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Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum Technique for Wireless Communication Systems

Sorin Zoican, Ph.D.


POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest TelecommunicationDepartment Iuliu Mmiu 1-3, cod 77202, Bucharest 6 ROMANU e-mail: sorin@rst.elcom.pub. ro

Abstract
The paper presents a wireless communication system that involved the frequency hopping spread spectrum technique M-ary frequency - shiR keyed (FH-MFSK) with M = 2. The advantages of the FH are illustrated comparing with a direct sequence (DS) spread spectrum system fi-om the point of view of interference suppression, multi-user interference suppression and implementation. An implementation with a low cost Digital Signal Processor is presented. The conclusions are that the FH spread spectrum technique is very attractive for wireless communication systems due its resistance to interference, multi -user access and simplicity to implementation with DSP micro controllers. The information pulse corresponding to bit m is:

In equation (2) fm is chosen from a set of N frequency that approximately span the spread
bandwidth. Equation ( 2 ) can be modiiied as follows:

I. Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum Technique (FH)


The wireless communication system has an explosive growth in the last years. The relationship between wireless communication and digital microelectronics is also developing rapidly. The motivation of this article is to present how the spread spectrum techniques involved in wireless communication can be implemented using Digital Signal Processors (DSP). Consider a discrete -time comunication system with the transmitted digital information sequence {b,} where b = +1 . Since the wireless , communication channels are continuous-time, the discrete-time sequence is transformed into a continuous signal using a signaling pulse define as follows :

The information is encoded using the frequency fb. ?%e signal "hops" to a new frequency for every bit. For binary data there are 2N possible frequencies. This spread spectrum techmque is called frequency hopping (FH) or M-ary frequency shift keyed (FWMFSK), if the information is encoded using M frequency. The spreading method described by equation (3) is popular in some wireless communication systems because the simplicity of the receiver : only the signal frequency needs to be detected. On the other hand of more fundamental importance is its insensitivity to rapid phase variation in the received signal that can occur in a mobile channel. One difference between DS spread spectrum method and FH is how the effects of a narrow band interference are reduced; for DS method adaptive techniques may be required and FH method can use a strategy that adapts the set of hop frequencies to avoid the interference (in the case of stationary, non hostile, interference).[11 For CDMA systems witch uses DS method, the parameter N (called the spreading
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gain) could be insufEcient to suppress the multiuser interference without employ power control of the transmitted signal or higher complexity multiuser detector .I] I] With proper bopping sequence design the multi-user interference is avoided using the FH method. The following two sections will describe the implementation of a wireless communication transceiver using the FH technique.

The transmitter code should generate a set of2K fkequencies, { fm.fb0, fnl+fbl >? o,.. ~ - 1 = where fbo and fbl are assigned for the mformation bit equal zero or equal one, and & , m = 0,K-l is assigned for the user m. The above 2K frequencies must hlfilled the three following restriction :

U. The transmitter implementation


We d e h e a binary communication system governed by equation ( 3 ) that involved K users. For each user a frequency fm , m = O,l, .., K-1 is assigned, in order to assure the multiple access. The transmitter output signal is given by equation (4) :

- Given fi and fj from the set, fi does not be a harmonic of f j for every i and j. - The difference - f j = A f must be greater than the frequency resolution of the receiver for every i and j. - The frequency must could be synthesized with enough samples (at least 8 samples) for every i.
For a wireless communication system that uses a single frequency assigned to a user (in order to discriminate between users) the synchronization between transmitter and receiver is not necessary due the characteristics ofthe frequency detector in the receiver. The implementation of the transmitter is illustrated in figure 1.

IV.The receiver implementation


Equation (4) shows that the transmitter output consists of K sinusoidal signals with a finite duration , Tb (that i, the bit interval ) summed s together. Therefore the implementation of the transmitter is quite simple using a DSP processor, such ADSP2181, 16 bit fixed point DSP from Analog Devices . This device has 3311s instruction cycle, 16k x 24 program memory words, 16k x 16 data memory words and integrated peripherals (e.g. serial ports, DMA ports).
Tb

The receiver must separate K sinusoidal signals from the signal given by equation (6). In order to perform this the Goertzel algorithm is involved [2]. The Goertzel algorithm is illustrated in figure 2. The Goertzel algorithm has the following advantages : its implementation is similar to a second order IIR filter implementation and it is possible to compute only the magnitude of the desired frequency.[2,3]

[ O l l l

K-11 0 1 1 usen

I I

K-1

1 bit for all

i+l bit for all usem

n fs
__.

f l

samples

f . sinus table. i = 0, 1,ZK-1 generate interrupt even T I K


I n t m p t S d c e Routine :

Data Shpelure8

MahProgrnm

No

DSP Initialization Data structures initialization

For every i& -read current sinus saniple

Foreveryuser
-lead current bit

Wait for intmupts

Add the cwenf samples Write the output port

h i t c h to the proper sinus tables

RETURN

Figure 1. Transmitter flowchart and data structures

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n= 0, 1, ... ,M-1
Feedback phase

n=M
Forward phase

Figure 2. The Goeitzel algorithm rk(M) l 2 = Q2(M-1) + Q2(M-2) 2.Q(M-l).Q(M-2).cos(2nk/M)

We consider the following parameters when select the value for M : leakage loss (the spdlage into neighboring frequency bins), fi-equency resolution and detection time (execution time of the receiver code)[3]. For many applications M has values among 200 and 500 for detection time of 50-loop and frequency resolution less 100 Hz. We need to perform 2K times the Goertzel algorithms in order to compute the magnitude for all the possible frequency. The algorithm computes the magnitude of the ktb- spectral component accordingly with the relation ( 5 ) :
*b

(7)

It is necessary to use two switched memory buffers in order to avoid that receiver waits for M samples of the input signal needs in the algorithm's feedback phase. One buffer is used for Goertzel algorithm and the other is filled with new M input samples, then the buffers are switched. The receiver flowchart is presented in figure 3.

10111

K-11 0

I1 1 I

K-1

Main Program

DSP Initialization Data structures initibtion flag = 0, count = 0


Timing Organization
generate mtermpt every T / K
b

Yes
(compte

phases)

Interrupt Service Routine :

switch the input buffers

- read mput port - write the current mput buffer - count -I-+
RETURN

Goettzel feedback Goelazel feedfonvard Compute magnitude

Reinitialization

I mput-buffer-1
perfoim Goertzel algorithm

switch when count = i I Z input-buffer-' accumulate input samples

Data structures

Figure 3. The receiver flowchart


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V. Conclusion
The table 1 shows the execution time for the FH wireless communication transceiver. For a 3311s processor cycle table 1 inhcates some values for bit time interval and number of users. The conclusions are that the FH spread techmque is very attractive to use in wireless communication systems due to its interference and multi-user suppression characteristics, multiple access and s i m p e of implementation with DSP

processors in contrast to expensive frequency agde oscillators. The system may be completed wt an ih adaptive filter (in the receiver ) in order to enhance the quality of the received signal.(e.g. Adaptive Line Enhancer). This filter is implemented i approximately N+4 processor cycles, where N is the adaptive FIR filter order (maximum 256). The bit error rate for the transceiver described above is illustrated in figure 4:

Bit error rate ( x


10000

1000
IO0
10

Transmitter

Receiver

+ 2.K cycles (max) I

32 + I1.K cycles (max)

1
Number o users f

Table 1

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Figure 4. The main results

References
[l]. Fhkkema, Paul : Spread-Spectrum Techniques for Wireless Communication", IEEE Signal Processing Magazine7n03,pp26-36, 1997 [2] "Digital Signal Processing Applications using the ADSP-2100 Family", vol I, Prentice Hall,
'I

1990 [3] "Digital Signal Processing Applications using

the ADSP-2100 Family", vol 11, Prentice Hall, 1995 [4] Magill, D.T., et. al. "Spread Spectrum Technology for Commercial Applications" Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 82, pp 572584,Apd 1994

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