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EVOLUTION

Biology 1 / SY 2006-2007

Evolution
Definition - gradual change over time - L. e-, out + volvere, to roll Types GEOLOGIC EVOLUTION BIOLOGICAL or ORGANIC EVOLUTION

The foundation of modern evolutionary thought was described by Charles Darwin

THE ROAD TO EVOLUTIONARY THEORY Evolution Before Darwin


Greek Philosophers Platos Idealism
Aristotles scala naturae (scale of nature)
special creation of each species organisms were created in their current form the earth was only a few thousand years old

THE ROAD TO EVOLUTIONARY THEORY Evolution Before Darwin


CARL Von LINNE Swedish botanist worked on the classification of plants published Species Plantarum (~7,300 plants)

ordered classification of plants based on their similarities showed the natural relationships of plants

THE ROAD TO EVOLUTIONARY THEORY Evolution Before Darwin


THOMAS MALTHUS

economist & clergyman published

An Essay on the Principle of Population

Populations had an inherent tendency to increase geometrically, while the resources needed to support this growth increase slowly or not at all. Because of the continued growth of a species would outstrip needed resources, growth would be limited.

THE ROAD TO EVOLUTIONARY THEORY Evolution Before Darwin


JEAN-BAPTISTE de LAMARCK
French biologist proposed that modern species descended from other species

Lamarckism based on two theories:


1. Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics
- traits acquired by an individual during its life are passed to its offspring

2. Use and Disuse


- organs of the body that were used extensively to cope with the environment became larger and stronger, while organs that were not used deteriorated

THE ROAD TO EVOLUTIONARY THEORY Evolution Before Darwin


Example: The Evolution of the Giraffe Giraffes obtained their long necks from previous giraffes who stretched to eat the leaves of high tree branches. Stretching increased the length of their necks, and this acquired characteristic was passed to the next generation.

THE ROAD TO EVOLUTIONARY THEORY Evolution Before Darwin


Lamarckism

first to present a unified theory that attempted to explain the changes in organisms from one generation to the next
although mechanisms proposed for change was wrong, since acquired characteristics are not heritable!!! origin of species from preexisting species ability of organisms to adapt

THE ROAD TO EVOLUTIONARY THEORY Darwins Time (1800s)


GEORGES CUVIER French anatomist and naturalist and writer

paleontologist strongly opposed the concept of evolution


history of living organisms recorded in layers of rock containing a succession of fossil species in chronological order

fossils were organisms that had died in a series of catastrophes, after which extinct plants and animals were replaced by the immigration of distant species to the devastated region Catastrophism

THE ROAD TO EVOLUTIONARY THEORY Darwins Time (1800s)


JAMES HUTTON Scottish geologist took up law, medicine and agriculture published

Theory of the Earth


geological change occurred slowly but continuously by the process of Gradualism sedimentary rock that encased fossils formed by the gradual accumulation of sediments in bodies of water

THE ROAD TO EVOLUTIONARY THEORY Darwins Time (1800s)


CHARLES LYELL
Scottish lawyer turned geologist published

Principles of Geology

Uniformitarianism - the processes that alter the Earth are uniform through time believed Huttons evidence for gradualism indicated that the earth was millions of years old

believed that even the slow and subtle processes could cause substantial change over time

THE ROAD TO EVOLUTIONARY THEORY Darwins Time (1800s)


GEORGES CUVIER JAMES HUTTON CHARLES LYELL Geological evolution the earth is very old and constantly changing life existed millions of years ago geologists were convinced of an ancient earth, but were at odds over how to explain the appearance and disappearance of species in the fossil record

believed in in special creation

THE ROAD TO EVOLUTIONARY THEORY Darwins Time (1800s)


GREGOR MENDEL Austrian biologist discovered the basic principles of heredity father of Classical Genetics

Individual characteristics determined by inherited factors transmitted from parent to offspring.

THE ROAD TO EVOLUTIONARY THEORY Darwins Time (1800s)


CHARLES DARWIN voyage on the H.M.S. Beagle (1836)

published (1859)

The Origin of Species

first person who proposed a mechanistic approach to evolutionary thought the father of synthetic evolution

The Voyage of the Beagle

On the Galapagos Islands... Galapagos tortoise Darwins finches


Most organisms on the islands were endemic.

species not specially created in their present forms, but had evolved from ancestral species proposed a mechanism for evolution: Natural Selection
A population of organisms can change over time as a result of individuals with certain heritable characteristics leaving more offspring than other individuals.

THE ROAD TO EVOLUTIONARY THEORY Darwins Time (1800s)


ALFRED RUSSELL WALLACE English naturalist

studied the Malay archipelago and Amazon


proposed a theory of evolution similar to Darwins

Then I saw at once that the ever-present variability of all living things would furnish the material from which, by the mere weeding out of those less adapted to the actual conditions, the fittest alone would continue the race.

Darwinism in Historical Context

THE ROAD TO EVOLUTIONARY THEORY Neo-Darwinian/Contemporary Times

HUGO DE VRIES

CARL CORRENS

ERICH VON TSCHERMAK

rediscovered Mendels laws of heredity the start of rediscovering evolution in terms of Mendels ideas

THE ROAD TO EVOLUTIONARY THEORY Neo-Darwinian/Contemporary Times


JAMES WATSON FRANCIS CRICK

elucidated the structure of DNA (genetic material)


DNA contains coded information which acts as a blueprint for the transfer of hereditary information from generation to generation

mutation as the raw material for evolution