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SUBMITTED BY AWAIS AMJAD

EDEXCEL LEVEL 7 EXTENDED DIPLOMA IN STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP SKILLS

SUBMITTED TO MISS NEYSHA RAMJOHN

PROJECT ON WIRELESS ELECTRICITY WITRIC

WEST LONDON COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT SCIENCES

WITRIC

Winder electrical Power transfer tecnology

DECLARATION

My final report on the project of WITRIC, which is submitted to West London College of Business & Management Sciences, to fulfillment of the requirement for my course which is Post Graduate Diploma in strategic management and leadership skills.

DEDICATION To my parents whose unconditional love & support helped me in making this report.

To my RESPECTFUL MADAM NEYSHA RAMJOHN for her cooperation and assistance. To my siblings for their gentle encouragement & valuable support. To my loving mother for supporting me throughout my tenure of learning as well as praying for my success throughout my life and also in my future and her prayers today make me so proud. To my dear father for supporting me financially all my life, fulfilling my basic necessaries as well as luxuries of life. I am thankful to my parents for their support throughout my study career. I also want to say thanks to all of my friends who motivate me in very tough time. Today what I am, because of them.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS All praise and gratitude due to ALLAH ALMIGHTY who created man in His own image and enjoyed upon him to travel on the earth and enter into a profound and analytical study of Universe for spiritual appreciation of ALLAHS unity and His attribute as well as for harnessing the material

manifestation of the world to the mankinds profitable utilization. In the first place, therefore we express our utmost thanks to ALLAH. I express my sincere gratitude to my respected madam MISS NEYSHA RAMJOHN who provided me an opportunity to work on the entirely new project of WIRELESS ELECTRICITY who has tirelessly purified her scholarly guidance and professional assistance in compiling this report. In the end I would like to thank all the staff members of WLCB, who cooperated with me in every tough time. They have provided me with valuable information which helped me a lot in completion of this report. It was relatively a new phenomenon for me, but I am quite sure that I have learned a lot from this project.

PREFACE The pre-requisite of project report is to make the students of P.G.D, aware of the practical expertise and to acquaint them with the real management process.

With an intention of grooming the best executives of the future, West London College of Business & Management Science, Londonhas organized a comprehensive project-training program. All of us were placed in leading organizations of business arena to gain first-hand knowledge and insight into their management and working. Getting a chance of working on the project of WITRIC proved to be very beneficial for me. I think that I gained comprehensive knowledge after the working on this project. But nothing could have been possible without the co-operation and guidance of the madam MISS NEYSHA RAMJOHN. After the completion of project program, project report has been prepared just in accordance with the practical exposure. In preparing this report, I have put all of my best efforts and tried my level best to give maximum knowledge. Despite all of my coherent efforts, I do believe that there will always be a room for improvement in the efforts of learner like me.

AWAIS AMJAD P.G.D EDEXCEL LEVEL - 7

Contents TERMS OF TEFERENCE HYPOTHESIS OF A PROJECT INTRODUCTION ANALYSIS OF EXISTING SITUATION OR PROBLEMS

METHODOLOGY FINDINGS DISCUSSIONS AND CONSIDERATIONS OF ALTERNATIVES EFFECIENCY WITRICS AT PRESENT ADVANTAGES MARKET PLAN COSTING MONITORING AND EVALUATIONS CONCLUSIONS APPLICATION BIBLIOGRAPHY

Terms of reference I have a vision to see my product successful and my company to reach the new heights in all over the world. I have a strong believe that my concept of WITRIC is very much unique and will be appraised. I also believe that my idea will be cost effective and efficient enough to help my company to gain enough market share and to be a real threat to its competitors.

ACTIVITY OF OPERATION A B C D 1 Generate the idea Develop the hypothesis Prepared proposal Develop hand E and over Gather quantitative F date Gather qualitative data G Preparation of project final 2 3 4 5 6

questionnaires

HYPOTHESIS FOR THE PROJECT My new concept for the production of WITRIC will be a revolutionary change in the market, it will be beneficial, cost effective and will reduce the wastage of an electricity and it will be helpful for the winder electronics to capture the maximum share of the market in London.

Introduction Inthiseraofmodernization, electricityhasbecomethebasic neccessityoflife.Amomentwithout the use ofelectricitymakesyourthinkinggodry.The isthroughwires.Thecontinuous researchanddevelopmenthasbroughtforwardamajorbreakthrough,whichprovideselectricitywithout themediumofwires.ThiswonderbabyiscalledWITRIC. Therearecertainsmallbutveryusefuldiscoveriesmadeinhistory,whichchangedtheworldforever,Newt onsgravitationallaw,Wattssteamengine,Thomsonsbulbandmanymore.Butaregenerationoccurred withtheinventionofElectromagneticWavesbyMaxwell.SirJagdishChandraBoseeffectivelygenerate delectromagneticwaveshavingwavelengthintherangeof5mmto25mm.ThereafteranItalian scientist named Marconi succeeded in transmitting electromagnetic waves uptoa distance of severalmiles. And withthisthere starteda newera calledWIRELESSTECHNOLOGY. majorsourceofpredictableformofelectricity

Today,aswecanseethewordwirelessiscommonindaytodaylife.Wireless hasmade the world smaller. Almost eachand wirelessorcordless.Cordlessmouse,cordlesskeyboard,satellitecommunication,

communication everything is

mobiles,cordlessmicrophonesandheadphones,wirelessinternetservicei.e.WI-FI, etc. Andthesehave definitelyincreasedthestandard ofliving.

Analysis of existing situation or problem In this time of modern era, electricity has the become the basic necessity of human life and a person cannot think his life without a use of electric appliances. Electricity is used in each and every sector such as industrial, transport, railway, communication and other different sectors. The conventional

use of electricity is only made probable through the usage of wires. Every electronic item which are normally used for domestic or commercial purposes usually work with wires and these large number of wires are very difficult to handle. Secondly, these wires are not very much efficient because according to statistics wires are normally 70 75 percent efficient. However researchers in MIT have invented a product of providing electricity without any use of wires.

Methodology The method of my research will be a literature review, gathering information from the internet and visiting websites of different electricity supplying companies. I will also likely to prepare a questionnaire and distribute it among different persons to gather information that whether they would like to introduce this kind of product in their life and further that information will be sent to my organization so that they can further take a look on the feasibility of this product. I will also like to contact with different researchers to gather information that whether this product will become a reality. I will investigate different kind of experiments to check the validity of my concept.

Findings The following are the findings of my project: Howitstarted Thestorystartedlateonenightafewyearsago,withMITProfessorMarinSoljaistandinginhispyjamas,st aringathiscell phoneon thekitchen counter.Itwasprobably the sixthtime occurredtohim:Thereiselectricitywiredallthrough thishouse,allthroughmyoffice everywhere.Thisphoneshouldtakecareofitsowncharging!Buttomakethispossible,onewouldhavetofi ndawayto transferpower fromthe existingwired infrastructureto the cellphonewithoutwires. Soljaistartedthinkingofphysicalphenomenathatcouldmakethisdream areality. CoupledResonatorswasfit forthesituation To achieve wireless power transfer in a way that is practical and safe, one needs to use aphysicalphenomenonthatenablesthepowersourceandthedevice(inthiscase,themobilephone)toexcha ngeenergy strongly, while interacting only weakly with living beings and otherenvironmental objects, likefurnitureand walls.Thephenomenonofcoupledresonatorsprecisely fitsthisdescription.Two resonantobjectsofthesameresonantfrequencytendtoexchangeenergyefficiently,whileinteractingweak lywithextraneousoff-resonant objects. Achildonaswingisagoodexampleofaresonantsystem.Aswingexhibitsatypeofmechanicalresonance,so onlywhenthechildpumpsherlegsatthenaturalfrequencyoftheswingissheabletoimpartsubstantial energyintothemotionoftheswing.Anotherexampleinvolvesacousticresonances:imaginearoomwith10 0 identicalwineglasses,buteachfilledwithwineuptoadifferentlevel,sothateachresonatesatadifferentfreq uency(thatis,theyeachemitadifferenttoneornotewhentapped,bya singerenters that room StrongCoupling Coupled resonators are said to operate in a strongly coupled regime if their energy transfer rateis andsings a very loud single note,the utensil,forexample).Ifanopera glasshaving thecorresponding thatmonththathe was awakenedbyhismobilephonebeepingtolethimknowthathehadforgottentochargeit.Atthatmoment,it

resonantfrequencycan accumulateenoughenergytoshatter,whiletheotherglassesareunaffected.

substantiallyhigherthantherateatwhichtheyloseenergyduetofactorssuchasmaterialabsorptionand radiation.Inthestronglycoupledregime,energytransfercan beveryefficient.Theseconsiderationsareuniversal,applyingtoallkindsofresonances(e.g.,acoustic,m echanical,electromagnetic,etc.). SoljaiandhiscolleaguesatMIT(KaralisandJoannopoulos)setout toexploreanddevelopthephysicaltheoryofhowtoenablestronglycoupledmagneticresonatorstotransf erpoweroverdistancesthatwouldenablethekindofwirelessdevicechargingthatSoljaifirstimagined. Once the physical theories Moffatt,Joannopoulos, Fisher)setouttovalidatethemexperimentally.Thetheorywasdevelopedtocoverabroadrangeofcoupled resonatorsystems,buttheexperimentalworkfocusedonprovingthatmagneticallycoupledresonatorsco uld exchangeenergyinthemannerpredictedbythetheoryandrequiredforthewirelesschargingordevices,su chascellphones.Theteam hasdiscoveredasystemoftwoelectrostrongly magneticresonatorscoupledthroughtheirmagneticfields.Theywereable to identify the that greatlyexceeded the size ofthe resonantobjectsthemselves. were developed, Soljaiand his team (Kurs, Karalis,

coupledregime in thissystem,and showed that strong coupling could be achieved over distances Theteamhad proventhatinthisstronglycoupledregime,efficientwirelesspowertransfercouldbeenabled. WITRIC Technology is Born The experimental design consisted of two copper coils, each a self-resonant system. One of thecoils,connected to an AC power supply, was the resonant source. The other coil, the resonant capture device, was connected to a 60 watt light bulb. The power source and capture device were suspended in mid- air with nylon thread, at distances that ranged from a few centimeters to over 2.5 meters (8.2 ft). Not only was the light bulb illuminated, but the theoretical predictions of high efficiency over distance were proven experimentally.By placing various objects between the source and capture device, the team demonstrated how the magnetic near field can transfer power through certain materials and around metallic obstacles. Thus Prof.Soljais dream of finding a method to wirelessly connect mobile electric devices to the existing electric grid was realized. WITRIC Corp. was soon launched to carry this technology forward from the MIT laboratories to commercial production. WITRIC technology is used for transferring electric energy or power over distance without the hazardous use of wires. This product can only be possible with the basics of electricity and magnetism, and work our way up to the WITRIC technology. Electricity: The flow of electrons (current) through a conductor (like a wire), or charges through the atmosphere (like lightning). A convenient way for energy to get from one place to another!

Magnetism: A fundamental force of nature, which causes certain types of materials to attract or repel each other. Permanent magnets, like the ones on your refrigerator and the earths magnetic field, are examples of objects having constant magnetic fields. Oscillating magnetic fields vary with time, and can be generated by alternating current (AC) flowing on a wire. The strength, direction, and extent of magnetic fields are often represented and visualized by drawings of the magnetic field lines.

Electromagnetism: A term for the interdependence of time-varying electric and magnetic fields. For example, it turns out that an oscillating magnetic field produces an electric field and an oscillating electric field produces a magnetic field. Magnetic Induction: A loop or coil of conductive material like copper, carrying an alternating current (AC), is a very efficient structure for generating or capturing a magnetic field.

If a conductive loop is connected to an AC power source, it will generate an oscillating magnetic field in the vicinity of the loop. A second conducting loop, brought close enough to the

first, may capture some portion of that oscillating magnetic field, which in turn, generates or induces an electric current in the second coil. The current generated in the second coil may be used to power devices. This type of electrical power transfer from one loop or coil to another is well known and referred to as magnetic induction. Some common examples of devices based on magnetic induction are electric transformers and electric generators. Energy/Power Coupling: Energy coupling occurs when anenergy source has a means of transferring energy to anotherobject. One simple example is a locomotive pulling a train car the mechanical coupling between the two enables the locomotive to pull the train, and overcome the forces of friction and inertia that keep the train stilland, the train moves. Magnetic coupling occurs when the magnetic field of one object interacts with a second object and induces an electric currentin or on that object. In this way, electric energy can be transferred from a power source to a powered device. In contrast to the example of mechanical coupling given for the train, magnetic coupling does not require any physical contact between the object generating the energy and the object receiving or capturing that energy.

Resonance Resonance is a property that exists in many different physical systems. It can be thought of as the natural frequency at which energy can most efficiently be added to an oscillating system. A playground swing is an example of an oscillating system involving potential energy and kinetic energy. The child swings back and forth at a rate that is determined by the length of the swing. The child can make the swing go higher if she properly coordinates her arm and leg action with the motion of the swing. The swing is oscillating at its resonant frequency and the simple movements of the child efficiently transfer energy to the system. Another example of resonance is the way in which a singer can shatter a wine glass by singing a single loud, clear note.

In this example, the wine glass is the resonant oscillating system. Sound waves traveling through the air are captured by the glass, and the sound energy is converted to mechanical vibrations of the glass itself. When the singer hits the note that matches the resonant frequency of the glass, the glass absorbs energy, begins vibrating, and can eventually even shatter. The resonant frequency of the glass depends on the size, shape, thickness of the glass, and how much wine is in it.

Resonant Magnetic Coupling: Magnetic coupling occurs when two objects exchange energy through their varying or oscillating magnetic fields. Resonant coupling occurs when the natural frequencies of the two objects are approximately the same. WITRIC Technology: WITRIC power sources and capture devices are specially designed magnetic resonators that efficiently transfer power over large distances via the magnetic nearfield. These proprietary source and device designs and the electronic systems that control them support efficient energy transfer over distances that are many times the size of the sources/devices themselves.

DISCUSSIONS AND CONSIDERATION OF ALTERNATIVES WITRIC technology is different than Traditional Magnetic Induction At first glance, WITRIC technology for power transfer appears to be traditional magnetic induction, such as is used in power transformers, where conductive coils transmit power to each other wirelessly, over very short distances. In a transformer, an electric current running in a sending coil (or primary winding) induces another current in a receiving coil (or secondary winding). The two coils must be very close together, and may even overlap, but the coils do not make direct electrical contact with each other. However, the efficiency of the power exchange in traditional magnetic induction systems drops by orders of magnitude when thedistance between the coils becomes larger than their sizes. In addition to electric transformers, other devices based on traditional magnetic induction include rechargeable electric toothbrushes, and inductive charging pads which require that the object being charged be placed directly on top of, or very close to, the base or pad supplying the power.The power exchange efficiency of some induction systems is improved by utilizing resonant circuits. These so-called resonantly enhanced induction techniques are used in certain medical implants and highfrequency RFIDs for example. However, to the best of our knowledge, WITRIC founding technical team was the first to discover that by specially designing the magnetic resonators, one could achieve strong coupling and highly efficient energy exchange over distances much larger than the size of the resonator coils, distances very large compared to traditional schemes.

WITRIC technology is different than Radiative Power Transfer WITRIC technology for power transfer is non-radiative and relies on near-field magnetic coupling. Many other techniques for wireless power transfer rely on radiative techniques, either broadcasted or narrow beam (directed radiation) transmission of radio, or light waves. Broadcasted radiation of radio frequency energy is commonly used for wireless information transfer because information can be transmitted over a wide area to multiple users. The power received by each radio or wireless receiver is miniscule, and must external power supply. Because the vast majority of radiated power be amplified in a receiving unit using an external power supply. Because the vast majority of radiated power is wasted into free space, radio transmission is considered to be an inefficient means of power transfer. that while more energy can be supplied to the receiver by cranking up the power of the transmitters in these systems, such high power levels may pose a safety hazard and may interfere with other radio frequency devices. Directed radiation, using highly directional antennas, is another means of using radio transmission to beam energy from a source to a receiver. However, directed radiationin particular microwave radiationmay interact strongly with living organisms and certain metallic objects. Such energy transfer methods may pose safety hazards to people or objects that obstruct the line-of-sight between the transmitter and receiver. These limitations make directed radio transmission impractical for delivering substantial levels of wireless power in a typical consumer, commercial, or industrial application. In fact, defense researchers are exploring the use of directed energy systems to deliver lethal doses of power to targets in space and on the battlefield. In addition to radio waves, visible and invisible light waves can also be used to transfer energy. The sun is an excellent radiative source of light energy, and industry and academia are working hard to develop photovoltaic technologies to convert sunlight to electrical energy. A laser beam is a form of directed light adiation, in which visible or invisible light waves may be formed into a collimated beam, delivering energy in a targeted way. However, as in the case of directed radio waves, safe and efficient transmission of laser power requires a clear line of sight between the transmitter and receiver. As mentioned at the beginning of this section, WITRIC technology is based on non-radiative energy transfer. It does not require a clear line of sight between the power sources and capture devices and it is safe for use in typical home, hospital, office, or industrial environments.

WITRIC technology is different than Magnetic Resonance Imaging(MRI) MRI machines use magnetic resonance imaging to produce diagnostic images of soft tissue. Many people assume that WITRIC Resonant Magnetic Couplingmust be similar to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology however, the technologies are similar in name only. MRI is, as its name suggests, a technology for using magnetism as a basis for diagnostic imaging of soft tissue in the human body. It utilizes a strong DC magnet to orient the magnetic fields of atoms within tissues, and radio frequency fields to manipulate those atoms in a selective way, so that tissues and structures can be imaged clearly The resonance referred to in MRI refers to the resonance atomic structures. MRI is not considered to be a method for wireless power transfer.

WITRIC technology is different than

Teslas Vision of a Wireless World In the late 1800s and early 1900s, at the dawn of the electrification of the modern world, some scientists and engineers believed that using wires to transfer electricity from every place it was generated to every place that it could be used would be too expensive to be practical. Nikola Tesla, one of the most well known of these scientists,had a vision for a wireless world in which wireless electric power and communications would reach around the world, delivering information and power to ships at sea, factories, and every home on the planet. Tesla donated significantly to our understanding of electricity and electrical systems and is credited with inventing three-phase AC power systems, induction motors, fluorescent lamps, radio transmission, and various modes of wireless electric power transfer. WITRIC technology for power transfer is different than the technologies proposed by Tesla, but his work is referenced and acknowledged in the scientific articles published by WITRIC founding technical team.

EFFICIENCY OF WITRIC

In order for the power transfer to be efficient, we design the system such that the rate of energy transfer between the emitter and the receiver is greater than the rate of energy dissipation. This way the device can capture the energy and use it for useful work before too much of it get wasted away. Greater is the coupling factor(k/T) greater is the efficiency Strong Coupling efficient transfer

Then the efficiency can also be calculated

Is it practical and is it safe? WITRIC demonstration is still too recent, and too focused, to produce any definite conclusions. With the WITRIC method ,they anticipate transmitting power over distances about a meter, which is much less than ideal but still very impressive. If the technology is improved and honed to a point where it can be productized", it stands to turn any number of industries on their respective ears. The MIT team said its discovery is different from all previous effort because it uses magnetically coupled resonance", which means it will not only be safe but it will be fairly efficient. WITRIC AT PRESENT In 2006 MIT researchers discovered a new method to provide electricity to remote objects without wires. Wiricity is based on coupled resonant objects. In 2007 researchers implemented a prototype using self resonant coils. In first trial they demonstrated efficient non-radiative power transfer over

distance up to eight times the radius of the coils. This experiment was done using two copper coils. Each coil act as self resonant system. One of the coils is attached to the electricity source. Instead of exposing the environment with electromagnetic waves, it fills the space with a non-radiative magnetic field oscillating at MHz frequencies. The non-radiative field mediates the power exchange with the other coil, which is specially designed to resonate with the field. The resonant nature ensures strong interaction between sending unit and receiving unit. In the first experiment they successfully demonstrated the ability to power a 60W light bulb from a power source that was 2 meters away with 40% efficiency approximately. They used two capacitively loaded copper coils of 51 cm in diameter designed to resonate in the MHz range. One coil was connected to a power source, the other to a bulb. In this experiment the coils were designed to resonate at 10MHz. The setup powered the bulb oh even when the coils were not in line of sight. The bulb glowed even when wood, metal, and other devices were placed in between the coils. An effect of using thecapacitively-loaded loops and lowering the operating frequency on field strengths and power levels.Capacitively loaded loops generate significantly lower electric fields in the space surrounding the objects than self-resonant coils. The calculations to simulate a transfer of 60W across two identical capacitively-loaded loops similar in dimension to our self-resonant coils (radius of loop 30cm, cross sectional radius of the conductor 3cm, and distance between the loops of 2m), and calculated the maximum values of the fields and Poynting Vector 20cm away from the device loop. Erms Hrms Srms Power Frequency(MHz) Efficiency {Vim) (A/m) (W/cm2) radiated(W) 10 83% ' 185 21 0.08 3.3 1 60% 40 14 0.04 0.005 At 10MHz, note the significant reduction in the electric field strength with respect to the self resonant coils. Lowering the operating frequency down to 1MHz further reduces the electric field, Poynting vector, and power radiated. At 1MHz, all our fields are below IEEE safety guidelines (Erms =614V/m, Hrms = 16.3A/m and Srms = 0.1 W/cm2 at 1MHz) The figure given below shows the experimental setup. In which the transmitter and receiver coils are separated at a distance of 2m. The bulb connected to receiver coils is glowed when supply is given to transmitter coil as shown in figure. In the first figure transmitter and receiver coils are in direct line of sight. If a wooden piece is placed in between transmitter and receiver coils then also power transmission is possible.Theoretical-and experimental K, as a function of distance when one of the coils is rotated by 45% with respect to coaxial alignment.

Component

Description

Annual wastage in UK

efficiency billio Millio Million tonnes n Total (electrical total) The total efficiency is low. 28 Notice that, for similar (74) percentage losses, the actual losses get smaller later on in the system. This is because there is less energy being transmitted at the later stages. Table 1. Losses in the electricity system. The unit tonne of oil equivalent (TOE) is a useful way of comparing energy use - relating it to fuels. 1 TOE equals 11,634 kilowatthours. In the UK, 1 kWh produces 0.51 Kg of carbon dioxide; this takes into account the different ways in which electricity is generated (15% is generated without producing any carbon dioxide). kWh 930 340 n TOE 79.9 carbon dioxide 474

(28.9) (171)

This table shows the actual losses occurred in the process of distributing the electricity within united kingdom. Thus it also shows the effectiveness of system which are being used in distributing electricity.

This graph shows the domestic electricity consumption by the people of united kingdom from year 1998 to 2006.

Advantages HighlyResonant StrongCouplingProvidesHigh EfficiencyOverDistance WITRICmodeofwirelesspowertransferishighlyefficientoverdistancesrangingfromcentimeter sto severalmeters.Efficiencymaybedefinedastheamountofusableelectricalenergythatisavailabletothedev icebeing n aWITRICpowereddevicenolongerneedstocaptureadditionalenergy,theWITRIC powersourcewillauto maticallyreduceits power consumptiontoapower savingidlestate. EnergyTransfervia Magnetic NearFieldCanPenetrateandWrapAround Obstacle Themagneticnearfieldhasseveralpropertiesthatmakeitanexcellentmeansoftransferringenergyin atypicalconsumer,commercial,orindustrialenvironment. Mostcommonbuildingandfurnishingmaterials, powered,dividedby the amountofenergy thatisdrawnby the WITRICsource.In many applications,efficiencycanexceed90%.AndWITRICsourcesonlytransferenergywhenitisneeded.Whe

suchaswood,gypsumwallboard,plastics,textiles,glass,brick,andconcreteareessentiallytransparentt omagneticfieldsenablingWITRICtechnologytoefficientlytransferpowerthroughthem. Inaddition,the magneticnearfieldhastheabilitytowraparoundmanymetallicobstaclesthatmightotherwiseblockthem agneticfields. WITRICapplicationsengineeringteamwillworkwithyoutoaddressthematerialsandenvironmentalfacto rs that mayinfluencewirelessenergytransfer in yourapplication. Non-RadiativeEnergyTransferisSafeforPeople andAnimals WITRICtechnologyisanonradiativemodeofenergytransfer,relyinginsteadonthemagneticnearfield.Magneticfieldsinteractveryw eaklywithbiologicalorganismspeopleandanimalsandarescientifically regardedto besafe.Professor SirJohn PendryofImperialCollegeLondon,a worldrenowned physicist,explains: Thebodyreallyrespondsstronglytoelectricfields,whichiswhyyoucancookachickeninamicrowave. Butitdoesn'trespondtomagneticfields.Asfarasweknowthebodyhasalmostzeroresponsetomagneticfiel dsintermsoftheamountofpoweritabsorbs." Evidenceofthesafetyofmagneticfieldsisillustratedbythewidespreadacceptanceandsafetyofhousehold magneticinductioncooktops. ThroughproprietarydesignoftheWITRICsource,electricfieldsarealmostcompletelycontained withinthe source. This design results in levels of electric and magnetic fields which fall well withinregulatory guidelines.ThusWITRICtechnologydoesntgiverisetoradiofrequencyemissionsthatinterferewithothe relectronicdevices,and topeopleoranimals. LimitsforhumanexposuretomagneticfieldsaresetbyregulatorybodiessuchastheFCC,ICNIRP,andareb ased onbroad scientific and medical consensus. WITRICtechnologyis being developed tobefullycompliantwithapplicableregulationsregardingmagneticfieldsandelectromagneticradiation. ScalableDesign EnablesSolutionsfrom milliwattstoKilowatts WITRICsystemscanbedesignedtohandleabroadrangeofpowerlevels.Thebenefitsofhighlyefficientene rgytransferoverdistancecanbeachievedatpowerlevelsrangingfrommilliwattstoseveralkilowatts.Thise nablesWITRICtechnologytobeusedinapplicationsasdiverseaspoweringawirelessmouseorkeyboard( milliwatts)torecharginganelectricpassengervehicle(kilowatts).WITRICtechnologyoperatesinaload followingmode, transferringonlyasmuchenergyasthepowereddevicerequires. isnota sourceofelectricandmagnetic field levelsthatpose arisk

FlexibleGeometry AllowsWITRICDevicestobe EmbeddedIntoOEMProducts WITRICtechnologyisbeingdesignedsothatitcanbeeasilyembeddedintoawidevarietyofproductsand systems.Thephysicsofresonant magneticcouplingenablesWITRICengineerstodesignpowersourcesand devices and sizes,to match both the packaging requirements and ofvarying shapes thepower transfer

requirementsinagivenOEMapplication.WITRIChasdesignedpowercapturedevicescompactenoughto fitintoacellphone. BUSINESS PLAN The following are the business plan of WITRICITY MARKETING PERSPECTIVE Economic Attractiveness The opportunity in the field of wireless power transfer has arisen at an economically practical time. The technical research requires minimal cost, so the majority of funding would be needed for internal employee and corporate costs. With the economy in a state of recovery, businesses all over the world will be looking to reduce funds, and at the same time convince customers to spend money on exciting new products. Wireless power will deliver both by diminishing infrastructure costs of wiring, and attracting technology enthusiasts. Competitor Differentiation In the emerging market of wireless power transfer, early movers have already begun releasing products. However, the currently available products are highly inefficient, of little value to the customer, and very expensive. Nonetheless, our preliminary efforts to stay ahead of our competition will be to integrate the technology into existing devices that already experience high sales such as cell-phones, laptop computers, and common household furniture. Targeted Customer Segment and Addressable Market There will be two types of target customers for our venture. As an emerging technology, the first customer type will be our ideal partners of home retail and consumer electronic firms, such as IKEA, Motorola, and Philips Electronics.This success will depend on our second type of targeted customers: young electronic consumers in urban settings. Opportunity for Growth and Market Stability A critical aspect to the success of our venture is the widespread acceptance of wireless power transfer technology. Our venture intends to focus on the two previously described well defined industries in order to improve confidence in the emerging technology. Competing wireless power companies have already begun advertising their products on commercials, but our marketing team

will have the important task to convince everyone that our product transmits more power over long distances than our competitors. Sales and Marketing Plan Personal Success Coincides with Industry Success In order for WITRICITY to enjoy success, the entire industry of wireless power must establish its place over wired devices. To achieve industry success cohesively with our own success, an effective marketing approach must be employed. Our marketing team will translate these intentions into a strategy by impressing the fact that WITRICITY provides a new generation of powering devices, wire-free, which minimizes home and business energy costs while eliminating the carbon footprint associated with manufacturing copper wire. Our customer relationships will be developed primarily through our customer service abilities. Ecommerce Since our initial ventures sales will involve partnerships with existing firms, online transactions will not be a significant contributor to our success. However, the ideal partnering firms including IKEA and Philips Electronics are hugely dependent on E-commerce. Therefore, as customers browse their websites and notice these wireless power-integrated products. Sales Cycle Our venture will have a relatively long sales cycle. Therefore, our venture has decided to target consumers of household appliances and electronic devices from established firms. This will provide us with accurate assumptions about the amount of sales based on different items. Marketing provides the means by which the organisation or business projects itself to its audience, and also how it behaves and interacts in its market. It is needed therefore that the organisation's philosophy and values are referenced and reinforced by every aspect of marketing In this plan I am going to write that how will I market my product. To market the product I will go through several methods. These are following. 1) Advertisement Ad in News paper Brochures Pamphlets Cine boards Promotional campaigns Exhibition in community centers

1) Franchise:

Franchise is one of the best ways to market a product. I will ask my company to open franchises specially in develop countries just like Apple, Nokia etc. in order to give a live demonstration of my product. It works just like an outlet of a business and will promote WITRIC as well. 2) seminars Creating an informative seminar and inviting your target audience is an excellent way to educate the market and promote your company and proposition. This technique works especially well in the business-to-business market, and where educating customers is appropriate, for instance if marketing a new technology or service to architects and specifiers. It is possible to have certain types of seminars accredited for CPD (Continuous Professional Development) by professional institutes, which provides an extra incentive for prospective customers to attend. 3) open days and exhibitions The advantage of personal contact is that you actually get to talk to your potential customers, which dramatically increases the chances of getting your message across. But there is a limit to how many people you can target and access using these methods. Costs of preparation and organisation can be big, and are rarely transparent at the outset so beware.Events of this nature do nevertheless offer good possibilities for follow-up PR activity, which can contribute greatly to building a customerfriendly image.

HUMAN RESOURCE PERSPECTIVE Attracting an Innovative and Experienced Team Our venture will primarily focus on attracting three genres of talent: graduate engineers, senior engineers, and salesmen.we plan to recruit an engineering-aware sales team. Much like venture capitalists, a salesman will be very excited about opportunities in wireless power once they become aware of its profitability.Finally, engineers will also work to develop the best customer service approach for a new technology. These processes summarize the operations, tasks, and functions required to support our startup areas of emphasis. A Candid Culture among Engineers and Salesmen A critical aspect to achieving success in any market is developing a respected culture within a business.Being honest and straightforward in both criticism and reward among our colleagues and competitors will be critical to surviving the startup phase and will provide a solid foundation for the culture of our firm moving forward. Innovating for the Certain and Unpredictable Futures

The success of the entire industry of wireless power will be dependent on its ability to adapt to changes. The reason why wireless power currently targets low-power electronic devices is because there are higher losses associated with high-power devices. Therefore, our engineers will work on market-dependent applications for wireless power, as well as improving the efficiency over distance of the current wireless systems in order to maintain competitive advantage in terms of knowledge, shares, and economic strategies. FINANCIAL PERSPECTIVE Preliminary Financial Model we hope to sell products to one customer at a time, but we believe that the entire industry of wireless power will need to become competitive with wired devices before individual sales strategies will be profitable. During the early years of our firm, we dont expect much profit because one of the goals of our customer service department will be to provide free maintenance to our products. This may not be the most economical choice for the short term; however, if it will boost our current and future customers confidence in wireless power applications, then it will be worth it for future profits. Once established, we will find profit in add-ons to improve efficiency over a distance. Initial Revenue Assumptions The initial revenue assumptions are based on average process of electronic products. Each year, we expect the sales of wireless power products to increase as well as our competition. To maintain our competitive advantage, the average prices our partners are expected to charge for all the wireless power-integrated products will decrease by approximately 15% from the price of the product in the first year. Initial Cost Assumptions The initial cost assumptions are dominated by the approximated number of employees and their corresponding salaries. Our team will be very small during the first year, and will be dominated by engineers because the critical focus will be developing a product that can be integrated into successful product lines. Initial Unit Sales Assumptions We have specified the starting unit sales to begin at 200 units sold six months into our first year. The expected growth rate of sales is 10% for the first year, 15% for the second year, and 20% for the third year, and then the growth rate may balance at this 20% for the fourth year. The reason for this is because once wireless power transfer technologies becomes integrated into common devices, the potential for further implementation into society will increase significantly, so our expected growth rate will increase year-to-year. COSTING OF MY PRODUCT

The cost of my product will be estimated by evaluating different expenses which will be occurred on my product. At first, there will be a research and development cost which would be normally higher because large scale of experiments would be conducted. There would be a training cost for the employees to let them know about a new revolutionary product. There will be a high advertisement cost upfront because a new product has to be launched. MONITORING AND EVALUATION OF MY PRODUCT Monitoring is the systematic collection and analysis of information as a project progresses. It is aimed at improving the efficiency and effectiveness of a project or organisation. It is based on targets set and activities planned during the planning phases of work. It helps to keep the work on track, and can let management know when things are going wrong. If done properly, it is an invaluable tool for good management, and it provides a useful base for evaluation. It enables you to determine whether the resources you have available are sufficient and are being well used, whether the capacity you have is sufficient and appropriate, and whether you are doing what you planned to do. Evaluation is the comparison of actual project impacts against the agreed strategic plans. It looks at what you set out to do, at what you have accomplished, and how you accomplished it. What monitoring and evaluation have in common is that they are geared towards learning from what you are doing and how you are doing it, by focusing on: Efficiency Effectiveness Impact QUESTIONNAIRE WHETHER YOU LIKE A WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY? YES NO MAYBE DO YOU USE LARGE AMOUNT OF WIRELESS PRODUCTS IN YOUR DAILY LIFE? YES NO MAY BE DO YOU USE HIGHER NUMBER OF ELECTRICAL GOODS IN YOUR DAILY LIFE? YES

NO MAY BE DO YOU WANT TO GET RID OF THE BUNDLE OF CABLES LYING IN YOUR HOME OR WORKPACE? YES NO MAY BE DO YOU WANT TO INSTALL A PRODUCT WHICH CAN TRANSFER ENERGY WITHOUT WIRES IN YOUR HOUSE AND WORKPLACE? YES NO MAY BE DO YOU HAVE ANY ISSUES REGARDING THE TRANSFER OF ENERGY WITHOUT WIRES? YES NO MAY BE QUESTION NUMBER 1 2 3 4 5 6 RESPONSE OF GENERAL PUBLIC YES NO 67% 25% 35% 63% 90% 7% 70% 15% 65% 15% 64% 12%

MAY BE 8% 2% 3% 15% 20% 24%

CONCLUSION The transmission of power without wires is not a theory or a mere possibility, it is now a reality. The electrical energy can be economically transmitted without wires to any terrestrial distance. Many researchers have established in numerous observations, experiments and measurements, qualitative and quantitative. Dr.N.Tesla is the pioneer of this invention. Wireless transmission of electricity have tremendous merits like high transmission integrity and Low Loss (90 97% efficient) and can be transmitted to anywhere in the globe and eliminate the need for an inefficient, costly, and capital intensive grid of cables, towers, and substations. WITRIC, if successful will definitely change the way we live. Imagine cellphones, laptops, digital camera's getting self charged! Engineers have got job on hand to research and commercialize the technology. Till then, it is a wait in anticipation. WITRIC is only 40 to 45% efficient and according to Soljacic,they have to be twice as efficient to compete with the traditional chemical batteries. The team's next aim is to get a robotic vacuum or a laptop working, charging devices placed anywhere in the room and even robots on factory floors. The researchers are also currently working on the health issues related to this concept and have said that in another three to five years time, they will come up with a WITRIC system for commercial use. WITRIC, if successful will definitely change the way we live. Imagine cellphones, laptops, digital camera's getting self charged! Wow! Let's hope the researchers will be able to come up with the commercial system soon. Till then, we wait in anticipation! Applications WITRIC wireless power transfer technology can be applied in a wide variety of applicationsandenvironments. The ability ofour technology to transfer power safely, efficiently, and overdistance can improve products by making them more convenient, reliable, and environmentallyfriendly. WITRICtechnologycanbe usedtoprovide: DirectWirelessPowerwhenallthepoweradeviceneedsisprovidedwirelessly,andno Batteriesarerequired.Thismodeisfora itsWITRICpowersource. devicethatisalwaysused withinrangeof

AutomaticWirelessCharging whenadevicewithrechargeablebatterieschargesitselfwhilestillinuseoratrest,withoutrequiringapowerc ordorbatteryreplacement.Thismodeisforamobiledevicethatmaybe usedbothinandoutofrangeofitsWITRICpower source.WITRICtechnologyisdesignedforOriginalEquipmentManufacturers(OEMs)toembeddirectl yintheirproductsandsystems. WITRICtechnologywillmakeyourproducts: MoreConvenient: Nomanualrechargingor changingbatteries. Eliminate unsightly,unwieldyandcostlypower cords. MoreReliable: Neverrunoutofbatterypower. Reduce product failure rates by fixing the weakest link: flexing wiring andmechanicalinterconnects. Consumer Electronics Automatic wireless charging of mobile electronics (phones,laptops, game controllers, etc.) in home, car, office, Wi-Fi hotspots while devices are in use and mobile. Direct wireless powering of stationary devices (flat screen TVs,digital picture frames, home theater accessories, wireless loud speakers, etc.) eliminating expensive custom wiring, unsightly cables and wall-wart power supplies. Direct wireless powering of desktop PC peripherals: wireless mouse, keyboard, printer, speakers, display, etc eliminating disposable batteries and awkward cabling.

Industrial Direct wireless power and communication interconnections across rotating and moving joints (robots, packaging machinery, assembly machinery, machine tools) eliminating costly and failure-prone wiring. Direct wireless power and communication interconnections at points of use in harsh environments (drilling, mining, underwater, etc.) where it is impractical or impossible to run wires. Direct wireless power for wireless sensors and actuators, eliminating the need for expensive power wiring or battery replacement and disposal.

Transportation Automatic wireless charging for existing electric vehicle classes: golf carts, industrial vehicles. Automatic wireless charging for future hybrid and all-electric passenger and commercial vehicles, at home, in parking garages, at fleet depots, and at remote kiosks. Direct wireless power interconnections to replace costly vehicle wiring harnesses and slip rings.

Other Applications Direct wireless power interconnections and automatic wireless charging for implantable medical devices (ventricular assist devices, pacemaker, defibrilator, etc.). Automatic wireless charging and for high tech military systems (battery powered mobile devices, covert sensors, unmanned mobile robots and aircraft, etc.). Direct wireless powering and automatic wireless charging of smart cards. Direct wireless powering and automatic wireless charging of consumer appliances, mobile robots

Bibliography http://electron9.phys.utk.edu/optics507/modules/m6/coupled_resonators.htm IEEESpectrum,May2009 http://www.WITRIC .com http://www.WITRIC power.com http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/data/1143254/DC1/1 http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/1143254 http://www.breakingnewsenglish.com/0706/070613-WITRIC .html http://www.witric.com/2007/06/10/WITRIC -impact/