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# Review of the Concepts of Stress,

## Strain, and Hooke's Law

by:
Prof. Mark E. Tuttle
Dept. Mechanical Engineering
Box 352600
University of Washington
Seattle, WA 98195
1
Force Vectors
A force, F , is a vector (also called a "1
st
-order tensor")
The description of any vector (or any tensor) depends on
the coordinate system used to describe the vector
100 lbf
+x
+y
100 lbf
F = 100 lbf
( y-direct ion)
F = 86.6 lbf ( x" -direct ion)
+
50 lbf ( y" -direct ion)
F = 70.7 lbf ( x' -direct ion)
+
70.7 lbf ( y' -direct ion)
100 lbf
+x'
+y'
45 degs 60 deg
+x"
+y"
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
2
Normal and Shear Forces
A "normal" force acts perpindicular to a surface
A "shear" force acts tangent to a surface
P = Normal Force
V = Shear Force
3
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
Forces Inclined to a Plane
Since forces are vectors, a force inclined to a plane can always
be described as a combination of normal and shear forces
P = Normal Force
V = Shear Force
Inclined Force
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
4
Moments
A moment (also called a "torque" or a "couple") is a force
which tends to cause rotation of a rigid body
A moment is also vectoral quantity (i.e., a 1
st
-order tensor)...
M
M
5
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
Static Equilibrium
A rigid solid body is in "static equilibrium" if it is either
- at rest, or
- moves with a constant velocity
Static equilibrium exists if: F = 0 and M = 0
(BALL ACCELERATES)
50 lbf
50 lbf
(40 lbf)
(30 lbf)
(40 lbf)
(30 lbf)
50 lbf
50 lbf
(40 lbf)
(30 lbf)
(40 lbf)
(30 lbf)
60 lbf
(NO ACCELERATION)
+x
+y
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
6
Free Body Diagrams
and Internal Forces
An imaginary "cut" is made at plane of interest
Apply F = 0 and M = 0 to either half to determine
internal forces
"cut"
F
F
F
R (= F)
F
R (= F)
(or)
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
7
Free Body Diagrams
and Internal Forces
The imaginary cut can be made along an arbitrary plane
Internal force R can be decomposed to determine the normal
and shear forces acting on the arbitrary plane
"cut"
F
F
F
R (= F)
P
V
F
8
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
Stress:
Fundamental Definitions
Two "types" of stress:
normal stress = = P/A
shear stress = = V/A
where P and V must be uniformly distributed over A
P = Normal Force
V = Shear Force
= P/A
= V/A
A = Cross-Sectional Area
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
9
Distribution of Internal Forces
Forces are distributed over the internal plane...they may
or may not be uniformly distributed
"cut"
F
F F
"cut"
M
M M
= F/A
= ?
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
10
Infinitesimal Elements
A free-body diagram of an "infinitesimal element" is used to
define "stress at a point"
Forces can be considered "uniform" over the infinitesimally
small elemental surfaces
+x
+y
+z
dx
dy
dz
11
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
Labeling Stress Components
Two subscripts are used to identify a stress component, e.g.,
"
xx
" or "
xy
" (note: for convenience, we sometimes write

x
=
xx
, or
xy
=
xy
)
1st subscript: identifies element face
2nd subscript: identifies "direction" of stress
+x
+y

xx

xx

xy
12
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
Admissable Shear
Stress States
+x
+y
+x
+y
+x
+y

xy

xy

xy

xy

xy
F = 0
M = 0
(inadmissable)
F = 0
M = 0
(inadmissable)
F = 0
M = 0
(admissable)

yx

yx

yx

xy
If:
13
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
Stress Sign Conventions
The "algebraic sign" of a cube face is positive if the outward
unit normal of the face "points" in a positive coordinate
direction
A stress component is positive if:
stress component acts on a positive face and "points" in
a positive coordinate direction, or
stress component acts on a negative face and "points"
in a negative coordinate direction.
14
Stress Sign Conventions
15
xx
yy
yy
xx
xy
+x
+y
All St resses Posit ive
xx
yy
yy
xx
xy
+x
+y
xx and Posit ive
Negat ive
yy
xy
3-Dimensional Stress States
In the most general case, six independent components of
stress exist "at a point"
F1
F2
F3
F4
M1
M2
+x
+y
+z xx
yy
zz
xy
zy
xz
16
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
Plane Stress
If all non-zero stress components exist in a single plane, the
(3-D) state of stress is called "plane stress"
+y
+z
+x
yy
xx
xy
xx
yy
xx
yy
yy
xx
xy
+x
+y
17
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
Uniaxial Stress
If only one normal stress exists, the (3-D) state of stress is
called a "uniaxial stress"
+y
+z
+x
yy
yy
yy
yy
+x
+y
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
16
Free Body Diagram Defines
the Coordinate System
"cut"
F
F F
F
F
yy
+x
+y
+x
+y
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
17
Free Body Diagram Defines
the Coordinate System
"cut"
F
F
F
P
V
x'
y'
y'y'
x'y'
F
x'
y'
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
18
Free Body Diagram Defines
the Coordinate System
"cut"
(a
plane)
F
x"
y"
F
z"
Py"y"
Vy"x"
Vy"z"
y"
x"
F
z"
y"y"
y"x"
y"z"
F
21
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
Stress Transformations
Within a Plane
Given stress components in the x-y coordinate system (
xx
,

yy
,
xy
), what are the corresponding stress components in
the x'-y' coordinate system?
+x
+y
xx
yy
xy
?
+x'
+y'
x'x'
y'y'
x'y'

Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
20
Stress Transformations
Stress components in the x'-y' coordinate system may be
related to stresses in the x-y coordinate system using a free
body diagram and enforcing F = 0
+x
+y
xx
yy
xy
+x'
+y'
x'x'
x'y'
" cut "
xx
yy
xy
Fx' = 0
23
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
Stress Transformation
Equations
By enforcing Fx' = 0, Fy' = 0, it can be shown:

x' x'

xx
+
yy
2
+

xx

yy
2
cos2 +
xy
sin2

y' y'

xx
+
yy
2

xx

yy
2
cos2
xy
sin2

x'y'

xx

yy
2
sin2 +
xy
cos2
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
22
Use of Mohr's Circle of
Stress
+x
+y
xx
yy
xy
+x'
+y'
x'x'
y'y'
x'y'

( Equivalent )
2

(xx,xy)
(yy,xy)
2
(y'y',x'y')
(x'x',x'y')
25
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
26
+x
+y
xx
yy
xy
( Equivalent )

(xx,xy)
(yy,xy)
2'
2'
11 22
'
+1
+2
11
22
Principal Stresses
In the principal stress coordinate system the shear stress is
zero...
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
"Stress":
Summary of Key Points
Normal and shear stresses are both defined as a (force/area)
Six components of stress must be known to specify the state
of stress at a point (stress is a "2
nd
-order tensor")
Since stress is a tensoral quantity, numerical values of
individual stress components depend on the coordinate
system used to describe the state of stress
Stress is defined strictly on the basis of static equilibrium;
definition is independent of:
material properties
strain
27
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
Strain:
Fundamental Definitions
"Strain" is a measure of the deformation of a solid body
There are two "types" of strain; normal strain () and shear
strain ()

(change in length)
(original length)
; units =in / in, m/ m, etc
= (change in angle) ; units = radians
28
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
3-Dimensional Strain States
In the most general case, six components of strain exist "at
a point":

xx
,
yy
,
zz
,
xy
,
xz
,
yz
Strain is a 2
nd
-order tensor; the numerical values of the
individual strain components which define the "state of
strain" depend on the coordinate system used
This presentation will primarily involve strains which exist
within a single plane
29
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
Strain Within a Plane
We are often interested in the strains induced within a
single plane; specifically, we are interested in two distinct
conditions:
"Plane stress", in which all non-zero stresses lie within
a plane. The plane stress condition induces four
strain components:
xx
,
yy
,
zz
, and
xy
"Plane strain", in which all non-zero strain
components lies within a plane. By definition then,
the plane strain condition involves three strain
components (only):
xx
,
yy
, and
xy
30
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
Strain Within a Plane
+x
+y
a
b
c
lx
ly
abc = /2 radians
Original Shape
+x
+y
a
b
c
lx + lx
ly + ly
abc < /2 radians
Deformed Shape
xx = lx/lx
yy = ly/ly
xy = ( abc)
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
29
Strain Sign Convention
A positive (tensile) normal strain is associated with an
increase in length
A negative (compressive) normal strain is associated with a
decrease in length
A shear strain is positive if the angle between two positive
faces (or two negative faces) decreases
32
+x
+y
+x
+y
All Strains Positive
Positive
and Negative
xx
yy xy
Visualization of Strain
F
F
+x
+y
yy > 0
xx < 0
xy = 0
(Loading)
33
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
Visualization of Strain
+x'
+y'
x'x' = y'y' > 0
x'y' > 0
(Loading)
F
F
45 deg
34
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
Strain Transformations
Given strain components in the x-y coordinate system (
xx
,
yy
,

xy
), what are the corresponding strain components in the x'-y'
coordinate system?
lx + lx
+x
+y
ly + ly
xx = lx/lx
yy = ly/ly
xy = ( abc)
+x'
+y'
x'x' = ?
y'y' = ?
x'y' = ?

?
35
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
Strain Transformation
Equations
Based strictly on geometry, it can be shown:

x' x'

xx
+
yy
2
+

xx

yy
2
cos2 +

xy
2
sin2

y' y'

xx
+
yy
2

xx

yy
2
cos2

xy
2
sin2

x'y'
2

xx

yy
2
sin2 +

xy
2
cos2
36
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
Well, I'll Be Darned!!!
The stress transformation equations are based strictly on
the equations of static equilibrium
The strain transformation equations are based strictly on
geometry
Nevertheless, the stress and strain transformation
equations are nearly identical!!
37
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
"Strain":
Summary of Key Points
= ( length)/(original length) = ( angle)
Six components of strain specify the "state of strain"
Strain is a 2
nd
-order tensor; numerical values of individual
strain components depend on the coordinate system used
Strain is defined strictly on the basis of a change in shape;
definition is independent of:
material properties
stress
"Suprisingly," the stress and strain transformation equations
are nearly identical
38
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
"Constitutive Models"
The structural engineer is typically interested in the state of
stress induced in a structure during service
The state of stress cannot be measured directly...
The state of strain can be measured directly...
Hence, we must develop a relation between stress and
strain...this relationship is called a "constitutive model," and
the most common is "Hooke's Law"
39
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
Material Properties:
The Uniaxial Tensile Test
Specimen is subjected to an axial tensile force, inducing a
uniform tensile stress in the "gage" region of the specimen
Stress is increased until fracture occurs; strains are measured
throughout the test
The ASTM has developed "standard" specimen
styles/procedures for most materials
F F
"Gage
Region" 40
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
The Tensile
Stress-Strain Curve

x
Tensile Strength
Fracture Stress
0.2% Offset
Yield Strength
Strain to Fracture
0.2%
41
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
Load-Unload Cycles

Tensile Strength
0.2% Offset
Yield Strength
Inelastic Strain Elastic Strain

Tensile Strength
0.2% Offset
Yield Strength
Inelastic
Strain
Elastic Strain

Tensile Strength
0.2% Offset
Yield Strength
Elastic Strain
42
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
Material Property:
Young's Modulus
At stress levels below the
yield stress the response is
called "linear elastic"
The slope of the linear
region is called "Young's
modulus" or the "modulus of
elasticity", E
In the linear region (only):
= E (or) = /E

0.2% Offset
Yield Strength
1
E
In Linear Region:
= E
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
Material Property:
Poisson's Ratio
A uniaxial tensile stress causes both a tensile axial strain (
a
)
as well as a compressive transverse strain (
t
)
Poisson's ratio is defined as: = -(
t
/
a
)
a
t
F
F
44
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
Material Properties:
The Torsion Test
Cylindrical specimen is subjected to a torque, inducing a
uniform shear stress
xy
in the gage region of the
specimen
Shear stress increased until fracture occurs; shear strain
measured throughout test
45
T
T
+x
+y

xy
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
Material Property:
Shear Modulus
At linear levels, the
slope of the shear
stress vs shear strain
curve is called the
"shear modulus," G
In the linear region
(only):
= G (or) = /G
46

G
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
"Isotropic" vs
"Anisotropic" Materials
A material which exhibits the same properties in all
directions is called "isotropic"
47
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
1
2
1
2
E1 E2
Isotropic Materials
1
2
1 2
E1 > E2
Anisotropic Materials
Material Properties
Summary
Three material properties are commonly used to
describe isotropic materials in the linear-elastic region:
E, , and G
It can be shown that (for isotropic materials) only two
of these three properties are independent. For
example:
48

G
E
2(1+ )
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
Hooke's Law:
3-Dimensional Stress States
Assumptions:
Linear-elastic behavior; i.e., yielding does not occur, so
the principle of superposition applies
Isotropic material behavior
Constant environmental conditions (e.g., constant
temperature)
49
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
x
x

I
n
d
u
c
e
s
:

x
x

=

x
x
/
E

y
y

=

-

x
x

=

-

x
x
/
E

z
z

=

-

x
x

=

-

x
x
/
E

x
y

=

x
z

=

y
z

=

0
y
y

I
n
d
u
c
e
s
:

y
y

=

y
y
/
E

x
x

=

-

y
y

=

-

y
y
/
E

z
z

=

-

y
y

=

-

y
y
/
E

x
y

=

x
z

=

y
z

=

0
z
z

I
n
d
u
c
e
s
:

z
z

=

z
z
/
E

x
x

=

-

z
z

=

-

z
z
/
E

y
y

=

-

z
z

=

-

z
z
/
E

x
y

=

x
z

=

y
z

=

0
x
y

I
n
d
u
c
e
s
:

x
y

=

x
y
/
G

=

2
(
1
+

x
y
/
E

x
x

=

y
y

=

z
z

=

x
z

=

y
z

=

0
x
z

I
n
d
u
c
e
s
:

x
z

=

x
z
/
G

=

2
(
1
+

x
z
/
E

x
x

=

y
y

=

z
z

=

x
y

=

y
z

=

0
y
z

I
n
d
u
c
e
s
:

y
z

=

y
z
/
G

=

2
(
1
+

y
z
/
E

x
x

=

y
y

=

z
z

=

x
y

=

x
z

=

0
S
t
r
a
i
n
s

I
n
d
u
c
e
d

b
y

I
n
d
i
v
i
d
u
a
l

S
t
r
e
s
s

C
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t
s

(
T
h
a
t

i
s
,

S
t
r
a
i
n

C
a
u
s
e
d

D
u
r
i
n
g

S
i
x

D
i
f
f
e
r
e
n
t

T
e
s
t
s
)
3-D Form of Hooke's Law:
Apply Principle of Superposition
The total strain
xx
caused by all stresses applied
simultaneously is determined by "adding up" the strain
xx
caused by each individual stress component

xx

xx
E

]
]
]
+

yy
E

]
]
]
+

zz
E

]
]
]
+ 0 [ ] + 0 [ ] + 0 [ ]
or

xx

1
E

xx

yy

zz
[ ]
51
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
Hooke's Law:
3-Dimensional Stress States
Following this procedure for all six strain components:

xx

1
E

xx

yy

zz
[ ]

yz

2(1+ )
yz
E

yy

1
E

xx
+
yy

zz
[ ]

zx

2(1+ )
zx
E

zz

1
E

xx

yy
+
zz
[ ]

xy

2(1+ )
xy
E
52
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
Hooke's Law:
3-Dimensional Stress States

xx

yy

zz

yz

zx

xy

'

'

1
E
1 0 0 0
1 0 0 0
1 0 0 0
0 0 0 2(1+ ) 0 0
0 0 0 0 2(1+ ) 0
0 0 0 0 0 2(1+ )

]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]

xx

yy

zz

yz

zx

xy

'

'

53
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
Hooke's Law:
3-Dimensional Stress States
54
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington

xx

E
(1+ )(12)
(1 v)
xx
+
yy
+
zz [ ]

yz

E
yz
2(1+ )

yy

E
(1+ )(12)
v
xx
+ (1 v)
yy
+
zz
[ ]

zx

E
zx
2(1 + )

zz

E
(1+ )(1 2)
v
xx
+
yy
+(1 v)
zz
[ ]

xy

E
xy
2(1 + )
Hooke's Law:
3-Dimensional Stress States

xx

yy

zz

yz

zx

xy

'

'

E
(1+ )(1 2)
(1 ) 0 0 0
(1 ) 0 0 0
(1 ) 0 0 0
0 0 0
(12)
2
0 0
0 0 0 0
(1 2)
2
0
0 0 0 0 0
(1 2)
2

]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]

xx

yy

zz

yz

zx

xy

'

'

55
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
Hooke's Law:
3-Dimensional Stress States
"Shorthand" notation:
{ D [ ] {
where:
D [ ]
E
(1+ )(1 2)
(1 ) 0 0 0
(1 ) 0 0 0
(1 ) 0 0 0
0 0 0
(1 2)
2
0 0
0 0 0 0
(1 2)
2
0
0 0 0 0 0
(1 2)
2

]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
56
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
Hooke's Law:
Plane Stress
For thin components (e.g., web or flange of an I-beam,
automobile door panel, airplane "skin", etc) the "in-plane"
stresses are much higher than "out-of-plane" stresses:
(
xx
,
yy
,
xy
) >> (
zz,

xz,

yz
)
It is convenient to assume the out-of-plane stresses equal
zero...this is called a state of "plane stress"
+x
+y
+z
57
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
Hooke's Law:
Plane Stress

xx

xy

yy

xx

1
E
(
xx

yy
)

yy

1
E
(
yy

xx
)

xy

xy
G

2(1+ )
xy
E

zz

E
(
xx
+
yy
)

xz

yz
0 58
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
Hooke's Law:
Plane Stress

xx

xy

yy

xx

E
(1-
2
)
(
xx
+
yy
)

yy

E
(1-
2
)
(
yy
+
xx
)

xy
G
xy

E
2(1+ )

xy

zz

xz

yz
0
59
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
Hooke's Law:
Plane Stress

xx

yy

xy

'

'

E
(1
2
)
1 0
1 0
0 0
1
2

]
]
]
]
]
]

xx

yy

xy

'

'

60
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
Hooke's Law:
Plane Stress
"Shorthand" notation:
{ D [ ] {
where
D [ ]
E
(1
2
)
1 0
1 0
0 0
1
2

]
]
]
]
]
]
61
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
Hooke's Law:
Plane Strain
For thick or very long components (e.g., thick-walled pressure
vessels, buried pipe, etc) the "in-plane" strains are much
higher than "out-of-plane" strains: (
xx
,
yy
,
xy
) >> (
zz
,
xz
,
yz
)
It is convenient to assume the out-of-plane strains equal
zero...this is called a state of "plane strain"
+x
+y
+z
62
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
Hooke's Law:
Plane Strain

xx

xy

yy
63
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington

xx

E
(1+ )(1 2)
(1 )
xx
+
yy
[ ]

yy

E
(1+ )(1 2)

xx
+(1 )
yy [ ]

zz

E
(1+ )(1 2)

xx
+
yy
[ ]

xx
+
yy
[ ]

xy
G
xy

E
xy
2(1+ )

xz

yz
0
Hooke's Law:
Plane Strain

xx

yy

xy

'

'

E
(1+ )(1 2)
(1 ) 0
(1 ) 0
0 0
(1 2v)
2

]
]
]
]
]
]

xx

yy

xy

'

'

64
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
Hooke's Law:
Plane Strain
"Shorthand" notation:
{ D [ ] {
where
D [ ]
E
(1+ )(1 2)
(1 ) 0
(1 ) 0
0 0
(1 2v)
2

]
]
]
]
]
]
65
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
Hooke's Law
Plane Strain
66

xx

xy

yy

xx

1
2
E

xx

1
|
.

`
,

yy

]
]
]

yy

1
2
E

yy

1
|
.

`
,

xx

]
]
]

xy

2(1+ )
E

xy

zz

xz

yz
0
.... and:
zz

xx
+
yy [ ]
Hooke's Law:
Uniaxial Stress
Truss members are designed to carry axial loads only (i.e.,
uniaxial stress)
In this case we are interested in the axial strain only (even
though transverse strains are also induced)
67
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
Hooke's Law:
Uniaxial Stress
For:
yy
=
zz
=
yz
=
xz
=
zy
= 0,
"Hooke's Law" becomes:
"Shorthand" notation:

xx
E
xx
{ D [ ] { where D [ ] E [ ]
68
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington
Hooke's Law
Summary of Key Points
Hooke's Law is valid under linear-elastic conditions only
The mathematical form of Hooke's Law depends on whether
the problem involves:
Structures for which 3-D stresses are induced
Structures for which (due to loading and/or geometry)
plane stress conditions can be assumed
Structures for which (due to loading and/or geometry)
plane strain conditions can be assumed
Structures for which (due to loading and/or geometry)
uniaxial stress conditions can be assumed
69
Prof. M. E. Tuttle
University of Washington