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TABLE I. VOLTAGE HARMONICS VALUES ON DELIVERY POINTS TILL

ORDER 25, EXPRESS IN PERCENT OF THE NOMINAL VOLTAGE [2]

Odd

Even

Non Multiple of 3 Multiple of 3

Order h

Relative

Voltage

(%)

Order h

Relative

Voltage

(%)

Order h

Relative

Voltage

(%)

5 6.0 3 5.0 2 2.0

7 5.0 9 1.5 4 1.0

11 3.5 15 0.5 6 ... 24 0.5

13 3.0 21 0.5

17 2.0

19 1.5

23 1.5

25

The voltage harmonics values for orders above 25 are not

presented because they are usually of small magnitude.

In order to minimise the effects of harmonics, it is needed

to combine output passive AC filters with appropriated PWM

control techniques. In this work, an inverter system that can use

a PEMFC as DC source is simulated in Matlab/Simulink

platform, using the SimPowerSystems toolbox according to the

scheme presented in Figure 1. It uses a high-precision control

of a single-phase PWM inverter with constant voltage and

frequency at output terminals. This control strategy uses a

capacitor current feedback with a phase-locked loop (PLL)

compensator that minimises the steady-state error of the output

voltage [3].

Results corresponding to the single-phase PWM inverter

system simulation for different kinds of loads with high quality

energy standards are presented.

The simulations were made for three kinds of loads:

resistive load, full wave rectifier with an output capacitor filter

for a load resistor and single-phase induction motor. The

selections were made taking into consideration the typical loads

presented on individual residential and small remote-site

applications.

Resistive loads are presented in a great variety of residential

loads such as lamps, ventilation heaters, radiators, etc.; full

wave rectifiers are presented in switching DC power supplies

used in computers, LCD TVs, etc.; and single-phase induction

motors are presented in washing machines, freezers, air

conditioners, water pumps, etc.

The results obtained will be compared with the data from

Table I to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme for

high quality power generation.

II. STRUCTURE OF THE INVERTERSYSTEM

The proposed structure for the inverter system is based on a

single-phase PWM inverter, composed by four IGBT power

switches, a step-up power transformer and a LC output filter.

The inverter has a DC voltage source input with a constant

value of 48V, corresponding to the most common output

voltage of the fuel cell systems.

The inverter output voltage is then applied to the step-up

power transformer to provide an appropriated AC output

voltage.

Figure 1. Block diagram of the single-phase PWM inverter system

This AC voltage is then filtered through the LC filter to

obtain a high quality output AC voltage of 230VRMS/50Hz to

be applied to the load. The structure of the proposed system is

showed in Figure 1.

III. CONTROL STRUCTURE DESCRIPTION

The control structure of the single-phase PWM inverter

system is based on a principal control block and a secondary

control block, as presented in Figure 1. The main control block

is composed by two loops; the capacitor current feedback loop

and the voltage feedback loop (Figure 2). The secondary

control is composed by a PLL compensator loop (Figure 3).

The voltage feedback control loop is responsible for the

control of both magnitude and phase angle of the output

voltage generated by the inverter.

The capacitor current feedback loop is responsible for

providing low output impedance against load variations and

nonlinear load conditions, due to its decoupling effect [4]. The

advantages of this controller are described in [5], as well as the

importance of the inverters closed-loop output impedance

characteristic reported in [6].

An important aspect that needs to be considered is the fact

that the current in the capacitor usually has many high

frequency harmonics, generating a large amount of ripple in the

current waveform. For that reason, the current signal cannot be

directly applied to the controller and must be first filtered

through a low pass filter with second order Butterworth pole

location.

The output voltage and capacitor current feedback loops,

both uses a P type controller for the control blocks Gv(z) and

Gc(z). These controllers need a very high gain values for

reducing the steady-state error.

Figure 2. Output voltage feedback and capacitor current feedback controls

Figure 3. PLL compensator control

The PLL compensator is used in the control loop to

minimize the steady-state error and to allow the use of lower

gains in the P controllers of the main control.

Attending to the relationship between the output voltage

and the capacitor current, if the output voltage is given

by v

can be obtained from v

and i

as follows:

cos (1)

sin (2)

where is the phase angle of the output voltage and

is

the angular frequency of the output voltage. The variables

v

and v

by:

cos

sin

sin

cos

(3)

where

difference between the phase angles of both reference voltage

and the output voltage is small, due to the action of the main

voltage and current controllers, than the follow equation can be

used:

and

(4)

According to (4)

voltage and

difference. If the phase angle error is small, both

anu

voltage can be minimized using a PI type controller.

The presented PLL compensator has two PI type controllers

given in Figure 3 by G

cm

(z) for the magnitude regulation and

G

cf

(z) for the phase angle regulation.

The input compensation voltage, obtained from the PLL

compensator, is given by

cos

, where

is the

magnitude and

voltage. This compensation voltage is then applied to the main

controller as it can be seen in the Figure 2.

The output voltage

voltage for the single-phase PWM inverter.

IV. COMPUTATIONAL SIMULATIONANDRESULTS

In this section, simulation results accomplished in

Matlab/Simulink platform, through the use of the

SimPowerSystems toolbox are presented. The model was built

according to the block diagram presented in Figure 1.

The simulations carried out were prepared for three

different types of loads: resistive load, full wave rectifier with

an output capacitor filter for a load resistor and single-phase

induction motor. In the several simulations performed, the load

level variation was considered.

In all the simulations a discrete solver with a fixed-step

integration of 5s was used. The reference output voltage used

was v

cos

frequency of the carrier of the PWM generator was 6 kHz.

Figure 4(a)-(b) shows the voltage and current load

waveforms for a resistive load, respectively. As it can be

observed in the Figure 4(b), at t = 0.51s the load current

increases 10 times as a consequence of a load value change. In

spite of this variation, the load voltage waveform remains

similar to the reference one.

The corresponding voltage and current spectrograms

normalized relatively to the fundamental component amplitude

are presented in Figure 5, for both load resistance values.

Figure 5(a)-(b) shows the load voltage and current

spectrograms, respectively, for a load resistance of 115 while

Figure 5(c)-(d) shows similar spectrograms for a load

resistance of 11.5.

In the Table II and Table III some measurements and power

quality factors, related with both load voltage and load current

are presented.

(a) (b)

Figure 4. Load voltage (a) and current (b) waveforms for a resistive load

with a variation from 115 to 11.5

(a) (b)

(c) (d)

Figure 5. Load voltage ((a),(c)) and load current ((b),(d)) spectrograms

normalized relatively to the fundamental component amplitude for a resistive

load of 115 ((a), ( b)) and 11.5 ((c), (d)).

TABLE II. MEASUREMENTS OF THE LOAD VOLTAGE AND CURRENT

Load Type Voltage [V

rms

] Current [A

rms

]

R=115 231.552 2.014

R=11.5 226.036 19.638

TABLE III. OUTPUT POWER QUALITY FACTORS

Load Type R=115 R=11.5

Power Factor 1 1

Displacement Factor 1 1

Active Power [W] 466.241 4439.01

Apparent Power [VA] 466.241 4439.01

T.H.D.

[%]

Voltage 1.2 1.4

Current 1.2 1.4

The obtained load voltage and load current waveforms

results when an inverter feeds a full wave rectifier with a

resistive load and a 250F capacitor load filter are presented in

Figure 6(a)-(b), respectively. In this simulation test, at t=0,51s

the rectifier load resistance value changes from 400 to 18.

The corresponding load voltage and load current spectrograms

are shown in Figure 7(a), (c) and Figure 7(b), (d), respectively.

Table IV and Table V present the load measurements and

power quality factors results, respectively, for each resistance

value of the load rectifier.

(a) (b)

Figure 6. Load voltage (a) and load current (b) waveforms, for the full wave

rectifier with a DC capacitor filter and a load resistor with a variation value

from 400 to 18, at t=0.51s.

(a) (b)

(c) (d)

Figure 7. Load voltage ((a),(c)) and load current ((b),(d)) spectrograms for a

full wave rectifier with a DC capacitor filter and load resistor with

400 ((a), (b)) and 18 ((c), (d)).

TABLE IV. MEASUREMENTS OF THE LOAD VOLTAGE AND CURRENT

Load Type Voltage [V

rms

] Current [A

rms

]

Rectifier Load

C=250F, R=400

233.916 2.172

Rectifier Load

C=250F, R=18

232.115 19.317

TABLE V. OUTPUT POWER QUALITY FACTORS

Load Type

Rectifier Load

C=250F,

R=400

Rectifier Load

C=250F,

R=18

Power Factor 0.506 0.731

Displacement Factor 0.971 0.855

Active Power [W] 257.167 3276.6

Apparent Power [VA] 508.163 4483.82

T.H.D. [%]

Voltage 2.1 5.4

Current 163.7 60.8

In Figure 8(a)-(b) the load voltage and load current

waveforms, for the single-phase induction motor of 1kW, with

start capacitor of 254,7F are presented. At t=1s a step load

change from no-load to full load was introduced.

The load voltage spectra are shown in Figure 9(a),(c), for

no-load and full load, respectively. The corresponding current

spectra are shown in Figure 9(b),(d), for no-load and full load,

respectively.

Table VI and Table VII present some load measurements

and power quality factors results, respectively, for each load

condition.

TABLE VI. MEASUREMENTS OF THE LOAD VOLTAGE AND CURRENT

Load Type Voltage [V

rms

] Current [A

rms

]

Motor No-Load 233.849 2.301

Motor Full Load 227.574 5.97

TABLE VII. OUTPUT POWER QUALITY FACTORS

Load Type

Motor

No-Load

Motor

Full Load

Power Factor 0.04 0.84

Displacement Factor 0.04 0.84

Active Power [W] 20.872 1138.39

Apparent Power [VA] 537.979 1358.56

T.H.D. [%]

Voltage 0.5 1.4

Current 0.7 1.5

(a) (b)

Figure 8. Load voltage (a) and current (b) waveforms for a single-phase

induction motor with load variation from no-load to full load

(a) (b)

(c) (d)

Figure 9. Load voltage ((a),(c)) and load current ((b),(d)) spectrograms for a

single-phase induction motor under no-load conditions ((a), (b)) and full load

conditions ((c), (d)).

As it can be seen from Figure 4(a) and Figure 6(a) the

transient response of the control scheme is efficient, even with

an abrupt change in load from approximately 2A to 20A, since

the load voltage presents no significant waveform distortion.

From Figure 8(a) it is also verified that the transient

response of the control scheme is efficient with the load change

in the case of the single-phase induction motor.

From the values of the load voltage measurements indicated

in the Tables II, IV and VI it can be seen that with the current

load value increase, the output voltage suffers a decrease of

approximately 5V, except in the case of the full wave rectifier

with a DC capacitor filter and load resistor due to the presence

of the capacitor filter. This decrease of the output voltage is

related to the voltage drop in the windings of the step-up

transformer.

According to Table III and Table VII it can be seen that the

T.H.D. value of the load voltage corresponding to the cases of

the resistive load and the single-phase induction motor is low.

It can also be observed that the increase of the T.H.D. value

with load increase is small. However, from Table V, for the full

wave rectifier case, the value of T.H.D. of the load voltage

presents a more pronounced increase, when compared to the

previous cases, but it still presents acceptable values.

In all the studied cases, the T.H.D. of the output voltage of

the system is less than 8%, which is the maximum value

allowed for the grid voltage according to EN50160.

From Figure 5(a),(c), Figure 7(a),(c) and 9(a),(c) it can be

seen that the spectrograms of the load voltage present the 3

th

,

5

th

, 7

th

and 11

th

harmonics with small amplitudes. These

harmonics are not eliminated because of the cut-off frequency

of the LC filter that is greater than the frequency of this

harmonics.

However it can be seen that the 3

th

, 5

th

, 7

th

and 11

th

harmonics components present lower values than the ones

pointed in Table I.

To demonstrate the effectiveness of the system output filter,

the Figure 10(a)-(b) show the voltage waveforms at output

terminals of both step-up transformer and LC filter,

respectively, for a resistive load of 11.5.

In the Figure 11(a)-(b) the corresponding spectrograms of

the previous mentioned voltages are presented. The RMS and

T.H.D. values for those voltages waveforms are presented in

the Table VIII.

As it can be seen from Figure 11, the spectrum of the output

voltage of the step-up transformer has high frequency

components around the 12 kHz, due to the commutation

frequency of the IGBT inverter power switches. In this case a

voltage T.H.D value of 64.6 % (Table VIII) is obtained at the

set-up power transformer output terminals.

Analysing the voltage output filter spectrogram

(Figure 11(b)), it can be seen that those components are fully

eliminated and consequence of that the output voltage applied

to the load presents a low T.H.D value of only 1.4%

comparatively with the 64.6% obtained at the output step-up

power transformer.

TABLE VIII. RMS AND T.H.D. VOLTAGE VALUES

Step-up power

transformer output

terminals voltage

Filter output

terminal

voltage

RMS [V] 267.5 226.036

T.H.D. [%] 64.6 1.4

(a) (b)

Figure 10. The voltage waveforms at step-up power transformer output

terminals(a) and filter output terminals (b) for a resistive load of 11.5

(a) (b)

Figure 11. Spectrograms of the step-up transformer output voltage (a) and

filter output voltage (b) for a resistive load of 11.5

V. CONCLUSIONS

In this work a control strategy for a single-phase PWM

inverter for stand-alone single-phase power generation

applications, feed by a fuel cell as a DC voltage source was

analysed. Simulations for linear and non-linear load types

typical in individual residential and small remote-site

applications were developed, in order to evaluate the

effectiveness of a high-precision control of a single-phase

PWM inverter. This control allows applying constant values of

both voltage and frequency to the load terminals, based on a

capacitor current feedback with a phase-locked loop (PLL)

compensator that minimises the steady-state error of the output

voltage.

In general the presented control scheme shows good results

in the specific applications that were studied.

The selected output LC filter demonstrates his efficiency,

since it allows reducing drastically the value of the T.H.D of

the output voltage with any of the simulated load types.

The T.H.D. value of the output voltage of the inverter

system for all the load types simulated is small and beneath the

maximum value of 8% pointed in the European Norm

EN50160 for the grid voltage. This demonstrates the

effectiveness of the control for this kind of applications

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors want to acknowledge the Foundation for

Science and Technology (FCT), Portugal, who sponsor the

research and the project: POCI/ENR/59422/2004.

REFERENCES

[1] Anibal T. de Almeida, Andreas Jahn, Dora Vaz, Espoir Bouvier, Fuel

Cell Services Guidebook for Users, 2006

[2] IEP - Portuguese Institute of Energy, Voltage Characteristics of

electricity supplied by public distribution systems EN50160, 2001

[3] Chung, S. K.; Shin, H. B.; Lee, H. W. (2005), Precision control of

single-phase PWM inverter using PLL compensation, IEE Proc.-Electr.

Power Appl., Vol 152, N 2, p. 429-436

[4] Ryan, M. J.; Lorenz, R. D. (1995), A high performance sine wave

inverter controller with capacitor current feedback and back-EMF

decoupling, IEEE PESC Conf. Rec., p. 507-513

[5] Zargari, N. R.; Ziogas, P. D.; Joos, G.(1990), A two switch high

performance current regulated DC/AC converter module, IEEE IAS

Annual Meeting, p. 929-934

[6] Vukosavic, S.; Peric, L.; Levi, E.; Vuckovic, V. (1990), Reduction of

the output impedance of PWM inverters for uninterruptible power

supplies, IEEE PESC, p. 757-762

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