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IBT 2.

3:

Microbial Technology

Full Marks-100

Introduction to Microbiology, History and scope of Microbiology, Microbial diversity and characteristics feature bacteria, yeast, mold, virus, cell wall, flagella, archaebacteria, and extremophiles, microbial taxonomy-modern approaches, Microbiological methods isolation, maintenance, Biochemical tests, gram staining, endospore staining, preservation, sterilization, disinfections, Safety issues and Sterile Techniques. Microbial Growth, Mathematics of growth, growth rates, continuous culture, synchronous and asynchronous growth, Microbial nutrition and transport, Microbial Genetic: Mutation, isolation of mutants, bacterial recombination, transformation, transduction, conjugation, plasmids Metabolism: Metabolism of Carbohydrate in aerobes and anaerobes, etherdoudroff and glyoxylate pathway, nitrogen metabolism (Nitrogen fixation, cyanobacteria) sulphur cycle. Introduction to Infectious Diseases, Pathogenic microorganisms in the environment, Air and water-borne diseases and their control, Mechanism of Action of Anti microbial agents.

BOOKS:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Microbiology Prescot, Harley and Klein, Macgraw Publications. General Microbiology Stainer, R.Y.Ingrahm, J.L.Wheelis, ML & Painter, P.R. The MacMillan Press Ltd. Brock Biology of Microorganisms Madigan, M.T.Martiko, J.M. & Parker, J.Prentice Hall. Microbiology Pelczar M.J. Jr.Chan, E.C.S. & Creig, N.R.Tata McGraw Hill Microbial Genetics Maloy, S.R.Cronan, J.E.Jr. and Freifelder, D.Jones, Bartlett Publishers. Microbiology-a Laboratroy Manual, Cappuccino, J.G. & Sherman, N.Addison Wesley. Microbiological Applications (A Laboratory Manual in General Microbiology) Benson, H.J.WCB, Wm C Brown Publishers.

IBT 3.2: Industrial Microbiology

Full Marks-100

Introduction to Industrial Microbiology, suitability of microbes in industrial processes and their source, bioreactors and membrane bioreactors, Idea of fermentation, Fermentor Design, computer control of fermentation process, Importance of media in fermentation, media formulation and modification. Regulation of metabolism, Different fermentative system; Batch and continuous Process, Surface and submerged liquid substrate fermentation; Solid substrate fermentations, Fermentation substrate raw materials, Transport phenomena in fermentation: Gas- liquid exchange and mass transfer, oxygen transfer, critical oxygen concentration, determination of Kla, heat transfer, aeration/agitation, its importance. Sterilization of Bioreactors, nutrients, air supply, products and effluents, process variables and control, scale-up of bioreactors Bio-mass production (Alcohol, lattice acid, soya based foods, meat fermentation, vinegar, health care products (antibiotics and vaccines), Production of industrial solvents (alcohol, acetone butanol etc.); Industrial Enzymes (amylase, proteases, lipases), concepts of immobilized enzymes. Introduction to food technology, sterilization and pasteurization of food products Introduction to downstream processing: removal of microbial cells and solid mater, foam reparation, precipitation, filtrations, centrifugation, cell disruption and membrane process. Drying and crystallization, microbes in industrial waste treatment. Books 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. General Microbiology 5th Edition Stanier et al. Enzymes in food processing by Gerald Reed, Academic press. Comprehensive Biotechnology Vols III & IV, Editor M.Moo young. Industrial Microbiology by Prescott Principles of fermentation technology by P F Stanbury and A Whitaker, Pergamon press (1984) Industrial Microbiology by Casida

The Isolation, Preservation & Improvement of Industrially Important Micro-organisms


The first stage in the screening for microorganisms of potential industrial application is their isolation. Isolation involves obtaining either pure or mixed cultures followed by their assessment to determine which carry out the desired reaction or produce the desired product. The isolate must eventually carry out the process economically Therefore, the selection of the culture to be used is a compromise between the productivity of the organism and the economic constraints of the process Criteria as being important in the choice of organism: the nutritional characteristics of the organism: using a very cheap medium or a pre-determined one the optimum temperature of the organism the reaction of the organism with the equipment to be employed and the suitability of the organism to the type of process to be used the stability of the organism and its amenability to genetic manipulation the productivity of the organism, measured in its ability to convert substrate into product and to give a high yield of product per unit time and the ease of product recovery from the culture The Isolation of Industrially Important Micro-organism Isolation methods utilizing selection of the desired characteristic: enrichment liquid culture enrichment cultures using solidified media Isolation methods not utilizing selection of the desired characteristic Screening methods Enrichment Liquid Culture Frequently carried out in shake flask By inoculating the enriched culture into identical fresh medium (sub-culture) Sub-culturing may be repeated several times before the dominant organism is isolated by spreading a small inoculum of the enriched culture into solid medium The time of sub-culture in an enrichment process is critical and should correspond to the point at which the desired organism is dominant. The prevalence of an organism in a batch enrichment culture will depend on its maximum specific growth rate compared with the maximum specific growth rates of the other organisms capable of growth in the inoculum Enrichment Cultures Using Solidified Media The isolation of certain enzyme producers The use of a selective medium incorporating the substrate of the enzyme which encourages the growth of the producing types

4 Example: - isolated species of Bacillus producing alkaline protease - soils of various pHs were used as the initial inoculum - the number of producers isolated correlated with the alkalinity of the soil sample - spread onto the surface of media agar at pH 9-10, containing a dispersion of an insoluble protein - Colonies which produced a clear zone due to the digestion of the insoluble protein were taken to be alkaline protease producers The Preservation of Industrially Important Micro-organisms The culture used to initiate an industrial fermentation must be viable and free from contamination Cultures must be stored in such way as to eliminate genetic change, protect against contamination and retain viability Storage at reduced temperature storage on agar slopes storage under liquid nitrogen Storage in a dehydrated form: dried culture lyophilization Quality control of preserved stock culture Quality Control of Preserved Stock Cultures Each batch of newly preserved cultures should be routinely checked to ensure their quality A single colony of the culture to be preserved is inoculated into a shake flask and the growth of the culture observed to ensure a typical growth pattern After a further shake flask sub-culture the broth is used to prepare a large number of storage ampoules At least 3% of the ampoules are reconstituted and the cultures assessed for purity, viability and productivity If the samples fail any one of these tests the entire batch should be destroyed Therefore, stock cultures may be retained and used with confidence The improvement of industrial strains by modifying properties other than the yield of product the selection of stable strains the selection of strains resistant to infection the selection of non-foaming strain the selection of strains which are resistant to components in the medium the selection of morphologically favourable strains the selection of strains which are tolerant of low oxygen tension the elimination of undesirable products from a production strain the development of strains producing new fermentation products