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LAN and WAN Technologies Networking/internetworking Hardware and Software Preliminaries in Network Design

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LAN and WAN Technologies

LAN and WAN Technologies


Networking and internetworking Networking connecting of a computer or device (station, host, end-system, end-node) to another Internetworking connecting of a network to another Protocol a set of rules that controls how communications take place Local Area Network (LAN): in general connecting stations geographically close to each other, e.g., within a building
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LAN and WAN Technologies

Wide Area Network (WAN): connecting multiple LANs Remark: Speed cannot be used to dierentiate LANs from WANs any more. Traditionally, WANs were slower in speed than LANs. WANs can be faster than LANs nowadays however the maximum speed of a WAN can be higher than that of a LAN.

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LAN and WAN Technologies

Internetworking Technology

LAN and WAN Technologies

Internetworking Technology
 

The OSI Model

LAN and WAN Technologies

Internetworking Technology
 

The OSI Model

developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

LAN and WAN Technologies

Internetworking Technology
 

The OSI Model

developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Seven layers: physical, data link, network, transport, session, presentation, and application layers

LAN and WAN Technologies

Internetworking Technology
 

The OSI Model

developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Seven layers: physical, data link, network, transport, session, presentation, and application layers Physical denes the electrical, mechanical, procedural, and functional specications transmission of (raw) signals (bits) Data link provides a reliable transit of data across a physical link, concerned with physical addressing, network topology, line discipline, error notication, the ordered delivery of frames, and ow control.
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Network layer It provides connectivity and path selection between two end systems. Routing occurs at this layer. Protocols examples TCP/IP Layer 3 and above protocol can be implemented on a LAN or WAN LAN Protocols layers 1 and 2 of the OSI model Ethernet (derivatives: Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet and 10 Gigabit Ethernet)
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LAN and WAN Technologies

Token ring FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) WAN Protocols ATM X.25 Frame relay
  

WAN Protocols  operates at layers 1 and 2 of the OSI model High Level Data Link Control (HDLC) HDLC is the primary protocol used for point-to-point serial lines Frame Relay a packet-switched service

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LAN and WAN Technologies

permanent virtual circuits (PVCs) switched virtual circuits (SVCs) lower rate, not so expensive Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) packet-switched network packets are of xed length, called cells of 53 bytes long can carry both voice and data in general expensive Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) a circuit-switched service digital dial-up, use the existing telephone local loop circuits oers two simultaneous connections (each of 64 kbps) Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)/Cable modem rate of a few Mbps
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LAN and WAN Technologies

Routed versus Routing Protocols


A routed protocol contains network, Layer 3, and addressing information enables the protocol to be directed from one network to another.

A routing protocol provides support to a routed protocol by sharing routing information distributed among routers. Routed protocols TCP/IP IPX/SPX AppleTalk
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Routing Protocols RIP, OSPF, EIGRP,BGP RIP, EIGRP, NLSP RTMP, EIGRP
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LAN and WAN Technologies


 

Protocols in other layers


 

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) most commonly used protocol used on the Internet exclusively TCP/IP protocols does not quite follow the OSI model.

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LAN and WAN Technologies

OSI model Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data link Physical The Internet Protocol IP

TCP/IP FTP, HTTP, Telnet

TCP, UDP IP, ARP, ICMP LAN/WAN Protocols Physical

provides a best-eort, connectionless packet delivery service The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) used to discover the link address (e.g., IP address), or media access control (MAC, also known as hardware address) (e.g. Ethernet address)
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LAN and WAN Technologies

The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) used to report network errors, refer to the ping command. TCP/IP Transport layer the basis for all user data trac TCP TCP is a connection-oriented. UDP UDP is a connectionless protocol.
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LAN and WAN Technologies

TCP/IP application layer File Transfer Protocol (FTP) to transfer les between hosts Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) web page access Telnet a terminal emulation application TCP/IP Routing Protocols RIP the rst TCP/IP routing protocol
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LAN and WAN Technologies

distance vector protocol, uses a hop count metric at most 15 hops does not support multiple subnet masks RIP version 2 enables multiple subnet masks, 255 hops a classless protocol

Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) Cisco proprietary distance vector routing protocol The Enhanced IGRP (EIGRP) integrates several link-state capabilities with several distance vector capabilities supports multiple subnet masks and is a classless protocol
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LAN and WAN Technologies

Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) a link-state routing protocol supports multiple subnet masks a classless protocol supports an unlimited number of hops The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) the routing protocol of the Internet performs routing between multiple autonomous systems (ASs) also a classless protocol

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IP Addressing
 

An IP address is composed of 32 bits. can be represented in binary dotted or decimal dotted articially inserting three dots to divide the 32 bits into four groups, each of 8 bits divided to a network portion and a host portion Devices on the same LAN will have the same network portion but a unique host portion. To determine the network portion, a mask is used.
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LAN and WAN Technologies


 

Network (subnet) mask


 

A network mask (32 bits) is used to determine the network portion format: all 1s followed by all 0s The network is always represented by a binary 1 in the subnet mask. Classical (classful) IP divides the address space into Class A, B, and C networks by dividing the 32-bit address on 8-bit (byte) boundaries. Classless IP divides, or subnets, these classic networks into smaller networks by breaking them on bit boundaries. Subnetting: borrows bits from the host portion
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LAN and WAN Technologies

Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange (IPX/SPX) protocol suite Novell NetWare AppleTalk protocol Apple Computer Inc.

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LAN and WAN Technologies

Network Topology Overview


Ethernet Ring

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LAN and WAN Technologies

Basic Ethernet
developed in the late 70s at the Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) of Xerox Variation: 10 Gigabit, Gigabit and Fast Ethernet Ethernet is simply a group of devices that access a common shared medium, a cable, to exchange information. Operations: Carrier Sense Multiple Access and Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) collisions deterorate throughput performance A broadcast network: collison domain and broadcast domain Network equipment for an Ethernet network: hubs, bridges/switches, and routers.
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LAN and WAN Technologies

Ethernet types denoted as e.g., 10BaseT, Speed-Signaling-Media Speed (the rst part): the speed in Mbps Signaling: the signaling type Base: baseband signaling Media: the media type Media type: T: unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cable The maximum transmission distance is 100 meters F: ber-optic cable.
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LAN and WAN Technologies

The maximum transmission distance depends on the specic subtype. e.g., for FB, the maximum transmission distance is 2000 meters. Hubs Networking equipment, also known as repeaters since they just repeat what they receive can be used to extend networks may not have too many hubs not suitable for large and complex networks Maximum 4 repeaters between source and destination (Ethernet)
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LAN and WAN Technologies

Bridges/Switches Networking equipment that operate at layer 2 of the OSI model segment trac based on layer-2 or MAC addresses to isolate user trac To reduce the number of users in a collision domain Collision domain: the same shared media
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LAN and WAN Technologies

Bridges segment a network into several collision domains The collision domains are still considered the same LAN The use of more repeaters (for Ethernet) is made possible

Routers

Segment broadcast domains (the whole LAN network) Routers will never propagate a broadcast.
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LAN and WAN Technologies

A router is also the boundary of a LAN. Connects two LANs or connects a LAN with a WAN Operates at layer 3 of the OSI model more complex and expensive require more conguration

Routers base their decisions on network and sub-network addresses. A subnet mask is used to extract the network address. For example (IP)
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LAN and WAN Technologies

host address 158.132.148.222 AND subnet mask 255.255.254.0 gives net address 158.132.148.0

host address 158.132.149.222 AND subnet mask 255.255.254.0 gives net address 158.132.148.0

Routing protocols classication distance vector link state Distance Vector Link State RIP OSPF IGRP NLSP IPX RIP IS-IS
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LAN and WAN Technologies

NLSP: the NetWare Link-Service Protocol, similar to OSPF and Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS), developed to overcome many of the issues associated with IPX RIP. Seven layer model and networking equipment

Commonly used symbols

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LAN and WAN Technologies

Ring Topology
Stations are (logically) connected in a ring topology. Physically, stations are connected in a star topology. (Remarks: stations in an Ethernet are connected in a star topology.) Bridges, switches, and routers behave almost identically to their Ethernet counterparts.
 

Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)


 

100 Mbps token-passing LAN technology dual ber-optic rings often used as a high-speed backbone.
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Networking/internetworking Hardware and Software

Networking/internetworking Hardware and Software

Networking/internetworking Hardware and Software

Networking/internetworking Hardware and Software


LAN to LAN/WAN Routers LAN Hubs, bridges, switches, (switch-routers) WAN to LAN Firewall, network address translation (NAT)
  

Routers

small-oce inexpensive, does not support FDDI and ATM Example: Cisco 2500 series (xed LAN ports, 2 WAN interface cards (WICs)) mid-range Example: Cisco 4000/3600 series
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Networking/internetworking Hardware and Software

three modular slots for network processing modules (NPMs); (Each NPM holds one or more (Ethernet/ATM/DS3) ports.) A maximum of two high-speed interfaces high-end routers Examples: 7000/7500 series and the Cisco 12000 Gigabit Switch Router (GSR) series used at the core of your network as a backbone router or the core of service provider and enterprise IP backbones
 

LAN Switches

used to connect end users to the network provide large quantities of ports
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Networking/internetworking Hardware and Software

Examples: Cisco 2900XL and 3500XL series, Cisco Catalyst 1900 switches
 

Other Hardware

ISDN/DSL routers Example: Cisco 700 and 800 series Remote Access Routers

Firewall Example: Ciscos PIX ATM switches


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Networking/internetworking Hardware and Software


 

Software

Internetworking Operating System (IOS) Software Example: Cisco makes the routing decisions on a router The Linux OS the route command (for static routing) zebra: a set of programs that implement various routing algorithms (e.g., RIP, OSPF) iptables: rewall and NAT

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Preliminaries in Network Design

Preliminaries in Network Design


Related issues Networking technology used Hardware
 

Framework Triplet (Triangle)


 

Media Transport

Protocols

related to layers 2 and 3 of the OSI model helps identify possible solutions Protocol problems
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Preliminaries in Network Design

Media problems Transport problems


 

Protocols problems
 

Examples: RIP cannot be used with Variable Length Subnet Masks (VLSMs) NETBIOS cannot be routed
 

Media

related to layer 2 Example


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Preliminaries in Network Design

10 stations to a hub in a 10 Mpsb Ethernet, maximum 1 Mbps for each station 10 stations to switch in 10 Mbps Ethernet, maximum 10 Mbps for each station microsegmenting: each station resides in their own collision domain

Similarly in a token ring network: a layer 2 device can reduce the number of devices in a ring and hence reduce the waiting time.

Media problem example in a WAN: 100Kbps of trac cannot be transmitted on a circuit of rate 64 Kbps

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Preliminaries in Network Design


 

Transport
 

Specic types of trac cannot be carried in a network Example analog (native voice) signal cannot be carried on Ethernet speed of the network: use a faster network voice and data trac over a WAN circuit ATM Multiprotocol label switching (MPLS)
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Preliminaries in Network Design

Design Principles
 

Example: Hierarchical Design - The Three-Layer Approach


 

Three layers the core layer provides the backbone transport services the distribution layer provides policybased connectivity the access layer provides end-user access to the network
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Preliminaries in Network Design

Advantages Easier to understand Easier to troubleshoot Easier to grow


 

The Core Layer


 

the backbone of the network provides reliable, high-speed communications to all distribution layers of the network can encompass both WAN and LAN technologies
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Preliminaries in Network Design

High reliability: crucial Redundancy and fault tolerance Adaptability Limited size or diameter Low latency and fast processing Manageability
 

The Distribution Layer


 

the interface between the core and the access layers policy-based connectivity
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Preliminaries in Network Design

implemented in routers and switches Route redistribution and address summarization: various routing protocols Media translations Network Address Translation (NAT) QoS Access-list ltering: restrict any unwanted trac Encryption: not in the core layer since it will introduces latency not in the access layer (it would imply multiple encryption processes.)
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The Access Layer


 

provides network access for all end stations generally implemented with hubs and switches raw network connectivity
 

Summary
 

Two design fundamentals the framework triangle the three-layer hierarchy Fundamentals of technology and equipment
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