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NAME REG NO CLASS

: RABIATUL ADAWIYAH : 081 404 180 : BIOLOGY ICP

ESTIMATION POPULATION OF GRASSHOPER A. Introduction to estimation of population parameters: In this article shall we discuss about estimation of population parameters. Here, population parameters are meant by the calculate mean of a population, variance of a population and standard deviation of a population for the given data. The parameters of population are mean, variance and standard deviation of a population. This is also denoted as estimation of population parameters. B. How do you Estimation of Population Parameters The estimation of population parameters are shown given below that, Mean of population parameters: First we have to calculate the mean. The mean is average value of a given data. The formula for mean of population parameters are given below that, Where, - The values of a specified data set. - The value of a mean. Population estimation Introduction Estimates of population size play a vital role in many fisheries management decisions. The numbers of fish in a stock are used to identify influences of environmental factors, human exploitation, and ultimately to identify the effectiveness of management strategies. (Van Den Avyle & Hayward 1999) The three most common methods of population estimation among biologist are sample plots, mark and recapture, and removal. Counts on sample plots is based on the principle that an estimate of population size can be obtained by determining the average density of animals per unit area and multiplying its value by the total area covered by the population. This procedure is done by setting up a pre-determined number of circular, square, or rectangular plots. These plots should be randomly placed and should not over lap. This method is used when all members of the target population can be counted with reasonable certainty(Van Der Avyle & Hayward 1999). The formula used with this method is: Where A is the size of the study area, a is the size of the plot, and n is the average number of animals counted per sample plot (Van Der Avyle & Hayward 1999).

The mark and recapture method is simply preformed by collecting fish, marking them, releasing them, and at a later time collecting fish from the same area and examining them for marks. This is based on the principle that the number of marked fish in the second sample is proportional to the total number of fish in the population. This is called the Peterson method and the equation is as follows: Where M is the number of fish initially marked and released, C is the number of fish collected, and R is the number of recaptures (Van Der Avyle & Hayward 1999). The Peterson index can give biased estimates when the numbers of fish sampled are low; so several modifications have been made to correct this. One being Bailey's modification which is used when sampling during the recapture period is conducted with replacement. The Chapman method is used if replacement is not taking place. The differences in these three methods would be of little significance if the recapture number exceeds 7 (Van Der Avyle & Hayward). C. Population Estimates An effective system for making national population estimates must have the support of the national government and be based in law. The legal requirement for population estimates in the United States is given in Title 13 of the U.S. Code, which states, "...for the purpose of administering any law of the United States in which population or other population characteristics are used to determine the amount of benefit received by State, county, or local units of general purpose government, the Secretary shall transmit to the President for use by the appropriate departments and agencies of the executive branch the data most recently produced and published under this title." The Census Bureau generates subnational population estimates for general purpose functioning governmental units: these have elected officials who can provide services and raise revenue. The estimates are vitally important, and have a wide variety of uses. These uses include Federal and state funds allocation (Martin & Serow 1979), denominators for vital rates and per capita time series, survey controls, administrative planning, marketing guidance, and descriptive and analytical studies. (Long 1993)