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Aira May Into Research Paper

Economics 3:00-4:30 (TTH)

Spanish Era
United we stand, divided we fall When the Spaniards came to the Philippines, the concept of encomienda (Royal Land Grants) was introduced. This system grants that Encomienderos must defend his encomienda from external attack, maintain peace and order within, and support the missionaries. In turn, the encomiendero acquired the right to collect tribute from the indios (native). The system, however, degenerated into abuse of power by the encomienderos The tribute soon became land rents to a few powerful landlords. And the natives who once cultivated the lands in freedom were transformed into mere share tenants.

What were some of the problemsother in other peoples names (Spanish encountered officials, in the encomienda system? inquilinos and caciques or local chieftains). Abusive encomienderos collected moreAs a tributes result, many peasant families were driven that became the land rentals from theout natives from the lands they have been cultivating living in the area. A compras y vandalas for system centuries or were forced to become tillers. was practiced wherein tillers were made to What laws required the registration of compulsory sell at a very low price orproperties/agricultural lands? surrender The Ley Hipotecaria or the Mortgage Law of their agricultural harvests to Spanish1893 authorities provided the systematic registration of titles where encomienderos can resell it for aand profit. deeds as well as ownership claims. People of the encomiendas were also required to render personal services on public and This law was mainly a law on registration of religious properties rather than a mortgage law. work and as a household help to the The Maura Law or Royal Decree of 1894 encomienderos. Why was the ownership of land limited towas the last Spanish Land Law promulgated in only the few families? The Spanish crown made a law in 1865Philippines. Farmers and landholders were given one year to register their agricultural ordering landholders to register their landholdings.lands to avoid declaration of it as a state property. Only those who were aware of these decreesWhat were some of the revolutionary highlights that occurred during this period? benefited. Ancestral lands were claimed and registeredAs more tillers were abused, exploited and deprived of their rights, the revolution of in

peasants and farmers in1896 articulated their aspirations for agrarian reform and for a just society. Women also fought for freedom and played an important role in the planning and implementing the activities of the revolutionary movements.
SPANISH COLOINIAL PERIOD LAND OWNERSHIP Colonization of islands king of Spain: power over territories King of Spain gave field officers tasks: distribute land among the people Encomienda: land rewarded by Spanish king soldiers for their services Encomenderos: to whom land was given Task of encomenderos: Collect taxes from people living in their encomienda Responsible for: maintaining the well-being and protection of the citizens Essence of Encomienda: duty for public service not for land ownership alone However, land ownership and taxation were the only tasks that were followed while proper governance was neglected. Caused disputes/feud among the natives, the church, and the encomenderos. Meanwhile, encomenderos abused their power and forced natives to pay tribute (cash or kind) beyond amount required by law 4 Classifications 1. Owned by the Church and related congregations like the Dominicans and Augustinians - Large tracts of lands - - Rented to farmers or inquilinos for cultivation 2. Owned by Spaniards in the Phil. 3. Owned by mestizos and rich Indios (principalia) 4. Owned by ordinary Indios - Small sized - Inherited from ancestors before Spanish colonization

Does the revolt addressed the problem of land ownership? Yes. The revolutionary government confiscated the large landed estates, especially the friar lands and declared these as properties of the government. (Malolos Constitution, 1896, Article XVII)
Law: - Lands not cultivated can be public and anyone can claim a piece of land by cultivating it - Once someone started cultivating, another would come to claim the land for diff. reasons (start of land grabbing) - Ancestors view on land ownership is diff. from colonizers law on public ownership - Effect: large potion of resources were never cultivated SYSTEM OF TAXATION An important institution introduced to us by the Spaniards is the formal system of taxation on all things and activities. Indirect taxes or rentas estancadas and direct taxes are the two taxes of taxation used during the Spanish time. Indirect taxes or rentas estancadas The most widespread system of taxation during the Spanish period. Levied on the manufacture, purchase, or use of products, services, or things. Direct taxes An example is the Tributo Tax on tobacco Contributed a big amount to the government revenues The Tobacco Monopoly Policy Intended to raise the governments income to lessen its dependence on the subsidies called situados coming from Mexico. The government profited a lot from this system since it was able to control not only the production but also the marketing of tobacco.

Tax on coconut wine Considered the second largest source of government revenues. In 1712, the government increased the price of the Many historians say: contributed to the slow growth in license for making wine as a way of increasing its income. In 1787, it directly controlled the production of agriculture wine in the provinces of Luzon to boost its objective of Renting of land- small scale production Taxes to encomenderos heavy burdens on farmer- increasing tax revenues. The government assigned inventores and inspectors cultivators Lack of initiative to improve production since there are called fieles to check on the level of production and profits of distilleries. no lands and produce was taxed by landowners Land grabbing: hindrance

Custom Taxes - on imported merchandise and exports Taxes on Vices: - cockfighting and betel nut chewing - govt collected huge amount of money

Forced Labor: POLO Male citizens from 16-60 y.o. were required by the Spanish govt to render free services 40 days/yr; in 1884 it was decreased to 15 days/yr POLISTAS- laborers

TRIBUTO: to show acceptance of becoming a subject of o Not paid daily allowances the king of Spain o Daily: real and a food ratio Cabeza de barangay- collected kind or cash o FALLA- fee paid to be exempted from Polo Cabeza de barangay gobernadorcillo provincial govt central govt Disadvantages/Results Hardest to collect bec. Made the poor even poorer . A lot of people avoided it Workers received low wages bec. of monopoly of govt . Number of poor and old citizens (reservados) were on the industries and low prices paid for their produce exempted from paying Number of rebellions bec. of the abuses in the taxation Based on town pop. but often incorrectly reported and trade monopolies Collection were 1st used by some gobernadorcillo for personal and commercial purposes