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General Notes
Characteristics GPMG(SF)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
1. 2. 3. 4.


Portability Obscuration Stores Indirect Fire Flexibility Ammunition Beaten Zone

Weapon weights Gun Tripod Barrel Bag 200 rnds boxed 10.9Kg 13.6Kg 12.7Kg 7.7Kg

Ammunition 1.
PER GU N 5000

First Line
BOXES 25 WT (Kg) 235 PER PL 4500 0 CARRIERS 56.25 BOXES 225 WT (Kg) 2113


PER GU N 4000

BOXES 20 WT (Kg) 188 PER PL 3600 0 CARRIERS 45 BOXES 180 WT (Kg) 1692


3 Types of Ammunition 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Blank Drill Ball 1 Bit (1 ball +1 tracer) 4 Bit (4 ball + 1 tracer)

Rates of Fire 1. 2. Normal Rapid 100 rpm 200 rpm

Length of Burst Normal length of burst is 20 rounds. This is necessary to ensure a close pattern of shots in the beaten zone. Beaten Zone
RANGE 600 1100 1800 2500 WIDTH 2.3 4.6 6.9 9.6 LENGHT 258 142 112 104

Types of Targets


Point Target. Targets, which appear at long range to have no appreciable width or depth such as a gun emplacement, the corner of a wood.


Traversing Target. Targets, which have width and depth, such as the edge of a wood, hedgerow. This type of target is not normally more than 50 mils wide and 50 metres deep.


Depth Target. Targets that have depth but no appreciable width

Weapon Ranges 1. 2. 3. Light Role SF(direct shoots) SF (MPF) 0- 800 m 0-1800 m 0- 2500m

Balancing the Gun Reason why this is Done? Each gun barrels requires to be balanced to find the best gas regulator setting to ensure reliability combined with minimum vibration. The Balancing Procedure


Set the gas regulator setting at six clicks from fully closed Fire a burst of three to five rounds. Apply the safety catch and move the cocking handle back until it contacts the working parts (do not recock). The cocking should be level with the white line painted on the right side of the body. If this is so, push the cocking handle fully forward, open the gas regulator two clicks (downwards) and repeat the above drill until the cocking handle stops about 12 mm (half inch) in front of the white line. When this happens, do not open the gas regulator further, instead, close it by four clicks. Move the safety catch to fire, fully cock the gun, fire a burst and confirm that the cocking handle now moves back to the white line.





Close the gas regulator fully, noting the number of clicks taken to do so. The number of clicks is to be recorded.

C2 Sight Testing Procedure Then this should be done: 1. 2. 3. Before all live firing On issue If the accuracy is in doubt

Preparation 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. A suitable distant aiming point (DAP ) not less than 1000 metres. Check C2 sights are serviceable and screws in elevation and bearing knob are not burred. your sight case has a screw driver. Your sight is condition elevation 0800 mils / bearing at zero, all indices in line. 1 spirit level

Elevation Testing 1. 2. 3. Mount the gun and tripod, ensure cross level bubble is central. Place a spirit level along the axis of the gun and ensure it is level. Release the elevation scale locking lever and level the elevation bubble, the scale should reed 0800 mils. If this is not do the following: a. Slacken the three screws on the face of the elevation knob.

b. c.

6 Hold the knob steady and realign the scale ring with the index to read zero. Tighten screws and check both bubbles are central and elevation scale reads 0800 mils.

Bearing Testing 1. 2. 3. mount gun and tripod and ensure the cross level bubble is central. remove the working parts from the gun. select a distant aiming point (DAP) at least 1000m from the gun and align the barrel onto this point by looking through it from the breach end. Once aligned, align the telescope of the C2 sight on the DAP until the vertical line bisectsit. The bearing fine and coarse scales should now read zero, If this is not do the following: d. e. f. g. Slacken fine scale wing nut a turn . Align the holes with screw leads on the knob Loosen screws carefully Adjust the fine scale ring to read zero against the inner index then, using the small screwdriver move the outer ring index until it align with zero. Tighten the screws and wing nut

4. 5.


Setting up for Map Predicted Fire (MPF) Occasions for Use 1. 2. The target cannot be seen from the gun line due to darkness, obscuration or its position is in dead ground. The observer or originator is displaced from the gun line target.

Advantages 1. 2. 3. Line of sight gun target is not required nor need strike be observed. Targets to maximum range of the range tables can be engaged. Patrols and own forces can call for fire on a gird reference.

Disadvantages 1. 2. 3. It requires accurate determination of the position and height of the gun line. It time consuming. It will not produce pinpoint accuracy.

Preparation 1. 2. 3. C2 sight testing to be carried out. Gun must be level Gun must be stable

8 Compass Distances 1. 2. 3. 4. GPMG(SF) with ammunition Defence stores Vehicles L/R Tank / APV 10 m 10 m 35m 75m

Methods Map and Reference Point 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Sect Comd selects a DAP over 1000m away which is identifiable on map and ground. Gunners lay onto Dap using iron sights. Gunners mark the DAP. Sect Comd calculates gird bearing to DAP from gun line. The bearing scales are adjusted to give same bearing (record slippage)

Map and Compass 1. Same as above but bearing is taken from gun to DAP by compass and then converted to a gird reference.

Compass 1. 2. 3. Raise the rear sight of the gun and take a bearing along the gun. Covert to a gird bearing Adjust the bearing scale to that bearing

Map Plotting Symbols


A gun line. The tactical symbol indicates a dot which is the exact centre of the gun line.

2. 3. 4.

A current plot. The dot represents the point for which current firing data is applicable. The tailor line serves as a marker for ease of locating dot.

A recorded target. The dot is the point on the map where the target was been recorded. The TGT number is written on the outside of the circle Individual plots. Where each gun has a different point of aim the plot is numbered to the gun

The Final Protective Fire (FPF) Task Normally the FPF task for the GPMG(SF) is one where the gun is fired across the front of a manned forward position, laying down a belt of fire through which an attacking enemy would have to pass . in defence this task is the guns most important. Preparation and recording by firing are carried out in daylight. The SF Platoon comd/ Sect Comd will check the lay on the FPF. For an FPF task, a safety angle in front of friendly forces will be ordered. The safety angle will be dependant on the ground /cover but will not be less than 50 mils. The gun is to be aligned on the FPF task when not engaged on any other task. Safety Angles 1. 2. 3. War Time Peace Time (tested) Peace Time 50 mils 200 mils 620 mils

Preparation of an FPF Task 1. 2. Mount the gun and tripod as previously taught. Ensure that the gun is not loaded, set the sights as ordered and aim at the point on the forward edge of the friendly forces location from which the safety angle is to be measured and report On.

10 3. 4. On command Mark act as taught The gun controller is to check and record the reading for bearing. The SF Sect Comd then adds or subtracts the angle ordered for the safety and orders Bearing.Lay Relay the gun on to the aiming post as taught. Report On The Sect Comd / gun controller then checks the line through the iron sight and selects a suitable area of ground where the beaten zone is to fall. The aim is laid on that area. It may be necessary to lay off more than the safety angle to ensure the maximum advantage of the available ground. On the command Record act as taught.# The Gun controller is to check the aim through the iron sights and the telescope and then check and record the readings for elevation and bearing on the target information sheet.


6. 7.

8. 9.

Firing the FPF In defence the procedures for firing the FPF task is as follows: 1. 2. The gun is to be manned at all times and laid. On the FPF when not engaging other targets The gun will be fired on pre-arranged FPF signal or when ordered.

11 3. When the signal / order is given, fire will be at the rapid rate. For safety reasons the gun should only be fired on the recorded information and constant checks must be made on the scales, elevation bubble and point of aim through the telescope.


12 4 Man Battle Trench Type A


WITHOUT SHS NIL 26 NIL 36 22 110 17 Kg

WITH SHS 4 7 10 9 21 36 4 Kg



GPMG (SF) Trench with Overhead Protection 1. The following OHP for a GPMG(SF) fire trench is designed based on a 4-man trench type A

Stage 1-Excavation 2. In front of the 1.5 metre fire bay excavate the gun platform 1.5 x1.2 x 0.3 metres deep, and then excavate a recess at each side of the gun platform 0.8 x 0.25 x 0.3 metres deep. As shown be low. At the rear of the fire bay excavate an elbow rest 1.5 x 0.25 x 0.3 metres deep, then a recess at each side of the elbow rest 0.25 x 0.25 x 0.3 metres deep as Shown below


Stage 2 Construction of OHP 1. 2. Construct a sandbag wall inside each recess to ground level Place three 1.8 metres pickets as spreaders along each wall. These 1.8 metres pickets are used to spread the load over the entrance of the shelter bay. If constructing OHP over the an end of an 01trench fire bay, then only the shelter bay end need have the three pickets placed over it. Construct a double sandbag wall on the top of the three 1.8 metres spreaders pickets to a height of 0.65 metres from the bottom of the gun platform to the



15 top of the sandbag wall. The top layer of sandbags need to be headers (see below). Construct a small wing wall on each side of the gun platform as shown. Place a 1.8 metre picket along the top of each wall to form a grillage. Timber should be used if available.


16 Make up six sets of sills that are double 1.8 metre pickets joined as shown below.

6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Lay these sills across the grillages on the sandbag walls spaced 0.3 metres apart. Place 4 single 1.8 metre pickets as roof bearers at right angles to, and top of the sills. Pickets must be spaced 0.5 metres apart. Place three 1.8 metres Corrugated Galvanized Iron (CGI) sheets at right angles at the front and rear. Build retaining sandbag walls three sandbag high on top of the CGI sheets at the front and rear Place soil to a death a depth of 0.45 metres on the CGI sheets and spread the surplus soil to produce a smooth outline of the trench. Camouflage the entire trench.


Digging Stages 1. 2. Stage 1- Fire trench dug (1/2-6 hours by hand) Stage 2- Trench excavation complete, including shelter bay with overhead protection (OHP) (2-24 hours by hand) Stage 3- position complete, including revetting, OHP and communications trenches (8-36 hours by hand
WIDTH DEPTH PARAPET ELBOW REST OVERHEAD COVER Finished to 0.60m If to be revetted, dig to 0.75 m To ground level, or top of parapet: 1.5m Minimum 1.5 n width of compacted soil 0.45m wide; 0.3m deep Minimum 0.45 m depth of compacted Soil


Battle Trenches Standard Dimensions


Tactical Notes
Types of GPMG (SF) Machine gun Fire 1. 2. 3. 4. Neutralising Harassing Marking Attritional

Principles of Machine Gun Fire B E S S S Best Fire Effect On Whole Target Area Economy of Time and Ammunition Safety of Own Troops Speed and Simplicity Surprise Effect

Best Fire Effect On Whole Target Area Work out? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. What is the Target What is the Range Size of Beaten Zone Size of Target Important of Target Protection of Target

Then you can Deduce: 1. 2. 3. 4. Type and Rate of Fire How to lay Beaten Zone on to target Types of target What Point of Aim is Required

Safety of Own Troops 1. 2. 3. War Time Peace Time (tested) Peace Time 50 mils 200 mils 620 mils

19 Speed and Simplicity 1. 2. 3. Keep it Simple Minimum Target Numbers Iron Sights Quickest

Surprise Effect 1. 2. 3. Concealment Good Drill for Occupation of Positions When to Open Fire

Types of Fire Support 1. 2. Indirect Direct

Indirect Fire Support 1. 2. 3. Arty mortars NGS

Direct Fire Support 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. GPMG (SF) Tanks Milan Snipers FGA Helarm

Types of fire Plan 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Defensive Offensive Timed On Call Silently Timed

20 Principles of Fire Planning C S S F C Co-operation Simplicity Surprise Flexibility Concentration of Fire

Gun Controller Duties C L O S E Control Fire onto Target Linkman to Sect Comd Observe and Adjust Fire Selection Lines of Advance and Fire Positions Emergency action (close support)

Section Inaction Brief GR / Loc of Primary Posn GR / Loc Alternative Posn Grouping in the Fire Base / Bases Location of Friendly Forces Intentions of Friendly Forces Dir /Wpns /Str of Enemy Loc of Enemy Posns Routes in and out of Posns Veh Posns Ammo (Ammo req, Ammo Pt, Resup route and method). Comms Plan (Radio Line and Light). Method of setting up (normal /MPF) Auth to open fire. Loc of Casualties Loc of ERV. Recording of Targets (to be done over looking the ground), Tgt No, Range,, Loc Point of aim for each gun, Rate of Fire. Procedure for Recording Tgts (silent or live).

21 Section Inaction Drills (depending on ground) Section Comd receives Warning Order Section Comd delivers Warning Order to Section. Concurrent Activity Section moves to Platoon comds O Group and receives orders. The RV is secured by the section. Section Comd extracts and prepares IN-ACTION brief. Section Comd delivers IN-ACTION brief to section. Under 2IC, Gun Team 2 mount gun and tripod. Section shake out in MMG formation.

Section Comd / Lead Scout Gunner Team 2 - Mounted Gun Controller Team 2 - Cover man

Recce Group

Tactical Bound

Section 2IC Gunner Team 1 Dismounted

Main Body

Gun Controller Team 3 Recce Group move to locate potential Fire Base.

22 Main Body a VISUAL tactical bound behind (100 150 metres). Sect Comd locates En locations. Sect Comd selects fire base location. Gun Team 2 provide cover for the above. Sect Comd places Gun Team 2 in the centre of the fire base formation. Lead scout returns to main body. The main body mount guns and tripods in dead ground a tactical bound behind Recce Group. 2IC to initiate. Gun Team 2 mark and record all targets. Sections move forward to occupy fire base. Gun Team 2 briefs Gun controllers and 2IC. Sect Comd places 1 + 3 gunners in position. Gunners prepare positions. Controllers receive Target allocation and switch fire policy, then return to guns. Gun team 1 + 3 mark and record all targets. All gun teams report when on primary tasking.

Golden Rules Concurrent Activity Sect Comd must clear the ground visually he is about to patrol over. Locate En position before setting up Fire -base. One foot on the ground. Alternative plan for infiltration of Fire - Base. Always set up aiming lamps. Mark and record if time permits. Remember the duties of the gun controller. All Fire bases must have C.O.C. Set up for MPF if time permits. Remember the duties of the gun controller.

23 Principles of War A C C E S S S O M F Aim the Selection and maintenance of Concentration of Force Co-operation Economy of Effort Security Surprise Sustainability Offensive Action Maintenance of Morale Flexibility

The Primary Land Operations Offensive Operations Defensive Operations Delaying Operations

Transitional Phases A R M L W Advance to Contact Relief of Troops in Combat Meeting Engagement Link Up Operation Withdrawal

Battle Procedure Aim The aim of battle procedure is to ensure that the soldier is sent into battle without waste of time and with the minimum fuss, knowing exactly what he has to do, how he is going to do it and what fire support he is going to be given. Battle Procedure Principles C A K E Concurrent Activity Anticipations at all level knowledge of the Grouping System (thorough) Efficient Drill

24 GPMG (SF) Siting Principles L S M V C P C D C D S Logistics Secondary and Alternate positions Mutual Support Vehicle Access Clear Fields of Fire Protection Concealment Depth Command and Control Defilade STAP / CSCM

Other Siting Considerations for offensive operations Range from 600-1100m Slightly higher than objective At right angles to the assault

Alternate Positions Same arcs 200m or more away All qualities of good position Covered route from primary Pre-recced Ammo pre-dumped Rehearse move so you know timings

Secondary Position Different arcs Different targets

25 Secondary tasks


Principles of Offensive Operations C S M I S M T D Concentration of Combat Force Surprise Maintenance of Morale Intelligence Security Manoeuvre Terrain Deception

Types of Attack Hasty Deliberate Silent Noisy Day Night

Stages of Attack P A T Preparatory (planning and preparation) Approach The Attack a. Final Approach b. Break In c. Fight Through d. Reorganization and Consolidation Exploitation


Tasks For GPMG (SF) in Offensive Operations

GPMG (SF) Tasks during the approach to the FUP Protection of route and FUP

GPMG (SF) Tasks during the attack and reorganisation Neutralising enemy positions up to the last safe moment Neutralising depth posns including Sp wpns Be prepd to cover counter attack options and withdrawal routes Provide cut-offs Flank protection Mark enemy positions, boundaries or axes Move with reserve to provide quick support as required Deception plan

GPMG (SF) Tasks during the exploitation Cover up to limit of exploitation

Sighting the Fire-base Range from 600-1100m Slightly higher than objective

27 At right angles to the assault


Principles of defensive Operations M A D R O D Mutual Support all Round Defence Depth Reserves Offensive Spirit Deception and Concealment

Types of Defensive Operations Area Defence (the ground) Mobile defence (the enemy)

Stages of the Defence Preparatory Stage Covering Force Action Battle Hanover Main Defensive Battle Employment of reserves

Tactical Terms Vital Ground Ground of such tactical significance that loss will make the defence untenable. Key Terrain Any locality, or area, the seizure or retention of which affords a marked advantage to either combatant.

28 Enfilade Fire Enfilade fire is fire, which strikes the side of the enemy. It is a principle for siting of GPMG (SF) should also be sited if possible to fire along a line of advancing enemy from one end.

Defilade A defilade position is a position at an angle to the enemy which enables engagement of an enemy flanks. Thus from a defilade position, enfilade fire is produced. Killing Area An area in which the commander plans to force the enemy to concentrate, so as to destroy him. Primary Position The main position from which a unit intends to fight. Secondary Position A completely new position, different targets, different arcs and secondary tasks Alternative Position A position in the immediate area to which a sub-unit may move once been located by enemy in order to continue the engagement. Same arcs, same targets and same tasks.

Tasks For GPMG (SF) in Defensive Operations

Provide an FPF Cover obs and gaps Cover likely en FUPs and fire support locs Cover possible Op locs Cover likely approaches routes Cover possible debussing pts Cover possible HLSs and DZ