127.0 0.9 5.1 2.5 63.1 268.5 36.0 294.4 79.3 198.6 18.5 667.7 51.1 129.8 56.1 116.9 37.2 398.0 264.7 1.3 54 66 1.6 1.5 2.9 2.8 0.3 7.55 7.10 371.30 45.34 593.73 0.47 0.65 18.86

0.35484 0.23529 0.53333 0.51613 0.42353 0.5814 0.04841 0.27132 0.03186 0.73643 0.11868 0.31008 0.01874 0.5814 0.39663 0.34884 0.01593 0.96899 0.19706 1.3425 0.9 1.472 1.9825 0.993 0.4625 3.3385 1.2775 0.649 1.4025 0.5845 0.93 1.99 6.6175 2.6 1.06931 0.65672 2.90909 2.72727 1.03571 1 1 22.8788 3.06034 35.9439 3.68019 29.2046 1.42424 0.28017 1.82575

Hunter and Johnson 1982 odel m Hunter and Johnson 1982 odel m Hunter and Johnson 1982 odel m Hunter and Johnson 1982 odel m Hunter and Johnson 1982 odel m Hutchinson, et al. 1974. model Hutchinson, et al. 1974. model Hutchinson, et al. 1974. model Hutchinson, et al. 1974. model Hutchinson, et al. 1974. model Hutchinson, et al. 1974. model Hutchinson, et al. 1974. model Hutchinson, et al. 1974. model Hutchinson, et al. 1974. model Hutchinson, et al. 1974. model Hutchinson, et al. 1974. model Hutchinson, et al. 1974. model Hutchinson, et al. 1974. model Hutchinson, et al. 1974. model John, 1973. model John, 1973. model John, 1973. model John, 1973. model John, 1973. model John, 1973. model John, 1973. model John, 1973. model John, 1973. model John, 1973. model John, 1973. model John, 1973. model John, 1973. model John, 1973. model Khan and Frankland, 1983. model Khan and Frankland, 1983. model Khan and Frankland, 1983. model Lagerwerff, 1971. model Lagerwerff, 1971. model Lagerwerff, 1971. model Lagerwerff, 1971. model Lamersdorf, et al. 1991. model Miles and Parker, 1979. model Miles and Parker, 1979. model Miles and Parker, 1979. model Miles and Parker, 1979. model Miles and Parker, 1979. model Miles and Parker, 1979. model Miles and Parker, 1979. model Miles and Parker, 1979. model

field field field field field field field field salt field salt field salt field salt field salt field salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt field field field field field field field salt salt salt field field salt

Page 7

final-for-appendix98

Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd

CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 field-mine-waste field-mine-waste Cd-salt Cd-salt Cd-salt Cd-salt Cd(NO3)2 Cd(NO3)2 Cd(NO3)2 Cd(NO3)2 Cd(NO3)2 Cd(NO3)2 Cd(NO3)2 Cd(NO3)2 Cd(NO3)2 Cd(NO3)2 Cd(NO3)2 Cd(NO3)2 Cd(NO3)2 Cd(NO3)2 Cd(NO3)2 Cd(NO3)2

12.32 20.33 2.5 5.0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 7.8 6 cm 7.8 6 cm 10.09 20.09 40.09 80.09 116.0 118.0 125.0 141.0 153.0 19.0 25.0 26.0 33.0 33.0 37.0 46.0 46.0 61.0 83.0 88.0

sand 7.82 sand 4.80 loamy sand 6.0 loamy sand 6.0 silt loam 4.5 silt loam 6.1 silt loam 7.0 silt loam 7.9 silt loam 5.5 silt loam 6.5 silty clay loam 6.1 loamy sand 5.7 silt loam 4.5 silt loam 6.1 silt loam 7.0 silt loam 7.9 silt loam 5.5 silt loam 6.5 silty clay loam 6.1 loamy sand 5.7 silt loam 6.1 silt loam 7.0 silt loam 7.9 silt loam 5.5 silt loam 6.5 silty clay loam 6.1 loamy sand 5.7 unknown 999 unknown 999 loamy sand 8.4 loamy sand 8.4 loamy sand 8.4 loamy sand 8.4 sandy loam 7.8 clay loam 7.8 clay sand 7.8 loamy sand 7.7 sandy clay 7.6 sandy loam 7.6 sandy clay 7.6 sandy loam 7.8 loamy sand 7.8 sandy loam 7.3 sandy loam 7.4 loamy sand 7.4 clay loam 7.8 clay loam 8.1 sandy loam 7.8 loamy sand 7.9

84 84 . . 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 unknown unknown . . . . 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30

little bluestem little bluestem corn corn soybean soybean soybean soybean soybean soybean soybean soybean soybean soybean soybean soybean soybean soybean soybean soybean soybean soybean soybean soybean soybean soybean soybean forbes grasses wheat wheat wheat wheat corn corn corn corn corn corn corn corn corn corn corn corn corn corn corn corn

Andropogon scoparius shoot Andropogon scoparius shoot Zea mays shoot Zea mays shoot Glycine max shoot Glycine max shoot Glycine max shoot Glycine max shoot Glycine max shoot Glycine max shoot Glycine max shoot Glycine max shoot Glycine max shoot Glycine max shoot Glycine max shoot Glycine max shoot Glycine max shoot Glycine max shoot Glycine max shoot Glycine max shoot Glycine max shoot Glycine max shoot Glycine max shoot Glycine max shoot Glycine max shoot Glycine max shoot Glycine max shoot

Triticum aestivum Triticum aestivum Triticum aestivum Triticum aestivum Zea mays Zea mays Zea mays Zea mays Zea mays Zea mays Zea mays Zea mays Zea mays Zea mays Zea mays Zea mays Zea mays Zea mays Zea mays Zea mays

straw straw straw straw whole plant whole plant whole plant whole plant whole plant whole plant whole plant whole plant whole plant whole plant whole plant whole plant whole plant whole plant whole plant whole plant

2.48 30.50 34.5 77.8 8.97 4.08 0.80 2.74 2.36 1.44 0.90 5.54 51.4 26.8 5.04 19.9 15.9 4.14 4.04 64.20 87.2 37.9 67.4 48.5 36.40 13.73 38.20 3.5 0.94 12.2 21.0 24.9 26.2 101.9 116.5 115.9 80.3 108.6 39.9 62.2 31.0 27.4 61.2 37.8 68.5 66.3 83.4 93.7 100.6

0.2013 1.50025 13.8 15.56 8.97 4.08 0.8 2.74 2.36 1.44 0.9 5.54 5.14 2.68 0.504 1.99 1.59 0.414 0.404 6.42 0.872 0.379 0.674 0.485 0.364 0.1373 0.382 0.44872 0.12051 1.20912 1.0453 0.6211 0.32713 0.87845 0.98729 0.9272 0.5695 0.7098 2.1 2.488 1.19231 0.8303 1.85455 1.02162 1.48913 1.4413 1.36721 1.12892 1.14318

Miles and Parker, 1979. model Miles and Parker, 1979. model Miller et al. 1977 model Miller et al. 1977 model Miller, et al. 1976. model Miller, et al. 1976. model Miller, et al. 1976. model Miller, et al. 1976. model Miller, et al. 1976. model Miller, et al. 1976. model Miller, et al. 1976. model Miller, et al. 1976. model Miller, et al. 1976. model Miller, et al. 1976. model Miller, et al. 1976. model Miller, et al. 1976. model Miller, et al. 1976. model Miller, et al. 1976. model Miller, et al. 1976. model Miller, et al. 1976. model Miller, et al. 1976. model Miller, et al. 1976. model Miller, et al. 1976. model Miller, et al. 1976. model Miller, et al. 1976. model Miller, et al. 1976. model Miller, et al. 1976. model Pascoe et al. 1994 model Pascoe et al. 1994 model Sadana and Singh, 1987. odel m Sadana and Singh, 1987. odel m Sadana and Singh, 1987. odel m Sadana and Singh, 1987. odel m Sadiq, 1985. model Sadiq, 1985. model Sadiq, 1985. model Sadiq, 1985. model Sadiq, 1985. model Sadiq, 1985. model Sadiq, 1985. model Sadiq, 1985. model Sadiq, 1985. model Sadiq, 1985. model Sadiq, 1985. model Sadiq, 1985. model Sadiq, 1985. model Sadiq, 1985. model Sadiq, 1985. model Sadiq, 1985. model

salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt field field salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt

Page 8

final-for-appendix98

Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd

CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 field-background field-wastewater field-background field-wastewater field-background field-wastewater field-background field-wastewater field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field CdSO4 CdSO4 CdSO4 CdSO4 field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field field field field field field field

0.62 4.52 6.66 0.12 0.87 0.12 0.87 0.12 0.87 0.12 0.87 1.67 1.7 1.93 2.13 2.23 2.23 2.37 2.5 2.53 2.7 2.77 2.77 3.17 3.57 3.77 5.47 5.73 5.83 100 50 400 200 0.48 1.27 10.23 14.83 2.60 4.94 5.96 6.72 0.48 0.73 1.5 2 2.2 2.5 2.8

15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 cm 15 cm 15 cm 15 cm 15 cm 15 cm 15 cm 15 cm 15 cm 15 cm 15 cm 15 cm 15 cm 15 cm 15 cm 15 cm 15 cm 15 cm

15cm 15cm 15cm 15cm 15cm 15cm 15cm 15cm

loamy sand 5.1 loamy sand 5.1 loamy sand 5.1 unknown 8.5 unknown 8.3 unknown 8.5 unknown 8.3 unknown 8.5 unknown 8.3 unknown 8.5 unknown 8.3 ? (semi-arid)999 ? (semi-arid)999 ? (semi-arid)999 ? (semi-arid)999 ? (semi-arid)999 ? (semi-arid)999 ? (semi-arid)999 ? (semi-arid)999 ? (semi-arid)999 ? (semi-arid)999 ? (semi-arid)999 ? (semi-arid)999 ? (semi-arid)999 ? (semi-arid)999 ? (semi-arid)999 ? (semi-arid)999 ? (semi-arid)999 ? (semi-arid)999 loam 999 loam 999 loam 999 loam 999 loam 5.7 sandy loam 6.4 loam 4.3 loam 5.5 sandy loam 6.6 sandy loam 5.7 loam 7.0 loam 5.2 7.8 7.5 6.8 6.9 5.9 7 6

>30 bush bean >30 bush bean >30 bush bean many years? basil many years? basil many years? garden cress many years? garden cress many years? mint many years? mint many years? tarragon many years? tarragon unknown various unknown various unknown various unknown various unknown various unknown various unknown various unknown various unknown various unknown various unknown various unknown various unknown various unknown various unknown various unknown various unknown various unknown various 18 bush bean 18 bush bean 24 corn 24 corn 90 cabbage 90 cabbage 90 cabbage 90 cabbage 90 cabbage 90 cabbage 90 cabbage 90 cabbage redtop redtop redtop redtop redtop redtop redtop

Phaseolis vulgaris Phaseolis vulgaris Phaseolis vulgaris Ocimum basilicum Ocimum basilicum Lepidium sativum Lepidium sativum Mentha arllensis Mentha arllensis Artemisia dracunculus Artemisia dracunculus

Phaseolus vulgaris Phaseolus vulgaris Zea mays Zea mays Brassica oleracea Brassica oleracea Brassica oleracea Brassica oleracea Brassica oleracea Brassica oleracea Brassica oleracea Brassica oleracea Agrostis stolonifera Agrostis stolonifera Agrostis stolonifera Agrostis stolonifera Agrostis stolonifera Agrostis stolonifera Agrostis stolonifera

leaves,pod leaves,pod leaves,pod edible portion edible portion edible portion edible portion edible portion edible portion edible portion edible portion above-ground? above-ground? above-ground? above-ground? above-ground? above-ground? above-ground? above-ground? above-ground? above-ground? above-ground? above-ground? above-ground? above-ground? above-ground? above-ground? above-ground? above-ground? leaf leaf shoot shoot shoot shoot shoot shoot shoot shoot shoot shoot above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground

0.5 0.68 1.06 0.16 0.6 0.1 0.6 0.11 0.7 0.14 0.05 1.7 1.5 1.3 1.4 1.1 1.7 3.4 1.7 1.4 1.4 1.1 1.3 0.6 0.5 2 2.9 2.6 5 6.7 3.0 1100 604 0.20 0.75 12.60 12.33 0.92 5.42 1.51 4.50 0.03 0.082 0.069 0.31 0.31 0.46 0.33

0.80645 0.15044 0.15916 1.33333 0.68966 0.83333 0.68966 0.91667 0.8046 1.16667 0.05747 1.01796 0.88235 0.67358 0.65728 0.49327 0.76233 1.4346 0.68 0.55336 0.51852 0.39711 0.46931 0.18927 0.14006 0.5305 0.53016 0.45375 0.85763 0.067 0.06 2.75 3.02 0.41667 0.59055 1.23167 0.83142 0.35385 1.09717 0.25336 0.66964 0.0625 0.11233 0.046 0.155 0.14091 0.184 0.11786

Sajwan et al. 1996 model Sajwan et al. 1996 model Sajwan et al. 1996 model Shariatpanahi and Anderson 1986 model Shariatpanahi and Anderson 1986 model Shariatpanahi and Anderson 1986 model Shariatpanahi and Anderson 1986 model Shariatpanahi and Anderson 1986 model Shariatpanahi and Anderson 1986 model Shariatpanahi and Anderson 1986 model Shariatpanahi and Anderson 1986 model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Wallace et al. 1977 model Wallace et al. 1977 model Wallace et al. 1977 model Wallace et al. 1977 model Xian. 1989 model Xian. 1989 model Xian. 1989 model Xian. 1989 model Xian. 1989 model Xian. 1989 model Xian. 1989 model Xian. 1989 model PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 validation validation validation validation validation validation validation

salt salt salt field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field salt salt salt salt field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field

Page 9

final-for-appendix98

Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cd Cu Cu Cu

field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field-dredged material

3.8 3.8 4.5 6.7 6.8 8.2 9.2 10 4.6 0.49 0.64 2 3.6 5.2 5.2 5.4 8.4 9.5 26.6 25.2 33.1 0.77 144 25.2 33.1 144 144 36 69.8 3.45 36 144 36 26.6 69.8 25.2 1.295 3.45 0.77 26.6 69.8 33.1 1.295 3.45 0.77

7 6.7 7.8 6.2 7.2 4.9 6.7 5.4 4.8 5.9 6.5 3.7 6.2 4.4 5.8 4.9 6.5 5.3 7.1 6.6 6 6.8 6.4 6.6 6 6.4 6.4 6 6.1 6.5 6 6.4 6 7.1 6.1 6.6 7 6.5 6.8 7.1 6.1 6 7 6.5 6.8

redtop Agrostis stolonifera above-ground above-ground redtop Agrostis stolonifera redtop Agrostis stolonifera above-ground above-ground redtop Agrostis stolonifera above-ground redtop Agrostis stolonifera redtop Agrostis stolonifera above-ground redtop Agrostis stolonifera above-ground above-ground redtop Agrostis stolonifera redtop/tufted_hairgrass 2 spp. above-ground slender_wheatgrass Agropyron trachycaulum, prob above-ground slender_wheatgrass Agropyron trachycaulum, prob above-ground tufted_hairgrass ira or Deschampsia above-ground A tufted_hairgrass ira or Deschampsia above-ground A tufted_hairgrass ira or Deschampsia above-ground A tufted_hairgrass ira or Deschampsia above-ground A tufted_hairgrass ira or Deschampsia above-ground A tufted_hairgrass ira or Deschampsia above-ground A tufted_hairgrass ira or Deschampsia above-ground A annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf Beggar's ticks Bidens polylepsis stem/leaf Beggar's ticks Bidens polylepsis stem/leaf beggar's ticks Bidens polylepis stem/leaf beggar's ticks Bidens polylepis stem/leaf beggar's ticks Bidens polylepis stem/leaf Bermuda grassCynodon dactylon stem/leaf big bluestem Andropogon gerardi stem/leaf big bluestem Andropogon gerardi stem/leaf giant ragweed Abrosia trifida stem/leaf giant ragweed Ambrosia trifida stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf Angiosperm Genista aetnensis Angiosperm Australagus siculus common reed Phragmites australis shoot leaf/flower leaves

0.53 3.7 0.2 0.37 0.26 1.1 0.46 2.2 0.98 0.18 0.1 1.3 2.4 1.5 3 3.1 0.803 3 11.3 44.9 34.2 0.36 68.8 81.3 18.8 63.5 62.7 37.1 2.3 0.03 0.56 29.6 18.1 0.8 0.63 1.3 0.18 0.7 0.05 1.5 0.9 0.46 0.05 0.27 0.04

0.13947 0.97368 0.04444 0.05522 0.03824 0.13415 0.05 0.22 0.21304 0.36735 0.15625 0.65 0.66667 0.28846 0.57692 0.57407 0.0956 0.31579 0.42481 1.78175 1.03323 0.46753 0.47778 3.22619 0.56798 0.44097 0.43542 1.03056 0.03295 0.0087 0.01556 0.20556 0.50278 0.03008 0.00903 0.05159 0.139 0.2029 0.06494 0.05639 0.01289 0.0139 0.03861 0.07826 0.05195

PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995

validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation model model model

field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field

1283 avg of 0-3 & 15-20 1283 avg of 0-3 & 15-20 15 15.00 sandy loam 5.2

84.3 0.06571 Barghigiani et al. 1988 105 0.08184 Barghigiani et al. 1988 2.8 0.18667 Beyer, et al. 1990.

Page 10

final-for-appendix98

Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu

field-dredged material field-dredged material field-dredged material field-dredged material Cu-salt Cu-salt Cu-salt Cu-salt Cu-salt Cu-salt field-background field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field CuSO4 CuSO4 CuSO4 field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field field field field field field field-background CuSO4

24 71 130 150 4.83 5 5.67 5.75 9.17 16.5 26 41 22 23 29 32 40 16 28 58 120 13 17 37 42 49 51 27 70 26 29 15 30 75 17.7 26 26.7 33.8 39.4 40.7 43.7 9.3 246 2480 9.3 246 2480 68.9 309.6

15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 20.00 10.00 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15

clay loam 6.3 sandy loam 6.3 sandy loam 6.3 sandy clay loam 3.6 peaty gley 3.3 peaty gley 3.3 peaty gley 3.3 peaty gley 3.3 peaty gley 3.3 peaty gley 3.3 silty clay loam 4.1 5.7 5 5.4 4.7 6 5.1 6.1 5.5 5.3 5.5 7.2 6.2 6.2 4.4 4.8 4.4 5 5.1 6.7

100 100 100 100 100 100

sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam collected,15-cm silt loam 7.5 42 collected,15-cm silt loam 6.8 42 collected,15-cm silt loam 5.0 42 collected,15-cm silt loam 6.4 42 collected,15-cm silt loam 6.7 42 collected,15-cm silt loam 6.1 42 collected,15-cm silt loam 5.5 42 unknown 5 unknown grassland 5 unknown grassland unknown unknown 5 unknown grassland 5 unknown grassland unknown 5 unknown grassland unknown 5 unknown grassland unknown muck muck

common reed Phragmites australis common reed Phragmites australis common reed Phragmites australis common reed Phragmites australis sitka-spruce Picea sitchensis sitka-spruce Picea sitchensis sitka-spruce Picea sitchensis sitka-spruce Picea sitchensis sitka-spruce Picea sitchensis sitka-spruce Picea sitchensis red clover Trifolium pratense radish Raphanus sativus cabbage Brassica oleracea cabbage Brassica oleracea cabbage Brassica oleracea cabbage Brassica oleracea cabbage Brassica oleracea carrot Daucus carrota carrot Daucus carrota carrot Daucus carrota carrot Daucus carrota cauliflower Brassica oleracea cauliflower Brassica oleracea corn Zea mays corn Zea mays corn Zea mays corn Zea mays lettuce Latuca sativa lettuce Latuca sativa turnip Brassica rappa turnip Brassica rappa onion Allium cepa onion Allium cepa onion Allium cepa soybean Glycine max soybean Glycine max soybean Glycine max soybean Glycine max soybean Glycine max soybean Glycine max soybean Glycine max fine-leaved grasses fine-leaved grasses fine-leaved grasses ground cover veg ground cover veg ground cover veg carrot Daucus carrota carrot Daucus carrota

leaves leaves leaves leaves shoot shoot shoot shoot shoot shoot leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf,stalk leaf,stalk leaf,stalk leaf,stalk leaf leaf leaf leaf shoot shoot shoot leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground leaf leaf

2.5 6.1 3.9 4.7 11.6 16.4 18.1 51.5 36 30.5 44 5.9 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.4 4.6 5.8 5.6 3.5 2.7 2.6 5.15 4.1 2.75 2.4 6.7 6.9 4.8 5.8 4.2 3.6 7.8 12.2 13.8 19.8 16 14.5 17.3 26.1 6.6 26.3 153 8 49.1 375 5 8.3

0.10417 0.08592 0.03 0.03133 2.40166 3.28 3.19224 8.95652 3.92585 1.84848 1.69231 0.1439 0.06364 0.05652 0.04483 0.0375 0.035 0.2875 0.20714 0.09655 0.02917 0.20769 0.15294 0.13919 0.09762 0.05612 0.04706 0.24815 0.09857 0.18462 0.2 0.28 0.12 0.104 0.68927 0.53077 0.74157 0.47337 0.36802 0.42506 0.59725 0.70968 0.10691 0.06169 0.86022 0.19959 0.15121 0.07257 0.02681

Beyer, et al. 1990. model Beyer, et al. 1990. model Beyer, et al. 1990. model Beyer, et al. 1990. model Burton et al. 1984. model Burton et al. 1984. model Burton et al. 1984. model Burton et al. 1984. model Burton et al. 1984. model Burton et al. 1984. model Carter 1983 model Davies 1992 model de Pieri et al. 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1996 model Gildon and Tinker, 1983.model Gildon and Tinker, 1983.model Gildon and Tinker, 1983.model Heggo, et al. 1990. model Heggo, et al. 1990. model Heggo, et al. 1990. model Heggo, et al. 1990. model Heggo, et al. 1990. model Heggo, et al. 1990. model Heggo, et al. 1990. model Hunter and Johnson 1982 odel m Hunter and Johnson 1982 odel m Hunter and Johnson 1982 odel m Hunter and Johnson 1982 odel m Hunter and Johnson 1982 odel m Hunter and Johnson 1982 odel m Hutchinson, et al. 1974. model Hutchinson, et al. 1974. model

field field field field salt salt salt salt salt salt field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field salt salt salt field field field field field field field field field field field field field field salt

Page 11

final-for-appendix98

Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu

field-background CuSO4 field-background CuSO4 field-background CuSO4 field-background CuSO4 field-background CuSO4 field-background CuSO4 field-background field-background CuSO4 field-background field-background CuSO4 CuSO4 field field field field field field field field field field field-mine-waste field-mine-waste field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field

68.9 309.6 68.9 309.6 68.9 309.6 68.9 309.6 68.9 309.6 68.9 309.6 5.6 16.9 116.9 5.6 16.9 105.6 116.9 37 48 2.5 46.2 2.5 46.2 2.5 46.2 2.5 46.2 532.2 532.2 32 58 60 84 424 488 529 640 32 58 60 84 424 488 529 640 32 58

muck muck muck muck muck muck muck muck muck muck muck muck sand sand sand sand sand sand sand unknown unknown 14.00 14.00 14.00 14.00 14.00 14.00 14.00 14.00

4.80 7.82 7.82 4.80 7.82 4.80 7.82 6.0 3.8 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8

84 84 84 84 84 84 84 . .

sand sand sand sand sand sand sand sand

20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20

7 7.3 7.4 7.6 7.6 7.2 7.6 7.4 7 7.3 7.4 7.6 7.6 7.2 7.6 7.4 7 7.3

unknown unknown 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42

corn Zea mays leaf corn Zea mays leaf lettuce Latuca sativa leaf lettuce Latuca sativa leaf oat Avena sativa leaf oat Avena sativa leaf onion Allium cepa leaf onion Allium cepa leaf parsnip Pastinaca sativa leaf parsnip Pastinaca sativa leaf radish Raphanus sativus leaf radish Raphanus sativus leaf black-eyed Susan Rudbeckia hirta shoot black-eyed Susan Rudbeckia hirta shoot black-eyed Susan Rudbeckia hirta shoot little bluestem Andropogon scoparius shoot little bluestem Andropogon scoparius shoot little bluestem Andropogon scoparius shoot little bluestem Andropogon scoparius shoot spruce Picea abies needles spruce Picea abies needles above ground black oak Quercus velutina above ground black oak Quercus velutina gromwell Lithospermum canescens above ground gromwell Lithospermum canescens above ground quaking aspen Populus tremuloides leaf quaking aspen Populus tremuloides leaf Solomon's sealSmilacina stellata above ground Solomon's sealSmilacina stellata above ground forbes grasses above-ground lettuce Latuca sativa lettuce Latuca sativa above-ground above-ground lettuce Latuca sativa above-ground lettuce Latuca sativa lettuce Latuca sativa above-ground lettuce Latuca sativa above-ground lettuce Latuca sativa above-ground lettuce Latuca sativa above-ground radish Raphanus sativus leaf radish Raphanus sativus leaf radish Raphanus sativus leaf radish Raphanus sativus leaf radish Raphanus sativus leaf radish Raphanus sativus leaf radish Raphanus sativus leaf radish Raphanus sativus leaf ryegrass Lolium perenne cutting ryegrass Lolium perenne cutting

3 2 15 15.3 2.1 3.3 6.3 15 6.3 7.7 4.9 17.8 10.71 6.4 10.2 3.82 6.72 30.66 17.62 2.11 2.64 7.9 5.9 18.5 14.1 7.6 8.5 7.2 9.4 7.2 24.2 8.1 9.2 10.1 10.2 12.6 12.1 10.9 17.9 15.3 18.6 20.5 34.4 40 37.2 32.3 82.6 17 25.7

0.04354 0.00646 0.21771 0.04942 0.03048 0.01066 0.09144 0.04845 0.09144 0.02487 0.07112 0.05749 1.9125 0.3787 0.08725 0.68214 0.39763 0.29034 0.15073 0.05703 0.055 3.16 0.12771 7.4 0.30519 3.04 0.18398 2.88 0.20346 0.01353 0.04547 0.25313 0.15862 0.16833 0.12143 0.02972 0.0248 0.0206 0.02797 0.47813 0.32069 0.34167 0.40952 0.09434 0.07623 0.06106 0.12906 0.53125 0.4431

Hutchinson, et al. 1974. Hutchinson, et al. 1974. Hutchinson, et al. 1974. Hutchinson, et al. 1974. Hutchinson, et al. 1974. Hutchinson, et al. 1974. Hutchinson, et al. 1974. Hutchinson, et al. 1974. Hutchinson, et al. 1974. Hutchinson, et al. 1974. Hutchinson, et al. 1974. Hutchinson, et al. 1974. Miles and Parker, 1979. Miles and Parker, 1979. Miles and Parker, 1979. Miles and Parker, 1979. Miles and Parker, 1979. Miles and Parker, 1979. Miles and Parker, 1979. Nilsson, 1972. Nilsson, 1972. Parker et al. 1978 Parker et al. 1978 Parker et al. 1978 Parker et al. 1978 Parker et al. 1978 Parker et al. 1978 Parker et al. 1978 Parker et al. 1978 Pascoe et al. 1994 Pascoe et al. 1994 Sauve et al. 1996 Sauve et al. 1996 Sauve et al. 1996 Sauve et al. 1996 Sauve et al. 1996 Sauve et al. 1996 Sauve et al. 1996 Sauve et al. 1996 Sauve et al. 1996 Sauve et al. 1996 Sauve et al. 1996 Sauve et al. 1996 Sauve et al. 1996 Sauve et al. 1996 Sauve et al. 1996 Sauve et al. 1996 Sauve et al. 1996 Sauve et al. 1996

model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model

field salt field salt field salt field salt field salt field salt field field salt field field salt salt field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field

Page 12

final-for-appendix98

Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu

field field field field field field field-pot field-pot field-pot field-pot field-pot field-pot field-pot field-pot field-pot field-pot field-pot field-pot field-pot field-pot field-pot field-background field-background field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field-background CuCl2 CuCl2 field-background CuCl2 CuCl2 CuCl2 CuCl2

60 84 424 488 529 640 16 27 587 605 16 27 587 605 16 27 587 605 16 27 605 1.3 2.00 1.3 2.00 26.7 55.2 76.4 79 91.9 94 102 107 109 112 114 150 150 176 200 254 511 2104 67 89 179 260 282 372 628 811

20 20 20 20 20 20 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15

clayey sand clay clayey sand clayey sand clayey sand clay clayey sand clayey sand clayey sand clay clayey sand clayey sand clayey sand clay clayey sand sand sand range range range range range range range range range range range range range range range range range range sandy sandy sandy sandy sandy sandy sandy sandy

7.4 7.6 7.6 7.2 7.6 7.4 4.7 7.2 7.2 7.2 4.7 7.2 7.2 7.2 4.7 7.2 7.2 7.2 4.7 7.2 7.2 5.3 . 5.3 .

42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42

5.3 5.3 5.3 6 6 6 5.3 6

34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34

ryegrass ryegrass ryegrass ryegrass ryegrass ryegrass cress cress cress cress phacelia phacelia phacelia phacelia spinach spinach spinach spinach stinging nettle stinging nettle stinging nettle dune grass willow 33 species 33 species 33 species 33 species 33 species 33 species 33 species 33 species 33 species 33 species 33 species 33 species 33 species 33 species 33 species 33 species 33 species 33 species oat oat oat oat oat oat oat oat

Lolium perenne Lolium perenne Lolium perenne Lolium perenne Lolium perenne Lolium perenne Lepidium sativum Lepidium sativum Lepidium sativum Lepidium sativum Phacelia tanacetifolia Phacelia tanacetifolia Phacelia tanacetifolia Phacelia tanacetifolia Spinacia oleracea Spinacia oleracea Spinacia oleracea Spinacia oleracea Urtica dioica Urtica dioica Urtica dioica Ammophilia arenaria Salix repens

Avena sativa Avena sativa Avena sativa Avena sativa Avena sativa Avena sativa Avena sativa Avena sativa

cutting cutting cutting cutting cutting cutting cutting cutting cutting cutting cutting cutting cutting cutting cutting cutting cutting cutting cutting cutting cutting clipping leaf above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground shoot shoot shoot shoot shoot shoot shoot shoot

24.1 25.8 23 31.1 32.3 59.8 7 6 33 31 10 9 17 18 10 7 17 19 8 6 63 3 5.9 17.5 30.6 41.6 26.8 45.6 69.2 27.3 47.6 47.9 60.3 43.3 74 49.7 45.1 40.2 113.6 379.4 267.4 10.7 11.6 14.1 13.7 14.7 13 18.7 29.9

0.40167 0.30714 0.05425 0.06373 0.06106 0.09344 0.4375 0.22222 0.05622 0.05124 0.625 0.33333 0.02896 0.02975 0.625 0.25926 0.02896 0.0314 0.5 0.22222 0.10413 2.30769 4.53846 0.65543 0.55435 0.5445 0.33924 0.49619 0.73617 0.26765 0.44486 0.43945 0.53839 0.37982 0.49333 0.33133 0.25625 0.201 0.44724 0.74247 0.12709 0.1597 0.13034 0.07877 0.05269 0.05213 0.03495 0.02978 0.03687

Sauve et al. 1996 model Sauve et al. 1996 model Sauve et al. 1996 model Sauve et al. 1996 model Sauve et al. 1996 model Sauve et al. 1996 model Schafer et al. 1998 model Schafer et al. 1998 model Schafer et al. 1998 model Schafer et al. 1998 model Schafer et al. 1998 model Schafer et al. 1998 model Schafer et al. 1998 model Schafer et al. 1998 model Schafer et al. 1998 model Schafer et al. 1998 model Schafer et al. 1998 model Schafer et al. 1998 model Schafer et al. 1998 model Schafer et al. 1998 model Schafer et al. 1998 model Severson, et al. 1992. model Severson, et al. 1992. model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Ylaranta 1996 model Ylaranta 1996 model Ylaranta 1996 model Ylaranta 1996 model Ylaranta 1996 model Ylaranta 1996 model Ylaranta 1996 model Ylaranta 1996 model

field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field salt salt field salt salt salt salt

Page 13

final-for-appendix98

Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu

field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field

24.6 33.7 42.8 216 313 423 1080 1130 1330 1460 2420 2450 2720 2890 2890 4090 4180 1540 50.4 59.3 329 435 1080 1660 2110 3210 3480 47.6 68 77.4 20.75 186 68 77.4 186 186 63.7 180 11 20.05 63.7 186 63.7 47.6 180 68 11 20.05

6.4 6.5 7.8 6.9 7.5 6.8 5.9 6 6.7 7.8 4.9 7 6.2 7.2 5.4 6.7 7 4.8 6.5 5.9 4.9 3.7 4.4 5.3 6.2 6.5 5.8 7.1 6.6 6 6.8 6.4 6.6 6 6.4 6.4 6 6.1 7 6.5 6 6.4 6 7.1 6.1 6.6 7 6.5

above-ground kentucky_bluegrass kentucky_bluegrass above-ground above-ground redtop Agrostis stolonifera above-ground redtop Agrostis stolonifera redtop Agrostis stolonifera above-ground redtop Agrostis stolonifera above-ground above-ground redtop Agrostis stolonifera redtop Agrostis stolonifera above-ground redtop Agrostis stolonifera above-ground redtop Agrostis stolonifera above-ground above-ground redtop Agrostis stolonifera redtop Agrostis stolonifera above-ground redtop Agrostis stolonifera above-ground redtop Agrostis stolonifera above-ground above-ground redtop Agrostis stolonifera redtop Agrostis stolonifera above-ground redtop Agrostis stolonifera above-ground redtop/tufted_hairgrass 2 spp. above-ground slender_wheatgrass Agropyron trachycaulum, prob above-ground slender_wheatgrass Agropyron trachycaulum, prob above-ground tufted_hairgrass ira or Deschampsia above-ground A tufted_hairgrass ira or Deschampsia above-ground A tufted_hairgrass ira or Deschampsia above-ground A tufted_hairgrass ira or Deschampsia above-ground A tufted_hairgrass ira or Deschampsia above-ground A tufted_hairgrass ira or Deschampsia above-ground A tufted_hairgrass ira or Deschampsia above-ground A annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf Beggar's ticks Bidens polylepsis stem/leaf Beggar's ticks Bidens polylepsis stem/leaf beggar's ticks Bidens polylepis stem/leaf beggar's ticks Bidens polylepis stem/leaf beggar's ticks Bidens polylepis stem/leaf Bermuda grassCynodon dactylon stem/leaf big bluestem Andropogon gerardi stem/leaf big bluestem Andropogon gerardi stem/leaf big bluestem Andropogon gerardi stem/leaf giant ragweed Abrosia trifida stem/leaf giant ragweed Ambrosia trifida stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf

4.3 3.7 13.4 5.2 4.65 4.2 9.3 14.9 43.2 5.6 36.1 48.8 21.2 9.5 98.9 9 4.6 15.6 6.1 8.9 325 106 102 101 42.6 30.7 69.2 5.9 10.6 7.7 8.4 6.2 8.1 7 9.1 9.1 6 5.3 2.6 2.5 3.9 13.6 30.7 2 2.4 2.9 2 2.4

0.1748 0.10979 0.31308 0.02407 0.01486 0.00993 0.00861 0.01319 0.03248 0.00384 0.01492 0.01992 0.00779 0.00329 0.03422 0.0022 0.0011 0.01013 0.12103 0.15008 0.98784 0.24368 0.09444 0.06084 0.02019 0.00956 0.01989 0.12395 0.15588 0.09948 0.40482 0.03333 0.11912 0.09044 0.04892 0.04892 0.09419 0.02944 0.23636 0.12469 0.06122 0.07312 0.48195 0.04202 0.01333 0.04265 0.18182 0.1197

PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995

validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation

field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field

Page 14

final-for-appendix98

Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb

field field field field field field field

20.75 47.6 180 77.4 11 20.05 20.75 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 A horizon A horizon A horizon A horizon A horizon 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00

6.8 7.1 6.1 6 7 6.5 6.8 sandy loam 5.2 sandy clay loam 3.6 sandy loam 6.3 peaty gley+sand 3.3 peaty gley+sand 3.3 peaty gley+sand 3.3 peaty gley+sand 3.3 peaty gley+sand 3.3 peaty gley+sand 3.3 peaty gley+sand 3.3 silty clay loam silty clay loam silty clay loam silty clay loam silty clay loam silt loam 5.9 silt loam 5.9 silt loam 5.9 silt loam 5.9 silt loam 5.9 silt loam 5.9 silt loam 5.9 silt loam 5.9 silt loam 5.9 silt loam 5.9 silt loam 5.9 silt loam 5.9 silt loam silt loam clay loam 6.8 clay loam 6.8 clay loam 6.3 clay loam 4.7 clay loam 6.8 clay loam 4.7 clay loam 6.8 clay loam 6.3 clay loam 6.8 clay loam 6.3 clay loam 4.7 clay loam 6.8

Indian grass switchgrass switchgrass switchgrass switchgrass switchgrass switchgrass

Sorghastrum nutans Panicum virgatum Panicum virgatum Panicum virgatum Panicum virgatum Panicum virgatum Panicum virgatum

stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf

1.7 6.5 3.6 3.7 3.3 4.1 1.9 0.06 0.06 0.29 71.7 60.5 19.6 23.0 391.6 27.5 41.0 4 8 6 5 6 30.6667 53 124.667 276.667 623.333 1800 64.6667 96.3333 203.333 863.333 2280 5390 5.1 24.6 26 22 23 31 15.3333 15 9 11 6 8 10.0 19

0.08193 0.13655 0.02 0.0478 0.3 0.20449 0.09157 0.00273 0.00011 0.00315 0.50851 0.32988 0.5731 0.575 0.90023 0.57411 0.5791 0.04 0.008 0.024 0.1 0.012 5.02732 3.29193 1.17499 0.27499 0.12451 0.17989 10.6011 5.98344 1.91643 0.8581 0.45544 0.53867 1.02 3.28 0.2766 0.23404 0.24468 0.32979 0.16312 0.15957 0.09574 0.11702 0.06383 0.08511 0.10638 0.20213

PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995

validation validation validation validation validation validation validation

field field field field field field field field field field salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt field salt salt salt salt salt field salt salt salt salt salt field salt field field field field field field field field field field field field

field-dredged material 22 field-dredged material 530 field-dredged material 92 Pb-salt 141.0 Pb-salt 183.4 Pb-salt 34.2 Pb-salt 40.0 Pb-salt 435.0 Pb-salt 47.9 Pb-salt 70.8 PbCl2 100 PbCl2 1000 PbCl2 250 PbCl2 50 PbCl2 500 field-background 6.1 PbCl2 16.1 PbCl2 106.1 PbCl2 1006.1 PbCl2 5006.1 PbCl2 10,006.10 field-background 6.1 PbCl2 16.1 PbCl2 106.1 PbCl2 1006.1 PbCl2 5006.1 PbCl2 10,006.10 field-background 5 Pb-salt 7.5 field Pb in pot 94 field Pb in pot 94 field Pb in pot 94 field Pb in pot 94 field Pb in pot 94 field Pb in pot 94 field Pb in pot 94 field Pb in pot 94 field Pb in pot 94 field Pb in pot 94 field Pb in pot 94 field Pb in pot 94

10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00

100 100 100 100 100 100 100 90 90 90 90 90 10,20,30 10,20,30 10,20,30 10,20,30 10,20,30 10,20,30 10,20,30 10,20,30 10,20,30 10,20,30 10,20,30 10,20,30 60 60 28,49,70 70 70 70 28,49,70 70 70 70 70 70 70 28,49,70

common reed Phragmites australis leaves common reed Phragmites australis leaves common reed Phragmites australis leaves sitka-spruce Picea sitchensis shoot sitka-spruce Picea sitchensis shoot sitka-spruce Picea sitchensis shoot sitka-spruce Picea sitchensis shoot sitka-spruce Picea sitchensis shoot sitka-spruce Picea sitchensis shoot sitka-spruce Picea sitchensis shoot American sycamore Plantanus occidentalis leaf American sycamore Plantanus occidentalis leaf American sycamore Plantanus occidentalis leaf American sycamore Plantanus occidentalis leaf American sycamore Plantanus occidentalis leaf red fescue Festuca rubra clippings red fescue Festuca rubra clippings red fescue Festuca rubra clippings red fescue Festuca rubra clippings red fescue Festuca rubra clippings red fescue Festuca rubra clippings rye grass Lolium perenne clippings rye grass Lolium perenne clippings rye grass Lolium perenne clippings rye grass Lolium perenne clippings rye grass Lolium perenne clippings rye grass Lolium perenne clippings soybean Glycine max soybean Glycine max clover Trifolium subterraneumtop clover Trifolium subterraneumtop clover Trifolium subterraneumtop clover Trifolium subterraneumtop corn Zea mays top corn Zea mays top corn Zea mays top corn Zea mays top oat Avena sativa top oat Avena sativa top oat Avena sativa top oat Avena sativa top

Beyer, et al. 1990. model Beyer, et al. 1990. model Beyer, et al. 1990. model Burton et al. 1984. model Burton et al. 1984. model Burton et al. 1984. model Burton et al. 1984. model Burton et al. 1984. model Burton et al. 1984. model Burton et al. 1984. model Carlson and Bazzaz, 1977. model Carlson and Bazzaz, 1977. model Carlson and Bazzaz, 1977. model Carlson and Bazzaz, 1977. model Carlson and Bazzaz, 1977. model Carlson and Rolfe, 1979.model Carlson and Rolfe, 1979.model Carlson and Rolfe, 1979.model Carlson and Rolfe, 1979.model Carlson and Rolfe, 1979.model Carlson and Rolfe, 1979.model Carlson and Rolfe, 1979.model Carlson and Rolfe, 1979.model Carlson and Rolfe, 1979.model Carlson and Rolfe, 1979.model Carlson and Rolfe, 1979.model Carlson and Rolfe, 1979.model Cataldo and Wildung 1978 model Cataldo and Wildung 1978 model Cox & Rains. 1972 model Cox & Rains. 1972 model Cox & Rains. 1972 model Cox & Rains. 1972 model Cox & Rains. 1972 model Cox & Rains. 1972 model Cox & Rains. 1972 model Cox & Rains. 1972 model Cox & Rains. 1972 model Cox & Rains. 1972 model Cox & Rains. 1972 model Cox & Rains. 1972 model

Page 15

final-for-appendix98

Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb

field Pb in pot field Pb in pot field Pb in pot field Pb in pot field Pb in pot field Pb in pot field Pb in pot field Pb in pot field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field-background field-flue-dust-added field-flue-dust-added field-flue-dust-added field-flue-dust-added field-background field-flue-dust-added field-flue-dust-added field-flue-dust-added field-flue-dust-added field-background field-flue-dust-added field-flue-dust-added field-flue-dust-added field-flue-dust-added field field field field field field field

94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 5.2 5.6 11.3 15 18.2 5.2 6.1 15.4 18.4 5 6.4 13.4 14.4 16.9 22.3 13.7 21.1 10.9 12.1 6.8 146.3 340 2202.5 5452.5 6.8 146.3 340 2202.5 5452.5 6.8 146.3 340 2202.5 5452.5 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500

10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20

clay loam clay loam clay loam clay loam clay loam clay loam clay loam clay loam

6.8 6.8 6.3 4.7 6.8 6.3 4.7 6.8 5.7 5.4 5 6 4.7 5.1 6.1 5.3 5.5 5.5 7.2 6.2 6.2 4.8 4.4 5 4.4 5.1 6.7 7 7.2 6.9 7.4 7.4 7 7.2 6.9 7.4 7.4 7 7.2 6.9 7.4 7.4 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1

28,49,70 70 70 70 28,49,70 70 70 70

sandy sandy sandy sandy sandy sandy sandy sandy sandy sandy sandy sandy sandy sandy sandy sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam

95 95 95 95 95

28 28 28 28 28 28 28

soybean Glycine max soybean Glycine max soybean Glycine max soybean Glycine max wheat Triticum aestivum wheat Triticum aestivum wheat Triticum aestivum wheat Triticum aestivum cabbage Brassica oleracea cabbage Brassica oleracea cabbage Brassica oleracea cabbage Brassica oleracea cabbage Brassica oleracea carrot Daucus carrota carrot Daucus carrota carrot Daucus carrota carrot Daucus carrota cauliflower Brassica oleracea cauliflower Brassica oleracea corn Zea mays corn Zea mays corn Zea mays corn Zea mays lettuce Latuca sativa lettuce Latuca sativa turnip Brassica rappa turnip Brassica rappa barley Hordeum vulgare barley Hordeum vulgare barley Hordeum vulgare barley Hordeum vulgare barley Hordeum vulgare clover Trifolium pratense clover Trifolium pratense clover Trifolium pratense clover Trifolium pratense clover Trifolium pratense grass Poa pratensis grass Poa pratensis grass Poa pratensis grass Poa pratensis grass Poa pratensis Chinese mustard Brassica juncea Chinese mustard Brassica juncea Chinese mustard Brassica juncea Chinese mustard Brassica juncea corn Zea mays penny-grass Thlaspi rotundifolium penny-grass Thlaspi caerulescens

top top top top top top top top leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf,stalk leaf,stalk leaf,stalk leaf,stalk leaf leaf leaf leaf straw straw straw straw straw cutting cutting cutting cutting cutting cutting cutting cutting cutting cutting shoot shoot shoot shoot shoot shoot shoot

43.6667 43 52 77 19 16 24 9 0.08 0.09 0.12 0.13 0.15 0.17 0.14 0.22 0.21 0.11 0.1 0.05 0.07 0.14 0.165 0.09 0.21 0.2 0.2 7.3 6.8 4.5 7.3 13 1.9 2.9 3 4.8 7.8 1.9 2.2 2.7 6.7 15.2 129 97 45 30 225 79 58

0.46454 0.45745 0.55319 0.81915 0.20213 0.17021 0.25532 0.09574 0.01538 0.01607 0.01062 0.00867 0.00824 0.03269 0.02295 0.01429 0.01141 0.022 0.01563 0.00373 0.00486 0.00828 0.0074 0.00657 0.00995 0.01835 0.01653 1.07353 0.04648 0.01324 0.00331 0.00238 0.27941 0.01982 0.00882 0.00218 0.00143 0.27941 0.01504 0.00794 0.00304 0.00279 0.0516 0.0388 0.018 0.012 0.09 0.0316 0.0232

Cox & Rains. 1972 model Cox & Rains. 1972 model Cox & Rains. 1972 model Cox & Rains. 1972 model Cox & Rains. 1972 model Cox & Rains. 1972 model Cox & Rains. 1972 model Cox & Rains. 1972 model de Pieri et al. 1997, de Pieri 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1997, de Pieri 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1997, de Pieri 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1997, de Pieri 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1997, de Pieri 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1997, de Pieri 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1997, de Pieri 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1997, de Pieri 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1997, de Pieri 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1997, de Pieri 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1997, de Pieri 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1997, de Pieri 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1997, de Pieri 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1997, de Pieri 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1997, de Pieri 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1997, de Pieri 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1997, de Pieri 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1997, de Pieri 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1997, de Pieri 1996 model Dudka et al. 1996 model Dudka et al. 1996 model Dudka et al. 1996 model Dudka et al. 1996 model Dudka et al. 1996 model Dudka et al. 1996 model Dudka et al. 1996 model Dudka et al. 1996 model Dudka et al. 1996 model Dudka et al. 1996 model Dudka et al. 1996 model Dudka et al. 1996 model Dudka et al. 1996 model Dudka et al. 1996 model Dudka et al. 1996 model Huang and Cunningham model 1996 Huang and Cunningham model 1996 Huang and Cunningham model 1996 Huang and Cunningham model 1996 Huang and Cunningham model 1996 Huang and Cunningham model 1996 Huang and Cunningham model 1996

field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field

Page 16

final-for-appendix98

Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb

field field Pb arsenate field-background Pb arsenate field-background Pb arsenate field-background Pb arsenate field-background Pb arsenate field-background Pb arsenate field-background Pb arsenate field-background Pb(NO3)2 PbCl2 PbCO3 Pb(NO3)2 PbCl2 PbCO3 field-background PbCl2+PbO PbCl2+PbO field field field field field field field PbCl2 PbCl2 PbCl2 PbCl2 PbCl2 PbCl2 PbCl2 PbCl2 PbCl2 PbCl2 PbCl2 PbCl2 PbCl2 PbCl2 PbCl2 PbCl2 PbCl2

2500 2500 342.3 60.9 342.3 60.9 342.3 60.9 342.3 60.9 342.3 60.9 342.3 60.9 342.3 60.9 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 37.1 537.1 1037.1 39.8567 39.8567 219.945 219.945 398.567 398.567 200 100 100 100 100 1000 1000 1000 500 500 500 100 100 100 1000 1000 1000 1000

sandy loam 5.1 sandy loam 5.1 muck muck muck muck muck muck muck muck muck muck muck muck muck muck 3.8 Ap horizon silty clay loam Ap horizon silty clay loam 3.8 Ap horizon silty clay loam 3.8 Ap horizon silty clay loam 3.8 3.8 Ap horizon silty clay loam Ap horizon silty clay loam 3.8 5 or 20 loamt sand 4.5 5 or 20 loamy sand 4.5 5 or 20 loamy sand 4.5 7.2 5.9 7.2 5.9 7.2 5.9 humus layer and,loam 2.9 s sandy loam 6.1 sandy loam 7.5 sand 5.7 sand 5.2 sandy loam 5.8 sand 5.0 sandy loam 7.5 sandy loam 7.5 sand 5.0 sandy loam 6.0 sand 5.7 sand 5.3 sandy loam 7.6 sandy loam 5.8 sand 5.2 sandy loam 7.4 sand 4.9

28 ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia shoot 28 wheat Triticum aestivum shoot . carrot Daucus carrota leaf . carrot Daucus carrota leaf . corn Zea mays leaf . corn Zea mays leaf . lettuce Latuca sativa leaf . lettuce Latuca sativa leaf . oat Avena sativa leaf . oat Avena sativa leaf . onion Allium cepa leaf . onion Allium cepa leaf . parsnip Pastinaca sativa leaf . parsnip Pastinaca sativa leaf . radish Raphanus sativus leaf . radish Raphanus sativus leaf 30 lettuce Latuca sativa leaf 30 lettuce Latuca sativa leaf 30 lettuce Latuca sativa leaf 21 oat Avena sativa top 21 oat Avena sativa top 21 oat Avena sativa top ca. 42 radish Raphanus sativus shoot ca. 42 radish Raphanus sativus shoot ca. 42 radish Raphanus sativus shoot 42 radish Raphanus sativus top 42 radish Raphanus sativus top 42 radish Raphanus sativus top 42 radish Raphanus sativus top 42 radish Raphanus sativus top 42 radish Raphanus sativus top lifetime Norway spruce Picea abies needles . alfalfa Medicago sativa top . alfalfa Medicago sativa top . alfalfa Medicago sativa top . alfalfa Medicago sativa top . alfalfa Medicago sativa top . alfalfa Medicago sativa top . alfalfa Medicago sativa top . alfalfa Medicago sativa top . alfalfa Medicago sativa top . alfalfa Medicago sativa top 105 oat Avena sativa straw 105 oat Avena sativa straw 105 oat Avena sativa straw 105 oat Avena sativa straw 105 oat Avena sativa straw 105 oat Avena sativa straw 105 oat Avena sativa straw

75 120 13.5 13.0 14.0 7.6 12.5 10.2 6.5 5.7 7.5 37.9 12.4 10.0 24.1 17.3 140.6 138.9 126.0 35.7 37.1 28.6 3.7 42 68 12.5 13.3 16.8 18.8 23.2 25.1 3 1.1 2.5 45.0 6.0 18.3 357.8 54.8 27.6 45.2 6.8 4.9 5.9 6.2 15.1 202.1 49.6 86.5

0.03 0.048 0.03944 0.21346 0.0409 0.12479 0.03652 0.16749 0.01899 0.0936 0.02191 0.62233 0.03623 0.1642 0.07041 0.28407 0.1406 0.1389 0.126 0.0357 0.0371 0.0286 0.09973 0.0782 0.06557 0.31362 0.3337 0.07638 0.08548 0.05821 0.06298 0.015 0.011 0.025 0.45 0.06 0.0183 0.3578 0.0548 0.0552 0.0904 0.0136 0.049 0.059 0.062 0.0151 0.2021 0.0496 0.0865

Huang and Cunningham model 1996 Huang and Cunningham model 1996 Hutchinson, et al. 1974. model Hutchinson, et al. 1974. model Hutchinson, et al. 1974. model Hutchinson, et al. 1974. model Hutchinson, et al. 1974. model Hutchinson, et al. 1974. model Hutchinson, et al. 1974. model Hutchinson, et al. 1974. model Hutchinson, et al. 1974. model Hutchinson, et al. 1974. model Hutchinson, et al. 1974. model Hutchinson, et al. 1974. model Hutchinson, et al. 1974. model Hutchinson, et al. 1974. model John & VanLaerhoven. 1972 model John & VanLaerhoven. 1972 model John & VanLaerhoven. 1972 model John & VanLaerhoven. 1972 model John & VanLaerhoven. 1972 model John & VanLaerhoven. 1972 model Khan and Frankland, 1983. model Khan and Frankland, 1983. model Khan and Frankland, 1983. model Lagerwerff, 1971. model Lagerwerff, 1971. model Lagerwerff, 1971. model Lagerwerff, 1971. model Lagerwerff, 1971. model Lagerwerff, 1971. model Lamersdorf, et al. 1991. model MacLean, et al. 1969. model MacLean, et al. 1969. model MacLean, et al. 1969. model MacLean, et al. 1969. model MacLean, et al. 1969. model MacLean, et al. 1969. model MacLean, et al. 1969. model MacLean, et al. 1969. model MacLean, et al. 1969. model MacLean, et al. 1969. model MacLean, et al. 1969. model MacLean, et al. 1969. model MacLean, et al. 1969. model MacLean, et al. 1969. model MacLean, et al. 1969. model MacLean, et al. 1969. model MacLean, et al. 1969. model

field field salt field salt field salt field salt field salt field salt field salt field salt salt salt salt salt salt field salt salt field field field field field field field salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt

Page 17

final-for-appendix98

Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb

PbCl2 PbCl2 PbCl2 PbCl2 field field field field field-background field-background PbCl2 field-background field-background PbCl2 PbCl2 field field field field field field PbCl2 PbCl2 PbCl2 PbCl2 PbCl2 PbCl2 PbCl2 PbCl2 PbCl2 PbCl2 PbCl2 PbCl2 PbCl2 PbCl2 PbCl2 PbCl2 PbCl2 PbCl2 Pb added to pot Pb added to pot Pb added to pot Pb added to pot PbCl2 PbCl2 PbCl2 PbCl2 PbCl2 PbCl2

500 500 500 500 12 59 680 95 8.50 198.00 648.00 8.50 198.00 458.50 648.00 16 18 198 198 198 198 160 20 320 40 80 160 20 320 40 80 79.6 79.6 154.6 154.6 304.6 304.6 604.6 604.6 10.08 20.08 40.08 80.08 333.0 333.0 345.0 381.0 417.0 440.0

NA 2.50 2.50 2.50 14.00 14.00 14.00 14.00 14.00 14.00 14.00 unknown unknown 14.00 14.00 14.00 14.00

15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00

7.5 105 5.1 105 6.0 105 5.5 105 999 69,142 999 69,142 999 69,142 999 69,142 7.82 84 7.82 84 7.82 84 7.82 84 7.82 84 7.82 84 7.82 84 6.0 . 3.8 . sand 6.8 sand 6.8 sand 6.8 sand 6.8 sand,peat,soil 28 sand,peat,soil 28 sand,peat,soil 28 sand,peat,soil 28 sand,peat,soil 28 sand,peat,soil 28 sand,peat,soil 28 sand,peat,soil 28 sand,peat,soil 28 sand,peat,soil 28 silt loam and 6.1 90 sand silt loam and 6.5 90 sand silt loam and 6.1 90 sand silt loam and 6.5 90 sand silt loam and 5.7 90 sand silt loam and 6.5 90 sand silt loam and 5.7 90 sand silt loam and 6.1 90 sand loamy sand 8.4 . loamy sand 8.4 . loamy sand 8.4 . loamy sand 8.4 . sandy loam 7.6 30 sandy clay 7.6 30 clay loam 7.8 30 loamy sand 7.4 30 loamy sand 7.8 30 sandy loam 7.8 30

sandy loam sand sandy loam sand sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sand sand sand sand sand sand sand

oat Avena sativa straw oat Avena sativa straw oat Avena sativa straw oat Avena sativa straw bromegrass Bromus enermis bromegrass Bromus enermis bromegrass Bromus enermis bromegrass Bromus enermis black-eyed Susan Rudbeckia hirta shoot black-eyed Susan Rudbeckia hirta shoot black-eyed Susan Rudbeckia hirta shoot little bluestem Andropogon scoparius shoot little bluestem Andropogon scoparius shoot little bluestem Andropogon scoparius shoot little bluestem Andropogon scoparius shoot spruce Picea abies needles spruce Picea abies needles above ground black oak Quercus velutina gromwell Lithospermum canescens above ground quaking aspen Populus tremuloides leaf Solomon's sealSmilacina stellata above ground autumn olive Elaecagnus umbellata leaf autumn olive Elaecagnus umbellata leaf autumn olive Elaecagnus umbellata leaf autumn olive Elaecagnus umbellata leaf autumn olive Elaecagnus umbellata leaf loblolly pine Pinus taeda leaf loblolly pine Pinus taeda leaf loblolly pine Pinus taeda leaf loblolly pine Pinus taeda leaf loblolly pine Pinus taeda leaf 4 tree species leaf 4 tree species leaf 4 tree species leaf 4 tree species leaf 4 tree species leaf 4 tree species leaf 4 tree species leaf 4 tree species leaf wheat Triticum aestivum straw wheat Triticum aestivum straw wheat Triticum aestivum straw wheat Triticum aestivum straw corn Zea mays whole plant corn Zea mays whole plant corn Zea mays whole plant corn Zea mays whole plant corn Zea mays whole plant corn Zea mays whole plant

23.6 31.4 4.5 51.8 3.25 2.85 8.7 3.45 37.15 10.76 51.14 10.06 9.48 259.6 86.58 4.82 3.02 12.8 20.2 30.6 20.2 62.3 17.3 71.9 36.7 49.2 50.6 14.2 59.8 30.1 43.6 21 13 35 22 58 31 93 40 1.38 2.06 3.18 2.97 17.1 20.2 20.9 20.3 16.8 19.2

0.0472 0.0628 0.009 0.1036 0.27083 0.04831 0.01279 0.03632 4.37059 0.05434 0.07892 1.18353 0.04788 0.56619 0.13361 0.30125 0.16778 0.06465 0.10202 0.15455 0.10202 0.38938 0.865 0.22469 0.9175 0.615 0.31625 0.71 0.18688 0.7525 0.545 0.26382 0.16332 0.22639 0.1423 0.19041 0.10177 0.15382 0.06616 0.1369 0.10259 0.07934 0.03709 0.05135 0.06066 0.06058 0.05328 0.04029 0.04364

MacLean, et al. 1969. model MacLean, et al. 1969. model MacLean, et al. 1969. model MacLean, et al. 1969. model Marten and Hammond, 1966. model Marten and Hammond, 1966. model Marten and Hammond, 1966. model Marten and Hammond, 1966. model Miles and Parker, 1979. model Miles and Parker, 1979. model Miles and Parker, 1979. model Miles and Parker, 1979. model Miles and Parker, 1979. model Miles and Parker, 1979. model Miles and Parker, 1979. model Nilsson, 1972. model Nilsson, 1972. model Parker et al. 1978 model Parker et al. 1978 model Parker et al. 1978 model Parker et al. 1978 model Rolfe and Bazzaz, 1975. model Rolfe and Bazzaz, 1975. model Rolfe and Bazzaz, 1975. model Rolfe and Bazzaz, 1975. model Rolfe and Bazzaz, 1975. model Rolfe and Bazzaz, 1975. model Rolfe and Bazzaz, 1975. model Rolfe and Bazzaz, 1975. model Rolfe and Bazzaz, 1975. model Rolfe and Bazzaz, 1975. model Rolfe, 1973. model Rolfe, 1973. model Rolfe, 1973. model Rolfe, 1973. model Rolfe, 1973. model Rolfe, 1973. model Rolfe, 1973. model Rolfe, 1973. model Sadana and Singh, 1987. odel m Sadana and Singh, 1987. odel m Sadana and Singh, 1987. odel m Sadana and Singh, 1987. odel m Sadiq, 1985. model Sadiq, 1985. model Sadiq, 1985. model Sadiq, 1985. model Sadiq, 1985. model Sadiq, 1985. model

salt salt salt salt field field field field field field salt field field salt salt field field field field field field salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt

Page 18

final-for-appendix98

Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb

PbCl2 PbCl2 PbCl2 PbCl2 PbCl2 PbCl2 PbCl2 PbCl2 PbCl2 PbCl2 field-background field-background field-background field-wastewater field-background field-wastewater field-background field-wastewater field-background field-wastewater field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field field

440.0 476.0 512.0 583.0 619.0 643.0 667.0 714.0 786.0 924.0 7.9 7.9 0.32 2.04 0.32 2.04 0.32 2.04 0.32 2.04 16.1 25.4 34.7 61.6 78.4 82 90 100.2 109.4 112.4 117.5 138.8 142.8 164 175.5 199.9 689.7 768.2 216.5 238.7 27.2 46.6 52.3 61.6 78.1 91.1 7.4 8.97

2.00 2.00 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 cm 15 cm 15 cm 15 cm 15 cm 15 cm 15 cm 15 cm 15 cm 15 cm 15 cm 15 cm 15 cm 15 cm 15 cm 15 cm 15 cm 15 cm 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00

sandy loam sandy loam loamy sand clay loam clay sand sandy loam sandy loam sandy clay loamy sand clay loam sand sand

7.3 7.4 7.9 8.1 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.6 7.7 7.8 5.3 5.3 8.5 8.3 8.5 8.3 8.5 8.3 8.5 8.3

? (semi-arid) ? (semi-arid) ? (semi-arid) ? (semi-arid) ? (semi-arid) ? (semi-arid) ? (semi-arid) ? (semi-arid) ? (semi-arid) ? (semi-arid) ? (semi-arid) ? (semi-arid) ? (semi-arid) ? (semi-arid) ? (semi-arid) ? (semi-arid) ? (semi-arid) ? (semi-arid) loam 5.5 loam 4.3 sandy loam 6.4 sandy loam 6.6 loam 5.7 sandy loam 5.7 loam 5.2 loam 7.0 6.4 6.5

30 corn 30 corn 30 corn 30 corn 30 corn 30 corn 30 corn 30 corn 30 corn 30 corn . dune grass . willow many years? basil many years? basil many years? garden cress many years? garden cress many years? mint many years? mint many years? tarragon many years? tarragon various various various various various various various various various various various various various various various various various various 90 cabbage 90 cabbage 90 cabbage 90 cabbage 90 cabbage 90 cabbage 90 cabbage 90 cabbage

Zea mays Zea mays Zea mays Zea mays Zea mays Zea mays Zea mays Zea mays Zea mays Zea mays Ammophilia arenaria Salix repens Ocimum basilicum Ocimum basilicum Lepidium sativum Lepidium sativum Mentha arllensis Mentha arllensis Artemisia dracunculus Artemisia dracunculus

whole plant whole plant whole plant whole plant whole plant whole plant whole plant whole plant whole plant whole plant clipping leaf edible portion edible portion edible portion edible portion edible portion edible portion edible portion edible portion

Brassica oleracea Brassica oleracea Brassica oleracea Brassica oleracea Brassica oleracea Brassica oleracea Brassica oleracea Brassica oleracea

shoot shoot shoot shoot shoot shoot shoot shoot above-ground above-ground

22.9 36.5 20.6 22.4 12.6 28.0 17.3 18.3 17.1 29.9 2.1 2.4 0.18 0.84 0.16 0.8 0.29 0.78 0.15 0.68 4.8 3.8 20.4 28.8 18.2 42.4 19.7 32.2 22.5 25.2 38.4 46.1 20.2 104.9 23.9 153.6 116.5 282.6 17.0 28.7 3.0 3.3 3.5 8.5 9.6 6.1

0.05205 0.07668 0.04023 0.03842 0.02036 0.04355 0.02594 0.02563 0.02176 0.03236 0.26582 0.3038 0.5625 0.41176 0.5 0.39216 0.90625 0.38235 0.46875 0.33333 0.29814 0.14961 0.5879 0.46753 0.23214 0.51707 0.21889 0.32136 0.20567 0.2242 0.32681 0.33213 0.14146 0.63963 0.13618 0.76838 0.16891 0.36787 0.07852 0.12023 0.11029 0.07082 0.06692 0.13799 0.12292 0.06696

Sadiq, 1985. model Sadiq, 1985. model Sadiq, 1985. model Sadiq, 1985. model Sadiq, 1985. model Sadiq, 1985. model Sadiq, 1985. model Sadiq, 1985. model Sadiq, 1985. model Sadiq, 1985. model Severson, et al. 1992. model Severson, et al. 1992. model Shariatpanahi and Anderson 1986 model Shariatpanahi and Anderson 1986 model Shariatpanahi and Anderson 1986 model Shariatpanahi and Anderson 1986 model Shariatpanahi and Anderson 1986 model Shariatpanahi and Anderson 1986 model Shariatpanahi and Anderson 1986 model Shariatpanahi and Anderson 1986 model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Xian. 1989 model Xian. 1989 model Xian. 1989 model Xian. 1989 model Xian. 1989 model Xian. 1989 model Xian. 1989 model Xian. 1989 model validation validation

salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field

kentucky_bluegrass kentucky_bluegrass

0.18 0.02432 PTI 1994 0.16 0.01784 PTI 1994

Page 19

final-for-appendix98

Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb

field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field

13 41.4 45.2 53.6 92.4 129 176 177 256 262 267 310 379 379 433 438 609 26.6 35 246 455 543 560 910 1110 1830 83.9 261 281.5 33.8 485 261 281.5 485 485 179 435 32.05 63.9 179 485 179 83.9 435 261 32.05 63.9 33.8 83.9

8.3 7.5 7.8 6.9 6.8 7 7.8 7 4.9 6.7 6 5.4 5.9 6.2 6.7 7.2 4.8 6.5 5.9 3.7 6.2 5.8 4.9 5.3 4.4 6.5 7.1 6.6 6 6.8 6.4 6.6 6 6.4 6.4 6 6.1 7 6.5 6 6.4 6 7.1 6.1 6.6 7 6.5 6.8 7.1

redtop Agrostis stolonifera above-ground above-ground redtop Agrostis stolonifera redtop Agrostis stolonifera above-ground above-ground redtop Agrostis stolonifera above-ground redtop Agrostis stolonifera redtop Agrostis stolonifera above-ground redtop Agrostis stolonifera above-ground above-ground redtop Agrostis stolonifera redtop Agrostis stolonifera above-ground redtop Agrostis stolonifera above-ground redtop Agrostis stolonifera above-ground above-ground redtop Agrostis stolonifera redtop Agrostis stolonifera above-ground redtop Agrostis stolonifera above-ground redtop Agrostis stolonifera above-ground above-ground redtop Agrostis stolonifera redtop/tufted_hairgrass 2 spp. above-ground slender_wheatgrass Agropyron trachycaulum, prob above-ground slender_wheatgrass Agropyron trachycaulum, prob above-ground tufted_hairgrass ira or Deschampsia above-ground A tufted_hairgrass ira or Deschampsia above-ground A tufted_hairgrass ira or Deschampsia above-ground A tufted_hairgrass ira or Deschampsia above-ground A tufted_hairgrass ira or Deschampsia above-ground A tufted_hairgrass ira or Deschampsia above-ground A tufted_hairgrass ira or Deschampsia above-ground A annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf Beggar's ticks Bidens polylepsis stem/leaf Beggar's ticks Bidens polylepsis stem/leaf beggar's ticks Bidens polylepis stem/leaf beggar's ticks Bidens polylepis stem/leaf beggar's ticks Bidens polylepis stem/leaf Bermuda grassCynodon dactylon stem/leaf big bluestem Andropogon gerardi stem/leaf big bluestem Andropogon gerardi stem/leaf big bluestem Andropogon gerardi stem/leaf giant ragweed Abrosia trifida stem/leaf giant ragweed Ambrosia trifida stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf

0.16 0.235 0.57 0.54 0.2 0.22 0.21 3.6 4.1 4.2 1.8 10.8 0.52 2.1 0.28 0.59 2.45 0.54 0.47 4.2 4 1.9 38.2 18.4 12.1 3.23 9.6 4.1 1.4 0.11 5.3 0.8 0.37 1.1 1 0.34 0.86 0.14 0.13 0.49 0.91 0.55 2.3 0.46 0.83 0.1 0.18 0.07 9.4

0.01231 0.00568 0.01261 0.01007 0.00216 0.00171 0.00119 0.02034 0.01602 0.01603 0.00674 0.03484 0.00137 0.00554 0.00065 0.00135 0.00402 0.0203 0.01343 0.01707 0.00879 0.0035 0.06821 0.02022 0.0109 0.00177 0.11442 0.01571 0.00497 0.00325 0.01093 0.00307 0.00131 0.00227 0.00206 0.0019 0.00198 0.00437 0.00203 0.00274 0.00188 0.00307 0.02741 0.00106 0.00318 0.00312 0.00282 0.00207 0.11204

PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995

validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation

field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field

Page 20

final-for-appendix98

Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg

field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field-compost field-compost field-compost field-compost field-background Hg-salt field field field field field field field field field field field field

435 281.5 32.05 63.9 33.8 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.6 0.6 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2.5 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.6 0.6 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.4 2.5 0.415 0.415 0.415 0.429 0.429 0.429 0.429 0.017 2.517 0.016 0.023 0.024 0.024 0.027 0.028 0.035 0.037 0.041 0.016 0.023 0.024

6.1 6 7 6.5 6.8

switchgrass switchgrass switchgrass switchgrass switchgrass

Panicum virgatum Panicum virgatum Panicum virgatum Panicum virgatum Panicum virgatum

stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf

1.8 0.72 0.29 0.41 0.2 0.2 3.2 1.1 1 3.3 6.2 5.3 1 2.6 1.9 3.6 2.6 2 1.8 1.2 4.1 9.7 4.4 8 1.3 2.1 2.1 0.46 0.41 0.15 0.1393 0.0744 0.0735 0.0644 0.2 0.1 0.12 0.015 0.021 0.032 0.027 0.028 0.035 0.025 0.057 0.036 0.017 0.018

0.00414 0.00256 0.00905 0.00642 0.00592 0.66667 8 1.83333 1.66667 5.5 5.63636 4.41667 0.76923 1.85714 0.76 12 6.5 5 3 2 6.83333 8.81818 3.66667 6.66667 1 1.5 0.84 1.10843 0.98795 0.36145 0.32471 0.17343 0.17133 0.15012 11.7647 0.03973 7.5 0.65217 0.875 1.33333 1 1 1 0.67568 1.39024 2.25 0.73913 0.75

PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995

validation validation validation validation validation

field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field salt field field field field field field field field field field field field

elephant grass Pennisetum purpureum above-ground Ghana elephant grass Pennisetum purpureum above-ground Ghana Ghana elephant grass Pennisetum purpureum above-ground Ghana elephant grass Pennisetum purpureum above-ground Ghana elephant grass Pennisetum purpureum above-ground elephant grass Pennisetum purpureum above-ground Ghana Ghana elephant grass Pennisetum purpureum above-ground Ghana elephant grass Pennisetum purpureum above-ground Ghana elephant grass Pennisetum purpureum above-ground elephant grass Pennisetum purpureum above-ground Ghana Ghana water fern Ceraptopteris cornuta above-ground Ghana water fern Ceraptopteris cornuta above-ground Ghana water fern Ceraptopteris cornuta above-ground Ghana water fern Ceraptopteris cornuta above-ground Ghana water fern Ceraptopteris cornuta above-ground Ghana water fern Ceraptopteris cornuta above-ground Ghana water fern Ceraptopteris cornuta above-ground Ghana water fern Ceraptopteris cornuta above-ground Ghana water fern Ceraptopteris cornuta above-ground Ghana water fern Ceraptopteris cornuta above-ground Ghana water fern Ceraptopteris cornuta above-ground Ghana water fern Ceraptopteris cornuta above-ground avg of 0-3 & 15-20 Angiosperm Genista aetnensis shoot avg of 0-3 & 15-20 Angiosperm Australagus siculus leaf/flower avg of 0-3 & 15-20 undefined pine Pinus needle 20 clay loam 6.50 lettuce Latuca_sativa head 20 clay loam 6.50 lettuce Latuca_sativa leaf 20 clay loam 6.50 spinach Spinacia_oleracea 20 clay loam 6.50 Swiss chard Beta_vulgaris_Cicla silt loam 60 soybean Glycine max silt loam 60 soybean Glycine max Ap Brown solonetsic, tilled 6.4 barley Hordeum vulgare straw Ap Orthic humic gleysol 6.5 barley Hordeum vulgare straw Ap Orthic brown chernozem 7.2 barley Hordeum vulgare straw Ap Orthic gray luvisol 6.5 barley Hordeum vulgare straw Orthic black chernozem 6.4 barley Hordeum vulgare straw Ap Ap Black solonetsic, tilled 5.7 barley Hordeum vulgare straw Orthic humic gleysol 6.9 barley Hordeum vulgare straw Ap Ap humic eluviated gleysol 7.4 barley Hordeum vulgare straw Ap Gray solonetsic, tilled 6.2 barley Hordeum vulgare straw Ap Brown solonetsic, tilled 6.4 wheat Triticum aestivum straw Ap Orthic humic gleysol 6.5 wheat Triticum aestivum straw Ap Orthic brown chernozem 7.2 wheat Triticum aestivum straw

Amonoo-Neizer et al. 1995 model Amonoo-Neizer et al. 1995 model Amonoo-Neizer et al. 1995 model Amonoo-Neizer et al. 1995 model Amonoo-Neizer et al. 1995 model Amonoo-Neizer et al. 1995 model Amonoo-Neizer et al. 1995 model Amonoo-Neizer et al. 1995 model Amonoo-Neizer et al. 1995 model Amonoo-Neizer et al. 1995 model Amonoo-Neizer et al. 1995 model Amonoo-Neizer et al. 1995 model Amonoo-Neizer et al. 1995 model Amonoo-Neizer et al. 1995 model Amonoo-Neizer et al. 1995 model Amonoo-Neizer et al. 1995 model Amonoo-Neizer et al. 1995 model Amonoo-Neizer et al. 1995 model Amonoo-Neizer et al. 1995 model Amonoo-Neizer et al. 1995 model Amonoo-Neizer et al. 1995 model Amonoo-Neizer et al. 1995 model Barghigiani et al. 1988 model Barghigiani et al. 1988 model Barghigiani et al. 1988 model Cappon 1987 model Cappon 1987 model Cappon 1987 model Cappon 1987 model Cataldo and Wildung 1978 model Cataldo and Wildung 1978 model Dudas and Pawluk 1977model Dudas and Pawluk 1977model Dudas and Pawluk 1977model Dudas and Pawluk 1977model Dudas and Pawluk 1977model Dudas and Pawluk 1977model Dudas and Pawluk 1977model Dudas and Pawluk 1977model Dudas and Pawluk 1977model Dudas and Pawluk 1977model Dudas and Pawluk 1977model Dudas and Pawluk 1977model

Page 21

final-for-appendix98

Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg

field 0.024 field 0.027 field 0.028 field 0.035 field 0.037 field 0.041 methyl mercuric chloride 5.735 methyl mercuric chloride 5.901 HgCl2 6.081 HgCl2 6.1 phenyl mercuric acetate 6.122 phenyl mercuric acetate 6.375 methyl mercuric chloride 6.645 methyl mercuric chloride 7.014 HgCl2 7.914 phenyl mercuric acetate 7.932 phenyl mercuric acetate 8.152 HgCl2 8.235 field 4 field 20 field 4 field 20 field 4 field 20 field 4 field 20 field 4 field 20 field 4 field 20 field 4 field 20 field 4 field 20 field 22.04 field 108.5 field 327.53 field 557.33 field 6.55 field 108.5 field 327.53 field 523.6 field 7.75 field 10.27 field 18.24 field 59.16 field 557.33 field 18.24 field 22.04

Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

Orthic gray luvisol 6.5 Orthic black chernozem 6.4 Black solonetsic, tilled 5.7 Orthic humic gleysol 6.9 humic eluviated gleysol 7.4 Gray solonetsic, tilled 6.2 loamy sand refc 49 loamy sand refc 49 loamy sand refc 49 loamy sand refc 49 loamy sand refc 49 loamy sand refc 49 loam refc 49 loam refc 49 loam refc 49 loam refc 49 loam refc 49 loam refc 49 silt loam 5.1 60 silt loam 5.1 60 silt loam 5.1 130 silt loam 5.1 130 silt loam 5.1 70 silt loam 5.1 70 silt loam 5.1 35 silt loam 5.1 35 silt loam 5.1 100 silt loam 5.1 100 silt loam 5.1 95 silt loam 5.1 95 silt loam 5.1 45 silt loam 5.1 45 silt loam 5.1 55 silt loam 5.1 55 Ganjam, India 5.2 Ganjam, India 5.2 Ganjam, India 5.2 Ganjam, India 5.2 Ganjam, India 5.2 Ganjam, India 5.2 Ganjam, India 5.2 Ganjam, India 5.2 Ganjam, India 5.2 Ganjam, India 5.2 Ganjam, India 5.2 Ganjam, India 5.2 Ganjam, India 5.2 Ganjam, India 5.2 Ganjam, India 5.2

wheat Triticum aestivum straw wheat Triticum aestivum straw wheat Triticum aestivum straw wheat Triticum aestivum straw wheat Triticum aestivum straw wheat Triticum aestivum straw bromegrass Bromus inermis above-ground bromegrass Bromus inermis above-ground bromegrass Bromus inermis above-ground bromegrass Bromus inermis above-ground bromegrass Bromus inermis above-ground bromegrass Bromus inermis above-ground bromegrass Bromus inermis above-ground bromegrass Bromus inermis above-ground bromegrass Bromus inermis above-ground bromegrass Bromus inermis above-ground bromegrass Bromus inermis above-ground bromegrass Bromus inermis above-ground broccoli Brassica oleracea leaf broccoli Brassica oleracea leaf carrot Daucus carota top carrot Daucus carota top cauliflower Brassica oleracea leaf cauliflower Brassica oleracea leaf lettuce Latuca sativa leaf lettuce Latuca sativa leaf oat Avena sativa leaf oat Avena sativa leaf pea Pisum sativum vine pea Pisum sativum vine radish Raphanus sativus top radish Raphanus sativus top spinach Spinacia oleracea leaf spinach Spinacia oleracea leaf bermuda grassCynodon dactylon shoot bermuda grassCynodon dactylon shoot bermuda grassCynodon dactylon shoot bermuda grassCynodon dactylon shoot finger grass Chloris barbata shoot finger grass Chloris barbata shoot finger grass Chloris barbata shoot finger grass Chloris barbata shoot herb Croton bonplandianumshoot herb Croton bonplandianumshoot herb Croton bonplandianumshoot herb Croton bonplandianumshoot herb Croton bonplandianumshoot perennial herb Justicia simplex shoot perennial herb Justicia simplex shoot

0.023 0.027 0.028 0.03 0.023 0.027 1.789 2.01 0.635 0.559 0.95 0.821 1.228 1.369 0.589 0.643 0.853 0.478 0.078 0.029 0.061 0.072 0.068 0.061 0.017 0.045 0.193 0.199 0.187 0.085 0.218 0.585 0.339 0.695 4.83 10.35 29.93 37.33 0.67 5.68 9 11.33 0.38 2.1 1.3 2.5 2.8 3.67 5.4

0.95833 1 1 0.85714 0.62162 0.65854 0.31194 0.34062 0.10442 0.09164 0.15518 0.12878 0.1848 0.19518 0.07443 0.08106 0.10464 0.05804 0.0195 0.00145 0.01525 0.0036 0.017 0.00305 0.00425 0.00225 0.04825 0.00995 0.04675 0.00425 0.0545 0.02925 0.08475 0.03475 0.21915 0.09539 0.09138 0.06698 0.10229 0.05235 0.02748 0.02164 0.04903 0.20448 0.07127 0.04226 0.00502 0.20121 0.24501

Dudas and Pawluk Dudas and Pawluk Dudas and Pawluk Dudas and Pawluk Dudas and Pawluk Dudas and Pawluk Hogg et al. 1978 Hogg et al. 1978 Hogg et al. 1978 Hogg et al. 1978 Hogg et al. 1978 Hogg et al. 1978 Hogg et al. 1978 Hogg et al. 1978 Hogg et al. 1978 Hogg et al. 1978 Hogg et al. 1978 Hogg et al. 1978 John 1972 John 1972 John 1972 John 1972 John 1972 John 1972 John 1972 John 1972 John 1972 John 1972 John 1972 John 1972 John 1972 John 1972 John 1972 John 1972 Lenka et al. 1992 Lenka et al. 1992 Lenka et al. 1992 Lenka et al. 1992 Lenka et al. 1992 Lenka et al. 1992 Lenka et al. 1992 Lenka et al. 1992 Lenka et al. 1992 Lenka et al. 1992 Lenka et al. 1992 Lenka et al. 1992 Lenka et al. 1992 Lenka et al. 1992 Lenka et al. 1992

1977model 1977model 1977model 1977model 1977model 1977model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model

field field field field field field salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field

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final-for-appendix98

Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg

field field field field field field field field-background phenyl mercuric acetate field-background phenyl mercuric acetate phenyl mercuric acetate field-background phenyl mercuric acetate field, fungicide field, fungicide field, fungicide field-background phenyl mercuric acetate field-background phenyl mercuric acetate field-background phenyl mercuric acetate field-background phenyl mercuric acetate field-background phenyl mercuric acetate field-background phenyl mercuric acetate field-background field-background field-background field-wastewater field-background field-wastewater field-background field-wastewater field-background field-wastewater field field field field field field field field field field

59.9 5 Ganjam, India 5.2 22.04 5 Ganjam, India 5.2 10.27 5 Ganjam, India 5.2 59.16 5 Ganjam, India 5.2 557.33 5 Ganjam, India 5.2 18.24 5 Ganjam, India 5.2 22.04 5 Ganjam, India 5.2 0.08 15 loam 7.1 5.08 15 loam 7.1 0.08 15 loam 7.1 5.08 15 loam 7.1 5.08 15 loam 7.1 0.08 15 loam 7.1 5.08 15 loam 7.1 1.640 22.5 loam . 27.543 22.5 clay loam . 7.130 22.5 sand . 0.08 15 loam 7.1 5.08 15 loam 7.1 0.08 15 loam 7.1 5.08 15 loam 7.1 0.08 15 loam 7.1 5.08 15 loam 7.1 0.08 15 loam 7.1 5.08 15 loam 7.1 0.08 15 loam 7.1 5.08 15 loam 7.1 0.08 15 loam 7.1 5.08 15 loam 7.1 0.068 1-2 cm sand 5.3 0.068 1-2 cm sand 5.3 0.06 15 unknown 8.5 0.16 15 unknown 8.3 0.06 15 unknown 8.5 0.16 15 unknown 8.3 0.06 15 unknown 8.5 0.16 15 unknown 8.3 0.06 15 unknown 8.5 0.16 15 unknown 8.3 2.13 Ganjam, India 610 Ganjam, India 613.33 Ganjam, India 660 Ganjam, India 576.67 Ganjam, India 202 Ganjam, India 212.28 Ganjam, India 288.67 Ganjam, India 3.87 Ganjam, India 4.6 Ganjam, India

prickly poppy Argemone mexicana shoot 1.47 0.02454 puncture-weed Tribulus terrestris shoot 8 0.36298 sedge Cyperus rotundus shoot 3.43 0.33398 sedge Cyperus rotundus shoot 6.36 0.10751 sedge Cyperus rotundus shoot 35.49 0.06368 unknown Evolvulus alsinoides shoot 4 0.2193 unknown Evolvulus alsinoides shoot 8.56 0.38838 above-ground 0.16 2 42 alfalfa Medicago sativa 42 alfalfa Medicago sativa above-ground 0.151 0.02972 42 carrot Daucus carota top 0.193 2.4125 42 carrot Daucus carota top 0.211 0.04154 42 corn Zea mays vegetative 0.048 0.00945 42 lettuce Latuca sativa above-ground 0.111 1.3875 42 lettuce Latuca sativa above-ground 0.176 0.03465 42 lettuce Latuca sativa above-ground 0.173 0.10549 above-ground 0.317 0.01151 42 lettuce Latuca sativa 42 lettuce Latuca sativa above-ground 0.103 0.01445 42 oat Avena sativa straw 0.197 2.4625 42 oat Avena sativa straw 0.243 0.04783 42 potato Solanum tuberosum top 0.364 4.55 42 potato Solanum tuberosum top 0.442 0.08701 42 soybean Glycine max vine 0.250 3.125 42 soybean Glycine max vine 0.444 0.0874 42 timothy Phleum pratense above-ground 0.143 1.7875 42 timothy Phleum pratense above-ground 0.158 0.0311 42 tobacco Nicotiana tobacum leaf 0.088 1.1 42 tobacco Nicotiana tobacum leaf 0.106 0.02087 Lycopersicon esculentum vine 0.139 1.7375 42 tomato 42 tomato Lycopersicon esculentum vine 0.145 0.02854 0.038 surf . dune grass Ammophilia arenaria clipping 10cm above soil 0.55882 . willow Salix repens leaves 0.052 0.76471 many years? basil Ocimum basilicum edible portion 0.05 0.83333 many years? basil Ocimum basilicum edible portion 0.08 0.5 many years? garden cress Lepidium sativum edible portion 0.04 0.66667 many years? garden cress Lepidium sativum edible portion 0.12 0.75 many years? mint Mentha arllensis edible portion 0.06 1 many years? mint Mentha arllensis edible portion 0.08 0.5 many years? tarragon Artemisia dracunculus edible portion 0.04 0.66667 many years? tarragon Artemisia dracunculus edible portion 0.13 0.8125 herb Croton sparsifloris stem,leaf 2.625 1.23239 herb Croton sparsifloris stem,leaf 14.515 0.0238 herb Croton sparsifloris stem,leaf 9.425 0.01537 herb Croton sparsifloris stem,leaf 19.165 0.02904 herb Croton sparsifloris stem,leaf 11.315 0.01962 herbaceous vine Ipomoea digitata stem,leaf 12.245 0.06062 herbaceous vine Ipomoea digitata stem,leaf 10.12 0.04767 herbaceous vine Ipomoea digitata stem,leaf 4.595 0.01592 prickly poppy Argemone mexicana stem,leaf 3.23 0.83463 prickly poppy Argemone mexicana stem,leaf 3.7 0.80435

Lenka et al. 1992 model Lenka et al. 1992 model Lenka et al. 1992 model Lenka et al. 1992 model Lenka et al. 1992 model Lenka et al. 1992 model Lenka et al. 1992 model MacLean. 1974 model MacLean. 1974 model MacLean. 1974 model MacLean. 1974 model MacLean. 1974 model MacLean. 1974 model MacLean. 1974 model MacLean. 1974 model MacLean. 1974 model MacLean. 1974 model MacLean. 1974 model MacLean. 1974 model MacLean. 1974 model MacLean. 1974 model MacLean. 1974 model MacLean. 1974 model MacLean. 1974 model MacLean. 1974 model MacLean. 1974 model MacLean. 1974 model MacLean. 1974 model MacLean. 1974 model Severson, et al. 1992. model Severson, et al. 1992. model Shariatpanahi and Anderson 1986 model Shariatpanahi and Anderson 1986 model Shariatpanahi and Anderson 1986 model Shariatpanahi and Anderson 1986 model Shariatpanahi and Anderson 1986 model Shariatpanahi and Anderson 1986 model Shariatpanahi and Anderson 1986 model Shariatpanahi and Anderson 1986 model Shaw & Panigrahi. 1986 model Shaw & Panigrahi. 1986 model Shaw & Panigrahi. 1986 model Shaw & Panigrahi. 1986 model Shaw & Panigrahi. 1986 model Shaw & Panigrahi. 1986 model Shaw & Panigrahi. 1986 model Shaw & Panigrahi. 1986 model Shaw & Panigrahi. 1986 model Shaw & Panigrahi. 1986 model

field field field field field field field field salt field salt salt field salt field field field field salt field salt field salt field salt field salt field salt field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field

Page 23

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Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Hg Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni

field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field NiCl2 NiCl2 NiCl2 NiCl2 NiCl2 NiCl2 NiCl2 NiCl2 NiCl2 NiCl2 NiCl2 NiCl2 NiCl2 NiCl2 NiCl2 NiCl2 NiCl2 NiCl2 NiCl2 NiCl2

5.2 9.2 12.17 82.67 130 210 503.33 893.33 0.0108 0.0113 0.0108 0.0113 0.0108 0.0113 0.0108 0.0113 0.02 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.02 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.05 0.86 0.08 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 100 500 500 500 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 100 100

4-6cm 4-6cm 4-6cm 4-6cm 4-6cm 4-6cm 4-6cm 4-6cm

Ganjam, India prickly poppy Argemone mexicana Ganjam, India unknown Jatropha gossypifolia Ganjam, India unknown Jatropha gossypifolia Ganjam, India unknown Jatropha gossypifolia Ganjam, India unknown Calotropsis procera Ganjam, India unknown Calotropsis procera Ganjam, India unknown Jatropha gossypifolia Ganjam, India unknown Calotropsis procera English plantain Plantago lanceolata sedimentary sedimentary English plantain Plantago lanceolata sedimentary maple Acer platanoides sedimentary maple Acer platanoides sedimentary red mulberry Morus rubra sedimentary red mulberry Morus rubra sedimentary sycamore Platanus occidentalis sedimentary sycamore Platanus occidentalis near Prince George, Brit Columbia plantain English Plantago lanceolata near Prince George, Brit Columbia plantain English Plantago lanceolata near Prince George, Brit Columbia plantain English Plantago lanceolata near Prince George, Brit Columbia plantain English Plantago lanceolata near Prince George, Brit Columbia field horsetail Equisetum arvense near Prince George, Brit Columbia field horsetail Equisetum arvense near Prince George, Brit Columbia field horsetail Equisetum arvense near Prince George, Brit Columbia field horsetail Equisetum arvense 6.6 6.4 6 Grenville sandy loam days 7.6 83 Granby sandy 6.1 83 days loam Granby sandy 6.7 83 days loam Uplands sand 5.6 83 days Uplands sand 6.3 83 days Uplands sand 5.3 83 days Uplands sand 6.4 83 days Grenville sandy loam days 7.6 83 Grenville sandy loam days 7.5 83 Granby sandy 5.9 83 days loam Granby sandy 6.4 83 days loam Grenville sandy loam days 7.6 110 Granby sandy 6.1 110 days loam Granby sandy 6.7 110 days loam Uplands sand 5.6 110 days Uplands sand 6.3 110 days Uplands sand 5.3 110 days Uplands sand 6.4 110 days Grenville sandy loam days 7.6 110 Granby sandy 6.1 110 days loam Beggar's ticks Bidens polylepsis giant ragweed Abrosia trifida giant ragweed Ambrosia trifida alfalfa alfalfa alfalfa alfalfa alfalfa alfalfa alfalfa alfalfa alfalfa alfalfa alfalfa oat oat oat oat oat oat oat oat oat Medicago sativa Medicago sativa Medicago sativa Medicago sativa Medicago sativa Medicago sativa Medicago sativa Medicago sativa Medicago sativa Medicago sativa Medicago sativa Avena sativa Avena sativa Avena sativa Avena sativa Avena sativa Avena sativa Avena sativa Avena sativa Avena sativa

stem,leaf stem,leaf stem,leaf stem,leaf stem,leaf stem,leaf stem,leaf stem,leaf assume foliage assume foliage assume foliage assume foliage assume foliage assume foliage assume foliage assume foliage leaf or shoot leaf or shoot leaf or shoot leaf or shoot leaf or shoot leaf or shoot leaf or shoot leaf or shoot stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf tops tops tops tops tops tops tops tops tops tops tops straw straw straw straw straw straw straw straw straw

4.045 2.08 1.85 17.29 8.58 13.54 13.375 24.765 0.0371 0.1382 0.0131 0.0796 0.0039 0.08 0.0015 0.0835 0.064 0.16 0.14 0.18 0.05 0.19 0.1 0.075

0.77788 0.22609 0.15201 0.20914 0.066 0.06448 0.02657 0.02772 3.43519 12.2301 1.21296 7.04425 0.36111 7.07965 0.13889 7.38938 3.2 1.6 0.7 0.6 2.5 1.9 0.5 0.25

Shaw & Panigrahi. 1986 model Shaw & Panigrahi. 1986 model Shaw & Panigrahi. 1986 model Shaw & Panigrahi. 1986 model Shaw & Panigrahi. 1986 model Shaw & Panigrahi. 1986 model Shaw & Panigrahi. 1986 model Shaw & Panigrahi. 1986 model Siegel et al. 1981 model Siegel et al. 1981 model Siegel et al. 1981 model Siegel et al. 1981 model Siegel et al. 1981 model Siegel et al. 1981 model Siegel et al. 1981 model Siegel et al. 1981 model Siegel et al. 1987 model Siegel et al. 1987 model Siegel et al. 1987 model Siegel et al. 1987 model Siegel et al. 1987 model Siegel et al. 1987 model Siegel et al. 1987 model Siegel et al. 1987 model validation validation validation model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model

field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt

0.02 0.4 PTI 1995 0.03 0.03488 PTI 1995 0.02 0.25 PTI 1995 11.6 5.3 3.8 78 43.6 63.8 30.5 15.6 64.2 51.5 61.1 1.7 3.3 1.1 42.3 11 21.7 14.6 2.2 5.2 0.232 0.106 0.076 1.56 0.872 1.276 0.61 0.156 0.1284 0.103 0.1222 0.034 0.066 0.022 0.846 0.22 0.434 0.292 0.022 0.052 Halstead et al. 1969 Halstead et al. 1969 Halstead et al. 1969 Halstead et al. 1969 Halstead et al. 1969 Halstead et al. 1969 Halstead et al. 1969 Halstead et al. 1969 Halstead et al. 1969 Halstead et al. 1969 Halstead et al. 1969 Halstead et al. 1969 Halstead et al. 1969 Halstead et al. 1969 Halstead et al. 1969 Halstead et al. 1969 Halstead et al. 1969 Halstead et al. 1969 Halstead et al. 1969 Halstead et al. 1969

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Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni

NiCl2 NiCl2 NiCl2 NiCl2 NiCl2 NiCl2 NiCl2 field field NiSO4 NiSO4 NiSO4 NiSO4 field field field field field field field field field field field field-in-pot field-in-pot field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field-background NiCl2 NiCl2 NiCl2 NiCl2

100 100 100 100 500 500 500 72 72 30 90 180 270 8500 8900 8500 8900 8500 5100 8500 5100 8500 5100 9100 7600 8500 5100 6200 5100 8500 5100 8500 9 9 9 14 14 744 744 838 838 838 4710 4710 2.2 6.78 11.24 50 50

10 10

20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20

7.5 7.5 7.5

Granby sandy 6.6 110 days oat loam Avena sativa straw Uplands sand 6.2 110 days oat Avena sativa straw Uplands sand 5.2 110 days oat Avena sativa straw Uplands sand 6.4 110 days oat Avena sativa straw Grenville sandy loam days oat 7.5 110 Avena sativa straw Granby sandy 5.9 110 days oat loam Avena sativa straw Granby sandy 6.4 110 days oat loam Avena sativa straw grey-wooded podsols 3.4 low sweet blueberry Vaccinium angustifolium foliage grey-wooded podsols 3.4 wavy hair-grass Deschampsia flexuosa foliage Seaton loam soil 4 weeks rye grass 4.7 Lolium perenne cutting Seaton loam soil 4 weeks rye grass 4.7 Lolium perenne cutting Seaton loam soil 4 weeks rye grass 4.7 Lolium perenne cutting Seaton loam soil 4 weeks rye grass 4.7 Lolium perenne cutting Plain 6.5 banana tree Musa leaves Hydromorphic 5.9 plain banana tree Musa leaves Plain 6.5 carrot Daucus carrota leaves Hydromorphic 5.9 plain carrot Daucus carrota leaves Plain 6.5 chinese cabbage leaves Colluvio-alluvial soil 6.3 courgette leaves Plain 6.5 courgette leaves Colluvio-alluvial soil 6.3 eggplant Solanum melongena leaves Plain 6.5 eggplant Solanum melongena leaves Colluvio-alluvial soil 6.3 lemon tree Citrus aurantifolia leaves Hydromorphic 5.7 colluvio-alluvial soil tree lemon Citrus aurantifolia leaves Piedmont 5.4 28 days maize Zea mays shoot Plain 6.4 28 days maize Zea mays shoot Colluvio-alluvial soil 6.3 mango tree Mangifera indica leaves Piedmont 5.5 mango tree Mangifera indica leaves Colluvio-alluvial soil 6.3 pawpaw tree Asimina triloba leaves Plain 6.5 radish Raphanus sativus leaves Colluvio-alluvial soil 6.3 tomato Lycopersicon esculentum leaves Plain 6.5 tomato Lycopersicon esculentum leaves peat, pumice, and ground limestone 7.3 6,10 weeksnknown u Thalaspi goesingense above ground peat, pumice, and ground limestone 7.3 6 weeks unknown Thalaspi goesingense above ground peat, pumice, and ground limestone 7.3 10 weeks unknown Thalaspi goesingense above ground peat, pumice, and ground limestone with approx 10,000 ppm zinc added ground 7.3 6 weeks unknown Thalaspi goesingense above peat, pumice, and ground limestone with approx 10,000 ppm zinc added ground 7.3 10 weeks unknown Thalaspi goesingense above Dun Mountain 6.7 6,10 weeksnknown serpentine soil u Thalaspi goesingense above ground Dun Mountain 6.7 6,10 weeksnknown serpentine soil u Thalaspi goesingense above ground Dun Mountain 6.7 6,10 weeksnknown serpentine soil, with approx 1500 ppm goesingense above ground u Thalaspi zinc added Dun Mountain 6.7 6 weeks unknown serpentine soil, with approx 1500 ppm goesingense above ground Thalaspi zinc added Dun Mountain 6.7 10 weeks unknown serpentine soil, with approx 1500 ppm goesingense above ground Thalaspi zinc added New Caledonian serpentine unknown 6.8 6,10 weeks Thalaspi goesingense above ground New Caledonian serpentine unknown 6.8 6,10 weeks Thalaspi goesingense above ground Orangeburg loamygrowing seasonbeans 5.1 sand bush Phaseolus vulgaris upper,lowerleaves Orangeburg loamygrowing seasonbeans 5.1 sand bush Phaseolus vulgaris upper,lowerleaves Orangeburg loamygrowing seasonbeans 5.1 sand bush Phaseolus vulgaris upper,lowerleaves Loess -derived7.3 1 year neutral Luvisol lettuce Latuca sativa whole plant sandy acid Cambisolyear 5.5 1 lettuce Latuca sativa whole plant

5.2 32.3 45.8 21.1 13.6 25.1 26 14 37 50 154 321 470 22.1 53.5 41 59.1 48.5 11.6 55.5 19.4 94 44 82.1 4.8 6.6 23.5 25 14.5 85 13.9 47.5 4.4 95 21 311 171 1050 1700 58 478 180 1300 2310 0.79 0.84 3.01 6 22.5

0.052 0.323 0.458 0.211 0.0272 0.0502 0.052 0.19444 0.51389 1.66667 1.71111 1.78333 1.74074 0.0026 0.00601 0.00482 0.00664 0.00571 0.00227 0.00653 0.0038 0.01106 0.00863 0.00902 0.00063 0.00078 0.00461 0.00403 0.00284 0.01 0.00273 0.00559 0.48889 10.5556 2.33333 22.2143 12.2143 1.41129 2.28495 0.06921 0.57041 0.2148 0.27601 0.49045 0.35909 0.12389 0.26779 0.12 0.45

Halstead et al. 1969 model Halstead et al. 1969 model Halstead et al. 1969 model Halstead et al. 1969 model Halstead et al. 1969 model Halstead et al. 1969 model Halstead et al. 1969 model Hutchinson & Whitby 1974 model Hutchinson & Whitby 1974 model Khalid & Tinsley 1980 model Khalid & Tinsley 1980 model Khalid & Tinsley 1980 model Khalid & Tinsley 1980 model L'Huillier & Edighoffer 1996 model L'Huillier & Edighoffer 1996 model L'Huillier & Edighoffer 1996 model L'Huillier & Edighoffer 1996 model L'Huillier & Edighoffer 1996 model L'Huillier & Edighoffer 1996 model L'Huillier & Edighoffer 1996 model L'Huillier & Edighoffer 1996 model L'Huillier & Edighoffer 1996 model L'Huillier & Edighoffer 1996 model L'Huillier & Edighoffer 1996 model L'Huillier & Edighoffer 1996 model L'Huillier & Edighoffer 1996 model L'Huillier & Edighoffer 1996 model L'Huillier & Edighoffer 1996 model L'Huillier & Edighoffer 1996 model L'Huillier & Edighoffer 1996 model L'Huillier & Edighoffer 1996 model L'Huillier & Edighoffer 1996 model Reeves & Baker 1984 model Reeves & Baker 1984 model Reeves & Baker 1984 model Reeves & Baker 1984 model Reeves & Baker 1984 model Reeves & Baker 1984 model Reeves & Baker 1984 model Reeves & Baker 1984 model Reeves & Baker 1984 model Reeves & Baker 1984 model Reeves & Baker 1984 model Reeves & Baker 1984 model Sajwan et al. 1996 model Sajwan et al. 1996 model Sajwan et al. 1996 model Sauerbeck and Hein 1991 odel m Sauerbeck and Hein 1991 odel m

salt salt salt salt salt salt salt field field salt salt salt salt field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field salt salt salt salt

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final-for-appendix98

Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni

field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field

620 770 39.2 42.6 46 39.2 42.6 46 39.2 46 39.2 46 46 39.2 42.6 46 46 42.6 46 42.6 46 42.6 42.6 39.2 46 39.2 46 42.6 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 39.2 46 42.6 46 46 46 39.2 42.6 46 46 46 42.6 46 39.2

10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

nickeliferous 6 nickeliferous 6 serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops

Australian shrub ybanthus floribundus leafparts+stem H 3357 5.41452 Severne 1974 model Australian shrub ybanthus floribundus leaf+stem H 6016 7.81299 Severne 1974 model unknown Alyssum argentium 95.7 2.44133 Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 model model unknown Alyssum bertolonii 158 3.70892 Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 model unknown Alyssum bertolonii 202 4.3913 unknown Ameria denticulata green leaves 0.2 0.0051 Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 model unknown Ameria denticulata green leaves 1.5 0.03521 Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 model green+old leaves 1.1 0.02391 Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 model unknown Ameria denticulata spleenwort Asplenium cuneifolium 0.7 0.01786 Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 model spleenwort Asplenium cuneifolium 0.4 0.0087 Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 model herb Centaurea rupestris 0.3 0.00765 Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 model model herb Centaurea rupestris 0.2 0.00435 Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 herb Centaurium erythraea 0.5 0.01087 Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 model mouse-ear chickweed Cerastium exile 0.8 0.02041 Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 model mouse-ear chickweed Cerastium exile 0.9 0.02113 Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 model mouse-ear chickweed Cerastium exile 1.2 0.02609 Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 model unknown Ceterach officinarum 1.2 0.02609 Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 model lip-fern Cheilanthes marantae 0.6 0.01408 Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 model lip-fern Cheilanthes marantae 0.7 0.01522 Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 model unknown Cistus salvifolius 0.9 0.02113 Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 model model unknown Cistus salvifolius 0.5 0.01087 Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 orchard grass Dactylis glomerata leaves 0.4 0.00939 Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 model model herb Dianthus sylvestris 0.5 0.01174 Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 herb Dianthus sylvestrus 0.6 0.01531 Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 model unknown Dittrichia viscosa 0.4 0.0087 Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 model model variable genus Euphorbia cyparissias 1.5 0.03827 Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 variable genus Euphorbia exigua 0.5 0.01087 Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 model model variable genus Euphorbia prostrata 2 0.04695 Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 variable genus Euphorbia prostrata 0.9 0.01957 Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 model model fescue Festuca glauca 0.3 0.00652 Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 bedstraw Galium lucidum 0.3 0.00652 Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 model unknown Heiracium piloselloides 0.7 0.01522 Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 model unknown Herniaria glabra 0.5 0.01087 Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 model model annual herb Jasione montana 0.3 0.00652 Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 model unknown Linum tryginum 0.3 0.00652 Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 unknown Minuartia ophiolitica leaves 0.2 0.0051 Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 model unknown Minuartia ophiolitica leaves 0.6 0.01304 Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 model plantain Plantago holosteum new leaves 2.93 0.06878 Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 model plantain Plantago lanceolata 2.3 0.05 Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 model herb or shrub Potentilla ophiolitica 0.2 0.00435 Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 model unknown Reichardia picroides leaves 0.4 0.0087 Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 model model herb Rumex scutatus 1.2 0.03061 Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 burnet-bloodwort Sanguisorba minor leaves 0.8 0.01878 Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 model burnet-bloodwort Sanguisorba minor leaves 0.5 0.01087 Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 model bullrush Scirpus holoschoemus 0.1 0.00217 Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 model unknown Scorzonera stenophylla leaves 0.7 0.01522 Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 model stonecrop Sedum sp. 0.3 0.00704 Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 model stonecrop Sedum sp. 0.2 0.00435 Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 model herb Senecio erucifolius 1.6 0.04082 Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 model

field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field

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Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se

field field field field field field field field-background field-background NiCl2 NiCl2 NiCl2 NiCl2 NiCl2 NiCl2 field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field

39.2 42.6 46 46 46 42.6 46 15 17 37 39 127 129 566 568 26 10.2 19.15 39.95 27.9 10.2 19.15 27.9 27.9 20.2 17.5 20.2 27.9 20.2 17.5 26 17.5 19.15 10.85 14.1 39.95 0.6 0.81 0.47 0.69 0.66 0.7 0.72 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4

10 10 10 10 10 10 10

serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops serpentine outcrops sandy 5.3 sandy 6 sandy 5.3 sandy 6 sandy 5.3 sandy 6 sandy 5.3 sandy 6 7.1 6.6 6 6.8 6.4 6.6 6 6.4 6.4 6 6.1 6 6.4 6 6.1 7.1 6.1 6 7 6.5 6.8

34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34

herb herb herb herb needle grass thyme thyme oat oat oat oat oat oat oat oat

Silene italica Silene italica Silene italica Stachys serpentini Stipa pulcherrima Thymus ophioliticus Thymus ophioliticus Avena sativa Avena sativa Avena sativa Avena sativa Avena sativa Avena sativa Avena sativa Avena sativa

leaves leaves leaves

leaves leaves shoot shoot shoot shoot shoot shoot shoot shoot

0.1 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.1 0.6 0.5 10.9 40.6 11.9 41.2 16.3 47.8 20.7 77.8 0.5 2.2 1.1 0.5 1.1 1.3 1.4 0.8 0.9 1 0.9 2.2 1.1 1.6 0.3 0.7 0.55 1.2 0.3 0.6 0.4 0.32 1.31 1.35 1.1 0.61 0.29 0.94 7.65 3.9 30.05 1.4

0.00255 0.01408 0.01087 0.0087 0.00217 0.01408 0.01087 0.72667 2.38824 0.32162 1.05641 0.12835 0.37054 0.03657 0.13697 0.01923 0.21569 0.05744 0.01252 0.03943 0.12745 0.07311 0.02867 0.03226 0.0495 0.05143 0.10891 0.03943 0.07921 0.01714 0.02692 0.03143 0.06266 0.02765 0.04255 0.01001 0.53333 1.61728 2.87234 1.5942 0.92424 0.41429 1.30556 19.125 9.75 75.125 3.5

Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 model Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 model Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 model Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 model Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 model Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 model Vergnano Gambi et al. 1982 model Ylaranta 1996 model Ylaranta 1996 model Ylaranta 1996 model Ylaranta 1996 model Ylaranta 1996 model Ylaranta 1996 model Ylaranta 1996 model Ylaranta 1996 model PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 Banuelos 1996 Banuelos 1996 Banuelos 1996 Banuelos 1996 Banuelos 1996 Banuelos 1996 Banuelos 1996 Banuelos et al. 1992 Banuelos et al. 1992 Banuelos et al. 1992 Banuelos et al. 1992 validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation model model model model model model model model model model model

field field field field field field field field field salt salt salt salt salt salt field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field

annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf Beggar's ticks Bidens polylepsis stem/leaf Beggar's ticks Bidens polylepsis stem/leaf beggar's ticks Bidens polylepis stem/leaf beggar's ticks Bidens polylepis stem/leaf beggar's ticks Bidens polylepis stem/leaf Bermuda grassCynodon dactylon stem/leaf big bluestem Andropogon gerardi stem/leaf giant ragweed Abrosia trifida stem/leaf giant ragweed Ambrosia trifida stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf clipping shoot shoot clipping shoot clipping clipping leaf,stem clipping

60,85,115birdsfoot trefoil Lotus corniculatus 75 clay loam loamy mixed calcareous 85 canola 7.8 Brassica napus 75 clay loam 75 Indian mustard Brassica juncea loamy mixed calcareous 7.8 45-55 Indian mustard Brassica juncea 75 clay loam 115 Kenaf Hibiscus cannabinus 60,85,115tall fescue Festuca arundinacea 75 clay loam loamy mixed calcareous100 tall fescue 7.8 Festuca arundinacea 25 loam 60,105 alfalfa Medicago sativa 25 loam 60,105 birdsfoot trefoil Lotus corniculatus 25 loam 60 canola Brassica napus 25 loam 60,105 tall fescue Festuca arundicacea

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Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se

field field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field-dredged material field-dredged material field-dredged material field-compost field-compost field-compost field-compost selenate selenate selenite selenite selenate selenate selenite selenite selenate selenite selenite selenate selenate selenate selenate selenate selenate selenate selenate selenate selenate selenate selenate selenate selenate selenate selenate selenate selenate selenate selenate selenate selenate selenate field-fly ash field-fly ash field-fly ash field-fly ash

0.4 0.72 0.69 0.89 0.38 0.75 4.8 0.336 0.336 0.336 0.336 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5

25 loam 25 loam 7.70 25 loam 7.70 25 loam 7.70 15 sandy loam 5.2 15 sandy loam 6.3 15 sandy clay loam 3.6 20 clay loam 6.50 20 clay loam 6.50 20 clay loam 6.50 20 clay loam 6.50 Ap horizon collected loamy sand 5.5 Ap horizon collected sand 4.9 Ap horizon collected sand 4.9 Ap horizon collected sand 5.5 Ap horizon collected sand 4.9 Ap horizon collected loamy sand 5.5 Ap horizon collected sand 4.9 Ap horizon collected sand 5.5 Ap horizon collected loamy sand 5.5 Ap horizon collected sand 4.9 Ap horizon collected sand 5.5 sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam 6 sandy loam 6 sandy loam 6 sandy loam 6

60 70 70 90 . . .

42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 ca 90 ca 90 ca 90 ca 90 ca 90 ca 90 ca 90 ca 90 ca 90 ca 90 ca 90 ca 90 ca 90 ca 90 ca 90 ca 90 ca 90 ca 90 ca 90 ca 90 ca 90 ca 90 ca 90

wild brown mustard Brassica juncea whole,stem,leaf 30.8 77 Banuelos et al. 1992 tall fescue Festuca arundicacea shoot 0.94 1.30556 Banuelos et al. 1993 wild brown mustard Brassica juncea shoot 1.01 1.46377 Banuelos et al. 1993 wild brown mustard Brassica juncea shoot 1.21 1.35955 Banuelos et al. 1993 common reed Phragmites australis leaves 0.12 0.31579 Beyer, et al. 1990. common reed Phragmites australis leaves 0.08 0.10667 Beyer, et al. 1990. common reed Phragmites australis leaves 0.41 0.08542 Beyer, et al. 1990. lettuce Latuca sativa head 0.057 0.16964 Cappon 1987 lettuce Latuca sativa leaf 0.0697 0.20744 Cappon 1987 spinach Spinacia oleracea 0.0709 0.21101 Cappon 1987 Swiss chard Beta vulgaris Cicla 0.0402 0.11964 Cappon 1987 sorgrass Sorghum vulgare clippings 220 220 Carlson et al. 1991 sorgrass Sorghum vulgare clippings 627 627 Carlson et al. 1991 sorgrass Sorghum vulgare clippings 8.7 8.7 Carlson et al. 1991 sorgrass Sorghum vulgare clippings 2.2 2.2 Carlson et al. 1991 sorgrass Sorghum vulgare clippings 1153 576.5 Carlson et al. 1991 sorgrass Sorghum vulgare clippings 568 284 Carlson et al. 1991 sorgrass Sorghum vulgare clippings 19.9 9.95 Carlson et al. 1991 sorgrass Sorghum vulgare clippings 3.3 1.65 Carlson et al. 1991 sorgrass Sorghum vulgare clippings 778 194.5 Carlson et al. 1991 sorgrass Sorghum vulgare clippings 50.7 12.675 Carlson et al. 1991 sorgrass Sorghum vulgare clippings 10.3 2.575 Carlson et al. 1991 orach Atriplex atacamensis clipping 95 5.27778 Davis 1972 orach Atriplex breweri clipping 71 3.94444 Davis 1972 orach Atriplex canescens clipping 173 9.61111 Davis 1972 orach Atriplex canescens clipping 204 11.3333 Davis 1972 orach Atriplex canescens clipping 162 9 Davis 1972 orach Atriplex halimus clipping 18 1 Davis 1972 orach Atriplex hortensis clipping 33 1.83333 Davis 1972 orach Atriplex hortensis clipping 18 1 Davis 1972 orach Atriplex inflata clipping 69 3.83333 Davis 1972 orach Atriplex lentiformis clipping 7 0.38889 Davis 1972 orach Atriplex leucoclada clipping 27 1.5 Davis 1972 orach Atriplex leucoclada clipping 14 0.77778 Davis 1972 orach Atriplex muelleri clipping 88 4.88889 Davis 1972 orach Atriplex nummularia clipping 44 2.44444 Davis 1972 orach Atriplex nummularia clipping 77 4.27778 Davis 1972 orach Atriplex nummularia clipping 68 3.77778 Davis 1972 Atriplex pseudocampanulata clipping 27 1.5 Davis 1972 orach orach Atriplex rosea clipping 11 0.61111 Davis 1972 orach Atriplex semibaccata clipping 31 1.72222 Davis 1972 orach Atriplex semibaccata clipping 61 3.38889 Davis 1972 orach Atriplex semibaccata clipping 19 1.05556 Davis 1972 orach Atriplex sp. clipping 77 4.27778 Davis 1972 orach Atriplex vesicaria clipping 20 1.11111 Davis 1972 above-ground 0.07 Furr et al. 1978 alfalfa Medicago sativa birdsfoot trefoil Lotus corniculatus above-ground 0.09 Furr et al. 1978 brome Bromus above-ground 0.12 Furr et al. 1978 corn Zea mays foliage 0.03 Furr et al. 1978

model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model

field field field field field field field field field field field salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt field field field field

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Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se

field-fly ash field-fly ash field-fly ash field-fly ash field-fly ash field-fly ash field-fly ash field-fly ash field-fly ash field-fly ash field-fly ash field-fly ash field-fly ash field-fly ash organic selenate selenate organic selenite selenate organic selenate selenate organic organic organic selenite selenate organic selenate organic selenite organic selenate organic selenate selenite selenite organic selenate selenate organic organic selenate selenite organic selenate selenate selenite

1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 10 5 10 20 30 10 20 20 2 20 20 10 30 5 20 10 20 20 10 5 20 20 20 10 20 5 10 20 20 20 10 20 20 10 10

sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam loam loam loam loam loam loam loam loam loam loam loam loam loam loam loam loam loam loam loam loam loam loam loam loam loam loam loam loam loam loam loam loam loam loam loam

6 6 6 6 6 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.9

millet Echinochloa crusgalli foliage above-ground orchard grass Dactylis glomerata sorghum Sorghum bicolor foliage timothy Phleum praetense above-ground above-ground cabbage Brassica oleracea alfalfa Medicago sativa above-ground birdsfoot trefoil Lotus corniculatus above-ground above-ground brome Bromus corn Zea mays foliage millet Echinochloa crusgalli foliage orchard grass Dactylis glomerata above-ground sorghum Sorghum bicolor foliage above-ground timothy Phleum praetense cabbage Brassica oleracea above-ground alfalfa Medicago sativa above-ground above-ground alfalfa Medicago sativa alkali prince's plume Stanleya bipinnata above-ground alkali prince's plume Stanleya bipinnata above-ground alkali prince's plume Stanleya bipinnata above-ground broom snakeweed Gutierrezia sarothrae above-ground broom snakeweed Gutierrezia sarothrae above-ground broom snakeweed Gutierrezia sarothrae above-ground common dandelion Taraxacum officinale above-ground common dandelion Taraxacum officinale above-ground common winter Eurotia lanata fat above-ground common yellowOxalis stricta oxalis above-ground common yellowOxalis stricta oxalis above-ground Fremont goldenweed Haplopappus fremontii above-ground goatsbeard Tragopogon pratensis above-ground Indian ricegrass Oryzopsis hymenoidesabove-ground Indian ricegrass Oryzopsis hymenoidesabove-ground Indian ricegrass Oryzopsis hymenoidesabove-ground needle-and-thread comata Stipa above-ground needle-and-thread comata Stipa above-ground Nuttall goldenweed Machaeranthera grindelioides above-ground Nuttall goldenweed Machaeranthera grindelioides above-ground Nuttall goldenweed Machaeranthera grindelioides above-ground prickly lettuce Latuca serriola above-ground prickly lettuce Latuca serriola above-ground prickly lettuce Latuca serriola above-ground rabbitfoot grassPolypogon monspeliensis above-ground rabbitfoot grassPolypogon monspeliensis above-ground slender wheatgrass Agropyron trachycaulum above-ground slender wheatgrass Agropyron trachycaulum above-ground summer cypress ochia scoparia K above-ground summer cypress ochia scoparia K above-ground summer cypress ochia scoparia K above-ground tansy aster Machaeranthera ramosabove-ground a tansy aster Machaeranthera ramosabove-ground a

0.04 0.11 0.03 0.08 0.07 0.13 0.22 0.28 0.07 0.13 0.5 0.04 0.27 0.2 40 41 915 724 540 101 104 112 67 89 114 23 36 657 84 546 58 526 30 37 199 182 116 59 94 25 149 80 53 56 136 137 191 3900 1478

4 8.2 91.5 36.2 18 10.1 5.2 5.6 33.5 4.45 5.7 2.3 1.2 131.4 4.2 54.6 2.9 26.3 3 7.4 9.95 9.1 5.8 5.9 4.7 5 14.9 4 2.65 2.8 13.6 6.85 9.55 390 147.8

Furr et al. 1978 Furr et al. 1978 Furr et al. 1978 Furr et al. 1978 Furr et al. 1978 Furr et al. 1978 Furr et al. 1978 Furr et al. 1978 Furr et al. 1978 Furr et al. 1978 Furr et al. 1978 Furr et al. 1978 Furr et al. 1978 Furr et al. 1978 Hamilton & Beath. 1963 Hamilton & Beath. 1963 Hamilton & Beath. 1963 Hamilton & Beath. 1963 Hamilton & Beath. 1963 Hamilton & Beath. 1963 Hamilton & Beath. 1963 Hamilton & Beath. 1963 Hamilton & Beath. 1963 Hamilton & Beath. 1963 Hamilton & Beath. 1963 Hamilton & Beath. 1963 Hamilton & Beath. 1963 Hamilton & Beath. 1963 Hamilton & Beath. 1963 Hamilton & Beath. 1963 Hamilton & Beath. 1963 Hamilton & Beath. 1963 Hamilton & Beath. 1963 Hamilton & Beath. 1963 Hamilton & Beath. 1963 Hamilton & Beath. 1963 Hamilton & Beath. 1963 Hamilton & Beath. 1963 Hamilton & Beath. 1963 Hamilton & Beath. 1963 Hamilton & Beath. 1963 Hamilton & Beath. 1963 Hamilton & Beath. 1963 Hamilton & Beath. 1963 Hamilton & Beath. 1963 Hamilton & Beath. 1963 Hamilton & Beath. 1963 Hamilton & Beath. 1963 Hamilton & Beath. 1963

model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model

field field field field field field field field field field field field field field salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt

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Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se

K2SeO4 organic selenite organic selenate selenite organic selenate selenate organic selenate organic selenate selenite field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field selenite, mostly selenite, mostly field-background selenate selenate field

20 20 20 20 3 10 20 20 10 20 5 20 20 20 0.16 0.18 0.24 0.30 0.34 1.5 0.16 0.18 0.19 0.24 0.30 0.34 1.5 0.16 0.18 0.24 0.30 0.34 1.5 0.197 0.209 0.321 0.395 0.425 0.45 0.46 0.53 0.652 0.744 1.709 1.821 0.04 0.19 0.22 0.1

loam loam loam loam loam loam loam loam loam loam loam loam loam loam silt clay loam6.8 loamy sand 5.9 sandy loam 6.5 loamy sand 5.8 sandy loam 6.9 muck 7.1 silt clay loam6.8 loamy sand 5.9 loamy sand 6.8 sandy loam 6.5 loamy sand 5.8 sandy loam 6.9 muck 7.1 silt clay loam 6.80 loamy sand 5.9 sandy loam 6.5 loamy sand 5.8 sandy loam 6.9 muck 7.1 unknown loam 6.00 unknown clay 6.30 unknown loam 6.80 unknown clay 6.70 unknown loam 7.20 unknown loam 7.00 unknown clay 5.20 unknown clay 4.50 unknown loam 7.10 unknown clay 6.30 unknown clay 6.30 unknown loam 6.80 loamy sand 5.10 loamy sand 5.10 loamy sand 5.10 2 sand 5.3

tansy aster Machaeranthera ramosabove-ground a Machaeranthera ramosabove-ground a tansy aster tansy aster Machaeranthera ramosabove-ground a above-ground timothy Phleum pratense above-ground timothy Phleum pratense western aster Aster occidentalis above-ground western aster Aster occidentalis above-ground above-ground western aster Aster occidentalis western wheatgrass Agropyron smithii above-ground western wheatgrass Agropyron smithii above-ground western wheatgrass Agropyron smithii above-ground white blossom sweetclover Mellilotus alba above-ground white blossom sweetclover Mellilotus alba above-ground white blossom sweetclover Mellilotus alba above-ground red clover Trifolium pratense red clover Trifolium pratense red clover Trifolium pratense red clover Trifolium pratense red clover Trifolium pratense red clover Trifolium pratense rye grass Lolium perenne L. rye grass Lolium perenne L. rye grass Lolium perenne L. rye grass Lolium perenne L. rye grass Lolium perenne L. rye grass Lolium perenne L. rye grass Lolium perenne L. white mustard Brassica hirta white mustard Brassica hirta white mustard Brassica hirta white mustard Brassica hirta white mustard Brassica hirta white mustard Brassica hirta 120, 3 cuts lfalfa a Medicago sativa crop 450, 10 cuts alfalfa Medicago sativa crop 450, 10 cuts alfalfa Medicago sativa crop 120, 3 cuts lfalfa a Medicago sativa crop 120, 3 cuts lfalfa a Medicago sativa crop 120, 3 cuts lfalfa a Medicago sativa crop 120, 3 cuts lfalfa a Medicago sativa crop 120, 3 cuts lfalfa a Medicago sativa crop 120, 3 cuts lfalfa a Medicago sativa crop 120, 3 cuts lfalfa a Medicago sativa crop 450, 10 cuts alfalfa Medicago sativa crop 450, 10 cuts alfalfa Medicago sativa crop >30 bush bean Phaseolis vulgaris leaves,pods >30 bush bean Phaseolis vulgaris leaves,pods >30 bush bean Phaseolis vulgaris leaves,pods . dune grass Ammophilia arenaria clipping

8078 720 2352 39 33 557 304 1413 298 71 154 182 226 200 0.20 0.05 0.07 0.03 0.04 0.17 0.4 0.07 0.06 0.2 0.08 0.06 0.24 0.5 0.05 0.13 0.07 0.05 0.33 0.033 0.024 0.034 0.053 0.082 0.072 0.064 0.077 0.022 0.083 1.398 1.104 0.147 43.7 53.4 0.045

403.9 36 117.6 1.95 11 55.7 15.2 70.65 29.8 3.55 30.8 9.1 11.3 10 1.25 0.27778 0.29167 0.1 0.11765 0.11333 2.5 0.38889 0.31579 0.83333 0.26667 0.17647 0.16 3.125 0.27778 0.54167 0.23333 0.14706 0.22 0.16751 0.11483 0.10592 0.13418 0.19294 0.16 0.13913 0.14528 0.03374 0.11156 0.81802 0.60626 3.675 230 242.727 0.45

Hamilton & Beath. 1963 Hamilton & Beath. 1963 Hamilton & Beath. 1963 Hamilton & Beath. 1963 Hamilton & Beath. 1963 Hamilton & Beath. 1963 Hamilton & Beath. 1963 Hamilton & Beath. 1963 Hamilton & Beath. 1963 Hamilton & Beath. 1963 Hamilton & Beath. 1963 Hamilton & Beath. 1963 Hamilton & Beath. 1963 Hamilton & Beath. 1963 Lakin. 1972 Lakin. 1972 Lakin. 1972 Lakin. 1972 Lakin. 1972 Lakin. 1972 Lakin. 1972 Lakin. 1972 Lakin. 1972 Lakin. 1972 Lakin. 1972 Lakin. 1972 Lakin. 1972 Lakin. 1972 Lakin. 1972 Lakin. 1972 Lakin. 1972 Lakin. 1972 Lakin. 1972 Levesque 1974 Levesque 1974 Levesque 1974 Levesque 1974 Levesque 1974 Levesque 1974 Levesque 1974 Levesque 1974 Levesque 1974 Levesque 1974 Levesque 1974 Levesque 1974 Sajwan et al. 1995 Sajwan et al. 1995 Sajwan et al. 1995 Severson, et al. 1992.

model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model

salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field salt salt field salt salt field

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Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se

field field Na2SeO3*5H2O Na2SeO3*5H2O Na2SeO3*5H2O Na2SeO3*5H2O Na2SeO3*5H2O Na2SeO3*5H2O Na2SeO3*5H2O Na2SeO3*5H2O Na2SeO3*5H2O field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field

0.1 1.3 2.55 5.05 10.05 2.55 2.55 5.05 5.05 10.05 10.05 17.37 16.1 17.37 21.51 4.43 9.84 15.9 16.1 16.1 16.83 17.37 17.37 17.37 21.51 21.51 31.28 31.28 4.43 4.81 6.18 9.84 16.1 17.37 21.51 4.43 9.84 21.51 21.51 16.83 9.84 6.18 15.9 16.83 17.37 4.43 6.18 15.9 16.83

2 sand 15 range sand sand sand sand sand sand sand sand sand 15 Kesterson 15 Kesterson 15 Kesterson 15 Kesterson 15 Kesterson 15 Kesterson 15 Kesterson 15 Kesterson 15 Kesterson 15 Kesterson 15 Kesterson 15 Kesterson 15 Kesterson 15 Kesterson 15 Kesterson 15 Kesterson 15 Kesterson 15 Kesterson 15 Kesterson 15 Kesterson 15 Kesterson 15 Kesterson 15 Kesterson 15 Kesterson 15 Kesterson 15 Kesterson 15 Kesterson 15 Kesterson 15 Kesterson 15 Kesterson 15 Kesterson 15 Kesterson 15 Kesterson 15 Kesterson 15 Kesterson 15 Kesterson 15 Kesterson 15 Kesterson

5.3

. 30 30 30 135 50 135 50 135 50

7.44 7.74 7.44 7.43 7.95 7.82 7.44 7.74 7.74 7.46 7.44 7.44 7.44 7.43 7.43 7.06 7.06 7.95 7.67 7.75 7.82 7.74 7.44 7.43 7.95 7.82 7.43 7.43 7.46 7.82 7.75 7.44 7.46 7.44 7.95 7.75 7.44 7.46

240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240

willow 33 species sunflower sunflower sunflower wheat wheat wheat wheat wheat wheat barley biennial thistle biennial thistle biennial thistle brome grass brome grass brome grass brome grass brome grass brome grass brome grass brome grass brome grass brome grass brome grass brome grass brome grass fescue fescue fescue fescue fescue fescue fescue herb herb herb herb heronsbill letttuce lettuce lettuce lettuce lettuce orach orach orach orach

Salix repens

leaf above-ground Helianthus annuus whole plant Helianthus annuus whole plant Helianthus annuus whole plant Triticum aestivum whole plant Triticum aestivum whole plant Triticum aestivum whole plant Triticum aestivum whole plant Triticum aestivum whole plant Triticum aestivum whole plant Hordeum murinum clipping Cirsium vulgare clipping Cirsium vulgare clipping Cirsium vulgare clipping Bromus hordeaceus clipping Bromus rubens clipping Bromus hordeaceus clipping Bromus hordeaceus clipping Bromus rubens clipping Bromus hordeaceus clipping Bromus hordeaceus clipping Bromus diadrus clipping Bromus rubens clipping Bromus hordeaceus clipping Bromus rubens clipping Bromus hordeaceus clipping Bromus rubens clipping Vulpia microstachys clipping Festuca arundinacea clipping Festuca arundinacea clipping Festuca arundinacea clipping Vulpia microstachys clipping Vulpia microstachys clipping Vulpia microstachys clipping Brassica nigra clipping Conyza coulteri clipping Conyza coulteri clipping Sisymbrium irro clipping Erodium moshatum clipping Latuca serriola clipping Latuca serriola clipping Latuca serriola clipping Latuca serriola clipping Latuca serriola clipping Atriplex patula clipping Atriplex patula clipping Atriplex patula clipping Atriplex patula clipping

0.032 1.9 7.3 12.5 20.4 10.2 13.5 24.5 28.2 36.8 43.7 6.76 3.19 8.37 32.62 4.25 13.03 16.33 9.82 6.36 12.05 9.32 4.18 7.09 11.04 8.6 20.54 9.52 2.23 6.89 14.81 8.48 3.23 6.98 10.66 11.2 7.72 46.86 127.02 16.62 19.16 5.61 13.63 27.9 12.37 17.17 25.46 24.19 17.81

0.32 1.46154 2.86275 2.47525 2.02985 4 5.29412 4.85149 5.58416 3.66169 4.34826 0.38918 0.19814 0.48187 1.5165 0.95937 1.32419 1.02704 0.60994 0.39503 0.71598 0.53656 0.24064 0.40818 0.51325 0.39981 0.65665 0.30435 0.50339 1.43243 2.39644 0.86179 0.20062 0.40184 0.49558 2.52822 0.78455 2.17852 5.90516 0.98752 1.94715 0.90777 0.85723 1.65775 0.71215 3.87585 4.11974 1.52138 1.05823

Severson, et al. 1992. model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Singh & Singh. 1978 model Singh & Singh. 1978 model Singh & Singh. 1978 model Singh & Singh. 1978 model Singh & Singh. 1978 model Singh & Singh. 1978 model Singh & Singh. 1978 model Singh & Singh. 1978 model Singh & Singh. 1978 model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model

field field salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt salt field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field

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Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se

field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field field field field field field field field field field field field field field

21.51 9.84 15.9 17.37 21.51 4.43 4.81 6.18 9.84 15.9 16.1 16.83 17.37 21.51 31.28 15.9 16.83 4.43 4.81 6.18 9.84 15.9 16.83 17.37 21.51 17.37 4.43 6.18 9.84 15.9 93 230 93 93 0.29 7.79 0.29 7.79 14.8 0.29 0.39 7.79 14.8 0.29 7.79 14.8 19.2 19.2

15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 unknown unknown unknown unknown 15 cm 15 cm 15 cm 15 cm 15 cm 15 cm 15 cm 15 cm 15 cm 15 cm 15 cm 15 cm

Kesterson Kesterson Kesterson Kesterson Kesterson Kesterson Kesterson Kesterson Kesterson Kesterson Kesterson Kesterson Kesterson Kesterson Kesterson Kesterson Kesterson Kesterson Kesterson Kesterson Kesterson Kesterson Kesterson Kesterson Kesterson Kesterson Kesterson Kesterson Kesterson Kesterson peat peat peat peat Davis Davis Davis Davis Davis Davis Davis Davis Davis Davis Davis Davis

7.43 7.82 7.44 7.44 7.43 7.95 7.67 7.75 7.82 7.44 7.74 7.46 7.44 7.43 7.06 7.44 7.46 7.95 7.67 7.75 7.82 7.44 7.46 7.44 7.43 7.44 7.95 7.75 7.82 7.44 5.4 5.7 5.4 5.4 7.50 7.10 7.50 7.10 7.50 7.50 7.90 7.10 7.50 7.50 7.10 7.50 6.4 6.4

240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 105 105 84 105 35 35

35

35

orach Atriplex patula clipping perennial herb Epilobium ciliatum clipping perennial herb Epilobium ciliatum clipping perennial herb Epilobium ciliatum clipping perennial herb Epilobium ciliatum clipping rabbitfoot grassPolypogon monspeliensis clipping rabbitfoot grassPolypogon monspeliensis clipping rabbitfoot grassPolypogon monspeliensis clipping rabbitfoot grassPolypogon monspeliensis clipping rabbitfoot grassPolypogon monspeliensis clipping rabbitfoot grassPolypogon monspeliensis clipping rabbitfoot grassPolypogon monspeliensis clipping rabbitfoot grassPolypogon monspeliensis clipping rabbitfoot grassPolypogon monspeliensis clipping rabbitfoot grassPolypogon monspeliensis clipping sand spurrey Spergularia marina clipping sand spurrey Spergularia marina clipping sour clover Melilotus indica clipping sour clover Melilotus indica clipping sour clover Melilotus indica clipping sour clover Melilotus indica clipping sour clover Melilotus indica clipping sour clover Melilotus indica clipping sour clover Melilotus indica clipping sour clover Melilotus indica clipping spiny-leaved sow-thistle asper Sonchus clipping Frankenia salina clipping Frankenia salina clipping Frankenia salina clipping Frankenia salina clipping red clover Trifolium incarnatum ryegrass Lolium perenne L. ryegrass Lolium perenne L. ryegrass Lolium perenne L. alfalfa Medicago sativa alfalfa Medicago sativa shoot rabbitfoot grassPolypogon monspeliensis rabbitfoot grassPolypogon monspeliensis shoot rabbitfoot grassPolypogon monspeliensis sour clover Melilotus indica sour clover Melilotus indica sour clover Melilotus indica shoot sour clover Melilotus indica tall fescue Festuca aurandinacea aboveground? tall fescue Festuca aurandinacea shoot tall fescue Festuca aurandinacea annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf giant ragweed Abrosia trifida stem/leaf

39.48 23.65 23.85 12.43 5.5 8.15 10.75 13.43 19.65 28.37 15.44 48.29 13.87 14.78 29.31 37.82 31.29 7.51 8.84 17.74 30.13 58.15 50.69 77.64 25.01 11.36 8.43 14.29 22.27 13.91 5.0 12.0 10.0 9.5 0.52 6.43 0.23 0.26 10.68 0.94 6 22.02 117.35 0.24 5.84 15.53

1.83543 2.40346 1.5 0.7156 0.2557 1.83973 2.23493 2.17314 1.99695 1.78428 0.95901 2.86928 0.7985 0.68712 0.93702 2.37862 1.85918 1.69526 1.83784 2.87055 3.06199 3.65723 3.01188 4.46978 1.16272 0.654 1.90293 2.3123 2.26321 0.87484 0.05376 0.05217 0.10753 0.10215 1.7931 0.82542 0.7931 0.03338 0.72162 3.24138 15.3846 2.8267 7.92905 0.82759 0.74968 1.04932

van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model van Mantgem et al. 1996model Williams and Thorton, 1972. model Williams and Thorton, 1972. model Williams and Thorton, 1972. model Williams and Thorton, 1972. model Wu et al. 1997 model Wu et al. 1997 model Wu et al. 1997 model Wu et al. 1997 model Wu et al. 1997 model Wu et al. 1997 model Wu et al. 1997 model Wu et al. 1997 model Wu et al. 1997 model Wu et al. 1997 model Wu et al. 1997 model Wu et al. 1997 model validation validation

field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field

10 0.52083 PTI 1995 10 0.52083 PTI 1995

Page 32

final-for-appendix98

Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn

ZnSO4 ZnSO4 field field field field field field-background field-background fresh-fluedust fresh-fluedust fresh-fluedust fresh-fluedust fresh-fluedust field-background fresh-fluedust fresh-fluedust fresh-fluedust fresh-fluedust fresh-fluedust field-background field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field ZnSO4 ZnSO4 ZnSO4 ZnSO4 field-background field-flue-dust-added field-flue-dust-added

1250 1250 74 83 120 200 240 83 27 177 327 627 1227 2427 27 177 327 627 1227 2427 27 547 43 72 79 84 91 57 82 85 94 70 71 41 45 96 106 64 98 75 107 110 110 1010 1010 24.7 465 1030

15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 20.00

sandy loam 7.8 sandy loam 7.8 clay loam 6.3 sandy loam 6.3 sandy loam 5.2 sandy clay loam 3.6 sandy loam 6.3 silty clay loam 4.1 silt loam 5.4 silt loam 5.4 silt loam 5.4 silt loam 5.4 silt loam 5.4 silt loam 5.4 silt loam 5.4 silt loam 5.4 silt loam 5.4 silt loam 5.4 silt loam 5.4 silt loam 5.4 silt loam 5.4 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 4.7 5.7 5 5.4 6 5.1 5.5 6.1 5.3 5.5 7.2 4.4 4.8 6.2 6.2 4.4 5 5.1 6.7 7.3 7.3 7.3 7.3 7 7.2 6.9

. . . . .

10.00

20 sandy 20 sandy 20 sandy

45 barley 45 barley common reed common reed common reed common reed common reed red clover 21 barley 21 barley 21 barley 21 barley 21 barley 21 barley 21 maize 21 maize 21 maize 21 maize 21 maize 21 maize 21 radish radish cabbage cabbage cabbage cabbage cabbage carrot carrot carrot carrot cauliflower cauliflower corn corn corn corn lettuce lettuce turnip turnip 112 legume 112 unknown 112 unknown 112 unknown 95 barley 95 barley 95 barley

Hordeum vulgare Hordeum vulgare Phragmites australis Phragmites australis Phragmites australis Phragmites australis Phragmites australis Trifolium pratense Hordeum vulgare Hordeum vulgare Hordeum vulgare Hordeum vulgare Hordeum vulgare Hordeum vulgare Zea mays Zea mays Zea mays Zea mays Zea mays Zea mays Hordeum vulgare Raphanus sativus Brassica oleracea Brassica oleracea Brassica oleracea Brassica oleracea Brassica oleracea Daucus carrota Daucus carrota Daucus carrota Daucus carrota Brassica oleracea Brassica oleracea Zea mays Zea mays Zea mays Zea mays Latuca sativa Latuca sativa Brassica rappa Brassica rappa Anthyllis Lygeum spartum Lygeum spartum Lygeum spartum Hordeum vulgare Hordeum vulgare Hordeum vulgare

shoot shoot leaves leaves leaves leaves leaves leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf,stalk leaf,stalk leaf,stalk leaf,stalk leaf leaf leaf leaf shoot shoot shoot shoot straw straw straw

500 1900 5.4 10 9.4 21 11 104 18.2 1595 2547 3511 4381 2631 32.8 1330 2330 3110 2420 1550 76 209 56 26 63 28 23 40 42 34 36 46 26 34 38.5 15 22.5 72 76 66 32 500 1300 1700 800 25 33 53

0.4 1.52 0.07297 0.12048 0.07833 0.105 0.04583 1.25301 0.67407 9.0113 7.78899 5.59968 3.5705 1.08405 1.21481 7.51412 7.12538 4.96013 1.97229 0.63865 2.81481 0.38208 1.30233 0.36111 0.79747 0.33333 0.25275 0.70175 0.5122 0.4 0.38298 0.65714 0.3662 0.82927 0.85556 0.15625 0.21226 1.125 0.77551 0.88 0.29907 4.54545 11.8182 1.68317 0.79208 1.01215 0.07097 0.05146

Aery and Jagetiya 1997 model Aery and Jagetiya 1997 model Beyer, et al. 1990. model Beyer, et al. 1990. model Beyer, et al. 1990. model Beyer, et al. 1990. model Beyer, et al. 1990. model Carter 1983 model Chlopecka and Adriano 1996 model Chlopecka and Adriano 1996 model Chlopecka and Adriano 1996 model Chlopecka and Adriano 1996 model Chlopecka and Adriano 1996 model Chlopecka and Adriano 1996 model Chlopecka and Adriano 1996 model Chlopecka and Adriano 1996 model Chlopecka and Adriano 1996 model Chlopecka and Adriano 1996 model Chlopecka and Adriano 1996 model Chlopecka and Adriano 1996 model Chlopecka and Adriano 1996 model Davies 1992 model de Pieri et al. 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1996 model de Pieri et al. 1996 model Diaz et al. 1996 model Diaz et al. 1996 model Diaz et al. 1996 model Diaz et al. 1996 model Dudka et al. 1996 model Dudka et al. 1996 model Dudka et al. 1996 model

salt salt field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field salt salt salt salt field field field

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Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn

field-flue-dust-added field-flue-dust-added field-background field-flue-dust-added field-flue-dust-added field-flue-dust-added field-flue-dust-added field-background field-flue-dust-added field-flue-dust-added field-flue-dust-added field-flue-dust-added field field field field field ZnSO4 ZnSO4 ZnSO4 field-background field-background field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field-oldsludge field-sludge field

5900 11375 24.7 465 1030 5900 11375 24.7 465 1030 5900 11375 3100 3100 3100 11700 11700 50 250 1000 36.84 36.84 284 591 647 801 1670 2720 3110 50 62 72 72 85 92 62 72 72 85 92 50 62 72 72 85 92 240 247 283

20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20

sandy sandy sandy sandy sandy sandy sandy sandy sandy sandy sandy sandy

loam loam silty clay loam silty clay loam silty clay loam

7.4 7.4 7 7.2 6.9 7.4 7.4 7 7.2 6.9 7.4 7.4 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.3 7.3

collected,15-cm silt loam collected,15-cm silt loam collected,15-cm silt loam collected,15-cm silt loam collected,15-cm silt loam collected,15-cm silt loam collected,15-cm silt loam avg 5,10 avg 5,10 avg 5,10 avg 5,10 avg 5,10 avg 5,10 avg 5,10 avg 5,10 avg 5,10 avg 5,10 avg 5,10 avg 5,10 avg 5,10 avg 5,10 avg 5,10 avg 5,10 avg 5,10 sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam

5.0 7.5 5.5 6.1 6.8 6.4 6.7 3.3 3.4 3 3.3 3 4.1 3.4 3 3.3 3 4.1 3.3 3.4 3 3.3 3 4.1 6.8 6.1 5.8

95 barley Hordeum vulgare straw 95 barley Hordeum vulgare straw clover Trifolium pratense cutting clover Trifolium pratense cutting clover Trifolium pratense cutting clover Trifolium pratense cutting clover Trifolium pratense cutting grass Poa pratensis cutting grass Poa pratensis cutting grass Poa pratensis cutting grass Poa pratensis cutting grass Poa pratensis cutting 63 barley Hordeum vulgare shoot 63 Indian mustard Brassica juncea shoot 63 oat Avena sativa shoot 42 grass Festuca rubra shoot 42 grass Agrostis capillaris shoot 42 white clover Trifolium repens shoot 42 white clover Trifolium repens shoot 42 white clover Trifolium repens shoot unknown grass Poa spp. unknown grass Bromus japonicus 42 soybean Glycine max leaf 42 soybean Glycine max leaf 42 soybean Glycine max leaf 42 soybean Glycine max leaf 42 soybean Glycine max leaf 42 soybean Glycine max leaf 42 soybean Glycine max leaf low sweet blueberry Vaccinium angustifolium leaf low sweet blueberry Vaccinium angustifolium leaf low sweet blueberry Vaccinium angustifolium leaf low sweet blueberry Vaccinium angustifolium leaf low sweet blueberry Vaccinium angustifolium leaf low sweet blueberry Vaccinium angustifolium leaf red maple Acer rubrum leaf red maple Acer rubrum leaf red maple Acer rubrum leaf red maple Acer rubrum leaf red maple Acer rubrum leaf wavy hair-grass Deschampsia flexuosa leaf wavy hair-grass Deschampsia flexuosa leaf wavy hair-grass Deschampsia flexuosa leaf wavy hair-grass Deschampsia flexuosa leaf wavy hair-grass Deschampsia flexuosa leaf wavy hair-grass Deschampsia flexuosa leaf 21 radish Raphanus sativus leaf 21 radish Raphanus sativus leaf 21 radish Raphanus sativus leaf

66 99 31 54 93 105 113 26 55 108 141 159 630 250 160 100 200 72 220 1019 36.98 35.43 373 186 937 242 251 1020 567 40 27 19 24 17 38 43 35 48 19 54 32 36 28 32 35 30 90 213 84

0.01119 0.0087 1.25506 0.11613 0.09029 0.0178 0.00993 1.05263 0.11828 0.10485 0.0239 0.01398 0.20323 0.08065 0.05161 0.00855 0.01709 1.44 0.88 1.019 1.0038 0.96173 1.31338 0.31472 1.44822 0.30212 0.1503 0.375 0.18232 0.8 0.43548 0.26389 0.33333 0.2 0.41304 0.69355 0.48611 0.66667 0.22353 0.58696 0.64 0.58065 0.38889 0.44444 0.41176 0.32609 0.375 0.86235 0.29682

Dudka et al. 1996 model Dudka et al. 1996 model Dudka et al. 1996 model Dudka et al. 1996 model Dudka et al. 1996 model Dudka et al. 1996 model Dudka et al. 1996 model Dudka et al. 1996 model Dudka et al. 1996 model Dudka et al. 1996 model Dudka et al. 1996 model Dudka et al. 1996 model Ebbs and Kochian 1998 model Ebbs and Kochian 1998 model Ebbs and Kochian 1998 model Ebbs et al. 1997 model Ebbs et al. 1997 model Gildon and Tinker, 1983.model Gildon and Tinker, 1983.model Gildon and Tinker, 1983.model Hall et al. 1990 model Hall et al. 1990 model Heggo, et al. 1990. model Heggo, et al. 1990. model Heggo, et al. 1990. model Heggo, et al. 1990. model Heggo, et al. 1990. model Heggo, et al. 1990. model Heggo, et al. 1990. model Hutchinson and Whitby 1974 model Hutchinson and Whitby 1974 model Hutchinson and Whitby 1974 model Hutchinson and Whitby 1974 model Hutchinson and Whitby 1974 model Hutchinson and Whitby 1974 model Hutchinson and Whitby 1974 model Hutchinson and Whitby 1974 model Hutchinson and Whitby 1974 model Hutchinson and Whitby 1974 model Hutchinson and Whitby 1974 model Hutchinson and Whitby 1974 model Hutchinson and Whitby 1974 model Hutchinson and Whitby 1974 model Hutchinson and Whitby 1974 model Hutchinson and Whitby 1974 model Hutchinson and Whitby 1974 model Lorenz et al. 1997 model Lorenz et al. 1997 model Lorenz et al. 1997 model

field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field salt salt salt field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field

Page 34

final-for-appendix98

Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn

field-sludge field-sludge field field-background field field field field-background field-background field-background field-background field field field field field field field field field field field-mine-waste field-mine-waste field field field field field field field field field field field-pot field-pot field-pot field-pot field-pot field-pot field-pot field-pot field-pot field-pot field-pot field-pot field-pot field-pot field-pot field-background

320 340 370 397 1317 2000 5433 99 442.5 99 442.5 28 41 15.8 1023 15.8 1023 15.8 1023 15.8 1023 1908.9 1908.9 133 133 254 254 416 416 1520 1520 10800 10800 76 152 1700 1850 76 152 1700 1850 76 152 1700 1850 76 152 1850 7

unknown unknown 14.00 14.00 14.00 14.00 14.00 14.00 14.00 14.00

unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 2.00

radish Raphanus sativus leaf radish Raphanus sativus leaf radish Raphanus sativus leaf radish Raphanus sativus leaf radish Raphanus sativus leaf radish Raphanus sativus leaf radish Raphanus sativus leaf black-eyed Susan Rudbeckia hirta shoot 84 84 black-eyed Susan Rudbeckia hirta shoot 84 little bluestem Andropogon scoparius shoot 84 little bluestem Andropogon scoparius shoot . spruce Picea abies needles . spruce Picea abies needles above ground sand black oak Quercus velutina sand 6.8 black oak Quercus velutina above ground Lithospermum canescens above ground sand gromwell sand 6.8 gromwell Lithospermum canescens above ground sand quaking aspen Populus tremuloides leaf sand 6.8 quaking aspen Populus tremuloides leaf sand Solomon's sealSmilacina stellata above ground Solomon's sealSmilacina stellata above ground sand 6.8 unknown forbes unknown grasses peat, pumice, and ground limestone 7.3 6, 10 weeks unknown Thalaspi goesingense above ground peat, pumice, and ground limestone 7.3 6, 10 weeks unknown Thalaspi goesingense above ground Dun Mountain 6.7 6, 10 weeks serpentine soil unknown Thalaspi goesingense above ground Dun Mountain 6.7 6, 10 weeks serpentine soil unknown Thalaspi goesingense above ground New Caledonian serpentine unknown 6.8 6, 10 weeks Thalaspi goesingense above ground New Caledonian serpentine unknown 6.8 6, 10 weeks Thalaspi goesingense above ground Dun Mountain 6.7 6, 10 weekswith approx 1500 ppm goesingense above ground serpentine soil, unknown Thalaspi zinc added Dun Mountain 6.7 6, 10 weekswith approx 1500 ppm goesingense above ground serpentine soil, unknown Thalaspi zinc added peat, pumice, and ground limestone with approx 10,000 ppm zinc added ground 7.3 6, 10 weeks unknown Thalaspi goesingense above peat, pumice, and ground limestone with approx 10,000 ppm zinc added ground 7.3 6, 10 weeks unknown Thalaspi goesingense above clayey sand 4.7 42 cress Lepidium sativum cutting clay 7.2 42 cress Lepidium sativum cutting clayey sand 7.2 42 cress Lepidium sativum cutting clayey sand 7.2 42 cress Lepidium sativum cutting clayey sand 4.7 42 phacelia Phacelia tanacetifolia cutting clay 7.2 42 phacelia Phacelia tanacetifolia cutting clayey sand 7.2 42 phacelia Phacelia tanacetifolia cutting clayey sand 7.2 42 phacelia Phacelia tanacetifolia cutting clayey sand 4.7 42 spinach Spinacia oleracea cutting clay 7.2 42 spinach Spinacia oleracea cutting clayey sand 7.2 42 spinach Spinacia oleracea cutting clayey sand 7.2 42 spinach Spinacia oleracea cutting clayey sand 4.7 42 stinging nettle Urtica dioica cutting clay 7.2 42 stinging nettle Urtica dioica cutting clayey sand 7.2 42 stinging nettle Urtica dioica cutting sand 5.3 . dune grass Ammophilia arenaria clipping

sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam sand sand sand sand

6.3 7.6 7.1 6.4 7.8 6.7 7.7 4.80 7.82 4.80 7.82 6.0 3.8

21 21 21 21 21 21 21

194 53 41 57 340 351 446 866.67 212 165.63 102.75 118.9 47.1 30.5 63 26.5 105.9 174.5 916 38.5 67.7 232 153.7 177 147 244 334 198 300 5300 11200 3290 2030 256 178 872 857 111 53 191 176 475 305 742 717 62 29 56 18

0.60625 0.15588 0.11081 0.14358 0.25816 0.1755 0.08209 8.75424 0.4791 1.67303 0.2322 4.24643 1.14878 1.93038 0.06158 1.67722 0.10352 11.0443 0.89541 2.43671 0.06618 0.12154 0.08052 1.33083 1.10526 0.96063 1.31496 0.47596 0.72115 3.48684 7.36842 0.30463 0.18796 3.36842 1.17105 0.51294 0.46324 1.46053 0.34868 0.11235 0.09514 6.25 2.00658 0.43647 0.38757 0.81579 0.19079 0.03027 2.57143

Lorenz et al. 1997 Lorenz et al. 1997 Lorenz et al. 1997 Lorenz et al. 1997 Lorenz et al. 1997 Lorenz et al. 1997 Lorenz et al. 1997 Miles and Parker, 1979. Miles and Parker, 1979. Miles and Parker, 1979. Miles and Parker, 1979. Nilsson, 1972. Nilsson, 1972. Parker et al. 1978 Parker et al. 1978 Parker et al. 1978 Parker et al. 1978 Parker et al. 1978 Parker et al. 1978 Parker et al. 1978 Parker et al. 1978 Pascoe et al. 1994 Pascoe et al. 1994 Reeves & Baker 1984 Reeves & Baker 1984 Reeves & Baker 1984 Reeves & Baker 1984 Reeves & Baker 1984 Reeves & Baker 1984 Reeves & Baker 1984 Reeves & Baker 1984 Reeves & Baker 1984 Reeves & Baker 1984 Schafer et al. 1998 Schafer et al. 1998 Schafer et al. 1998 Schafer et al. 1998 Schafer et al. 1998 Schafer et al. 1998 Schafer et al. 1998 Schafer et al. 1998 Schafer et al. 1998 Schafer et al. 1998 Schafer et al. 1998 Schafer et al. 1998 Schafer et al. 1998 Schafer et al. 1998 Schafer et al. 1998 Severson, et al. 1992.

model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model model

field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field

Page 35

final-for-appendix98

Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn

field-background field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field soil in pot field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field

7 55.3 80.8 88.3 93 94.6 95.3 95.9 97.1 103 120 126 128 149 150 155 195 195 397 73.2 148.1 236.4 335 385.7 444.5 498.3 831.7 53 69.3 45.9 90.4 159 372 441 631 696 836 852 867 1040 1190 1260 1480 2270 2430 1750 74.7 96

2.00 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00

sand range range range range range range range range range range range range range range range range range range loam sandy loam sandy loam sandy loam loam loam loam loam

5.3

5.7 6.4 6.6 5.7 7.0 5.2 4.3 5.5 6.5 6.4 8.3 7.8 7.5 6.8 6.9 7 7 4.9 6.2 5.9 5.4 7.8 6 6.7 7.2 6.7 4.8 6.5 5.9

90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90

willow 33 species 33 species 33 species 33 species 33 species 33 species 33 species 33 species 33 species 33 species 33 species 33 species 33 species 33 species 33 species 33 species 33 species 33 species cabbage cabbage cabbage cabbage cabbage cabbage cabbage cabbage

Salix repens

Brassica oleracea Brassica oleracea Brassica oleracea Brassica oleracea Brassica oleracea Brassica oleracea Brassica oleracea Brassica oleracea

leaf above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground above-ground shoot shoot shoot shoot shoot shoot shoot shoot

240 20.2 50.3 53.6 109.4 36.4 34.8 56.4 51 59.6 52.5 49.5 40.2 48.5 63.8 89.7 77.4 52.9 141.4 18 18 31 171 26 148 424 446 40.5 43.9 18.6 14 47.5 39 85 67 138 160 183 232 406 92.5 161 427 102 155 311 28 32.2

34.2857 0.36528 0.62252 0.60702 1.17634 0.38478 0.36516 0.58811 0.52523 0.57864 0.4375 0.39286 0.31406 0.3255 0.42533 0.57871 0.39692 0.27128 0.35617 0.2459 0.12154 0.13113 0.51045 0.06741 0.33296 0.85089 0.53625 0.76415 0.63348 0.40523 0.15487 0.29874 0.10484 0.19274 0.10618 0.19828 0.19139 0.21479 0.26759 0.39038 0.07773 0.12778 0.28851 0.04493 0.06379 0.17771 0.37483 0.33542

Severson, et al. 1992. model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Sharma and Shupe 1977a model Xian. 1989 model Xian. 1989 model Xian. 1989 model Xian. 1989 model Xian. 1989 model Xian. 1989 model Xian. 1989 model Xian. 1989 model PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation

field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field

above-ground kentucky_bluegrass above-ground kentucky_bluegrass redtop Agrostis stolonifera above-ground redtop Agrostis stolonifera above-ground redtop Agrostis stolonifera above-ground above-ground redtop Agrostis stolonifera above-ground redtop Agrostis stolonifera redtop Agrostis stolonifera above-ground redtop Agrostis stolonifera above-ground redtop Agrostis stolonifera above-ground redtop Agrostis stolonifera above-ground redtop Agrostis stolonifera above-ground redtop Agrostis stolonifera above-ground above-ground redtop Agrostis stolonifera redtop Agrostis stolonifera above-ground above-ground redtop Agrostis stolonifera redtop Agrostis stolonifera above-ground redtop Agrostis stolonifera above-ground redtop/tufted_hairgrass 2 spp. above-ground slender_wheatgrass Agropyron trachycaulum, prob above-ground slender_wheatgrass Agropyron trachycaulum, prob above-ground

Page 36

final-for-appendix98

Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn Al Al Al Al Al Al Al Al Al Al Al Al Al

field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field

1020 1440 1940 2260 2320 2700 3260 3210 1530 2135 199 7170 1530 2135 7170 7170 2270 3750 183 416 2270 7170 2270 3210 3750 1530 183 416 199 3210 3750 2135 183 416 199 16400 12200 14550 21050 16100 12200 14550 16100 16100 13600 14700 13750 16500

3.7 6.2 5.8 4.9 5.3 4.4 6.5 7.1 6.6 6 6.8 6.4 6.6 6 6.4 6.4 6 6.1 7 6.5 6 6.4 6 7.1 6.1 6.6 7 6.5 6.8 7.1 6.1 6 7 6.5 6.8 7.1 6.6 6 6.8 6.4 6.6 6 6.4 6.4 6 6.1 7 6.5

tufted_hairgrass ira or Deschampsia above-ground A tufted_hairgrass ira or Deschampsia above-ground A tufted_hairgrass ira or Deschampsia above-ground A tufted_hairgrass ira or Deschampsia above-ground A tufted_hairgrass ira or Deschampsia above-ground A tufted_hairgrass ira or Deschampsia above-ground A tufted_hairgrass ira or Deschampsia above-ground A annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf Beggar's ticks Bidens polylepsis stem/leaf Beggar's ticks Bidens polylepsis stem/leaf beggar's ticks Bidens polylepis stem/leaf beggar's ticks Bidens polylepis stem/leaf beggar's ticks Bidens polylepis stem/leaf Bermuda grassCynodon dactylon stem/leaf big bluestem Andropogon gerardi stem/leaf big bluestem Andropogon gerardi stem/leaf big bluestem Andropogon gerardi stem/leaf giant ragweed Abrosia trifida stem/leaf giant ragweed Ambrosia trifida stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf Beggar's ticks Bidens polylepsis stem/leaf Beggar's ticks Bidens polylepsis stem/leaf beggar's ticks Bidens polylepis stem/leaf beggar's ticks Bidens polylepis stem/leaf beggar's ticks Bidens polylepis stem/leaf Bermuda grassCynodon dactylon stem/leaf big bluestem Andropogon gerardi stem/leaf big bluestem Andropogon gerardi stem/leaf

330 257 999 849 527 555 157 473 2840 1610 52 827 2730 1380 1040 1140 1120 746 35 70 104 833 1800 321 228 449 67 75 22 285 247 708 24 346 15 51 44 29 77 64 61 58 60 54 38 43 15 11

0.32353 0.17847 0.51495 0.37566 0.22716 0.20556 0.04816 0.14735 1.85621 0.7541 0.26131 0.11534 1.78431 0.64637 0.14505 0.159 0.49339 0.19893 0.19126 0.16827 0.04581 0.11618 0.79295 0.1 0.0608 0.29346 0.36612 0.18029 0.11055 0.08879 0.06587 0.33162 0.13115 0.83173 0.07538 0.00311 0.00361 0.00199 0.00366 0.00398 0.005 0.00399 0.00373 0.00335 0.00279 0.00293 0.00109 0.00067

PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1994 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995

validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation

field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field

Page 37

final-for-appendix98

Al Al Al Al Al Al Al Al Al Al Al Al Al Al Al Sb Sb Ba Ba Ba Ba Ba Ba Ba Ba Ba Ba Ba Ba Ba Ba Ba Ba Ba Ba Ba Ba Ba Ba Ba Ba Ba Ba Ba Ba Ca

field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field

13600 16100 13600 16400 14700 12200 13750 16500 21050 16400 14700 14550 13750 16500 21050 4.4 4.4 151 92.2 164 216 176 92.2 164 176 176 157 160 103.6 119.5 157 176 157 151 160 92.2 103.6 119.5 216 151 160 164 103.6 119.5 216 13000

6 6.4 6 7.1 6.1 6.6 7 6.5 6.8 7.1 6.1 6 7 6.5 6.8 6.6 6.6 7.1 6.6 6 6.8 6.4 6.6 6 6.4 6.4 6 6.1 7 6.5 6 6.4 6 7.1 6.1 6.6 7 6.5 6.8 7.1 6.1 6 7 6.5 6.8 7.1

big bluestem giant ragweed giant ragweed Indian grass Indian grass Indian grass Indian grass Indian grass Indian grass switchgrass switchgrass switchgrass switchgrass switchgrass switchgrass

Andropogon gerardi Abrosia trifida Ambrosia trifida Sorghastrum nutans Sorghastrum nutans Sorghastrum nutans Sorghastrum nutans Sorghastrum nutans Sorghastrum nutans Panicum virgatum Panicum virgatum Panicum virgatum Panicum virgatum Panicum virgatum Panicum virgatum

stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf

18 75 63 23 12 19 8 12 27 160 57.5 41 37 38 236

0.00132 0.00466 0.00463 0.0014 0.00082 0.00156 0.00058 0.00073 0.00128 0.00976 0.00391 0.00282 0.00269 0.0023 0.01121

PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995

validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation

field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field

annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf Beggar's ticks Bidens polylepsis stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf Beggar's ticks Bidens polylepsis stem/leaf Beggar's ticks Bidens polylepsis stem/leaf beggar's ticks Bidens polylepis stem/leaf beggar's ticks Bidens polylepis stem/leaf beggar's ticks Bidens polylepis stem/leaf Bermuda grassCynodon dactylon stem/leaf big bluestem Andropogon gerardi stem/leaf big bluestem Andropogon gerardi stem/leaf big bluestem Andropogon gerardi stem/leaf giant ragweed Abrosia trifida stem/leaf giant ragweed Ambrosia trifida stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf

0.04 0.00909 PTI 1995 0.05 0.01136 PTI 1995 29.5 84.4 76.7 26.8 53.6 44 34.2 19.7 11.4 32.9 40.2 13.8 6.6 7.8 36.4 98.6 11.9 33.4 21.9 25.5 20.7 14.9 6.9 15.4 14.7 14.4 15.7 7.7 0.19536 0.9154 0.46768 0.12407 0.30455 0.47722 0.20854 0.11193 0.06477 0.20955 0.25125 0.1332 0.05523 0.04968 0.20682 0.62803 0.07881 0.20875 0.23753 0.24614 0.17322 0.06898 0.0457 0.09625 0.08963 0.139 0.13138 0.03565 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995

13900 1.06923 PTI 1995

Page 38

final-for-appendix98

Ca Ca Ca Ca Ca Ca Ca Ca Ca Ca Ca Ca Ca Ca Ca Ca Ca Ca Ca Ca Ca Ca Ca Ca Ca Ca Ca Cr Cr Cr Cr Cr Cr Cr Cr Cr Cr Cr Cr Cr Cr Cr Cr Cr Cr Cr Cr Cr

field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field

1790 3715 35770 8380 1790 3715 8380 8380 4110 2500 1950 2195 4110 8380 4110 13000 2500 1790 1950 2195 35770 13000 2500 3715 1950 2195 35770 27.3 21.4 26.45 37.3 42.9 21.4 26.45 42.9 42.9 25.2 24.7 23.6 32.8 25.2 42.9 25.2 27.3 24.7 21.4 23.6 32.8

6.6 6 6.8 6.4 6.6 6 6.4 6.4 6 6.1 7 6.5 6 6.4 6 7.1 6.1 6.6 7 6.5 6.8 7.1 6.1 6 7 6.5 6.8 7.1 6.6 6 6.8 6.4 6.6 6 6.4 6.4 6 6.1 7 6.5 6 6.4 6 7.1 6.1 6.6 7 6.5

annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf Beggar's ticks Bidens polylepsis stem/leaf Beggar's ticks Bidens polylepsis stem/leaf beggar's ticks Bidens polylepis stem/leaf beggar's ticks Bidens polylepis stem/leaf beggar's ticks Bidens polylepis stem/leaf Bermuda grassCynodon dactylon stem/leaf big bluestem Andropogon gerardi stem/leaf big bluestem Andropogon gerardi stem/leaf big bluestem Andropogon gerardi stem/leaf giant ragweed Abrosia trifida stem/leaf giant ragweed Ambrosia trifida stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf Beggar's ticks Bidens polylepsis stem/leaf Beggar's ticks Bidens polylepsis stem/leaf beggar's ticks Bidens polylepis stem/leaf beggar's ticks Bidens polylepis stem/leaf beggar's ticks Bidens polylepis stem/leaf Bermuda grassCynodon dactylon stem/leaf big bluestem Andropogon gerardi stem/leaf big bluestem Andropogon gerardi stem/leaf big bluestem Andropogon gerardi stem/leaf giant ragweed Abrosia trifida stem/leaf giant ragweed Ambrosia trifida stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf

11400 11200 13900 12200 10800 9860 9800 9890 8880 4760 2320 1100 1630 38800 37200 2030 2570 1730 1980 2150 4020 3590 4620 5030 2730 3580 4100 1.1 1.7 0.7 0.8 6.5 1.1 0.9 2.6 3.2 1.2 1.6 0.6 0.7 12.1 3.6 1.9 1 1 1.6 0.5 0.8

6.36872 3.0148 0.38859 1.45585 6.03352 2.6541 1.16945 1.18019 2.16058 1.904 1.18974 0.50114 0.39659 4.63007 9.05109 0.15615 1.028 0.96648 1.01538 0.9795 0.11238 0.27615 1.848 1.35397 1.4 1.63098 0.11462 0.04029 0.07944 0.02647 0.02145 0.15152 0.0514 0.03403 0.06061 0.07459 0.04762 0.06478 0.02542 0.02134 0.48016 0.08392 0.0754 0.03663 0.04049 0.07477 0.02119 0.02439

PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995

validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation

field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field

Page 39

final-for-appendix98

Cr Cr Cr Cr Cr Cr Cr Co Co Co Co Co Co Co Co Co Co Co Co Co Co Co Co Co Co Co Co Co Co Co Co Co Co Co Co Fe Fe Fe Fe Fe Fe Fe Fe Fe Fe Fe Fe

field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field

37.3 27.3 24.7 26.45 23.6 32.8 37.3 15.6 8.3 10.15 13.95 14.9 8.3 10.15 14.9 14.9 9.6 9.2 7.55 8.35 9.6 14.9 9.6 15.6 9.2 8.3 7.55 8.35 13.95 15.6 9.2 10.15 7.55 8.35 13.95 26100 15500 20450 29300 27000 15500 20450 27000 27000 19300 19800 17350

6.8 7.1 6.1 6 7 6.5 6.8 7.1 6.6 6 6.8 6.4 6.6 6 6.4 6.4 6 6.1 7 6.5 6 6.4 6 7.1 6.1 6.6 7 6.5 6.8 7.1 6.1 6 7 6.5 6.8 7.1 6.6 6 6.8 6.4 6.6 6 6.4 6.4 6 6.1 7

Indian grass switchgrass switchgrass switchgrass switchgrass switchgrass switchgrass

Sorghastrum nutans Panicum virgatum Panicum virgatum Panicum virgatum Panicum virgatum Panicum virgatum Panicum virgatum

stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf

0.8 1.7 1.6 1.1 0.9 1 1.3 0.11 0.09 0.05 0.08 0.12 0.37 0.1 0.37 0.36 0.07 0.07 0.08 0.05 0.16 0.37 0.34 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.05 0.17 0.05 0.03 0.06 0.14 0.09 117 104 54 84 377 104 82 269 260 73 98 40

0.02145 0.06227 0.06478 0.04159 0.03814 0.03049 0.03485 0.00705 0.01084 0.00493 0.00573 0.00805 0.04458 0.00985 0.02483 0.02416 0.00729 0.00761 0.0106 0.00599 0.01667 0.02483 0.03542 0.00192 0.00326 0.00482 0.0053 0.00359 0.00358 0.0109 0.00543 0.00296 0.00795 0.01677 0.00645 0.00448 0.00671 0.00264 0.00287 0.01396 0.00671 0.00401 0.00996 0.00963 0.00378 0.00495 0.00231

PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995

validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation

field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field

annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf Beggar's ticks Bidens polylepsis stem/leaf Beggar's ticks Bidens polylepsis stem/leaf beggar's ticks Bidens polylepis stem/leaf beggar's ticks Bidens polylepis stem/leaf beggar's ticks Bidens polylepis stem/leaf Bermuda grassCynodon dactylon stem/leaf big bluestem Andropogon gerardi stem/leaf big bluestem Andropogon gerardi stem/leaf big bluestem Andropogon gerardi stem/leaf giant ragweed Abrosia trifida stem/leaf giant ragweed Ambrosia trifida stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf Beggar's ticks Bidens polylepsis stem/leaf Beggar's ticks Bidens polylepsis stem/leaf beggar's ticks Bidens polylepis stem/leaf beggar's ticks Bidens polylepis stem/leaf beggar's ticks Bidens polylepis stem/leaf Bermuda grassCynodon dactylon stem/leaf big bluestem Andropogon gerardi stem/leaf

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Fe Fe Fe Fe Fe Fe Fe Fe Fe Fe Fe Fe Fe Fe Fe Fe Mg Mg Mg Mg Mg Mg Mg Mg Mg Mg Mg Mg Mg Mg Mg Mg Mg Mg Mg Mg Mg Mg Mg Mg Mg Mg Mg Mg Mn Mn Mn

field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field

26600 19300 27000 19300 26100 19800 15500 17350 26600 29300 26100 19800 20450 17350 26600 29300 2850 1340 2120 3505 2530 1340 2120 2530 2530 2140 1750 1420 1950 2140 2530 2140 2850 1750 1340 1420 1950 3505 2850 1750 2120 1420 1950 3505 486 455 583

6.5 6 6.4 6 7.1 6.1 6.6 7 6.5 6.8 7.1 6.1 6 7 6.5 6.8 7.1 6.6 6 6.8 6.4 6.6 6 6.4 6.4 6 6.1 7 6.5 6 6.4 6 7.1 6.1 6.6 7 6.5 6.8 7.1 6.1 6 7 6.5 6.8 7.1 6.6 6

big bluestem big bluestem giant ragweed giant ragweed Indian grass Indian grass Indian grass Indian grass Indian grass Indian grass switchgrass switchgrass switchgrass switchgrass switchgrass switchgrass

Andropogon gerardi Andropogon gerardi Abrosia trifida Ambrosia trifida Sorghastrum nutans Sorghastrum nutans Sorghastrum nutans Sorghastrum nutans Sorghastrum nutans Sorghastrum nutans Panicum virgatum Panicum virgatum Panicum virgatum Panicum virgatum Panicum virgatum Panicum virgatum

stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf

37 1460 235 181 61 50 77.7 28 40 55 216 126 80 66 73 181 3260 2670 1910 1890 2380 2760 3710 2380 2180 2290 1270 773 574 515 6600 6410 721 412 342 889 784 452 2160 1010 2460 1430 2640 636

0.00139 0.07565 0.0087 0.00938 0.00234 0.00253 0.00501 0.00161 0.0015 0.00188 0.00828 0.00636 0.00391 0.0038 0.00274 0.00618 1.14386 1.99254 0.90094 0.53923 0.94071 2.0597 1.75 0.94071 0.86166 1.07009 0.72571 0.54437 0.29436 0.24065 2.6087 2.99533 0.25298 0.23543 0.25522 0.62606 0.40205 0.12896 0.75789 0.57714 1.16038 1.00704 1.35385 0.18146

PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995

validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation

field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field

annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf Beggar's ticks Bidens polylepsis stem/leaf Beggar's ticks Bidens polylepsis stem/leaf beggar's ticks Bidens polylepis stem/leaf beggar's ticks Bidens polylepis stem/leaf beggar's ticks Bidens polylepis stem/leaf Bermuda grassCynodon dactylon stem/leaf big bluestem Andropogon gerardi stem/leaf big bluestem Andropogon gerardi stem/leaf big bluestem Andropogon gerardi stem/leaf giant ragweed Abrosia trifida stem/leaf giant ragweed Ambrosia trifida stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf

22.9 0.04712 PTI 1995 16 0.03516 PTI 1995 11.6 0.0199 PTI 1995

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Mn Mn Mn Mn Mn Mn Mn Mn Mn Mn Mn Mn Mn Mn Mn Mn Mn Mn Mn Mn Mn Mn Mn Mn Mn K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K

field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field

615 455 583 615 615 524 578 219.5 254 524 615 524 486 578 455 219.5 254 486 578 583 219.5 254 1145 1145 1145 1400 1410 2325 3735 1980 1410 2325 1980 1980 2320 1850 1560 1845 2320 1980 2320 1400 1850 1410 1560 1845 3735 1400

6.4 6.6 6 6.4 6.4 6 6.1 7 6.5 6 6.4 6 7.1 6.1 6.6 7 6.5 7.1 6.1 6 7 6.5 6.8 6.8 6.8 7.1 6.6 6 6.8 6.4 6.6 6 6.4 6.4 6 6.1 7 6.5 6 6.4 6 7.1 6.1 6.6 7 6.5 6.8 7.1

annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf Beggar's ticks Bidens polylepsis stem/leaf Beggar's ticks Bidens polylepsis stem/leaf beggar's ticks Bidens polylepis stem/leaf beggar's ticks Bidens polylepis stem/leaf beggar's ticks Bidens polylepis stem/leaf Bermuda grassCynodon dactylon stem/leaf big bluestem Andropogon gerardi stem/leaf big bluestem Andropogon gerardi stem/leaf big bluestem Andropogon gerardi stem/leaf giant ragweed Abrosia trifida stem/leaf giant ragweed Ambrosia trifida stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf Beggar's ticks Bidens polylepsis stem/leaf Beggar's ticks Bidens polylepsis stem/leaf beggar's ticks Bidens polylepis stem/leaf beggar's ticks Bidens polylepis stem/leaf beggar's ticks Bidens polylepis stem/leaf Bermuda grassCynodon dactylon stem/leaf big bluestem Andropogon gerardi stem/leaf big bluestem Andropogon gerardi stem/leaf big bluestem Andropogon gerardi stem/leaf giant ragweed Abrosia trifida stem/leaf giant ragweed Ambrosia trifida stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf

22.9 53.5 71.7 118 144 35.4 45.7 55.4 39.5 19.4 74.1 86.9 11.2 20.6 18 47.2 48.9 38.6 23.8 50.6 43.6 110 42.3 38.2 66.1 15700 14600 17500 16900 16100 20400 11200 16800 18300 13400 9890 8650 9860 9650 22300 28000 9600 9740 10400 9020 9320 9530 4360

0.03724 0.11758 0.12298 0.19187 0.23415 0.06756 0.07907 0.25239 0.15551 0.03702 0.12049 0.16584 0.02305 0.03564 0.03956 0.21503 0.19252 0.07942 0.04118 0.08679 0.19863 0.43307 0.03694 0.03336 0.05773 11.2143 10.3546 7.52688 4.52477 8.13131 14.4681 4.8172 8.48485 9.24242 5.77586 5.34595 5.54487 5.34417 4.15948 11.2626 12.069 6.85714 5.26486 7.37589 5.78205 5.05149 2.55154 3.11429

PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995

validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation

field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field

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K K K K K Ag Ag Ag Ag Ag Ag Ag Ag Ag Ag Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na V V V V V V V V V V

field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field

1850 2325 1560 1845 3735 3 3 2.9 2.1 6.9 6.9 3 1 6.9 2.9 148 86.2 61.4 71.8 395 86.2 61.4 395 395 57.3 49.3 57.3 395 57.3 148 86.2 148 49.3 61.4 41.6 71.8 20.7 28.6 30.85 39.65 57.9 28.6 30.85 57.9 57.9 28.4

6.1 6 7 6.5 6.8 6.6 6.6 6 6 6.1 6.1 6.6 7.1 6.1 6 7.1 6.6 6 6.8 6.4 6.6 6 6.4 6.4 6 6.1 6 6.4 6 7.1 6.6 7.1 6.1 6 7 6.8 7.1 6.6 6 6.8 6.4 6.6 6 6.4 6.4 6

switchgrass switchgrass switchgrass switchgrass switchgrass

Panicum virgatum Panicum virgatum Panicum virgatum Panicum virgatum Panicum virgatum

stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf

3070 13100 4180 5910 4630 0.1 0.02 0.06 0.03 0.07 0.02 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.04 76 13 12 12 10 16 20 30 23 13 136 47 11 11 15 10 162 11 10 21 19 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2

1.65946 5.63441 2.67949 3.20325 1.23963 0.03333 0.00667 0.02069 0.01429 0.01014 0.0029 0.01667 0.04 0.0058 0.01379 0.51351 0.15081 0.19544 0.16713 0.02532 0.18561 0.32573 0.07595 0.05823 0.22688 2.75862 0.82024 0.02785 0.19197 0.10135 0.11601 1.09459 0.22312 0.16287 0.50481 0.26462 0.00966 0.0035 0.00324 0.00504 0.00345 0.00699 0.00648 0.00173 0.00345 0.00704

PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995

validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation

field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field field

annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf Beggar's ticks Bidens polylepsis stem/leaf Beggar's ticks Bidens polylepsis stem/leaf beggar's ticks Bidens polylepis stem/leaf Bermuda grassCynodon dactylon stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf Beggar's ticks Bidens polylepsis stem/leaf Beggar's ticks Bidens polylepsis stem/leaf beggar's ticks Bidens polylepis stem/leaf beggar's ticks Bidens polylepis stem/leaf beggar's ticks Bidens polylepis stem/leaf Bermuda grassCynodon dactylon stem/leaf big bluestem Andropogon gerardi stem/leaf giant ragweed Abrosia trifida stem/leaf giant ragweed Ambrosia trifida stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf switchgrass Panicum virgatum stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia stem/leaf Beggar's ticks Bidens polylepsis stem/leaf Beggar's ticks Bidens polylepsis stem/leaf beggar's ticks Bidens polylepis stem/leaf beggar's ticks Bidens polylepis stem/leaf beggar's ticks Bidens polylepis stem/leaf

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V V V V V V V V V V V

field field field field field field field field field field field

30.4 28.25 57.9 28.4 41.2 20.7 30.4 30.85 28.25 41.2 39.65

6.1 7 6.4 6 6.5 7.1 6.1 6 7 6.5 6.8

Bermuda grassCynodon dactylon big bluestem Andropogon gerardi giant ragweed Abrosia trifida giant ragweed Ambrosia trifida Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans switchgrass Panicum virgatum switchgrass Panicum virgatum switchgrass Panicum virgatum switchgrass Panicum virgatum switchgrass Panicum virgatum switchgrass Panicum virgatum

stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf stem/leaf

0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.15 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.4

0.00329 0.00354 0.00345 0.00704 0.00243 0.01449 0.00493 0.00324 0.00708 0.00485 0.01009

PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995 PTI 1995

validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation validation

field field field field field field field field field field field

Page 44

APPENDIX B PROCEDURE FOR CALCULATION OF PREDICTION LIMITS FOR ESTIMATES GENERATED BY THE SIMPLE REGRESSION MODELS

Prediction limits for estimates generated by the single-variable regression models presented in Table 7 may be calculated using the following equation (Dowdy and Wearden 1983):

1 ( x ( & 0 )2 Prediction Limit ' t"'0.05, df'n&2 ( RMSE( 1% % n Sxx

t"=0.05, df=n-2 n RMSE x* 0 Sxx

= = = = = = =

ln-transformed concentration of chemical in plant estimated using regression models from Table 7 t-statistic for 95% one-tailed limits or 90% two-tailed intervals with n-2 degrees of freedom. (Presented in Table B-1). Sample size for regression model. (Presented in Table B-1). Root mean square error for regression model. (Presented in Table B-1). ln-transformed soil concentration for which plant concentrations are being estimated. (Site specific). Mean soil concentration from regression model. (Presented in Table B-1). Variance of soil concentrations from regression model. Sxx = 3 x2 - 3 x /n. (Presented in Table B-1).

The procedure for calculating an upper 95% prediction limit for an estimate (UPL) is as follows: 1. Use regression model from Table 7 and estimate the ln-transformed concentration of chemical in above-ground plant tissue () from the ln-transformed soil concentration of the chemical of concern (x*). Obtain values for t, n, RMSE, 0, and Sxx from Table B-1. Apply the values from step 2 along with x* to the equation outlined above and add the product to to generate the upper 95% prediction limit for (UPL). UPL as calculated by the above equation is ln-transformed and must be back-transformed. Backtransform UPL as: e UPL

2. 3.

4.

A lower 95% prediction limit (LPL) can be calculated by subtracting the product from step 3 from , then back transforming the result. The 90% prediction interval (PI) is calculated if both the UPL and LPL are calculated. In application, 95% of all estimates are expected to fall below or above the UPL and LPL, respectively, and 90% of all estimates are expected to fall between the UPL and LPL.

B-3

Table B-1. Values for estimating upper and lower prediction limits for estimates generated by simple regression models. All models based on the initial model and validation datasets, combined (Table 7) unless otherwise noted Root mean square error (RMSE) 2.36381 1.24301 1.00253 1.89162 1.46466 2.10393 1.51976 1.14747 t statistic (" = 0.05, " df = n-2) 1.6574 1.6522 1.6534 1.6530 1.6554 1.6587 1.6546 1.6518

Chemical As Cd Cu Pb Hg Ni Se Zn

n 122 207 180 189 145 111 158 220

3x 364.6195 87.0892 820.7744 839.8090 22.7877 508.0807 168.3280 1285.8227

0 2.9887 0.4207 4.5599 4.4434 0.1572 4.5773 1.0654 5.8446

3 x2 1446.2161 894.7434 4269.1840 4413.3972 1543.3069 2832.8248 688.7361 8143.2584

Sxx -1077.8786 -32.3178 -3718.8965 -3708.2845 7.0623 -2300.1186 -174.9720 -7478.1676

B-4

APPENDIX C SCATTERPLOTS OF BIOACCUMULATION OF CHEMICALS FROM FIELD-CONTAMINATED SITES AND SALTS-AMENDED SOILS

1000

100

Concentration in plant (mg/kg dry wt.)

10

1 Field uptake data Field uptake data 95% prediction limit for field data Salt uptake data 0.1 Salt uptake data

C-3

0.01

0.001

10

100

1000

Concentration in soil (mg/kg dry wt.)

Fig. C.1. Scatterplot of arsenic concentrations in vegetation versus soil, where arsenic was added to soil in salt form or was present in a contaminated field soil. The regression lines for the salt uptake data and field uptake data are presented, as well as the 95% prediction limit for the field uptake data. All data are from published papers or reports.

1000

100

Concentration in plant (mg/kg dry wt.)

10

C-4

0.1

Field uptake data Field uptake data 0.01 95% prediction limit for field data Salt uptake data Salt uptake data

0.001 0.01

0.1

10

100

1000

Concentration in soil (mg/kg dry wt.)

Fig. C.2. Scatterplot of cadmium concentrations in vegetation versus soil, where cadmium was added to soil in salt form or was present in a contaminated field soil. The regression lines for the salt uptake data and field uptake data are presented, as well as the 95% prediction limit for the field uptake data. All data are from published papers or reports.

1000

100

Concentration in plant (mg/kg dry wt.)

10

C-5

1 Field uptake data Field uptake data 95% prediction limit for field data Salt uptake data Salt uptake data

0.1 1 10 100 1000 10000

Concentration in soil (mg/kg dry wt.)

Fig. C.3. Scatterplot of copper concentrations in vegetation versus soil, where copper was added to soil in salt form or was present in a contaminated field soil. The regression lines for the salt uptake data and field uptake data are presented, as well as the 95% prediction limit for the field uptake data. All data are from published papers or reports.

10000

1000

Concentration in plant (mg/kg dry wt.)

100

10

C-6

0.1 Field uptake data Field uptake data 95% prediction limit for field data 0.01 Salt uptake data Salt uptake data

0.001 0.1 1 10 100 1000 10000

Concentration in soil (mg/kg dry wt.)

Fig. C.4. Scatterplot of lead concentrations in vegetation versus soil, where lead was added to soil in salt form or was present in a contaminated field soil. The regression lines for the salt uptake data and field uptake data are presented, as well as the 95% prediction limit for the field uptake data. All data are from published papers or reports.

1000

100

Concentration in plant (mg/kg dry wt.)

10

0.1

C-7

Field uptake data Field uptake data 0.01 95% prediction limit for field data Salt uptake data Salt uptake data

0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000

Concentration in soil (mg/kg dry wt.)

Fig. C.5. Scatterplot of mercury concentrations in vegetation versus soil, where mercury was added to soil in salt form or was present in a contaminated field soil. The regression lines for the salt uptake data and field uptake data are presented, as well as the 95% prediction limit for the field uptake data. All data are from published papers or reports.

10000

1000

Concentration in plant (mg/kg dry wt.)

100

10

C-8

0.1 Field uptake data Field uptake data 95% prediction limit for field data 0.01 Salt uptake data Salt uptake data

0.001 1 10 100 1000 10000

Concentration in soil (mg/kg dry wt.)

Fig. C.6. Scatterplot of nickel concentrations in vegetation versus soil, where nickel was added to soil in salt form or was present in a contaminated field soil. The regression lines for the salt uptake data and field uptake data are presented, as well as the 95% prediction limit for the field uptake data. All data are from published papers or reports.

10000

1000

Concentration in plant (mg/kg dry wt.)

100

10

C-9

0.1 Field uptake data Field uptake data 95% prediction limit for field data 0.01 Salt uptake data Salt uptake data

0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000

Concentration in soil (mg/kg dry wt.)

Fig. C.7. Scatterplot of selenium concentrations in vegetation versus soil, where selenium was added to soil in salt form or was present in a contaminated field soil. The regression lines for the salt uptake data and field uptake data are presented, as well as the 95% prediction limit for the field uptake data. All data are from published papers or reports.

10000

Concentration in plant (mg/kg dry wt.)

1000

100

C-10

10

Field uptake data Field uptake data 95% prediction limit for field data Salt uptake data Salt uptake data

1 10 100 1000 10000

Concentration in soil (mg/kg dry wt.)

Fig. C.8. Scatterplot of zinc concentrations in vegetation versus soil, where zinc was added to soil in salt form or was present in a contaminated field soil. The regression lines for the salt uptake data and field uptake data are presented, as well as the 95% prediction limit for the field uptake data. All data are from published papers or reports.

APPENDIX D SUMMARY STATISTICS FOR SOIL-PLANT UPTAKE FACTORS FOR MISCELLANEOUS CHEMICALS FROM THE VALIDATION DATASET

Table D-1. Summary statistics for soil-plant uptake factors following inclusion of validation data N (observns) Standard Deviation 0.00245 0.00161 0.197 2.129 0.0860 90th percentile 0.005 0.0114 0.477 6.0335 0.0839 Mean of lntransformed values -6.003 -4.589 -1.873 0.125 -3.046 St. dev. of lntransformed values 0.756 0.158 0.810 1.130 0.682

Chemical Aluminum Antimony Barium Calcium Chromium

Mean

Minimum 0.00058 0.00909 0.03565 0.11238 0.02119

Median 0.00287 0.0102 0.156 1.185 0.0410

Maximum 0.0112 0.0114 0.9154 9.0511 0.4802

Distribution lognormal either lognormal lognormal neither (lognormal closest) lognormal neither (lognormal closest) lognormal lognormal either either lognormal lognormal

28 0.0032 2 0.0102 28 0.213 28 1.930 28 0.0653

D-3

Cobalt Iron

28 0.0115 28 0.00762

0.0104 0.0137

0.00192 0.00139

0.00745 0.00425

0.0248 0.01

0.0446 0.0756

-4.781 -5.367

0.781 0.833

Magnesium Manganese Potassium Silver Sodium Vanadium

28 0.948 28 0.113 28 6.381 10 0.0164 21 0.390 21 0.00548

0.74056 0.0957 3.304 0.0120 0.604 0.00308

0.12896 0.0199 1.23963 0.0029 0.02532 0.00173

0.810 0.0792 5.590 0.0140 0.192 0.00485

2.0597 0.234 11.263 0.0367 0.8202 0.0097

2.995 0.433 14.468 0.04 2.759 0.0145

-0.358 -2.511 1.706 -4.372 -1.593 -5.340

0.834 0.836 0.588 0.806 1.127 0.521

BJC/OR-133

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