You are on page 1of 15

Annua| 6onference of E|ectr|c Energy Assoc|at|on of Austra||a, 6anberra A6T 9 & 10

th
August 2002
Reision: 16 September 2002
DeveIopments in Power System Protection
Jim \ilks
Dip EE, Grad Dip MS
Manager
DataShare Power Engineering Software
Phone: +61 2 9979 7240
Fax: +61 2 9997 1339
e-mail: jwilks@datashare.com.au
http://www.datashare.com.au
Annua| 6onference of E|ectr|c Energy Assoc|at|on of Austra||a, 6anberra A6T 9 & 10
th
August 2002
Reision: 14 September 2002 page 1
Synopsis
Rapid changes are clearlv taking place in the ield o Power Svstem Protection.
Deelopments are being both aided and impacted bv. amongst other things. the:
Uniersal adoption o numerical electronicmicroprocessor-based, protection deices
Lmergence o manv noel protection algorithms implemented in sotware made possible
bv the wide-spread acceptance o numerical protection deices,
(onergence o protection and control into protection & control deices`
Deelopment o a trulv international standard or substation communications IL(
61850, - supported bv both the US and Lurope!
Implementation o so-called Svstem Protection Svstems` simultaneouslv monitoring and
interacting with network elements that mav be erv widelv dispersed geographicallv to
enhance svstem stabilitv and reliabilitv
Necessitv or simulators to be able to adequatelv test adanced protection deices and
complex protection svstems
Increasing incidence o embedded generation in networks
Adances in ault location technologies
Ubiquitous internetintranet
1his paper looks at some o the international trends now eident in power svstem protection
and proides an broad oeriew intended more to meet the needs o managers. network
engineers. and svstems planners and others with general interests in protection. control. and
communications. rather than being directed at the dedicated protection specialist.
Annua| 6onference of E|ectr|c Energy Assoc|at|on of Austra||a, 6anberra A6T 9 & 10
th
August 2002
Reision: 14 September 2002 page 2
Introduction
1his paper attempts the impossible. 1hat is because it tries to gie a broad oeriew o
deelopments presentlv taking place in power svstem protection while so manv changes. and
so much innoation. is taking place in the protection ield.
(onsequentlv this paper can. in realitv. onlv touch lightlv on a number o selected issues that
seem to the author, to be - or hae the potential to be - signiicant driers o the pace and
direction o technological change now and in the near uture.
1his paper is not original. Instead it is a compilation o inormation rom arious sources that
it is hoped will be o use to non-protection specialists as a broad oeriew o some the
technologies and innoations and. as well. proide some useul reerences or anv readers who
mav want to ind out more about anv o the issues it touches on.
1he content o the paper is erv much inluenced bv the author`s obserations and
experiences rom attending - or the purpose o assessing the present state and uture
directions o protection technologv - the th International (onerence on Deelopments in
Power Svstem Protection` held in April 2001. It is also based on urther relections and
research on topics o particular interest in the period since that conerence.
1he International (onerence on Deelopments in Power Svstem Protection` is conducted
at 4-vearlv interals and is organised bv 1he Institute o Llectrical Lngineers ILL,. UK in
association with (IGRL British national (ommittee. LURLL. ILLL UKRI Section. ILLL
Power Lngineering Societv. ILL Benelux. VDL. 1he 8
th
International (onerence is scheduled
or 2005 enue vet to be determined,.
Annua| 6onference of E|ectr|c Energy Assoc|at|on of Austra||a, 6anberra A6T 9 & 10
th
August 2002
Reision: 14 September 2002 page 3
NumericaI protection devices
1he numerical protection relav has rapidlv taken oer earlier electro-mechanical and solid-state
analog deices. but een now some manuacturing o protection deices based on these older
technologies continues. \hile numerical relavs are almost - but not entirelv - uniersallv used
in new installations. a large proportion o relavs in serice throughout the world are still
electro-mechanical tvpes.
EvoIution
1he eolution o protection relavs oer the historv o the electricitv supplv industrv is broadlv
as illustrated in ligure 1
Convergence of protection and controI
1he more recent eolution o the numerical relavs has been especiallv characterised bv the
conergence o protection relav unctionalitv with other unctionalitv that has ormerlv been
in other stand-alone deices.
1his conergence has combined the ollowing unctionalitv
Protection
(ontrol
Metering
Data Acquisition
Programmable Logic
into a single unit resulting in what are now increasinglv known as either an:
` ILD,. or
`.
Packaged Substations
1his conergence o unctionalitv has - amongst other things - acilitated simpler substation
designs and contributed to the deelopment o standardised compact substation designs that
E|ectro- mechan|ca|
Re|ays
8o||d-state
Ana|og
0|g|ta|
[m|cro-processor
based}
Ear|y 20th 6entry
to
Present 0ay
190's
to
1980's
1980's
to
Present 0ay
Annua| 6onference of E|ectr|c Energy Assoc|at|on of Austra||a, 6anberra A6T 9 & 10
th
August 2002
Reision: 14 September 2002 page 4
include all substation components - except transormers - into a single package that can be
actorv built and pre-tested beore delierv to site.
Some utilities report practices that include ull testing o all protection and control unctions at
the place o manuacture - including S(ADA svstem tests !, - with onlv ull checks o bus-bar
insulation integritv and contact resistance on site in conjunction with some other sample
repeat tests. Bv this approach substations are made operational within davs o delierv o the
packaged substation to site. and oerall times rom inception to commissioning o just 12
weeks. Re 1.,
Business Case Justification for NumericaI ReIays
1here is presentlv wide discussion in the protection communitv on the business case
justiication not onlv or the adoption o the use on numerical deices. but also or the
changeoer o existing relavs to numerical relavs.
Oerwhelminglv. the justiication is based on the beneits that accrue rom the sel-monitoring
capabilities o numerical deices. 1hese result in both higher reliabilitv and lower routine
maintenance costs!!
It is important to note that this justiication in NO1 based the argument that these deices are
inherentlv more reliable than sav. an electro-mechanical relavs that hae proed to be quite
reliable and to hae long lietimes and hae sered the electricitv industrv erv well. In act.
there is still relatielv little known about the actual reliabilitv leels and lie-times o modern
numerical relavs. but during a presentation o a recent paper Re. 1, it was stated that tectro
vecbavicat retay. are robv.t aerice. ritb tovg titetive. ava tbatt in the speakers organisation) preriov.ty
tbe cbavgeorer tive tor retay. ra. 2: year.. bvt i. vor aorv to ]: year ava becovivg te..!`.
Rather the argument is that the better reliabilitv arises because these deices can alert operating
and maintenance sta that ailure has occurred and prompt timelv action to remedv the
problem. Also this correspondinglv reduces the need to carrv out routine tests to detect such
ailures. As has. on the other hand. been the norm with electro-mechanical deices.
Also the basis o the argument is not ounded on the equipment costs or maintenance costs
themseles. but on the potential saings due to aoided non-supplv o power to customers.
Other inancial beneits o the application o numerical relavs include . avtovatiov tvvctiov.
tbat ivrotre brea/er operatiov. cav be rovtea tbrovgb tbe retay ava tbv. etivivate tbe veea tor etra ririvg ava
bearyavty ivterpo.ivg retay. Re. 2, and this author stated in his presentation that his oten uses
av e.tivate ot t|):.00 per toot
]
ot iv.tattea ririvg tor covtrot ava protectiov pavet.`.
UniversaI ReIays
Numerical relavs proide the oundation on which protection innoation based. 1he
implementation o protection logic into sotware has opened the door to irtuallv unlimited
opportunities or innoation. Initiallv this was onlv to gie numerous protection characteristics
- including user-deined characteristic cures - but has now extended all tvpes o noel
algorithms - or just some examples see the ollowing section o this paper.
1
Lquialent to AUS>30 per metre
Annua| 6onference of E|ectr|c Energy Assoc|at|on of Austra||a, 6anberra A6T 9 & 10
th
August 2002
Reision: 14 September 2002 page 5
Numerical relavs hae now eoled to the point where thev hae relatielv common hardware
and are conigured or dierent applications bv the sotware - or algorithms and logic - that
is loaded to deine its unctionalitv.
Initiallv this was done the bv the manuacturer to create their arious oerings to the market.
but a logical extension o this approach - that has been taken up bv some manuacturers - has
been to supplv users with a uniersal` relav with the actual coniguration let to the user.
NoveI protection aIgorithms
1he ollowing sections brielv describe some o the innoatie and noel protection deices
that hae been alreadv been applied. or are being ealuated either at a conceptual leel or with
proto-tvpe deices. Some explanation o the terminologv used is also gien.
Adaptive ReIays:
Adaptie relavs` bv deinition. emplov a protectire pbito.opby rbicb pervit. ava .ee/. to va/e
aaiv.tvevt to rariov. protectiov tvvctiov. iv oraer to va/e tbev vore attvvea to tbe preraitivg porer .y.tev
covaitiov.. Re. 3,.
Such relavs then mav hae no pre-determined ixed response. but make decisions to adapt
their response according to svstem conditions - which mav include reerence to both pre-ault
and post-ault conditions.
An example o this approach is a Distance protection scheme in which the relav characteristic
is diided into certain` and uncertain` regions. 1he certain` region is a ixed pre-set region
based on svstem studies or arious ault conditions. laults in the certain` region are tripped
quite quicklv. howeer. or other aults. the adaptie routine is instigated and makes reerence
to pre-ault svstem data to help determine its response. It is claimed that improed sensitiitv
and selectiitv is obtained and that . can improe zone-1 settings up to 95 o the line
length c. usual 80, een or high resistance earth aults.` Re. 4,.
"ArtificiaI NeuraI Networks" and "ArtificiaI InteIIigence"
A number o protection applications make use o arious pattern recognition or pattern
matching algorithms deeloped or use in other areas o computer science. Artiicial Neural
Networks` and Artiicial Intelligence` - oten simplv reerred to be the acronvms ANN` &
AI` - are examples o these.
A tvpical example o an application o this tvpe o technologv is Distance Protection where
pattern recognition techniques are emploved to identiv aults. Adantages claimed or some
such deices is that thev can een be trained` with o-line data. Re. 5,. See also Re 6.
Downed Conductor Detection
Some o the most deeloped adanced protection technologv has been applied to detecting
downed conductors - especiallv to deal with the situation where a conductor alls onto ground
with high resistiitv. or with high resistiitv suraces. possiblv at the remote ends o long. high
resistance distribution lines.
Annua| 6onference of E|ectr|c Energy Assoc|at|on of Austra||a, 6anberra A6T 9 & 10
th
August 2002
Reision: 14 September 2002 page 6
loweer. inestigation and testing o alternatie detection svstems is continuing. as it is not
considered that the perect solution has vet been ound. A reiew o the techniques emploved
is gien in Re .
LocaI Agents
In computer science terms a Local Agent` is a covpvter prograv tbat ta/e. ivaepevaevt actiov
ba.ea ov erevt. iv tbe .vrrovvaivg evrirovvevt. Ouoted in Re. 8,. In the power svstem protection
context it reers to a sotware algorithm that is created to take semi-autonomous action based
on its detection o the state o its local enironment.
\hen understood in this context. it mav be justiiable to actuallv include Local agents` under
the Adaptie Relaving` categorv described aboe.
Magnetic Inrush Restraint:
(lassic or approach to distinguishing between transormer inrush currents and ault currents
has been the use o harmonic restraint based on the ratio o magnitude o 2
nd
harmonic to
undamental current. New deelopments are now examining detection methods that instead
o using the relatie magnitudes o these two currents are based on the phase relationship
between the two. Re. 9,.
Transient Comparison
1he aailabilitv o high-perormance microprocessors in protection deices. vielding ast. low-
cost processing o large amounts o data. coupled with optical transducers with high
bandwidths has acilitated the introduction o protection deices based on the analvsis o ault
generated transients.
A description Re. 10, o one svstem emploving this technologv is a directional relav that
relies on the detection o ault generated high requencv current transients and comparisons
between the polarities and the spectral energies o the captured transient signals to determine
the direction o the ault. It is claimed that the technique is insensitie to ault tvpe. ault
position. and ault inception angle and is able to detect lower leel and intermittent aults and
deal with these and other contingencies noresatisactorilv than conentional techniques.
WaveIets & WaveIet Transforms
\aelets and waelet transorms are alternaties the traditional lourier 1ransorm method o
analvsing the requencv proile o a signal. especiallv transients. that attempt to more reliablv
distinguish between normal and ault conditions e.g. switching onto a aulted line. and
switching onto an unloaded line. Re 11,
Other
\hile there are numerous other noel ault detecting methods and algorithms that are being
deeloped. tested and experimented with. one worthv o singling out because o its potential
beneits is an oer-current relav suitable or operation with measurement (1s using an
algorithm apparentlv immune to the eects saturation that are expected to occur in metering
(1 when carrving ault currents. Re. 12,. loweer. while at the time o presentation o that
Annua| 6onference of E|ectr|c Energy Assoc|at|on of Austra||a, 6anberra A6T 9 & 10
th
August 2002
Reision: 14 September 2002 page
paper the project reached the proo o concept` stage. this was onlv using a MA1LAB model
o relav.
Communications revoIution
7he greatest aavance in protection in the Iast 20 years ~ communications!
Peter (rosslev. Reader in Power Svstems. UMIS1. UK
(onenor. Deelopments in Power Svstems Protections (onerence..
1he communications topic attracting great interest in the power svstems protection arena is
the emerging International Llectro-technical (ommittee IL(, new international standard or
substation communications. Known as IL( 61850: (ommunications Networks and Svstems
in Substations` it is widelv considered to be the precursor to new horizons or protection and
protection related applications
1he IL( 61850 standard is a trulv international substations communication standard.
inoling participation o both Lurope and the USA. 1he new IL( standard is based on the
US U(A 2.0 standard and is based the outcome o a cooperatie eort.
LPRI sponsored Utilitv (ommunications Architecture` U(A, that deines object models o
ield deices and their communications behaiour. Later ILL. LPRI & IL( met and
concluded IL(61850 should be based on U(A2 data models and serices. but harmonised or
international use.
According to a recent paper Re. 13, the background storv to the standard. brielv stated. is as
ollows:
PR ava tbe .pearbeaaea av ettort to aetive av |titity Covvvvicatiov.
.rcbitectvre t|C.) begivvivg iv tbe earty ]0.. )be ivitiat tocv. ra. ivter Covtrot Cevter
covvvvicatiov. ava vb.tatiov to Covtrot Cevter covvvvicatiov.. )bi. cvtvivatea iv tbe
CCP .peciticatiov. rbicb ra. tater aaoptea by tbe C a. ]:0 )..2.
IEC
Standards
EPRI (USA)
UCA 2.0
IEC 61850`
*IEC 61850: "Communications networks
and systems in substations"
Annua| 6onference of E|ectr|c Energy Assoc|at|on of Austra||a, 6anberra A6T 9 & 10
th
August 2002
Reision: 14 September 2002 page 8
v ]1. PR .tartea ror/ivg ov tbe vet pba.e ot |C. - vavety |C. 2.0. tbi.
tive tocv.ea ov tbe tatiov v..
v ]. )ecbvicat Covvittee : ot tbe C begav ror/ ov C ]:0 ritb a .ivitar
cbarter - aetivivg a tatiov v..
v ]. tbe tro grovp. agreea to ror/ togetber to aetive a covvov ivtervatiovat .tavaara tbat
rovta covbive tbe ror/ ot botb grovp.. )be re.vtt. ot tbe barvovi.atiov ettort. are tbe cvrrevt
C ]0 .peciticatiov.
C ]:0 i. a .vper.et ot |C. 2.0. i.e. it covtaiv. atvo.t att ot tbe |C. 2.0 .peciticatiov.
ptv. otter. aaaitiovat teatvre. .
.ccoraivg to tbe cvrrevt .cbeavte. C ]:0 ritt be a pvbti.bea. ivtervatiovat .tavaara iv
200.
1he dierences between U(A and IL( are said to be more in terminologv than in
undamental concepts.
1he basic architecture o IL( 61850 is the addition o an .b.tract ayer ot Ceverati.ea
Covvvvicatiov and pecitic Covvvvicatiov. errice. Mappivg. on top o the International Standards
Organisation ISO, Open
Svstems Interconnection OSI
-laver communications
svstem model. 1his OSI
model is the well proen
model used bv the majoritv o
computer networks todav to
support open access to
network serices,
At this highest leel. access is
obtained completelv
independentlv o
communications protocols.
endor proprietarv
communications. the phvsical
medium. etc. bv accessing
deined sotware objects that
hae deined properties and
behaiours.
A number o Luropean pilot
projects hae been used to
proe the concepts behind IL( 61850. 1hese include:
OC: Open (ommunications In Substations` - GLRMAN\ - Jan 98 to No 2000.
Re. 14,
AppIication Independent
Abstract Communications
Specific Communications
Services Mappings
7. AppIication Layer
6. Presentation Layer
5. Session Layer
4. Transport Layer
3. Network Layer
2. Data Link Layer
1. PhysicaI Iayer
7-Iayer Open Systems
Interconnection (OSI)
Communications ModeI
Annua| 6onference of E|ectr|c Energy Assoc|at|on of Austra||a, 6anberra A6T 9 & 10
th
August 2002
Reision: 14 September 2002 page 9
P^OCO: Pilot project In the Netherlands or Open (ommunications I n substatiOns`
- Netherlands - LnergieNed. supported bv three endors and an international consulting
organisation.
lor more inormation. see Re 14.
1he conclusions rom a recent paper Re. 15, assert that:
riaevce trov tbe.e earty triat proiect. .vgge.t. tbat tbe C ]:0 .tavaara aratt proriae. a
tivety. co.tettectire. ava .tavaarai.ea .otvtiov to attor aaravcea D tvvctiov. ava ai.tribvtea
.y.tev. to torv tbe tovvaatiov tor vet geveratiov etectric vtitity protectiov. covtrot ava
vovitorivg .y.tev.. )be.e .y.tev. ritt be bigbty ivteroperabte. attorivg .y.tev. to be bvitt. ritb
ea.e. trov proavct. trov aitterevt revaor..
System Protection Schemes
1raditionallv svstem protection has been predominantlv local` in nature eg. under-requencv
load shedding,. Now - based on communications & accuracv o accurate time-stamping o
data rom GPS - svstem-wide protection schemes are being deeloped.
y.tev Protectiov cbeve. SPS, hae a basic objectie to deend the svstem integritv during
unorseen or extreme contingencies`. It is also reerred to as Di.tribvtea !iae .rea Protectiov`
\AP, or a.t Ditcb Detevce` as such a svstem is considered as an additional leel o
protection. designed to initiate the inal attempt at stabilizing the power svstem when a
widespread collapse is imminent.
Lxamples o the application o SPS range rom the simple transer o blocking signals to
remote parts o the network. right through to much more sophisticated autonomous svstems
designed or maintenance o svstem stabilitv and preention o cascading tripping and collapse
o the svstem.
1he ollowing extract rom Re 16, details the philosophv and objectie o one such SPS:
` - to protect against extreme contingencies in that:
a wide-spread power ailure must not be a consequence o a situation that could
reasonablv hae been aoided`
:
to presere integritv . bv using automatic measures that are simple. reliable and
sae or the svstem and proide the most extensie coerage against all possible
extreme contingencies.`
A conceptual representation o such a svstem is shown in the ollowing diagram ligure 2,.
Note the piotal place o communications highlighted, in Svstem-wide Protection Schemes
and the use o GPS or accurate time stamping o control data
Lxamples detailed in Re 16,:
lvdro- Ouebec. (anada
Annua| 6onference of E|ectr|c Energy Assoc|at|on of Austra||a, 6anberra A6T 9 & 10
th
August 2002
Reision: 14 September 2002 page 10
LDl. lrance - the LDl Deence Plan includes actions to counteract oltage collapse.
requencv collapse. cascade line tripping or loss o svnchronism
Romania
A (IGRL 1ask lorce 38.02.19 produced a technical report on Svstem Protection Schemes in
Power Networks` in 2001 Re. 1,.
RoIe of SimuIators
Sophistication o protection makes simulators necessarv to satisactorilv:
1est deices o deices and svstems
Determine suitable settings. or ealuate proposed settings
(onsiderable use is being made o recoded ault data in testing protection svstems and deices
and in the ealuation o new protection algorithms - especiallv iles in standard (OM1RADL
ILLL Standard (ommon lormat or 1ransient Data Lxchange, ormat or Digital lault
Recorder data (3.111,.
rom Re. 16 - colour highlighting
added,.
Annua| 6onference of E|ectr|c Energy Assoc|at|on of Austra||a, 6anberra A6T 9 & 10
th
August 2002
Reision: 14 September 2002 page 11
Embedded generation and protection issues
Special issues relating to embedded generation and some o the responses relate to:
- i.e. separation rom grid - tvpical protection is bv detection o Rate o
(hange o lrequencv RO(Ol, and now (omparison o Rate o (hange o lrequencv
(ORO(Ol, - see Re. 18.
-
\hv not hae multiple earthing - as in LV svstems Re. 19,:
Unpredictable current sharing
Increased ground ault leels
larmonic circulating currents
- potential or nuisance tripping due to
unsvmmetrical aults on the grid network. especiallv with UK protection requirements.
Re. 20,.
Protection and the internet/intranet
Most manuacturers and major utilities hae implemented pilot projects. But more is talked
about than is actuallv being done.
O particular concern is securitv and deplovments o this technologv in the near uture are
much more likelv to inole Intranets rather than the Internet. No one is keen to see their
protection deices to be seen as a challenge to hackers` or an aenue or hackers` to
demonstrate their skills.
loweer. the concept is well proen bv pilot projects and some relav manuacturers are
alreadv plug-in cards to make ILD`s nodes with a URL address that allows communication
with ia IntranetInternet
Annua| 6onference of E|ectr|c Energy Assoc|at|on of Austra||a, 6anberra A6T 9 & 10
th
August 2002
Reision: 14 September 2002 page 12
Summary & ConcIusions
1he late 1990`s and earlv 2000`s hae seen rapid adances take place in Power Svstem
Protection technologv.
Numerical relavs - now more accuratelv called vtettigevt tectrovic Derice. ILD`s, - with
algorithms implemented in sotware means that almost anvthing is possible`. 1his has
enabled considerable experimentation and ealuation o noel protection algorithms manv o
which show great promise in making more accurate determinations o i ault conditions exist
and. i so. establishing with greater precision the nature and whereabouts o the ault or
aults,.
1he emerging new communications standards IL( 61850, together with the open-svstems`
tvpe o access thev will support will undoubtedlv herald a whole new wae o innoation in
protection.
(ommunications deelopments are also underpinning some erv signiicant svstem-wide
protection schemes designed to aert widespread and chaotic dislocation o inter-connected
power svstems. 1he ease o access to accurate signals rom GPS or time stamping data makes
a new leel o intelligence to be applied in pursuit o svstem securitv through the use o so-
called \ide Area Protection` \AP,.
Bv the time the next International (onerence on Deretopvevt. iv Porer y.tev Protectiov takes
place in 2005 some signiicant shits can be expected to hae occurred in the electrical
protection landscape. Some technologies that now in their earlv stages o deelopment will
undoubtedlv hae become irmlv established as accepted solutions. Meanwhile. some will hae
aded awav. while others. not vet een on the radar. will undoubtedlv hae emerged as superior
solutions to alreadv recognised or new protection problems.
Deelopments are taking place so rapidlv that een the dedicated protection specialists ind it
hard to keep up with deelopments in their ield - especiallv since there are now so ew o
them and their workload is onerous - and or those with a more general interest. or need to
know. thev ind it doublv diicult. It is or this latter group that it is hoped that this paper will
contribute towards keeping them abreast o present deelopments . at least to some degree!
Annua| 6onference of E|ectr|c Energy Assoc|at|on of Austra||a, 6anberra A6T 9 & 10
th
August 2002
Reision: 14 September 2002 page 13
References
1. Stokoe. J & Grav. J:
- Seenth International (onerence on Deelopments in Power Svstems Protection. Amsterdam. 1he
Netherlands. 9-12
th
April 2001 ILL (onerence Publication No. 49. pp 5-8,.
2. \. J. Ackerman . - Seenth
International (onerence on Deelopments in Power Svstems Protection. Amsterdam. 1he Netherlands. 9-12
th
April 2001 ILL (onerence Publication No. 49. pp 1-4,.
3. (IGRL \orking Group 34.02: - (IGRL linal Report. August 1995.
4. Jamali. S: - Seenth International (onerence on
Deelopments in Power Svstems Protection. Amsterdam. 1he Netherlands. 9-12
th
April 2001 ILL (onerence
Publication No. 49. pp 149-152,.
5. Oleskoicz. M: (ourv. D V: Aggarwal. R K: A (omplete Scheme lor lault Detection. (lassiication And
Location In 1ransmission Lines Using Neural Networks - Seenth International (onerence on Deelopments
in Power Svstems Protection. Amsterdam. 1he Netherlands. 9-12
th
April 2001 ILL (onerence Publication No.
49. pp 335-338,.
6. Sidhu. 1 S: Sachde. M S: Mital. L:
- Seenth International (onerence on Deelopments in Power Svstems Protection.
Amsterdam. 1he Netherlands. 9-12
th
April 2001 ILL (onerence Publication No. 49. pp 438-441,.
. Li. L: Redern. M A:
- - Seenth International (onerence on Deelopments in Power Svstems Protection. Amsterdam. 1he
Netherlands. 9-12
th
April 2001 ILL (onerence Publication No. 49. pp 169-12,.
8. Coury. D V; Thorp. J S; Hopkinson. K M; Birman. K P: Improving The Protection of EHV Teed
Feeders Using Local Agents - Seenth International (onerence on Deelopments in Power Svstems
Protection. Amsterdam. 1he Netherlands. 9-12
th
April 2001 ILL (onerence Publication No. 49. pp 52-530,.
9. Kulidjian. A: Kasztennv. B: (ampbell. B:
- Seenth International (onerence on Deelopments in Power Svstems Protection.
Amsterdam. 1he Netherlands. 9-12
th
April 2001 ILL (onerence Publication No. 49. pp 181-184,.
10 litzgerald. P: Bishop. P: Bo. P: Denning. L: \eller. G: O`Keee. M:
- Seenth International
(onerence on Deelopments in Power Svstems Protection. Amsterdam. 1he Netherlands. 9-12
th
April 2001
ILL (onerence Publication No. 49. pp 183-195,.
11. Kim. (.l: Kim. l: Aggarwal. R.K.: Johns. A 1:
- Seenth International (onerence on
Deelopments in Power Svstems Protection. Amsterdam. 1he Netherlands. 9-12
th
April 2001 ILL (onerence
Publication No. 49. pp 422-425,.
12. Bunvagul. 1: (rosslev. P A: Gale. P:
Seenth International (onerence on Deelopments
in Power Svstems Protection. Amsterdam. 1he Netherlands. 9-12
th
April 2001 ILL (onerence Publication No.
49. pp 201-204,.
13. Proudoot. D.: - Distribu1L(l 2002. Miami Beach. llorida. 2 lebruarv -
3 March. 2002. aailable at: http:www.nettedautomation.comdownloadU(A and 61850 or dummies
V12.pd,
Annua| 6onference of E|ectr|c Energy Assoc|at|on of Austra||a, 6anberra A6T 9 & 10
th
August 2002
Reision: 14 September 2002 page 14
14. Schubert. l.: laude. J.: Janz. A.: Rudolph. 1.:Schler. 1.:
. (IGRL
(onerence Paris. lrance. 28 August to 02 September 2000.
aailable at: http:www.tde.alstom.comp-ctpdocspapersPO0051RL.pd,
15. Shephard B: Janssen M (: Schubert l: - Seenth
International (onerence on Deelopments in Power Svstems Protection. Amsterdam. 1he Netherlands. 9-12
th
April 2001 ILL (onerence Publication No. 49. pp 20-24.,
16. (rosslev. Peter: Ilar. lranc: Karlsson. Daniel:
- Seenth International (onerence on Deelopments in Power Svstems
Protection. Amsterdam. 1he Netherlands. 9-12th April 2001 ILL (onerence Publication No. 49. pp 450-453.,
1. (IGRL 1ask lorce 38.02.19. . 1echnical Report,
(IGRL 2001,.
18. Bright. ( G:
Seenth International (onerence on Deelopments in Power Svstems
Protection. Amsterdam. 1he Netherlands. 9-12th April 2001 ILL (onerence Publication No. 49. pp 0-3.,
19. Redern. M A: Brown. D: Bartlett. M G: Seenth
International (onerence on Deelopments in Power Svstems Protection. Amsterdam. 1he Netherlands. 9-12th
April 2001 ILL (onerence Publication No. 49. pp 90-93.,
20. Alshamali. M: lox. B:
- Seenth International (onerence on Deelopments in Power Svstems Protection.
Amsterdam. 1he Netherlands. 9-12
th
April 2001 ILL (onerence Publication No. 49. pp 238-241.,