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Power System Protection S.A.

Soman Overview
Electrical Energy Systems Types of Protection

Power System Protection


S.A.Soman
Department of Electrical Engineering IIT Bombay

Relays
Introduction Evolution of Relays

Circuit Breaker
What is a circuit breaker?

Summary

Power System Protection

Introduction
Power System Protection S.A.Soman Overview
Electrical Energy Systems Types of Protection

Overview Electrical Energy Systems Types of Protection Relays Introduction Evolution of Relays Circuit Breaker What is a circuit breaker? Summary

Relays
Introduction Evolution of Relays

Circuit Breaker
What is a circuit breaker?

Summary

Introduction
Power System Protection S.A.Soman Overview
Electrical Energy Systems Types of Protection

Overview Electrical Energy Systems Types of Protection Relays Introduction Evolution of Relays Circuit Breaker What is a circuit breaker? Summary

Relays
Introduction Evolution of Relays

Circuit Breaker
What is a circuit breaker?

Summary

Introduction
Power System Protection S.A.Soman Overview
Electrical Energy Systems Types of Protection

Electrical Energy is Generated at few kV and stepped up. Transmitted through AC and HVDC lines. Stepped down and distributed at load centers. Its natural mode of synchronous operation knits the system together.

Relays
Introduction Evolution of Relays

Circuit Breaker
What is a circuit breaker?

Summary

Introduction
Power System Protection S.A.Soman Overview
Electrical Energy Systems Types of Protection

Relays
Introduction Evolution of Relays

Circuit Breaker
What is a circuit breaker?

Summary

Introduction
Power System Protection S.A.Soman Overview
Electrical Energy Systems Types of Protection

Relays
Introduction Evolution of Relays

Circuit Breaker
What is a circuit breaker?

Why do we need protection? Electrical apparatus operates at various voltage levels and may be enclosed or placed in open. Under abnormal operating conditions protection is necessary for Safety of electrical equipments. Safety of human personnel.

Summary

Introduction
Power System Protection S.A.Soman Overview
Electrical Energy Systems Types of Protection

Overview Electrical Energy Systems Types of Protection Relays Introduction Evolution of Relays Circuit Breaker What is a circuit breaker? Summary

Relays
Introduction Evolution of Relays

Circuit Breaker
What is a circuit breaker?

Summary

Introduction
Power System Protection S.A.Soman Overview
Electrical Energy Systems Types of Protection

Types of Protection Apparatus Protection

Relays
Introduction Evolution of Relays

Circuit Breaker
What is a circuit breaker?

Summary

System Protection

Introduction
Power System Protection S.A.Soman Overview
Electrical Energy Systems Types of Protection

Types of Protection Apparatus Protection


Transmission Line Protection Transformer Protection Generator Protection Motor Protection Busbar Protection

Relays
Introduction Evolution of Relays

Circuit Breaker
What is a circuit breaker?

Summary

System Protection

Introduction
Power System Protection S.A.Soman Overview
Electrical Energy Systems Types of Protection

Types of Protection Apparatus Protection


Transmission Line Protection Transformer Protection Generator Protection Motor Protection Busbar Protection

Relays
Introduction Evolution of Relays

Circuit Breaker
What is a circuit breaker?

Summary

System Protection
Out-of-Step Protection Under-frequency Relays Islanding Systems Rate of Change of Frequency Relays

Introduction
Power System Protection S.A.Soman Overview
Electrical Energy Systems Types of Protection

Overview Electrical Energy Systems Types of Protection Relays Introduction Evolution of Relays Circuit Breaker What is a circuit breaker? Summary

Relays
Introduction Evolution of Relays

Circuit Breaker
What is a circuit breaker?

Summary

Introduction
Power System Protection S.A.Soman Overview
Electrical Energy Systems Types of Protection

What is a Relay? A relay is a logical element which process the inputs (mostly voltages and currents) from the system and issues a trip decision if a fault within its jurisdiction is detected. Inputs to a relay are Current from a current transformer. Voltage from a voltage transformer.

Relays
Introduction Evolution of Relays

Circuit Breaker
What is a circuit breaker?

Summary

Introduction
Power System Protection S.A.Soman Overview
Electrical Energy Systems Types of Protection

Relays
Introduction Evolution of Relays

Circuit Breaker
What is a circuit breaker?

Summary

Introduction
Power System Protection S.A.Soman Overview
Electrical Energy Systems Types of Protection

Overview Electrical Energy Systems Types of Protection Relays Introduction Evolution of Relays Circuit Breaker What is a circuit breaker? Summary

Relays
Introduction Evolution of Relays

Circuit Breaker
What is a circuit breaker?

Summary

Introduction
Power System Protection S.A.Soman Overview
Electrical Energy Systems Types of Protection

Relays
Introduction Evolution of Relays

Evolution of Relays If we zoom into a relay, we can see three different types of realization: Electromechanical Relays. Solid State Relays. Numerical Relays.

Circuit Breaker
What is a circuit breaker?

Summary

Introduction
Power System Protection S.A.Soman Overview
Electrical Energy Systems Types of Protection

Electromechanical Relays

Relays
Introduction Evolution of Relays

First generation of relays. Uses the principle of electromechanical energy conversion. Immune to electromagnetic interference and rugged.

Circuit Breaker
What is a circuit breaker?

Summary

Introduction
Power System Protection S.A.Soman Overview
Electrical Energy Systems Types of Protection

Relays
Introduction Evolution of Relays

Solid State Relays These relays were developed with the advent of transistors, operational ampliers etc. Their functionality is through various operations like comparators etc. Their advantages are More exible. Self checking facility. Less power consumption and low burden. Improved dynamic perfomance characteristics. High seismic withstand capacity. Reduced panel space.

Circuit Breaker
What is a circuit breaker?

Summary

Introduction
Power System Protection S.A.Soman Overview
Electrical Energy Systems Types of Protection

Relays
Introduction Evolution of Relays

Numerical Relays Operation of a numerical relay involves analog to digital conversion of voltage and currents obtained from VT and CTs. These samples are fed to the microprocessor or DSP where the protection algorithms process these signals and necessary decisions are taken.

Circuit Breaker
What is a circuit breaker?

Summary

Introduction
Power System Protection S.A.Soman Overview
Electrical Energy Systems Types of Protection

Its advantages are Maximum exibility. Provides multiple functionality. Self checking and communication facility. It can be made adaptive.

Relays
Introduction Evolution of Relays

Circuit Breaker
What is a circuit breaker?

Summary

Introduction
Power System Protection S.A.Soman Overview
Electrical Energy Systems Types of Protection

Overview Electrical Energy Systems Types of Protection Relays Introduction Evolution of Relays Circuit Breaker What is a circuit breaker? Summary

Relays
Introduction Evolution of Relays

Circuit Breaker
What is a circuit breaker?

Summary

Introduction
Power System Protection S.A.Soman Overview
Electrical Energy Systems Types of Protection

Relays
Introduction Evolution of Relays

What is a Circuit Breaker? A circuit breaker is basically a switch to interrupt the ow of current. It opens on relay command. It has to handle large voltages and currents. The inductive nature of power system results in arcing between the terminals of a CB. CBs are categorized based on the interrupting medium used.

Circuit Breaker
What is a circuit breaker?

Summary

Introduction
Power System Protection S.A.Soman Overview
Electrical Energy Systems Types of Protection

Summary Necessity of a protection system. Types of Protection. Three generations of relays. Role of circuit breakers.

Relays
Introduction Evolution of Relays

Circuit Breaker
What is a circuit breaker?

Summary