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Publishing Industry Market Briefs

for the

American Exhibitors at the Frankfurt Book Fair

October 2007

prepared by the
U.S. Commercial Service

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The Global Publishing Team
U.S. Commercial Service

Ready to help you succeed internationally!

The U.S Commercial Service (CS) global Publishing Team is made up of domestic and
international trade specialists who focus on helping the U.S. publishing industry sell their
products and services internationally. Our Team members are located throughout the United
States and in U.S. Embassies and Consulates overseas.

The CS Publishing Team provides export assistance to the publishing industry - from
identifying qualified overseas distributors to selling foreign or translation rights and providing
timely market research. We are the U.S. publishing industry’s primary export resource and
should be your first point of contact when looking for international buyers. Our team is lead
by International Trade Specialist Dawn Bruno, who is located New York City, the heart of the
U.S. publishing industry.

Why U.S. Publishers should work with the CS Publishing Team:

x Our Team of international trade specialists is on hand to help you identify markets of
opportunity and connect with qualified distributors and partners
x Up-to-date market research produced by our overseas specialists on market conditions,
industry-specific information, areas of growth and opportunity, local competition and
x We offer services to help you maximize your time at international book fairs, including
matchmaking and pre-show promotional programs
x Market- and issue-specific webinars with industry experts that you can participate in
without leaving your desk
x We maintain and build partnerships with key industry associations to stay up-to-date with
current issues and challenges faced by U.S. publishers

In 2007, CS Publishing Team members met with U.S. publishers at the Frankfurt Book Fair,
London Book Fair, Beijing Book Fair, Bologna Children’s Book Fair and BookExpo to help
these publishers sell their books and rights overseas.

For more information on how the CS Publishing Team can help your business increase its
international sales, please contact:

Dawn Bruno
Tel: +1- 212-809-2647

We look forward to helping you grow your business!

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Frankfurt Book Fair 2007
Publishing Industry Market Briefs


Country Page

Australia 2

Austria 4

Belgium 7

Croatia 9

Czech Republic 11

Denmark 16

France 19

Germany 23

Israel 25

Italy 26

Netherlands 29

Philippines 30

Spain 32

Sweden 34

Switzerland 36

Turkey 39

United Kingdom 42

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Country: Australia
Capital: Canberra
Population: 20.4 million
GDP*: $674.6 billion
Currency: Australian Dollar (AUD)
Language: English
*(purchasing power parity)

Australia represents the third-largest English-speaking book market
after the United States and the United Kingdom. Australia has
favorable demographics that will increase the demand for books.
Compulsory education results in a literacy rate of almost 100%.

According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics, there are over 230

book publishers in Australia. These businesses sell more than 128
million books annually. The majority of book sales (77%) are to
retailers and other book distributors while the remaining 23% are direct to end-users. In
2006, the demand totaled just over $1 billion.

Current Market Trends

A key trend is the increasing demand for electronic books. Publishers have managed to
reduce their costs, and prices for books on average have declined. Imported titles continue
to be more expensive than domestic books: the average price for imported titles has
increased ($10.26) whereas the average cost of Australian titles decreased ($6.83). Future
growth is forecast for computer, business and self-help books as Australians increasingly
refer to books for assistance with information technology and the use of the Internet.

Main Competitors
Most of the leading publishers in Australia are subsidiaries of U.S. or European companies.
These include Random House, HarperCollins, CCH, and McGraw-Hill Education. Smaller
local publishers serve specialized niche markets. Membership in the local Australian
Publishers Association totals over 160 firms, which, in turn, represents 91% of the industry
(based on sales figures).

Current Demand
Domestic production accounts for 68% of the Australian market ($353 million). Highest
demand is for educational books, which include professional and reference books, followed
closely by general non-fiction books. These segments accounted for $394 million and $363
million of sales in 2004, respectively. Fiction books are also in demand.

As a result of the Free Trade Agreement between the United States and Australia (FTA)
enacted in January 2005, books are duty free. However, books are subject to a Goods and
Services Tax (GST) of 10%, which is applied to most goods upon entry into Australia.

Educational books are exempt from the GST if they appear on the syllabus of a school or
university course. Under the FTA, Australia’s intellectual property rights laws have been
strengthened to include the extension of copyright from 50 to 70 years.

It is essential for U.S. publishers to recognize that Australians use spelling standards based
on U.K. spelling rules. Early childhood educators in particular are increasingly promoting
spelling standards for young children, with standards derived from the Macquarie Dictionary.

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Resources and Key Contacts

Australian Publishers Association

Australian Booksellers Association (ABA)


Australia Council for the Arts


Commercial Service Contact Information

Name: Annette Ahern
Position: Commercial Specialist
Phone: + 61-3-9526-5928
Address: 553 St. Kilda Road,
Melbourne Victoria 3004

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Country: Austria
Capital: Vienna
Population: 8.2 million
GDP*: $283.8 billion
Currency: Euro
Language: German
*(purchasing power parity)

Austria has 1,000 publishing companies, 280 periodical publishers
and 100 newspaper publishers, an industry structure composed
primarily of small and mid-sized companies. With its 3.9 million
private households, the book market generates sales of $1.8 billion.

Household Spending on Published Materials in 2005 (in USD)

Product Group Spending per Total
Household Sales
in million
Books 157.1 532.20
Reference books 55.67 188.64
Fiction 42.10 142.64
Guidebooks 20.36 68.99
Children’s books 14.70 49.76
Travel guides 14.57 49.39
Encyclopedias 5.78 19.60
Second hand books 3.89 13.19
Newspapers and magazines 337.82 1144.56
Paper and stationery 51.00 172.93
TOTAL 545.92 1849.69
(Source: RegioPlan Consulting GmbH, Verbauchsaugaben Österreich 2005)

Book Sales
Year Sales USD Change Over Previous
Year %
2000 940.71 -
2001 977.28 + 3,9
2002 993.37 + 1,7
2003 978.41 - 1,5
2004 999.91 + 2,2
2005 990.86 - 0,9
2006(p) 995.38 + 0,5
(Source: RegioPlan Consulting GmbH)

Of the 5,424 individual new releases in Austria in 2005, just over 10% were foreign or multi-
lingual. The foreign publications were released in 23 languages, of which English had the
largest share with 51%.

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The following table indicates the allocation of new releases in literary fields:

New Releases 2005 in Austria geographic

agriculture, children
legislation forestry geographic
other groups
10% 4% 6%
children fine arts, architecture
6% fiction
4% economic,social
other groups
economic,socia politics
l history
6% fiction fine arts,
16% architecture legislation
6% agriculture, forestry

(Source: National Library of Austria)

Because of its proximity and shared language, Germany is Austria’s premier trading partner
in books, with 80% of new book releases in Austria imported from Germany and 80% of
Austrian book exports going to Germany.

Market Trends
In publishing, a trend toward the digitalization of content is ongoing. More and more books
are being posted on the Internet, yet the cost are still very high since the process of
digitalization involves expensive manual or mechanical handling. (source: Association of the
Austrian Book trade)

Book sales are still dominated by individual bookstores. The trend is, however, moving
toward increased concentration: in 2004, 28% of book sales were made through a chain; in
2005, 31%. (Source: RegioPlan Consulting GmbH)

Market Entry
American publishing houses can approach Austrian booksellers by contacting an
intermediary delivery company (please contact the U.S. Commercial in Austria for a detailed
contact list), or by contacting a bookseller directly.

In Austria, books are subject to a price-fixing restraint, which commits publishing houses and
book importers to adhere to a pre-arranged end price. The intent of this law is to ensure a
broad variety of literature and enables small bookstores to produce sufficient income to stay
in operation. Without this system, legislators fear that a handful of financially strong
companies would push small booksellers into ruin and dominate the marketplace, and that
eventually only books that are expected to achieve high volume sales will be available.
However, the Austrian price-fixing law does not apply to books in the English language.
American publishing houses can calculate their prices independently and negotiate directly
with the bookseller over discount rates and gross profit margins. In Austria the average profit
margin for booksellers is between 30 and 40%. (Source: Association of the Austrian Book trade)

Trade Events
LITERA – the International Book Fair in Austria
(April 23- 27, 2008, in Design Centre Linz)

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Resources and Key Contacts

Association of the Austrian Book Trade
Hauptverband des Österreichischen Buchhandels (HVB)

Association of the Book and Media Industry

Fachverband der Buch- und Medienwirtschaft

Commercial Service Contact Information

Name: Marta Haustein
Position: Commercial Specialist
Phone: + 43-1-313 39 2205
Address: Boltzmanngasse 16
1090 Vienna

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Country: Belgium
Population: 10.4 million
GDP*: $342.8 billion
Currency: Euro (EUR)
Language: Dutch (official) 60%
French (official) 40%
German (official) less than 1%
legally bilingual (Dutch and French)
*(purchasing power parity)

The Belgian book market, like those in other highly literate industrialized
countries, is mature but not stagnant. It has experienced normal growth
of around 9% in the last few years. A linguistic divide heavily influences
this market, with the Francophone and Dutch-speaking communities
importing many titles from their linguistic “parent” countries.

Belgian publishing sector:

Production Number of Enterprises Employees
(in USD million)
3,481.6 1,119 9,786
(Source“ Strengthening the Competitiveness of the EU Publishing Sector.” Commission of the European
Communities: Commission Staff Working Paper. 7 Oct 2005.)

Current Market Trends

Sales through book clubs and wholesalers have in recent years been abandoned in favor of
large retailers, making it more difficult for small booksellers to enter the market. The
Internet, apart from certain specialized sectors, has not yet taken a large market share from
the large retail outlets. In fact, many well-established retailers have been able to capture
much of the Internet sales volume by creating user-friendly retail websites.

Main Competitors
The strongest local competition in Belgium mainly exists among illustrated media, such as
comic books and children’s literature.

Current Demand
In recent years, there has some been decline in niche markets, such as scientific texts,
encyclopedias, and dictionaries due to electronic purchasing. The comic book format is
extremely popular, and some forms that are different from local comics, such as Japanese
“manga” and graphic novels, have proved very successful.

Competitive pricing – not regulated pricing (value- added tax) is put on the sales of books.
6% VAT

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Resources and Key Contacts

Association des Editeurs Belges

Foire du Livre de Bruxelles


Commercial Service Contact Information

Name: Brigitte de Stexhe
Position: Commercial Specialist
Phone: + 32-2-508-2454
Address: 27 Bd du Régent
1000 Brussels

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Country: Croatia
Capital: Zagreb
Population: 4. 4 million
GDP*: $60.26 billion
Currency: Croatian Kuna (HRK)
Language: Croatian 96.1%
Serbian 1%
*(purchasing power parity)

Although a Slavic nation, the Croatians possess an attitude
towards reading that can’t quite compare to the one in Russia;
on average, only one in 3 inhabitants buys a book per year.
Regardless of the reading taste, one thing is certain: effective
marketing and hype does much more for the sales than the
quality of the work. Before the last sequel of Harry Potter
reached the bookstores and recorded 3,810 sold copies in July,
the best-selling book in Croatia was a Slovenian diet guide.

Although corporate registration documents show approximately 600 companies are

registered as publishers in Croatia, the reality is that only 30 have publishing as their core
business. These 30 cover approximately 80% of the market, but only a few of them
managed to distinguish themselves as recognizable brands. Nevertheless, there is no
consolidation in the publishing/bookstore business (which is often combined); instead, the
large bookstores tend to grow organically, spread their retail network and wait until the
smaller ones disappear. Algoritam, the largest bookstore in Croatia, claims to sell close to 1
million books in a year, and together with its sales of multimedia content and accessories, it
generates around EUR 14 million in revenues annually.

The entire sector was shocked in 2004 when the newspapers started publishing their own
editions. They employed a network of newsstands to sell books, which were usually priced at
about a third of an average price in a bookstore. Bookstores claimed that this practice
constituted unfair competition, but everything calmed down as the newspapers eventually
ran out of “material” to publish – their editions usually consisted of reprinted books and less
known domestic authors.

Current Market Trends

The number of large book retailers is steadily increasing, and the larger ones, such as
Algoritam and Profil, are comparable to bookstores like Barnes & Noble. It is estimated that
Croatia imports close to 2,500 foreign titles each year, of which some get translated, but the
majority are sold in their original language. The reason for this is purely economical: the cost
of translation can eat up around 20% – or more – of the gross revenue per title. In addition,
English is widely spoken in Croatia.

Main Competitors
While there is no breakdown of book sales by publisher, it is safe to say that sales of foreign
books is higher than that of the domestic ones. In addition, more expensive books – priced
above HRK 200 (approximately EUR 25) – sell better than cheaper ones.

Current Demand
The top-selling books in Croatia for July 2007:

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Title Author Number of copies sold

Harry Potter and

the Deadly Hallows Joanne Rowling 3,810
Frida, or About Pain Slavenka Drakulic (domestic) 921
Rabbit on the Moon Hrvoje Salkovic (domestic) 863
The Island Victoria Hislop 711
Shanghai Baby Wei Hui 664
Cevdet Bey and His Sons Orhan Pamuk 568
P.S. I Love You Cecilia Ahern 505
At Risk Patricia Cornwell 472
Marrying Buddha Wei Hui 459
The Witch of Portobello Paulo Coelho 451

The Croatian Ministry of Culture recently introduced guidelines preventing bookstores from
changing the price of a book within one year of the publishing date. While there are certain
exceptions to this rule, publishers complain that they are too few and that the time for which
the price of a book is fixed is too long. The “fixed book price” directive negatively affects the
sale of books over the Internet (for domestic publishers and bookstores), where the buyers
usually enjoyed a 15-20% discount.

Book sales are not subject to VAT in Croatia.

Trade Events
Interliber, International Books and Teaching Aids Fair (held in Zagreb every November)

Resources and Key Contacts

Croatian Ministry of Culture
Publishing Department

Top bookstores/publishers:

Publisher’s Association with the Croatian Chamber of Commerce

Commercial Service Contact Information

Name: Miroslav Nikolac
Position: Commercial Specialist
Phone: +385-1-661-2026
Address: Thomas Jefferson St. 2

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Czech Republic
Country: Czech Republic
Capital: Prague
Population: 10.2 million
GDP*: $224 billion
Currency: Czech koruna (CZK)
Language: Czech
*(purchasing power parity)

A nation of avid readers, the Czech Republic ranks among the
world’s top ten countries in terms of the number of published non-
periodical titles per 10,000 inhabitants. Like many countries, the
Czech Republic is facing a decline in the number of readers due to
the availability of other media and activities. However, book
reading remains a key part of the country’s cultural life. In 2006,
the Czech book publishing industry released 17,000 publications –
an all-time high. In comparison with 2005, this is an increase of
11%. More importantly, this record year illustrates the profound changes that have occurred
in the Czech publishing industry since the “Velvet Revolution” and the fall of communism in
1989. The total book market is estimated at CZK 4.5 billion ($200 million). Estimates for non-
periodicals segment are not available, however it is a very vivid sub-sector and there is a
large (and ever growing) number and variety of newspaper and magazines available in the

Market Demand
In comparison to the U.S. market, the book publishing market in the Czech Republic, with
only 10 million inhabitants and a language used only within its borders, is small. But Czech
publishers can rely on a population of avid readers that frequently buy books to create home

The high absolute number of book titles published in 2006 testifies to the fact that Czech
publishers compensate for dropping average print runs by publishing a large number of titles
in order to sustain their turnover. Out of 17,019 titles in 2006, about one fourth represent
reprints of books already published, which is quite an increase compared with 2005. Experts
estimate that about 50% are produced “off-market” and not distributed through the general
bookshop network and which include mainly purpose & regional interest titles, state and
government institutions’ production and some university publications. Unfortunately, only
limited information on total sales, print runs, profits and market shares in the publishing
sector is available.

Table1: Number of Books Published in the Czech Republic

2002 14,278
2003 16,451
2004 15,749
2005 15,350
2006 17,019
(Source: Grand Biblio magazine)

The selection of books and publications is rich and varied both in quantity and genre. Fiction
literature accounted last year for over 20% of total book production. Increases were recorded
for children’s books as well as school and university textbooks.

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Table 2: Comparison of Publication in Selected Genres

2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
Fiction 3,605 3,498 3,381 3,340 3,746
Children books 586 746 735 866 1,290
School & Univeristy 1,578 1,884 1,732 1,776 1,924
(Source: National Library of the Czech Republic)

Rapid growth in the number of periodicals, including newspapers and journals, occurred in
the 1990s after the fall of communism. The number of periodical publishers increased to
1,600–1,700. The Union of Publishers of Periodicals offers on its web pages the results of
their annual Media Project, which researches newspapers and magazines by readership and
sales. Their research shows that Blesk, followed by Mlada Fronta Dnes and Pravo, are the
most popular dailies. In other selected categories, top three publications are: women’s
fashion magazines: Cosmopolitan, Elle, Marianne; current affairs and society magazines:
Nedelni Blesk, Rytmus zivota, Tydenik Kvety; business and economic magazines: Econom,
Euro, Osobni finance; Music/Film/Photo magazines: Cinema, Premiere, Rock & Pop; and the
teen magazine market: Bravo, Divka, Bravo Girl!.

Market Data
The structure of the Czech book production market has remained largely unchanged over
the past several years: Czech language publications are predominant in the Czech Republic.
As far as foreign language book production of Czech publishers is concerned, English has
clearly dominated the market, followed by German and French.

Translations usually amount to about one third of the total Czech book production, making it
rank among the world’s top consumers of translated texts, along with the Baltic states and
Hungary. The number of translated languages has in recent years been around 45. The list
of the three most often translated languages has remained unchanged since 1990. Almost
half of all published translations originate from English. Translations from German have been
the second most numerous, with French third at some distance. Two other languages
reaching over 100 translations include Slovak and Spanish.

Table 3: Numbers of Published Book Translations in the Czech Republic

2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
Total/of which 4,342 4,602 4,604 4,423 5,240
From English 2,329 2,362 2,301 2,211 2,556
From German 982 1,029 1,033 980 1,186
From French 225 273 267 243 244
From Spanish 32 52 38 43 179
From Slovak 116 137 152 136 176
From Polish 67 76 73 74 70
From Russian 50 53 65 73 68
(Source: National Library of the Czech Republic)

One interesting aspect of the industry concerns the relationship between Czech publishers
and public libraries. Czech law requires that publishers offer one copy of each publication to
libraries specified by the Ministry of Culture to ensure that selected libraries have access to
current production. This so-called ‘compulsory offer’ does, in some cases, cause problems
between libraries and publishers. In addition, it promotes a disconnect between these two
groups, which tend to see each other in opposition instead of as potential partners. Since
1989, publishers and libraries have viewed one another primarily through the narrow focus of
‘profit’ versus ‘public benefit.’

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There are however some exceptions. The Association of Czech Booksellers and Publishers
started a cooperation with the “Svet knihy” company to launch a campaign in support of
books and reading aimed especially at children, entitled “Growing with the Book”. It draws
inspiration from similar models employed in the United States and the EU. The project is
enjoying growing interest and participation. There is also a growing number of book festivals
and book awards as well as an emergence of new authors.

The operation of the ISBN and ISMN systems in the Czech Republic is based on generally
accepted international rules and regulations. Participation in the system is voluntary, and
national agencies usually contact publishers directly. Important materials are available on
the National Library websites.

The publishing sector has not yet developed tools for a systematic monitoring of its own
professional activities. A number of long-term statistical indices, general as well as specific
analytical and marketing studies, and theoretical and prognostic studies for the monitoring of
developmental trends in individual areas are missing. For example, statistical data on the
annual production of non-periodicals and periodicals in the Czech Republic are prepared
only on the basis of legal deposits in the National Library of the CR; data on the growth and
development of prices of publishers' products are only estimated.

Best Prospects
Best prospects for U.S. publishers in the Czech market are mostly in B2B sales of rights for
bestselling novels, while specific niche markets may exist for other categories such as
documentaries, arts and life style, travel and tourism, scientific, technical, medical,
management, social and human sciences and children’s books.

Major Czech publishing firms usually attend international book fairs, such as the Frankfurt
Book Fair in Germany. There are also opportunities at the Czech International Book Fair,
which takes place annually in Prague.

Key Suppliers
The publishing of books in the Czech Republic is clearly divided between more entities than
in countries which have enjoyed an uninterrupted and continuous development towards
specialization and concentration of book producers. In 2006, there were 3,908 publishers
registered in the Czech Republic. However, it is estimated that approximately half of these
publishers are not active. In any case, a decisive share of Czech book production is still
attributed to only several dozen publishers. (As mentioned above, the industry could benefit
from better systems of monitoring and tracking, such as the registration of publishers. The
existing mechanism does not filter out defunct publishing entities.)

Last year, 170 companies published more than 20 titles, meeting the criteria for regular
activity. Only 33 companies publish more than 100 books per year (half of these are
university or government establishments). University and state institution presses are, as in
other countries, usually characterised by a large number of highly specialised titles at
relatively low print runs.

Table 4: Number of Registered Publishers in the Czech Republic

2002 3,267
2003 3,448
2004 3,619
2005 3,775
2006 3,908
(Source: Grand Biblio magazine)

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The leading book distributors have begun pressing for higher discounts. As a result, the
production of books has approached the limit of profitability for a number of publishers, since
no marked increase in consumer prices has been registered.

Bookshops are facing competitive pressure both from market chains and bookshop chains,
similar to the situation in other countries. In some regions, bookshops have disappeared,
because of generation change and because new shops were opened by publishing houses
and new literary cafés have come into existence.

Prospective Buyers
Like many countries, the Czech Republic is facing a decline in the number of book readers
due to the availability of other media and activities. However, book reading remains a key
part of the country’s cultural life. Despite all challenges, statistics show that in terms of the
number of book titles published, the Czech Republic ranks among the top countries in the
world. In terms of published titles per 10,000 inhabitants, the country even makes it to the
top ten.

Market Entry
A recommended strategy for a U.S. company interested in penetrating the Czech publishing
market would be to find a local partner/representative or open an office in the country.
Without a local representative who can support everyday contact with customers and
government representatives, it is very difficult to succeed in the market. A U.S. company can
stimulate further sales by working with Czech partners on effective marketing campaigns, as
well as by utilizing trade shows, in-country promotions, and advertising. The U.S.
Commercial Service offers a number of ways to help U.S. companies find business partners
in the Czech market. These include setting up meetings with Czech companies interested in
partnership, government officials and associations representatives (Gold Key Service)
conducting, due diligence on prospective partners (International Company Profile) and
events organizing to introduce new product lines to potential customers (Single Company
More information and contacts can be found at

Market Issues & Obstacles

The Czech Republic is a highly developed, open market with liberal policies and intense
competition. While imports from the EU are exempt, products from non-EU countries are
subject to import duties. Customs duty rates are updated annually and are harmonized
within EU countries. In addition, all goods, imported or produced domestically, are subject to
a value-added-tax (VAT). The value added tax rate for non-periodic publications (books,
brochures) is 5%.

The Czech Republic is a member of various international copyright agreements. In

accordance with European Union legislation, a protection period of 70 years from the
author’s death applies in the country. One of the principles of Czech copyright is the
reciprocity principle, whereby foreign authors enjoy at least the same level of protection as
Czech authors, provided reciprocity is ensured.

The key factors influencing book prices are the price of the material (paper, printing services)
and author’s fees. Author’s fees can also be considered a factor bearing the greatest
influence on the final price of any book, especially so with foreign authors whose
publications are translated into the Czech language, and where the requested fees are
relatively high. Book prices are considered contract prices and recommended sale prices are
printed only on limited number of publications.

Czech is the official language in the Czech Republic. More than half of Czech company
representatives are able to communicate in English or in German.

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Trade Events
International Book Fair, Prague
May 3-6, 2007,

Resources and Key Contacts

Ministry of Culture,
Almanach Labyrint,
National Library,
The Union of Publishers of Periodicals,
The Association of Czech Booksellers and Publishers,
American Chamber of Commerce,
General Directorate of Customs,

The U.S. Commercial Service – Your Global Business Partner

With its network of offices across the United States and in more than 80 countries, the U.S.
Commercial Service of the U.S. Department of Commerce utilizes its global presence and
international marketing expertise to help U.S. companies sell their products and services
worldwide. Locate the U.S. Commercial Service trade specialist in the U.S. nearest you by

Commercial Service Contact Information

Name: Veronika Novakova
Position: Commercial Specialist
Phone: + 420-257-022-334 2437
Address: Trziste 15
Praha (Prague) 1 118 01
Czech Republic

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Country: Denmark
Capital: Copenhagen
Population: 5.5 million
GDP*: $198.5 billion
Currency: Danish krone (DKK)
Language: Danish
*(purchasing power parity)

Denmark is a highly developed country located in Scandinavia. Through
state-supported granted education, reading is encouraged at an early age
and the general level of education is very high (about 99% of the general
population attend compulsory elementary school (lasting 9 to 10 years); 86%
attend secondary school and 41% pursue further education.). Thus, Denmark
has a very high literacy rate (app. 99%), which naturally shapes a market for

The Danish publishing market consists of 1,160 publishing companies, 41 newspaper

companies, and 1,269 printing houses, all together comprising total sales of more than $5.8
billion. While newspapers in recent years have suffered from decreasing circulation due the
internet, the market for printed books is actually increasing. In the years between 1999 and
2005, there was according to The Statistic of the Danish Publishers Association, an increase
in the total number of Danish books sold by 8.5 million copies equivalent to 28%.

Historically, the Danish book market has been highly regulated. However, a process of
liberalization has lately been taking place. Today 10% of a publisher’s new publications can
be sold with a fixed book price. The fixed book price can only be used on the first edition of
the book. The fixed price is then depreciated over 5 years.

There are no customs duties levied on the import bound of books. However, in Denmark all
consumer goods, including published material, are charged 25% VAT.

The Union of Danish Book Retailers (Den Danske Boghandlerforening) organizes the (app.)
450 Danish book retailers. The union represents the retailers in their dealings with
publishers, authors, and public authorities.

Current Demand
The Danish are avid readers and, besides a general interest in life style-related reading,
such as design, fashion, cooking, etc., there is a growing demand for biographies. Thus, 8 of
10 books on the current Danish bestseller list are biographies.

Market Trend
The publishing market is currently characterized by some trends that are changing the
fundamentals of the market. While the circulation of paid dailies is falling, the circulation of
free dailies is increasing. Besides changing the balance in the media market dramatically
that development has led to a shift in, especially, young people’s reading habits. Therefore, it
is once again becoming ‘in’ to read, which is one of the explanations of the before-mentioned
increase in the amount of books sold.

Furthermore, the media market is also undergoing a process of digitalization, leaving the
printing houses under yet more pressure. This is happening concurrently with a European
consolidation of media houses, which is characterized by a high level of acquisitions (and
consequently an increasing demand for higher earnings).

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So far, the process of digitalization has had its hardest impact on the printed media.
However, the concept of digital books is slowly growing in the market and will – especially
when taking foreign experiences into consideration – gain a greater market share during the
years to come.

Politically the debate is centered around the VAT of 25% levied on all books. A product
specific abolishment of the VAT can be expected within the next five years, which will make
the demand for books grow significantly. In addition, the political signals also points to an
abolishment of the fixed price system within a few years.

Trade Events
Educational Forum in Odense
November 5-6, 2007

Book Fair; ‘BogForum’, Copenhagen

November 16-18, 2007

Book Fair: ‘Skolebogsmessen’

March 12-13, 2008 in Roskilde
April 9-10, 2008 in Aarhus

Book fair: ‘Krimimessen’

April 5-6, 2007 in Horsens

Resources and Key Contacts

Danish Publishers Association
+45 3315 6688

Den Danske Boghandlerforening

Aschehoug Dansk Forlag A/S
Fiction, general non-fiction, popular reference books, juveniles,
children’s books

G.E.C. Gads Forlag A/S G.E.C. Gad Publishers Ltd.
High quality non-fiction and educational/academic books. Art,
biography, economics, food/drink, history, law, medicine, nursing,
philosophy, popular science, reference, religion.

Gyldendalske Boghandel, Nordisk Forlag A/S

All types of books for the general trade market, fiction, non-fiction,
textbooks, juveniles, art books, popular paperbacks, quality paperbacks,
encyclopaedias, reference books, book clubs and periodicals, audiovisuals
(video, tapes, computer-software and hard-ware).

JP/Politikens Forlagshus A/S
All types of books for the general trade market, fiction, general nonfiction,
popular reference books, children’s books, travel books,
dictionaries and management books

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Jurist- og Økonomforbundets Forlag A/S
Educational/academic books, science

Commercial Service Contact Information

Name: Sabina Krøigaard
Position: Commercial Specialist
Phone: +45 3341 7202
Address: Dag Hammerskjölds Allé 24
2100 Copenhagen

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Country: France
Capital: Paris
Population: 63.7 million
GDP*: $1.891 trillion
Currency: Euro (EUR)
Language: French
*(purchasing power parity)

In 2005, the French publishing industry posted revenues of EUR 2,747
million ($3,700m), according to the National Publishing Syndicate. The
market was almost evenly split in terms of new titles published versus
reprints of previous titles (51% to 49% respectively). Books sales increased
by 2%, transfers of rights increased by 6.5%, and book prices went up by
1.3% overall.

As with many industries in France, the publishing industry sees a sharp

decline in productivity in July and August (due to the summer holiday period) before shooting
back up to normal or above normal levels in September.

Current Market Trend

Many people (26.7%) still buy their books in bookstores, but several market studies found
that books are one of the fastest-growing sectors in e-commerce in terms of online sales.

Sales channels, division of purchases in value in 2005

Store type Percentage share
of book purchases
Bookstores (of all kinds) 26.7
Large or specialized bookstores 19.3
Publishing houses, book and stationary stores 6.9
Department stores 0.5
Specialized large-surface stores (i.e. FNAC) 21.7
Non-specialized large-surface stores (i.e. hypermarkets) 20.7
Mail order and clubs (not including internet) 16.7
Other 6.6
Online sales 5.4
Sales/occasion 1.9
Broker 0.3

Books in pocket size, defined in part as being of small size and modest price, make up
14.9% of sales value and 28.3% of sales volume with the remainder being made up by
“large format” books. The pocket size has gone up 10.6% in value.

Some 45% of French book exports go to other EU countries. Booksellers are finding that
exports to rich countries such as Belgium, Switzerland and Canada - the largest markets for
French books - have stagnated.

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Sales to non-Francophone regions outside of the EU have declined outright, at a rate of 36%
between 2002 and 2004.

English translations of French books declined by 20%, indicating a loss of territory for French
literature in the Anglo-Saxon countries.

Current Demand

In 2005…
79% of French people over 15 years old read at least 1 book in the
last 12 months
38% read between 1 and 9 books
25% read 10-24 books
15% read 25 books or more

Books on religion saw their first upward trend in several years,

possibly due to events in the Catholic church (a new pope).
Dictionaries and encyclopedias also saw increased sales. Scholarly
books experienced an increase for the first time in the last three
years. On the other hand, fiction was in decline for the first time in

With special regard to comic books, in both France and Belgium many comic books, or
“bandes déssinées”, are popular among both children and adults. These can cover many
topics, ranging from the traditional cartoon-type character to historical and science fiction.
Comic books are very mainstream and are not limited to special-interest groups or
collectors. For 2005, they posted revenue of more than EUR 211 million ($287.1 million), a
full 8% of the total revenue from book sales in France. The growth in revenue was the
second largest in the sector, after that of youth books. There is also a trade fair for comic
books; see the appropriate section below for more information.

Market change by book type, 2005

Book type Percentage
change in market
Scholarly books +1.5
Technical and commercial +9.1
Secondary school +6.5
Primary school +0.9
Sciences, technical and medicine -1.8
Medicine -6.2
Management -6.4
Data Processing +7.5
Human and social sciences -2.1
Law -3.5
General human sciences -4.8
History +15.2
Religion +0.7

Esoteric -6.2
Dictionaries and encyclopedias
French dictionaries +6
Foreign language dictionaries -4.6
Multi-volume encyclopedias -27
“Booklet” encyclopedias +4.3
General literature

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Book type Percentage
change in market
Fiction -1.6
Documentary +1.7
Novels (classic, contemporary, sci-fi) -5.0
Novels (crime) +13
Novels (romance) +9.4
Youth +15.6
Fiction* +23
Baby +21.7
Comic books +5.3
Manga +22.9
Art and practical books -1.3
Cooking +5.4
Sports +15.5
Tourism +5.8
Geographic maps and atlases +3.9
*Note: Youth fiction was helped along tremendously by the new Harry Potter volume.

Price barriers
France is one of several countries in Europe that use a system of fixed prices for books on
books (Germany being another). The law that permits this in France is called Loi Lang
(Lang’s Law), which was instituted in 1981. Anyone who publishes or imports a book into
France is required to fix one price for the book’s sale to the entire public. Discounts cannot
be more than 5% of the price set by the publisher. The growing success of Internet sales
may be detrimental to this policy, however, as books can be bought more cheaply from
British or other booksellers online. The policy of fixing prices on books is beginning to be
examined by several European Union governing bodies, as some find it to be a barrier to
free trade in the European market.

In France, books are subject to the reduced tax rate of 5.5% (the standard rate being

Trade Events
Festival International de la Bande Dessinée
The International Comic Book Festival is held in January in Angoulême.
The next one will be from January 24-28, 2008.

Salon du Livre
March 14-19, 2008
Paris, Porte de Versailles Hall 1

Resources and Key Contacts

Syndicat National de l’Edition
The National Publishing Syndicate is France’s trade association for book publishing. It
advocates publishers’ interests, supports publishing and intellectual property rights,
promotes/defends a fixed book price, and promotes literacy.

Reed Expositions France


Bureau International de l’Edition Française

The International Bureau of French Publishing is a French news and information resource for
the publishing industry. Its goal is to promote French books internationally.

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Centre National du Livre
The National Book Center is a public administration establishment that also serves as a
place of exchange between professionals in the book industry.

La Centrale de l’Edition
The Publishing Centrale aims to help and to develop the export activities of its members.
(professionals in the book industry).

Centre d’Exportation du Livre Français

The French Book Exportation Center is a professional site that serves as a
distributor/supplier of French books. It does not sell in France, nor to individuals.

Commercial Service Contact Information

Name: Valerie Ferriere
Position: Commercial Specialist
Phone: +33-1- 43-12-70-77
Address: 2, avenue Gabriel
75008 Paris

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Country: Germany
Capital: Berlin
Population: 82.4 million
GDP*: $2.63 trillion
Currency: Euro (EUR)
Language: German
*(purchasing power parity)

In terms of market volume, the German-language book market is
one of the largest in the world. In fact, more books are published in
German each year than in any language apart from English and
Chinese. Considering that Switzerland and Austria import more
than 80% of books – with Germany as their major import source –
Germany dominates book production and sales in this combined

With 94,700 new and reprinted titles entering the market in 2006, Germany is among the
world’s leading book producers. According to the German Publishers and Booksellers
Association (Börsenverein des Deutschen Buchhandels), the book trade in Germany
generated total sales of EUR 9.2 billion; representing one-third of the total EU market. It
also reflects a 1.1% increase over 2005, an encouraging sign of continuous growth since

Current Market Trends

The German book industry started the “2007 Book Year” with improved confidence in the
market. In a survey conducted by the German Publishers and Booksellers Association in
2007, 21% of German booksellers anticipated very good to good sales for the year 2007 and
60% assumed moderate growth. Along with fiction and children’s and teen literature, the
school and educational books segment is expected to have the strongest growth in 2007.
Around 30% of those retailers surveyed stated that sales in these categories had already
begun rising in the first half of 2007.

There is considerable demand for English language books in Germany. Not only is English
the first foreign language in German education, it is also one of the most widely spoken
foreign languages in the country. Currently around 8 million school children are enrolled in
English language courses. Furthermore, all primary schools in Germany are now required to
provide foreign language courses as part of their main curriculum starting in the 3rd grade. In
fact, some primary schools offer foreign language courses (in most cases English) as early
as the first and second grade. A 2003 survey estimates that over 40% of the population
speaks English as a foreign language and this number keeps growing. These statistics
demonstrate that learning English, especially from early childhood on, has become
increasingly important – in turn this will continue to drive demand for English language books
in this country.

Main Competitors
Since 2002, imports of books as well as license sales from the UK to Germany have
surpassed the U.S. book business in Germany. The reasons may include a declining
influence due to the ongoing reduction of U.S. military personnel. Also, materials used in
German classrooms at the elementary and intermediate level are consistently British. Only at
the advanced levels, are teachers and students free to choose the sources they use for their

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Current Demand

Independent bookshops dominate the retail sector in Germany. In 2005, sales by traditional
bookshops accounted for 53 % of total market revenue. However, there has been a trend
toward larger retail formats. Direct sales by publishers to end-users have a strong share of
total sales. Germans are buying books on the Internet, and e-commerce now accounts for
7% of all book sales, leading the German book market in terms of growth. is the
leader in this channel with an estimated share of more than 50% of all Internet sales.

Table 1: Segment Share of Sales by Edition Format (2006) – in Percent

Hardcover Paperback Audio
Fiction 18.6 68.2 48.5
Non-Fiction 20.9 9.8 7.2
Children’s and Teen
Literature 14.6 6.5 25.3
School and Learning 11.7 0.9 10.6
Other 34.2 14.6 8.4
(Source: German Publishers and Booksellers Association. The Book Trade in Numbers 2007. July 2007.)

Imported books are free of any customs charges and licensing agreements are also under
no legislative restriction. The success of a book, like anywhere else, depends on its
relevance, pricing and design. Imported goods into Germany from non-EU countries are
subject to an import sales tax, which in later distribution channels is passed on to the end-
user as a value-added tax (VAT). Presently VAT levied on books and periodicals is 7% of
the import value.

Trade Events
Frankfurter Buchmesse
(Frankfurt International Book Fair)

Resources and Key Contacts

Börsenverein des Deutschen Buchhandels

Commercial Service Contact Information

Name: Volker Wirsdorf
Position: Commercial Specialist
Phone: +49-69-7535-3150
Adress: Giessener Straße 30
60435 Frankfurt

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Country: Israel
Capital: Jerusalem
Population: 7.2 million
GDP*: $170.3 billion
Currency: new Israeli shekel (ILS)
Language: Hebrew (official), Arabic used officially for Arab minority
*(purchasing power parity)

Israel’s book market is valued at around $500 million annually,
with around 35 million books sold each year in a wide spectrum
of categories. Though Israel has a relatively small population of
about 7.2 million, Israelis as a whole are highly educated with
the highest number of academic degrees per capita in the world.
While Russian, Arabic and English language books are read in
Israel, the large majority of regular book buyers read in Hebrew.

About 4,000 titles are published annually and distributed to 1,500 book selling points. There
are about 800 private bookstores and subsidiaries of big bookstore chains. Books are also
sold at book stands in large stores, such as music shops and stationary stores. Books are
relatively expensive in Israel, ranging from $11 (small format) to $20 (trade size), including a
15.5% tax. The vast majority of books are trade paperback originals. Educational books take
the lead with annual sales of $180 million, followed by fiction and nonfiction books at $170
million annually. The used books market is estimated at around $50 million. Encyclopedias
and religious books are also sold in significant quantities in Israel.

The number of copies necessary to be sold in order to capture a spot on a bestseller list in
Israel is changing. For example, a translated title that sells over 5,000 copies within a year is
already considered a winner; a huge seller is one selling between 20,000 to 50,000. For an
Israeli work of fiction, sales of 10,000 copies typically ranks the book as a success, though
the really big names can approach 100,000 copies. In nonfiction, on the other hand, anything
over 2,000 will satisfy the publisher. The leading book retailer sin Israel are: Stimatzki and
Zomet Sfarim. The leading book publishers in Israel are: Yediot Books, Kineret Zemora
Bitan, Keter Books, Modan and Meter.

Resources and Key Contacts

BPAI, The Book Publishers Association of Israel

Ministry of Education

Commercial Service Contact Information

Name: Sigal Mendelovich
Position: Commercial Specialist
Phone: +972-3-5197491
Address: 71 Hayarkon Street
Tel Aviv 63903

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Country: Italy
Capital: Rome
Population: 58.1 million
GDP*: $1.756 trillion
Currency: Euro (EUR)
Language: Italian
*(purchasing power parity)

The Italian publishing market has experienced several years of
consistent growth. The Association of Italian Publishers
(Associazione Italiana Editori) reported that, in 2005, the overall
cover price turnover of the Italian publishing market (including
digital publishing) was $4.93 billion; this figure represents a
0.4% increase over 2004. Italy published over 53,000 titles in
2005, and 63% of these were new titles. The market for titles in
English is growing as part of a worldwide trend and, in fact, U.S.
book exports to Italy increased by 13% in 2006 over the previous year. Reading rates
generally remain below those of Northern European markets with only 42 % of Italians
considered to be readers (defined as having purchased at least one non-scholastic title over
the last year).

Market Overview
The Italian publishing market was valued at $4.93 billion in 2005, and while that figure
represents a 0.4% increase from the previous year, the growth rate was significantly lower
than in recent years. Italy’s market experienced growth rates of 2.2% in 2003 and 3.1% in
2004. Educational and children’s books continued to make up a large part of the publishing
market (36%). Over 4,500 educational titles and 2,300 children’s books were published in
Italy in 2005.

In terms of distribution, bookstores traditionally account for roughly 28% of all books sold in
Italy. In 2005, bookstores sales rose by 0.8% and were valued at $1.41 billion. Other key
distribution channels included the Internet, newsstands, and large-scale distribution
(supermarkets and department stores) all of which experienced significant growth. Internet
sales grew by 28% while newsstands and large-scale distribution both grew by
approximately 12%. Another growth area was the sale of books bundled with newspapers
and sold at newsstands. Income from these package deals grew by over 11% and sales
brought in over $680 million in 2005. However, this growth rate is significantly lower than the
preceding years indicating that this segment of the market may be reaching maturity.

Of Italy’s literate population (people over 6 years old), 42% bought at least one book to read
in 2005. This is an increase of 0.95%, but the overall percentage still lags behind that of
other EU countries. The reading rate in the north of Italy (50%) is significantly higher than
that in the south (30%).

Competitive Environment
Italy continues to have a large appetite for translated works although this market has seen a
slow decline over the last five years. In 2005, 22% of all titles published were translated
(down from 25% in 2000). Titles translated from English made up over half of that statistic
with 14.2% of the 53,000 titles coming from original English works. The majority of the
remaining percentage was translated from French, German and Spanish, respectively.

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Italy maintained a positive trade balance with $53.7 million in exports and $38.7 million in
imports of books. However, the value of imports was significantly higher in 2005 than in
recent years and represented a 32.7% increase over 2004.

Best Prospects
The spending of Italian families on the aggregate content industry (publishing, music, TV,
films) reached $18 billion in 2005. Almost $5 billion of that was on published products and
36% of this amount was on schoolbooks or other educational materials.

One bright spot, in a country with a generally low number of readers and a declining number
of school kids, is the relatively high rate of reading among children. Since the mid-eighties,
that rate has been climbing and reached a peak of 71% in the late nineties. The number has
fluctuated somewhat over the last five years, going down and then up again. In 2006, 59.4%
of school-age children read at least one non-school book putting them in the “reader”
category. This puts children almost 18 percentage points over the general population in
terms of reading rates. The preferred books by Italian children are adventure stories (29%),
fairly tales (26%), comic books (17%), fantasy (9%), horror (7%), coloring, cutout and
construction books (5%), and crime and mystery novels (4%).

Market Access
As a member of the European Union, Italy applies the EU common external tariff to goods
imported from non-EU countries. However, no tariffs or import duties are levied on books
entering EU countries from the United States. A Value Added Tax (VAT or IVA) of 20% is
assessed on products based on their cost, insurance, freight (C.I.F.) value, plus the import
duty at the port of entry.

On July 1, 2003, a European Union Directive relating to VAT on digital services came into
force. The legislation now requires any seller of electronically supplied services and
broadcasting services from a non-EU member state to charge and collect VAT on those
products and services sold online to EU private consumers. This would include e-books and
other publications delivered online. For additional information please contact the U.S.
Mission at the European Union in Brussels or visit

Another issue publishers should consider is the protection of intellectual property. Despite
the implementation of the 2000 Copyright Law and increased enforcement actions, piracy
and counterfeiting rates in Italy remain among the highest in Western Europe. Piracy
continues in virtually all copyright-based sectors.

Italy is a signatory of both the Berne Convention and World Trade Organization's (WTO's)
Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS). Therefore, the
author or creator of any original intellectual work is protected in Italy, even without
registration. However, U.S. copyright registration is advisable. U.S. registration through the
U.S. Copyright Office of the Library of Congress provides documentation of date and
originality and is an important safeguard in case infringement occurs and legal action is
necessary. In Italy, copyright protection is automatically provided for during the life of the
author plus 70 years after his or her death.

For works created in Italy, authors and publishers can register copyrights in Italy with the
Italian Society for Authors and Editors (SIAE). See Key Contacts section for contact

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Market Entry
When approaching the Italian market, there are a number of key questions U.S. publishers
must face. The first is translation for print media or localization for multimedia products and,
therefore, building a strong relationship with an Italian publishing house is key. Ideally, this
will be a partner that is experienced in translations and has an established distribution
network. Issues to be negotiated will include the licensing of texts, images, and graphics as
well as licensing fees, advances and royalties. It is strongly advised that publishers seek
local legal counsel before entering into an agreement. Perhaps the best place to identify an
international partner is the annual Bologna Children’s Book Fair, the world’s largest fair for
the children’s publishing industry. Another key venue is the springtime Turin Book Fair,
Italy’s largest event covering the entire publishing industry. Many Italian publishers also
attend and exhibit at the Frankfurt Book Fair in Germany. See Trade Events section for more

Publishers may also consider exporting English language titles to Italy to take advantage of
the global trend of increased reading of original English language works. U.S. book exports
to Italy rose 13% in 2006 over the previous year for a value of $6.7 million. In this case,
publishers may want to work through some of the large international book distributors either
based in the United States or Europe supplying the English language bookstores and
English sections of large retail chains. In Italy, Feltrinelli, Marzocco, and other booksellers
have stores dedicated to foreign language works with much of the shelf space dedicated to
English titles.

Trade Events
Bologna Children’s Book Fair
April 2008, Bologna

Turin Book Fair

May 2008, Turin

Resources and Key Contacts

Associazione Italiana Editori

Italian Trade Commission – Chicago Office


Commercial Service Contact Information

Name: Barbara Lapini
Position: Commercial Specialist
Phone: +39 -55-292-266
Address: Lungarno Vespucci 38
Florence – 5012

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Country: Netherlands
Capital: Amsterdam
Population: 16.6 million
GDP*: $529.1 billion
Currency: Euro (EUR)
Language: Dutch (official)
Frisian (official)
*(purchasing power parity)

After a slight decrease in annual sales in 2004, favorable economic
conditions contributed to an increase in sales of books in 2005 and
a 5% growth in 2006, to $5.4 billion. The increase is attributable to
higher volumes, as prices have remained relatively constant.

The use of media has changed tremendously in the last few years.
Between 1975 and 2005, the time spent reading printed media
reduced by 40 %. Electronic media has gained significant importance. As a result the
number of bookstores has dropped considerably, with small bookstores being the most
affected. To counter these developments, the Dutch book industry has developed new
initiatives to promote book sales. These initiatives include the Book Week and the Book

In larger cities, a visit to a bookstore has become a new shopping experience – apart from
books, periodicals, newspapers, stationery and postcards, consumers also have access to
multimedia and on-site restaurants and bars. As a result, sales are increasing. Internet sales
are currently 8% of total sales, and growing.

High consumer confidence and a stable economic environment provide a favorable outlook
in the short term. In the long term there are some challenges. The shift from media attention
to electronic media will continue unabated. This implies that the book business will have to
adapt itself constantly. To survive it is fundamental to find ways to reach young people and
to be innovative. Presenting bookstores as a ‘shopping experience’ or a place where you
can purchase a book quickly (book stand on train stations) can assure attention from

Commercial Service Contact Information

Name: Jennifer Ritfeld
Position: Commercial Specialist
Phone: +31-70-3102416 / 7
Address: Lange Voorhout 102
2514 EJ The Hague
The Netherlands

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Country: Philippines
Capital: Manila
Population: 91.1 million
GDP*: $449.8 billion
Currency: Philippine Peso (PHP)
Language: Filipino (official; based on Tagalog)
English (official)
*(purchasing power parity)

Growth prospects in the Philippine book publishing industry are driven
by such factors as the country’s growing population (which translates to
an increasing readership base), the strong local currency (which makes
imported books more attractive price-wise), continuously evolving
lifestyle trends and preferences (which creates new market niches), the
largely underserved areas outside Metro Manila (which creates new
markets) and relatively stable economic growth prospects (which ultimately lead to higher
disposable incomes).

The market remains price-sensitive for both academic and trade books, so much so that
books sold in the Philippines are relatively lower-priced than in other parts of the region. This
price consciousness is also manifested by a growing market for used and second-hand
books, (particularly in the provinces) and foreign publishers authorizing lower-priced, local

Current Market Trends

The main distribution channels in the Philippines are bookstore chains (that actually sell
more than books), institutional direct sellers and direct marketers, a majority of which are
based in Metro Manila. Recently, retail chains like Fully Booked and Powerbooks have
established more upscale retail stores in the metropolis to cater to the higher-end segments
of the market. Local book retailers and publishers have likewise begun using the web
primarily as a promotional medium, although major retail chains such as National Book Store
now offer online shopping. Book retailers also note that buyers have utilized their online
portals to inquire about hard-to-find or out-of-print books. Meanwhile, electronic books (e-
books) and audio books have yet to gain traction, owing to limited market interest.

Main Competitors
Major U.S. publishers dominate the market for imported books sold in the Philippines. Per
industry estimates, books from the United States account for at least 75-80% of total
imported books (i.e., academic and trade books combined). In recent years, however, a
number of publishers from the UK and India, as well as from neighboring countries like
Malaysia, Singapore and Hong Kong have found their way into the market.

Local book publishers take up a lion’s share of the grade school and high school textbook
market, and have started to make inroads in publishing certain types of trade books such as
coffee table and children’s books, self-help, inspirational, literary and mass-market romance
paperbacks. Each year, local publishers produce an average of over 5,000 new titles (based
on ISBN issuances).

Current Demand
Per industry sources, product categories that enjoy increasing demand in the Philippines are
academic and reference works (especially on professions enjoying high demand such as
nursing and culinary arts / hospitality management), nonfiction inspirational titles (owing to a

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predominantly Christian population), business references (notably those with an

entrepreneurial theme) and fiction for adults and children. English is one of two official
languages in the country, so Filipino translations of imported books is not required. However,
industry sectors note that books written in Filipino appeal to certain market segments (e.g.,
mass-market, popular romance pocketbooks, humor and self-help books) and geographic

There are no tariffs imposed on imported books. However, piracy (most notably in the form
of illegal photocopying and pirate offset printing of university textbooks, technical and
professional references resulting in significant losses) is a prevailing concern. In response,
publisher representatives, with support from the American Association of Publishers (AAP)
have been coordinating public and private sector initiatives to curb piracy, including public
awareness campaigns, cooperation with law enforcement agencies and making lower-priced
local reprints available. Strict enforcement of intellectual property rights laws remains a
priority agenda in advocacy efforts.

Resources and Key Contacts

National Book Development Board (NBDB)

Book Development Association of the Philippines, Inc. (BDAP)


Publishers’ Representatives Organization of the Philippines (PROP)

Mr. Rolando “Olan” de Vera, Chairman

Philippine Booksellers Association Inc. (PBAI)

Mr. Paolo Sibal, President
c/o Central Book Supply Inc.

Association of Booksellers for the Academe and the Professions (ABAP)

Ms. Evelyn Millar, President
c/o Golden Books Inc.

Commercial Service Contact Information

Name: (Mr.) Edu Niala
Position: Commercial Specialist
Phone: +63 –2-888-6619
Address: 25/F Ayala Life FGU Center
6811 Ayala Avenue, Makati City

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Country: Spain
Capital: Madrid
Population: 40. 4 million
GDP*: $1.109 trillion
Currency: euro (EUR)
Language: Castilian Spanish (official) 74%,
Catalan 17%, Galician 7% and
Basque 2% are official regionally
*(purchasing power parity)

Spain’s book sector ranks fifth in the world and third in Europe after
the United Kingdom and Germany and is valued at around $3 billion.
Exports from Spain are estimated to be in the $550 million range.
Imports are estimated between $150 and $160 million and have
remained stable since 2000. The United Kingdom is the main
supplier of imported books (45%), followed by France, Germany, The
Netherlands, Italy and the United States (with just a 2% share of the
import market). Most of the imported books from the United States are EFL textbooks.

In Spain there are approximately 500 book distributors and 5,200 book retailers, most of
which are small companies with an average of four employees. The book distribution
business is estimated to be $3.5 million. In general, foreign publishers sell the rights for their
publications to major publishers that take care translating and the local printing and
publishing. In rare cases, if the books are to be sold in the original version, they are
imported through large distributors.

The main retail channels are still bookshops/bookshop chains, which market 50% of total
sales, followed by department stores (11%). Internet sales continue to grow but are still
below traditional channels in total numbers. The Internet is used more for literature and
scientific books, while textbooks are bought from traditional sources.

There are no customs duties levied on the import of bound books in Spain. The only tax
applied is a 4% VAT (the standard VAT for consumer goods is 16%). The importer pays this
tax on the CIF value. The reduced 4% VAT rate also applies to books containing additional
material on CD-Rom.

Entering the Spanish market might require adapting some U.S. products to local standards
and content, particularly for EFL books. Partnering with a local major player or on-site
presence is highly desirable.

Trade Events
The major Spanish trade show for the book sector is LIBER. This show takes place in
Madrid in even years and in Barcelona in odd years. An upcoming edition is scheduled for
October 3-5, 2007 at Fira de Barcelona. The fair is aimed exclusively at trade professionals.
Approximately 700 publishing companies and organizations, literary agents, professional
associations, graphic arts and multimedia companies and suppliers and services related to
publishing will exhibit at the show and 9,000 professionals from 50 different countries will
visit it.
Fira de Barcelona

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Resources and Key Contacts

Ministerio de Educacion Ministry of Education

Federation of Book Distributor Associations:

FANDE- Federacion de Asociaciones Nacionales de Distribuidores de Ediciones
The Federation of Book Distributors Association allows free on-line access to their database
where different selection criteria are available.

Commercial Service Contact Information

Name: Josefina Ortega
Position: Assistant
Phone: +34-91-308-1545
Address: Serrano 75
28006 Madrid

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Country: Sweden
Capital: Stockholm
Population: 9.0 million
GDP*: $290.6 billion
Currency: Swedish krona (SEK)
Language: Swedish
small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities
*(purchasing power parity)

The Swedish book market experienced strong growth in 2006 and
increased by 7.4%. The general book market is estimated to be
worth around $1 billion. The market for printed educational materials
is estimated to be worth $16 million. Imports of foreign books are
estimated to be worth $108 million (8% was English language
literature, Amazon excluded.) More new titles were sold in 2006 than
ever before and sales of books in Sweden, in financial terms as well
as in number of copies, have never been as high. Sales of non-fiction and fiction increased
during 2006 while sales of translated literature decreased slightly. The Swedish book
market has changed considerably over the last few years. Before, books were traditionally
sold via bookstores and book clubs. In recent years, you can find books (mainly paperback)
in grocery stores, gas stations, kiosks and convenient stores. Sales via the Internet continue
to increase and already capture around 20% of the entire market.

There are around 400 bookstores in Sweden, slightly more than 50% are part of a chain,
there are more than 5,000 retailers throughout the country, and there are around 50 book
clubs with close to 2 million members.

Current Market Trends

Ever since the VAT on books was lowered from 25% to 6% in 2002, the book market in
Sweden has continued to see healthy growth. Increasing competition between department
stores, bookstores, grocery stores, and the Internet is fueling the positive development for
the Swedish book market from a consumer point of view. It is estimated that 23 million new
titles and 19 million older titles were sold in 2006 and with the new channels available,
further development of the market is expected. Sales of books from publishers to resellers
and directly to consumers were divided as follows in 2006:
Fiction 39%
Non-fiction 35%
Children’s and young adult literature 16%
Audio books 8%
Reference 2%

Main Competitors
Bonnier (group of publishers of fiction and non-fiction),
Forma Publishing (group of publishers of non-fiction),
Liber (group of publishers of educational and reference literature),
Norstedt (group of publishers of fiction and non-fiction),
Studentlitteratur (educational literature)
Natur & Kultur, (publishers of fiction, non-fiction and educational literature)

Current Demand
Swedes are avid readers and they especially love detective stories. Eight out of ten titles on
the Swedish top ten list are detective stories. This genre is especially popular as vacation

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reading and will continue to be popular on the Swedish market. Swedes are also very
interested in interior design, gardening, and cooking, etc. Consequently, sales of life style
literature are expected to continue to increase.

There are no barriers for importing books into Sweden.

Trade Events
Gothenburg Book Fair

Resources and Key Contacts

Trade Associations
The Swedish Publishers’ Association

The Swedish Booksellers’ Association

Samdistribution AB

Forlagssystem AB

Liber Distribution

Bonnier Books

Forma Publishing Group

Liber AB

Norstedts AB

Studentlitteratur AB

Natur & Kultur AB

Commercial Service Contact Information

Name: Gunilla LaRoche
Position: Commercial Specialist
Phone: +46-80-783-5353
Address: Dag Hammarskjolds vag 31
SE 115 89 Stockholm

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Country: Switzerland
Capital: Bern
Population: 7.6 million
GDP*: $255.5 billion
Currency: Swiss franc (CHF)
Language: German (official) 63.7%
French (official) 20.4%
Italian (official) 6.5%
*(purchasing power parity)

The total value of Swiss book imports is increasing every year
and amounted to $647 million in 2006, a 4% increase from the
previous year’s figure of $622 million. Of these imports, $10
million came from the United States. Germany is the main
source for imported books in Switzerland, followed by France
and Italy. Although no precise figures for the value of local
production are available, it is estimated that about half of the
Swiss book production is exported, mostly to neighboring

Switzerland is a highly developed, multilingual country situated in the heart of Europe with a
population of 7.6 million people. Its population is culturally diverse (approximately 20% non-
Swiss residents), very well educated and affluent. Switzerland is home to some of the
keenest readers in the world, as reading is encouraged at an early age. With a literacy rate
of 99%, reading is a popular leisure activity at all educational levels.

The market is comprised of three main segments based on the official languages in the
country: German, French and Italian. The largest market is the German-speaking part of
the country with a 75% share, followed by the French-speaking region with 22%, and the
Italian with 3%. The German-speaking area, in particular, is regarded as very receptive to
English books.

Even though there are about 630 companies specializing in the book trade at the wholesale
and retail levels, the Swiss distribution system is dominated by three major
wholesalers/dealers, which act as intermediate logistics centers between the publishers and
the bookshops. There are also small wholesalers for special publications and product lines.

Two significant changes in the Swiss educational policy represent opportunities for U.S.

1) The recent liberalization of the educational curriculum, which made the teaching of
two foreign languages, including English, mandatory in many cantons.
2) The second factor is that there are on-going discussions to privatize the five state
publishers that supply books to the public schools. This could lead to better market
access and opportunities for U.S. companies in the Swiss public educational
procurement market.

In addition, Switzerland is also famous for its approximately 400 prestigious private and
international boarding schools, hosting about 25,000 students. Forty of these international
schools offer international, U.S. or British curricula and, therefore, represent an opportunity
for U.S. publishers in the educational sector. Furthermore, the rigid procurement regulations
of the public schools do not apply to the private and international schools, which are free to

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choose their own books. There are also about 200 different language schools in Switzerland
offering English courses, from the beginner’s level up to advanced diploma preparation
courses. Most of the students prefer American English to British English.

Main Competitors
The main competitors are publishers from neighboring countries (Germany, France, Italy and
the United Kingdom). Recently, the three major German educational book publishers
(Cornelsen, Klett and Westermann) entered the market and now sell their products through
common retail channels. On the educational front, popular publishers of language teaching
materials include Klett, Cornelsen, Oxford University Press, Longman, Macmillan, Pearson
Education and Scholastic. Major Swiss educational book publishers include the Scola
Verlag (Orell Fuessli AG), Compendio, Schroedel Schulbuchverlag, Schubi Lehrmedien and
Profax Verlag.

Current Demand
In Switzerland, English has become the first language in the business and science
communities. Fiction, children’s books, educational books as well as educational multimedia
and educational audio material will have strong market demand in the next few years as a
result of the educational reforms. Fiction and non-fiction are most widely read in the
German-speaking part of the country. French-speaking Swiss prefer fiction, crime novels
and comics, which, surprisingly, account for about 20% of total sales. Many schools use
English short stories, novels or bi-lingual publications in their English-language curriculum.

Market Entry
Imported books are free of duty. After importation, audio-books and other digital products
are assessed a normal Value Added Tax of 7.6%. A lower 2.8% VAT is levied on books in
order to support book production and higher book consumption in Switzerland. Swiss
educational publishers license about 20% of their products from other publishers.
Successful market entry depends on the pricing factor, book design and product line of the
U.S. publisher. The Swiss prefer conservative book design and good quality paper.
Increasing Internet sales have not had a negative effect on the retail segment, since
traditional bookshops still fulfill Swiss expectations of high quality and service.

Swiss Pricing Policy

Historically, publishers would enter into a fixed-price agreement with booksellers in the
German, Swiss and Austrian markets. In Switzerland, this helped the publication of books
that were not widely read. Recently, however, the Swiss competition authority prohibited
such price fixing. Retailers are now free to price books below the wholesalers’ suggested

Interesting Facts about the Swiss Book Market

Switzerland ranks high on quality-of-life indices, including per capita income, concentration
of computer and Internet usage per capita, etc. (Source: OECD, 2001).
Reading is a leisure activity at least once a week for 89% of the Swiss; 70% of the Swiss
read at least 30 minutes per day; and 60% of the 9-16 age group read on a daily basis
(Source: Swiss Office of Statistics).
There is one bookstore per 11,400 Swiss. This ratio surpasses other countries’ per capita
share, such as Germany and the United States, with 15,300 and 39,700 citizens per
bookstore, respectively (Source: University of St. Gallen).
Sixty-five percent of all books are sold in bookshops; the rest is sold in department stores,
newsstands, through book clubs (Swiss Office of Statistics).
Switzerland’s 500 book publishers introduce about 11,000 new titles per year.

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Trade Events
The two main trade shows Switzerland are the Basel Book Fair ( Web: for the German-speaking area (400+ publishers and 40,000
visitors), and the Geneva International Book Fair for the French area (300 exhibitors
representing 1,000 publishers). The Salon du Livre attracts some 120,000 consumers every
year (Web:

Resources and Key Contacts

Schweizerischer Buchhaendler- und Verlegerverband (SBVV)
(Swiss Booksellers and Publishers Association – German-speaking area)

Association Suisse des diffuseur, editeurs et libraries (ASDEL)

(Swiss Booksellers, Publishers and Librarians Association – French-speaking area)

Federal Office of Science & Education


Swiss Conference of the Cantonal Directors of Education


Commercial Service Contact Information

Name: Maria Pamich
Position: Commercial Assistant
Phone: +41-31-357-7345
Address: Jubilaeumstrasse 93
3005 Bern

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Country: Turkey
Capital: Ankara
Population: 71.2 million
GDP*: $635.6 billion
Currency: Turkish lira (TRY)
Language: Turkish
*(purchasing power parity)

The Turkish publishing market is steadily developing, thanks to the growth in population, a
lengthening of compulsory primary education to 8 years, an increase in GNP and a variety of
books becoming more available with an improved distribution network. Between 1996-2006
there has been a 300% increase in the number of books published. Around 23,900 different
new titles were published in 2006.

Total book sales are estimated to have been $533.5 million in 2006. The market can be
divided into educational books (textbooks, supplementary books), cultural publications
(novels, hobby books etc), academic books (university publications etc) and imported books
(foreign languages). All the market segments are experiencing growth. The chart below
shows the market breakdown of the publishing sector in Turkey.

Market Segment Sales (million $) Share of the market

Educational Books 251 47
Textbooks 151 28
Supplementary Books 100 19
Cultural Publications 150 28
Academic Books 75 14
Imported Books 57.5 11
TOTAL 533.5 100

Textbooks for state primary and secondary schools are distributed free of charge by the
Ministry of Education. The Ministry purchases the school books through tenders and price is
the major decision criteria. Imported English Language Teaching (ELT) books are also used
for English classes at schools and total market sales is about $26.5 million. Private schools
purchase their own educational books and many of these include imported titles. All
textbooks require the Ministry of Education approval to be included as part of any school

In the academic books segment, 80% of books are by local authors and 20% are
translations from international titles. Average expenditure per university student is about

Cultural books’ average retail price is $10. Many bestselling books are translations of
international bestsellers. First editions of cultural books are usually printed in 3,000-copy
runs, whereas an international bestseller like Harry Potter can go up to 50,000 copies in its
first edition.

Imported books include ELT books, other foreign language training books, academic
textbooks, reference books and international bestsellers.

There are currently 1,800 registered publishers. However only 500 of them publish a
minimum of 10 books per year. It is estimated that there are about 10,000 bookstores all

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across Turkey, however large bookstores (where the bulk of the books are distributed)
number about 1,300 and are located in the large cities. The number of book distributers in
Turkey is estimated to be 70.

Current Market Trends

Large Turkish holding companies and banks are investing in the publishing business and
they support the professional distribution, marketing and promotion of the books.
In terms of sales points, very large bookstores are becoming increasingly popular and are
mostly located at primary retail spots in large cities.

Main Competitors
The main competitors in imported books are listed as below:

Dunya Publishing represents 15 foreign publishing houses, including Cambridge University

Press, Cideb, Houghton Mifflin, Klett Verlag, Cle International and Hachette. It is the leading
supplier of bestseller books. Dunya also has its own distributing network across Turkey.

Dogan Books is part of the largest media group in Turkey, Dogan Media. The group also
owns the D&R book and music store chain. Its total market share is about 5%.

Zed Yayincilik imports books on a variety of subjects, including archeology, philosophy, art,
planting and children’s books. Some of the publishers it represents in Turkey include
Konemann, Thames Hudson, Rockport, and Abrams.

Kardes Kitap deals in ELT books, academic and professional books and, IT books. Kardes
Kitap is the exclusive distributor for McGraw-Hill/Contemporary ELT, Heinle/Thomson, New-
Editions, and Ladybird and it imports books from Penguin, DK (Dorling Kindersley),
Scholastic and Wordsworth.

Some foreign publishing houses opt to run their own operations in Turkey, such as
Macmillan Education, Oxford University Press and Pearson Education Publishing. Pearson
owns Longman, Scott Foresman and Prentice Hall publishing houses.

Piracy is a major problem in the publishing sector in Turkey. It is estimated that pirated
books across all market segments have reached $190 million in sales. According to Law No.
5846 on Intellectual and Artistic Works (revised in 2004), piracy is considered a public
offense and not a complaint-based crime. There are large penalties, including prison terms
for those who publish, sell or distribute pirated books. The law, however, is not strictly
enforced allowing pirated book sales to increase every year.

It can be expected that with the accession process to the EU continuing, the piracy problem
will become less of a barrier in the future.

Resources and Key Contacts

Turkiye YayÕncÕlar Birligi (Turkish Publishers Association)
Turkish Publishers Association with a total 255 members aims to stop pirate publishing, to lift
any barriers on freedom of expression and publishing, to contribute to the development of
culture, literature and art, to support social and scientific endeavors and to encourage book

Basin Yayin Birligi (Association of Press and Publishing Turkey)

Association of Press and Publishing Turkey was established in 1991. Its main objectives are
to further the development of the publishing sector, to find solutions to professional problems

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of their members, to cooperate with the relevant ministries and all official/non-governmental

Edebiyat ve Ilim Eserleri Sahipleri Meslek Birligi (EDISAM-Literary and Scientific

Works Owners Business Union)
In accordance with the Law No. 5846 on Intellectual and Artistic Works, EDISAM was
founded to protect the rights of its members that create and distribute books and periodicals.

Commercial Service Contact Information

Name: Perim Ilgaz
Position: Commercial Specialist
Phone: +90- 212-335-9197
Address: Kaplicalar Mevkii Sokak, No :2,
34460 Istinye-Istanbul

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United Kingdom
Country: United Kingdom
Capital: London
Population: 60.8 million
GDP*: $1.93 trillion
Currency: British pound (GBP)
Languages: English
Welsh (about 26% of the population of Wales)
Scottish form of Gaelic (about 60,000 in Scotland)
*(purchasing power parity)

The UK’s publishing industry, the second largest in Europe,
comprises 8,000 companies, 64,000 employees and total annual
sales of $33 billion. The continued growing influence of the English
language around the world adds a significant dimension to the UK
publishing industry. This report offers a comprehensive review of the
industry: key market segments, important trends, the publication
process, and applicable legislation.

Market Demand
The UK publishing industry has three principal segments:
x Newspapers
x Magazines
x Books
As shown in Table 1, newspaper publishing is the largest segment with a 42% share, while
magazines account for 37% and books 21%. Within the publishing sector, book sales have
been relatively stable primarily due to two factors: 1) consumer spending has remained fairly
static and 2) book publishers do not rely on advertising revenue, which tends to cause
newspaper and magazine sales to fluctuate significantly.

Table 1: UK Publishing Industry Sales by Sector and Value in 2004

Sector Value * ($ M) % Of Total
Newspapers 14,079 42.2
Magazines 12,153 36.5
Books 7,087 21.3
Total 33,320 100.0
(Source: Key Note)
*Value based on January 24, 2006 exchange rate of £1 = $ 1.78 per the Bank of England

Putting the UK book segment in context, the global book industry was worth $103 billion in
2003 with the UK accounting for 7%. Within the EU, the UK is the second largest market
after Germany. During the last five years, UK book publishing has grown at an average
annual rate of 3.6%, as shown in the table below.

Table 2: UK Book Publishing Growth 2000-2004

Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
Value * ($ M) 6,149 6,527 6,596 6,867 7,087
Annual Change (%) - 6.2 1.1 4.1 3.2
(Source: Key Note)
*Value based on January 24, 2006 exchange rate of £1 = $ 1.78 per the Bank of England

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Pricing continues to be a highly sensitive issue, and has come under pressure recently due
to heavy discounts by both booksellers and supermarkets. Responding to disappointing
sales in 2003, booksellers reduced prices heavily in 2004. This resulted in higher volumes,
but seriously impacted profit margins. A recent article in Bookseller argued that
“blockbuster, half-price offers risk confusing consumers and driving value out of the
industry.” Nevertheless, large-scale book promotions continue to be employed as a means
of boosting sales.

Supermarkets such as Tesco and ASDA are the driving force behind price-cutting, offering
large price reductions on popular books in order to implement “share gain” strategies.
Throughout 2003 and 2004, the UK book industry debated the role of supermarkets and
publishers alike, as the latter generally offer the former special deals. The industry
concluded that publishers need to decide how much of their profit margin they are willing to
give up and for how long because supermarket discounting would not be as viable without
their participation.

Market Data and Segments

Table 3 illustrates the recent annual growth in the number of books published in the UK. The
number of titles is based on the number of printed works completed per annum and includes
books, reprints, foreign imprints, and academic dissertations. Volume grew at an average
annual rate of 4.7% between 2000 and 2004.

Table 3: UK Book Output (number of titles) 2000-200

Year Output Growth %
2000 116,415 -
2001 119,001 2.2
2002 125,000 5.0
2003* 133,000 6.4
2004* 139,650 5.0
(Source: Key Note = Estimated)

The UK book market can be divided into three major segments:

x Consumer books
x Academic and professional books
x Schoolbooks (including English language teaching books, referred to as ELT)

UK publishers also define the market in terms of “trade” (consumer) and “non-trade” (non-
consumer) books. The former are sold on the high (main shopping) streets, whereas non-
trade books are sold via specialist bookstores, such as university bookshops, or directly from
the publisher, and therefore are less widely available.

Consumer Books
Consumer books remain the dominant segment, as mass-market paperbacks account for
60% of UK industry sales. This sector produces the most widely known titles frequently
reviewed and featured in the media. Traditionally, such books were published first in
hardback and then in paperback, but books today are now often published simultaneously in
both soft- and hardback.

Academic and Professional Books

This segment includes books in all areas of academic and professional study such as
science, technology, and medicine (STM); law; management; engineering; and computing.
A sub-sector refinement suggested by the industry would differentiate between academic
and professional books, but, in practice, segregating the two would be difficult because
many publishers cater to both sets of clients.

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The schoolbook segment predominantly covers textbooks, including those books written to
improve literacy levels and English language skills. Companies selling to this sector call
books that are fairly easy to read and not textbooks “real books;” they are typically aimed at
the primary school teachers, parents, and children.

Table 5: Total UK Retail Book Market by Sector by Value at Current Prices ($M) 2000-2004
Sector 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
Consumer 4,131 4,337 4,380 4,642 4,781
Academic and professional 1,578 1,685 1,735 1,788 1,860
School 457 503 480 436 446
Total 6,149 6,527 6,596 6,867 7,087
Annual Change (%) - 6.2 1.1 4.1 3.2
(Source: Key Note)
*Figures based on January 24, 2006 exchange rate of £1 = $ 1.78 per the Bank of England

According to the UK Department of Trade and Industry (DTI), the value of books imported
into the UK in 2004 was $1.6 billion, of which the U.S. share was nearly 28% at $448 million.
These numbers may exaggerate the true import figures, however, since they include books
printed by UK publishers abroad and then brought back into Great Britain. The UK
Publishers Association estimates that the U.S. share of the 2004 UK book market was closer
to 18%. According to this data, U.S. imports grew at a compound annual growth rate of
almost 5%.

Table 6: Value of U.S. Book Imports into the UK (‘000 $ *)

2001 2002 2003 2004
U.S. Imports to
250,031 270,622 274,596 289,196
the UK
Annual Change
- 8.3 1.5 5.3
(Source: UK Publishers Association)
* Figures based on January 24, 2006 exchange rate of £1 = $ 1.78 per the Bank of England

Export figures for books are also slightly deceiving because they include books that have
been imported and then re-exported to other markets. Consequently, the value of “pure” UK
exports is somewhat lower than these figures suggest. Nevertheless, export markets as a
whole are an important source of revenue for UK publishers, totaling $2.4 billion in 2004, a
4.4% increase from 2003’s $2.3 billion. The United States represented 16% of the UK’s
export market in 2004 and 17% in 2003, as seen in Table 7.

Table 7: Value of UK Book Exports into the U.S. (‘00 $ *)

2001 2002 2003 2004
UK Exports to the
379,318 380,920 397,830 393,202
Annual Change (%) - 0.4 4.4 -1.2
(Source: UK Publishers Association)
* Figures based on January 24, 2006 exchange rate of £1 = $ 1.78 per the Bank of England

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Best Prospects
A recent survey conducted by the Arts Council and The Bookseller concluded that UK
publishing does not adequately reflect the country’s diverse population and cultural mix, and
that it underestimates the importance of ethnic minority readers. U.S. exporters should be
aware of the high readership levels among the UK‘s ethnic population and consider this
factor when selecting subjects for publication.

Popular television programs, such as the Richard & Judy Show, are also helping expand the
book market. The R&J Book Club was a great success in 2004 and facilitated the sale of
more than four million books using summer promotions. By taking advantage of the trend
toward television-sponsored book clubs, American firms may find it easier to gain mass-
market exposure.

Key Suppliers
A large number of companies compete to supply the UK market, but 10 major publishers
dominate. These “top ten” have developed over the last 20 years as a result of mergers and
acquisitions. For many companies caught in the consolidation process, only their “imprints”
remain. According to the UK Publishers Association, imprints are a publishing brand rather
than a publishing company. Some imprints retain a good reputation or valuable brand
image, which is an asset to the company. There are reportedly 13,200 imprints in the UK,
some of which have always been imprints and never actual companies.

Table 8: The Top Ten UK Publishers by Sales & Pre-Tax Profit ($M) 2003-2004
Company Sales Pre-Tax Profit Profit Ratio (%)
Reed Elsevier Group PLC 8,697 409 4.7
Pearson PLC 7,205 270 3.7
Oxford University Press 729 116 15.9
Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 324 9 2.8
Taylor & Francis Group Ltd. 309 47 15.2
The Random House Group 296 31 10.5
Harper Collins Publishers Ltd. 296 36 12.2
Hodder Headline 275 NA NA
Cambridge University Press 236 3 1.3
Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 199 32 16.1
(Source: Key Note)
* Figures based on January 24, 2006 exchange rate of £1 = $ 1.78 per the Bank of England

Market Entry
The process of publishing a book in the UK is composed of several stages: editorial, design
and production; marketing, distribution, contracts and rights; and administration. Large
publishers typically have in-house departments, whereas most medium-sized companies
outsource various functions. Smaller publishing firms usually sell their own books directly to
consumers. The best option is company and situation specific to the book under

Commissioning editors decide whether to commission specific books and projects and which
manuscripts to publish. Editors with specialized market knowledge commission an
assortment of titles and book series. Accepted manuscripts might undergo revision before
printing; changes have to be discussed and agreed upon with the author.

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Design and Production

The increased use of new technology has a significant impact on design and production of
finished books. The production department obtains estimates from, and places orders with,
printers, binders, and paper merchants.

Marketing covers sales, advertising, and public relations. For most publishing companies,
much of the sales program is carried out by representatives.
General representatives call on bookshops and wholesalers to sell
new titles and to solicit further orders for back-listed titles;
educational and college representatives visit schools and
institutions of higher education to promote forthcoming publications
with faculty.

Distribution includes invoicing, order processing, stock control,
credit control, warehousing and shipping. Publishers sell books
either through distributors or directly through their own sales force.
Academic books are generally sold direct, while consumer books
primarily go through distributors. Professional books use both
channels of distribution. There are three major book distributors in
the UK:
Bertrams Group Ltd.
Gardners Books Ltd.
Macmillan Distribution Ltd.

The majority of British book retailers sell only consumer books, but a few sell academic and
schoolbooks. University-based bookshops principally sell academic titles, while schoolbooks
tend to be sold directly to schools either through a distributor or by the publisher.

Retailing breaks down into seven types of outlets:

x Bookshop Chains
x Independent Booksellers
x Book Clubs
x Supermarkets and Mixed Multiples
x The Internet
x eBooks
x Other outlets

Bookshop Chains: Include WH Smith, Waterstone’s, Blackwell, and Ottakar’s. Bookshop

chains sell around 40% of consumer books by value.

Independent Booksellers: Number around 3,000 in the UK, and have approximately 16%
share of the consumer book market by value.

Books Clubs: Play a significant role, and are estimated to account for 16% of the UK retail
market. The UK Book Club Association (BCA) has a detailed list of all books clubs; contact for more information.

Supermarkets and Mixed Multiples: Tesco, ASDA, and Sainsbury’s; their share of consumer
book sales is 8-9% by value.

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The Internet: Accounts for around 7% of total consumer books sold and is growing in
importance. The Internet has had a significantly stronger impact on academic and
professional book sales than the consumer sector.

eBooks: Digital versions of a print book that offer the convenience and access of digital
media. The availability of books on particular formats varies by retailer. The most common
formats include Mobipocket Reader, Microsoft Reader, Adobe Reader, and DX Reader,
each having advantages depending on publisher and individual preferences.
Contracts and Rights
Many large companies have departments responsible solely for the contractual side of
publishing, including the initial contract between publisher and author as well as subsidiary
rights, such as those for translations, book clubs, and serials. For more detailed information
on relevant copyright law, please refer to the “Book Rights” section below.

Market Issues & Obstacles

There are various UK-specific copyright laws as well as general international versions of
copyright law that can be applied in the UK. Copyright is established for a work as soon as it
is written down or “fixed” on paper, on film, as an electronic record on the Internet, or by
various other methods. According to the UK Patent Office, there is no official register for a
copyright; it is an unregistered right requiring no formal action. A copyright is effective as
soon as a work is created and continues to survive for 70 years after the end of the calendar
year in which an author dies. The UK Patent Office is the official source for all applicable
policies and legislation for patents, designs, copyrights, and trademarks. Relevant and
detailed information can be found on their website,

Book Rights
UK book rights fall into two categories: those where rights are sold in book form in the
English language (“volume rights”) and those where the text is exploited in a different form
and/or language (“subsidiary rights”). Volume rights include book club sales, while subsidiary
rights include serialization/extract, U.S., and translation rights.

A recent addition to this subject is the sale of book rights in lieu of selling the published book
itself. As this is an extremely new topic for the industry, information is sparse. We
recommend consulting a variety of websites addressing this issue:

Value Added Tax (VAT)

VAT is a tax on consumer expenditure, and is collected on business transactions, imports,
and acquisitions. The supply of any goods and services subject to VAT are called taxable
supplies. If the value of taxable supplies is over a specific limit, one needs to register for
VAT. If the supplies are wholly or mainly zero rated and exempt from tax, there is an
exemption from VAT registration. There are three rates of VAT: a standard rate, currently
17.5%; a reduced rate, currently 5%; and a zero rate.

The publishing industry has always argued strongly and successfully against any VAT on
books, describing it as a “tax on knowledge.” Thus, most books are not subject to VAT. HM
Customs and Excise notice 701/10, “Zero-rating of Books,” explains the nature of and the
circumstances when books are zero-rated. For further information, see the website,

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Trade Events
London Remainder and Promotional Book Trade Fair
January 20-21, 2008

London Book Fair 2007

March 14-16, 2008

Resources and Key Contacts

The Publishers Association

The Independent Publishers’ Guild

UK Publishing Media

The Booksellers Association

Commercial Service Contact Information

Name: Stewart Gough
Position: Commercial Specialist
Phone: +44-20-7894-0459
Address: 24 Grosvenor Square
London W1A 1AE
United Kingdom

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September 2007

For the replacement of LOST OR STOLEN U.S. PASSPORTS, contact

the Passport and Citizenship Unit at the American Consulate General
Frankfurt, Tel. (069) 7535-2100 or (069) 7535-0.

U.S. DRIVERS LICENSES must be replaced through the original state of

issuance, and the American Consulate cannot issue any kind of
confirmation for you to rent or drive a car. Other lost or stolen items must
be reported to the respective companies or their representatives:

American Express Card: Tel: 069-9797-9999; Int’l: 001-800-8104971

Visa Card: Tel: 0800-811-8440; International: 001-410-581-9994

Master Card: Tel: 0800-814-9110; International: 001-6367227111

Diners Club Card Tel. 069- 2603520

* Please remember that you will need a valid passport or driver’s license
before you will be entitled to any credit transaction.

Before leaving Frankfurt, you may wish to contact one of the Lost &
Found Offices in the area to determine whether your personal belongings
have been recovered:

Airport Tel. 069-690-66359

Lufthansa AG Tel. 069-69021291
Main Train Station Tel. 069-26534831
Deutsche Bahn AG Tel. 069-26534831 or 0900-1-990599

Frankfurt City Lost & Found: Fundbüro

Ordnungsamt, Room 2-5
Mainzer Landstrasse 315-321
60326 Frankfurt
Tel. 069-212-42403 or 42504
Fax 069-212-42460

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U.S. Commercial Service

American Consulate General
Giessener Strasse 30
60435 Frankfurt
Tel: +49- 69-7535-3120
Fax: +49- 69-7535-3171

Volker Wirsdorf
Senior Commercial Specialist
Tel: +49-69-7535-3150

Elizabeth Powell
Commercial Specialist
Tel: +49-69-7535-3167

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