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FORMATION OF ENGLISH VERB

In Bahasa Inggris on December 2, 2010 at 2:57 am

Language consists of a function and a form. Common sense tells us that the main function of language is to help people to communicate. The form consists of sounds, gestures, or other physical variations in the environment capable of being perceived by other people. Furthermore, the form of language makes sense in terms of its basic function. Without the function of communication, language would be no more than random noises or other physical variations in the environment. To detect word forms, especially verb form beforehand we detect about morphology. Morphology is a branch of grammar that studies the structure or the form of words, particularly through the use of morpheme, (Crystal :1980). In general, morphology is devided into two fields : the study of inflection (inflectional morphology) and the study of word formation (lexical or derivational morphology). To understand the meanings of these two morphological processes and their differences, Bickford et.al.(1991 :17-18) states that derivational morphology takes a word and changes it to another word, that is, creating new lexical entries. In the clearest cases, derivational morphology creates a new world from other syntactical categories. On the other hand, inflectional morphology does not change a word to another word and never changes syntactical categories, on the contrary, it produces other forms from the same word. There are many important differences between inflection and derivation. The first difference refers to productivity, inflectional morphology is very productive, while derivational morphology is usually not productive. This means that if we take an inflectional suffix which usually occurs with verb, then we can add it to the words that are newly formed or borrowed. On the other hand, derivational affixes often can not be used like this even to words that have been in that language for centuries. Another difference is that derivational affixes often have lexical meanings, while inflectional suffixes usually have grammatical meanings. For example, the meaning of er in English can be stated as someone who, but the meaning of ed must be stated with the technical term past tense. OGrady & Dobrovolsky (1989 : 91) state that word is not the smallest meaningful linguistic unit that we try to find, because word can be further analyzed. The smallest meaningful linguistic unit is Morpheme which is arbitrary, that means that the relation between the sounds of a morpheme and its meaning is conventional, not rooted in the object that it represents. On the other hand, morpheme is : The smallest unit of language that carries meaning (maybe a word or not a word), a sound-meaning unit, a minimal unit of meaning or grammatical function, and the level of language at which sound and meaning combine : Free morpheme: lexical & functional morpheme that can occur by itself, not attached to other morphemes, for example; girl, teach, book, class, the, of, etc, and Bound morpheme: derivational & inflectional that must be attached to another morpheme, examples: -able, un-, re-, etc. The Hierarchical Structure Of Words

Words are formed in steps, with one affix attaching, to a complete word, which can be a free word or a morphological complex word. Affixes in general can only combine with words of, a single part of speech. (e.g., -able and re-only combine with verbs). Also, the words affixes form after combination are usually of a single part of speech as well, not necessarily the same as the words with which it combines. (-able forms adjectives, re- forms verbs). This fact implies that the order of combination for, morphemes makes a diference, because otherwise you would end up with non-well-formed words.

1. unusable = un + (use + able), not *(un + use) + able. 1. reusable = (re + use) + able, not *re + (use +able).

Some words can have multiple structures associated, with them because of various combinatorial possibilities for the constituent morphemes. This is usually due to phonetically identical but otherwise differing morphemes causing some sort of ambiguity, e.g., unlockable. These are ambiguous in their word structure.

Word Formation Processes

Affixation: process of forming words by adding affixes to morphemes. = A: predict + -able = N: sing + er = A: un-productive = V: deep + -en, thick + -en

V + -able V + -er un + A A + en

Compounding: word formation process by which new words are formed by combining two or more independent words. = A: bittersweet = N: rainbow = V: sleepwalk = P: without

A+A N+N V+V P+P

V+N N+V P+V

= N: pickpocket = V: spoonfeed = V: overdo

Morpheme-internal Changes : a type of word formation process wherein a word changes internally to indicate grammatical information.

ablaut: sing, sang, sung; swim, swam, swum other changes: man, men; mouse, mice, goose, geese

Suppletion: a relationship between forms of a word wherein on form cannot be phonologically or morphologically derived from the other, this process is rare.

am was; go -went good better; bad worse

Blending: process of creating a new word by combining the parts of two different words, usually the beginning of one word and the end of another.

breakfast + lunch = brunch smoke + fog motor + hotel = smog = motel

Basic Concepts and Terms An affix is a morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form a new word. Affixes may be derivational like ness and pre-, or inflectional like plural s and past tense ed. Affixes are devided into several categories, depending on their position with reference to the stem. Prefix and suffix are extremely common terms. Infix and circumfix are less so, as they are not important in European languages. English Prefixes and Suffixes of VERB Prefixes Prefixes ac-, ad-, af-, ag-, al-, ap-, as-, atMeaning Examples to, toward, near, accompany (verb): to go with someone as a companion adjacent to adjust (verb): to correct, to move closer to a

circum-

around

co-, cog-, col-, together, with com-, con-, corcontraagainst, opposite contradict (verb) to state the opposite deto do the opposite, decrease (verb): to grow smaller, to become less to take away from desensitize (verb): to take away sensitivity di-, dif-, dis- apart, separate, divide (verb): to separate into two or more parts two, differ (verb): to be unlike opposite of, not, distrust (verb): to have no confidence or trust exclude disagree (verb): to not agree with someone or something e-, exout, out of, from emit (verb) to send out expel (verb): to force out exclude (verb): to close out of, keep out enamor (verb): to cause to love, to put someone into love

correct position circumvent (verb): to manage to get around a situation collaborate (verb): to work together more things

en-, em-

put into

for-, forein-, im-, ilintermismultiob-, oc-, of-, op-

empower (verb): to give power, to put into power before foresee (verb): to see beforehand in, into import (verb): to bring into a country from another country between, among interject (verb): to throw something between other things wrong misinterpret (verb): to interpret incorrectly many multiply (verb): to increase in number toward, against, in obtain (verb): to gain or get, to get a hold of the way oppose (verb): to be against, to stand in the way of something excessive, above overwork (verb): to have too much work through perform (verb): to carry out an act after postpone (verb): to put off to a later time, to delay before precede (verb): to go before, to come in front of

overperpostpre-

proresub-, suc-, suf-, sup-, sur-, sus supertrans-

for, forward propel (verb): to push forward back, again redo (verb): to do again under, beneath, support (verb): to hold up, too keep up near, from below, secretly, above, up over, above superimpose (verb): to place on top of something else across, beyond, transform (verb): to change shape change

Suffixes to Create VERBS Suffixes -ate -ed -en -er, -or -ify -ing -ize -ure Meanings cause to be past tense Examples graduate: to give a degree to, to pass from one stage to the next attained: something that has been reached or grasped moisten: to cause to become moist or damp

to cause to become action ponder: to clamor: to make noise, to call for loudly think about cause specify: to name or indicate in detail present participle depicting: showing, describing with images or pictures cause fantasize: to create images in the mind Act conjecture: to come to a conclusion by supposition or guesswork

The Formation of English VERB Through Derivation The formation of English verb including with the suffix ate, -en, -fy, -ize, and with prefix en-, auto-, de-, dis-, fore-, inter-, mis-, re-, and un-.
1. 1. The formation of English verb with the suffix ate.

The rule state that English verb can be formed by adding the suffix ate to the base consisting of nouns or adjective as listed in the dictionary with the meaning give, make, mix, combine or unite X): [accent]N [liquid]N [amalgam]v

[active]Adj [habit]N

[assassin]N [authentic]Adj

[hyphen]v [different]v

The application of (VFR-1) can generate the following underlying representations : [#[active]Adj + [-ate]Suf#]v But there are three of them that are phonologically unacceptable (accent, habit,different). Must go through two phonological processes, namely, syllable structure process or vowel insertion in which the vowel phoneme /u/ is inserted at the end of the base, and assimilation in which the stop consonant phoneme /t/ changes to fricative consonant phoneme /c/ due to the insertion on the vowel phoneme /u/ when the suffix ate is added to the base. The process derivation can be shown in the following : UR PR Insertion of /u/ PR /t/ Output // : *[#[accent]N + [-ate]Suf#]V : *[#[accent + u ]N + [-ate]Suf#]V : [#[accen + u]N + [-ate]Suf#]V : [accentuate / eksenueit/]

1. 2. The formation of English verb with the suffix en.

The rule state that English verb can be formed by adding the suffix en to the base consisting of adjectives with the meaning make X listed as follows : [black]Adj [cheap]Adj [deep]Adj [bright]adj [damp]Adj [fat]Adj [broad]Adj [deaf]Adj [fresh]Adj

When (VFR-2) is applied, the following underlying representations can be generated : [#[black]Adj + [-en]Suf#]V But there are two of them that are phonologically unacceptable (fat,flat). Must go through two phonological processes,that is consonant insertion in which the stop consonant phoneme /t/ is inserted at the end of the base when the suffix en is added to the base. The process derivation can be shown in the following : UR : *[#[fat]Adj + [-en]Suf#]V

PR Insertion of /t/ Output

: [#[fat + t]Adj + [-en]Suf#]V : [fatten]

1. 3. The formation of English verb with the suffix fy.

The rule state that English verb can be formed by adding the suffix fy to the base consisting of nouns with the meaning make X listed as follows : [beauty]N -

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01 [/code]N 02 03 04 05 06 07 [#[beauty]N + [-fy]Suf#]V 08 But there are many of them that are phonologically unacceptable (code,class,mode, personsign). Must go through two phonological 09 processes,that is vowel insertion in which the vowel phoneme /i/ is inserted at the end of the base when the suffix <em>fy</em> is added to the base. The process derivation can be shown in the following : 10 11 UR 12 : *[#1N When (VFR-3) is applied, the following underlying representations can be generated : [person]N [mode]N - [sign]N - [class]N

<p>[control]N [horn]N - [frost]N</p> <p>By applying (VFR-7), we generate the following underlying 13 representations :</p> 14 <p>[#[de-]Pref + [base]N#]V</p> 15 <p>All of the above underlying representations are already acceptable.</p> 16 <p> </p> 17 <ol> 18 <li><strong>8. </strong><strong>The formation of English verb with the preffix <em>dis</em>-.</strong></li>

19 </ol> <p>The rule state that English verb can 20 <em>dis-</em> to the base consisting of listed as follows :</p> <p>[agree]V 21 [allow]V <p>[approve]V 22 [believe]V <p>By applying (VFR-8), we generate the 23 representations :</p> 24 <p>[#[dis-]Pref + [agree]V#]V</p> 25 <p>All of the above underlying representations are already acceptable.</p> 26 <p> </p> 27 <ol> 28 <li><strong>9. </strong><strong>The formation of English verb with the preffix <em>fore</em>-.</strong></li> be formed by adding the prefix verbs with the meaning not X - [appear]V</p> - [connect]V</p> following underlying

29 </ol> <p>The rule state that English verb can be formed by adding the prefix 30 <em>fore-</em> to the base consisting of verbs with the meaning X before listed as follows :</p> <p>[bear]V 31 [cast]V - [close]V</p> <p>[go]V 32 [see]V - [shadow]V</p> <p>By applying (VFR-9), we generate the following underlying 33 representations :</p> 34 <p>[#[fore-]Pref + [bear]V#]V</p> 35 <p>All of the above underlying representations are already acceptable.</p> 36 <p> </p> <p><strong>10. </strong><strong>The formation of English verb with the preffix <em>inter</em>-.</strong></p> <p>The rule state that English verb can be formed by adding the prefix 38 <em>inter-</em> to the base consisting of verbs with the meaning X reciprocally listed as follows :</p> <p>[act]V 39 [change]V - [connect]V</p> 37 40 <p>41 [lock]V - [communicate]V</p> <p>By applying (VFR-10), we generate the following underlying representations :</p>

42 <p>[#[inter-]Pref + [act]V#]V</p> 43 <p>All of the above underlying representations are already acceptable.</p> 44 <p> </p> 45 <p><strong>11. </strong><strong>The formation of English verb with the preffix <em>mis</em>-.</strong></p>

<p>The rule state that English verb can be formed by adding the prefix 46 <em>mis-</em> to the base consisting of verbs with the meaning X wronly listed as follows :</p> <p>[apply]V 47 [behave]V - [calculate]V</p> <p>[direct]V 48 [conduct]V - [inform]V</p> <p>By applying (VFR-11), we generate the following underlying 49 representations :</p> 50 <p>[#[mis-]Pref + [apply]V#]V</p> 51 <p>All of the above underlying representations are already acceptable.</p> 52 <p> </p> 53 54 55 56 57 <p><strong>12. </strong><strong>The formation of English verb with the preffix <em>re</em>-.</strong></p> <p>The rule state that English verb can be formed by adding the prefix <em>re-</em> to the base consisting of verbs with the meaning X again listed as follows :</p> <p>[call]V [allocate]V - [create]V</p> <p>[arrange]V [build]V - [distribute]V</p> <p>By applying (VFR-12), we generate the following underlying representations :</p>

58 <p>[#[re-]Pref + [call]V#]V</p> 59 <p>All of the above underlying representations are already acceptable.</p> 60 <p> </p> 61 62 63 64 65 <p><strong>13. </strong><strong>The preffix <em>un</em>-.</strong></p> <p>The rule state that English verb <em>un-</em> to the base consisting listed as follows :</p> <p>[bend]V [cover]V <p>[learn]V [load]V <p>By applying (VFR-8), we generate representations :</p> formation of English verb with the can be formed by adding the prefix of verbs with the meaning not X - [dress]V</p> - [freeze]V</p> the following underlying

66 <p>[#[un-]Pref + [bend]V#]V</p> 67 <p>All of the above underlying representations are already acceptable.</p> 68 <p></p>