This paper presents the results of an experimental study on local scour of noncohesive sediments downstream of a horizontal rigid apron. The experiments were carried out in a rectangular flume with 9m length, 0.5m width and 0.6m height which includes an alluvial test reach of 1.65m length and 0.2m depth at the end of the apron. Two types of uniform sediment with median diameters of 0.73mm and 1.85mm were used in the experiments. Time variations of the maximum scour depth was measured for some experiments. It was found that the scour hole does not reach the equilibrium state even after 48 hours. However, after the first 12 hours, the rate of extension of the maximum scour depth is found to be less than 0.001 cm/min. Although the scour profile seems to be three dimensional in nature, it was found that there is a geometrical similarity between the scour holes in all of the experiments. Variations of the characteristic lengths of the scour hole such as the maximum scour depth, dsm, the maximum extension of hole, L0, and the dune height, hd, are related to each other. Nondimensional graphs and formulas are suggested to determine the variation of these parameters in different conditions.

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This paper presents the results of an experimental study on local scour of noncohesive sediments downstream of a horizontal rigid apron. The experiments were carried out in a rectangular flume with 9m length, 0.5m width and 0.6m height which includes an alluvial test reach of 1.65m length and 0.2m depth at the end of the apron. Two types of uniform sediment with median diameters of 0.73mm and 1.85mm were used in the experiments. Time variations of the maximum scour depth was measured for some experiments. It was found that the scour hole does not reach the equilibrium state even after 48 hours. However, after the first 12 hours, the rate of extension of the maximum scour depth is found to be less than 0.001 cm/min. Although the scour profile seems to be three dimensional in nature, it was found that there is a geometrical similarity between the scour holes in all of the experiments. Variations of the characteristic lengths of the scour hole such as the maximum scour depth, dsm, the maximum extension of hole, L0, and the dune height, hd, are related to each other. Nondimensional graphs and formulas are suggested to determine the variation of these parameters in different conditions.

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International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies

International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies http://www.TuEngr.com, http://go.to/Research

Hossein Hamidifar

a

a*

ARTICLEINFO

Article history: Received 12 May 2011 Received in revised form 21 June 2011 Accepted 28 June 2011 Available online 29 June 2011

A B S T RA C T

Keywords: Local scour, Hydraulic structures, Characteristic lengths, Sediment, Sluice gate, Horizontal apron

This paper presents the results of an experimental study on local scour of noncohesive sediments downstream of a horizontal rigid apron. The experiments were carried out in a rectangular flume with 9m length, 0.5m width and 0.6m height which includes an alluvial test reach of 1.65m length and 0.2m depth at the end of the apron. Two types of uniform sediment with median diameters of 0.73mm and 1.85mm were used in the experiments. Time variations of the maximum scour depth was measured for some experiments. It was found that the scour hole does not reach the equilibrium state even after 48 hours. However, after the first 12 hours, the rate of extension of the maximum scour depth is found to be less than 0.001 cm/min. Although the scour profile seems to be three dimensional in nature, it was found that there is a geometrical similarity between the scour holes in all of the experiments. Variations of the characteristic lengths of the scour hole such as the maximum scour depth, dsm, the maximum extension of hole, L0, and the dune height, hd, are related to each other. Nondimensional graphs and formulas are suggested to determine the variation of these parameters in different conditions.

2011 International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Some Rights Reserved.

*Corresponding author (H. Hamidifar). Tel/Fax: +982612231787. E-mail addresses: hhamidifar@ut.ac.ir . 2011. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 2 No.3. ISSN 2228-9860. eISSN 1906-9642. Online Available at http://TuEngr.com/V02/355-364.pdf

355

1. Introduction

When jets impinge upon loose beds of granular material downstream of hydraulic structures such as weirs or sluice gates, they can lead to significant local scour and may cause stability problems of the structure. Constructing a rigid apron adjacent the structure is a typical engineering solution to protect the structure. Over the last three decades, several experimental studies have been conducted to investigate the local scour process caused by submerged and unsubmerged two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) jets. Results indicate that the maximum scour depth not only depends on the impinging flow velocity, characteristics of bed material, but also the apron length and apron surface roughness.

The limit of the scour pattern can be considered to be an isoline of constant shear stress with a value equivalent to the threshold bottom stress. However, estimating the threshold shear stress of a certain material presents uncertainties.

An approach to characterize the response of the sediment to jet flow, in the case of noncohesive sediment, is to use the densimetric Froude number associated with a representative diameter. The densimetric Froude number F0 is defined as U0/(gdi/)0.5, where U0 is the jet velocity at the nozzle, g the acceleration due to gravity, di a representative size of the bed material, and is the difference between the density of the bed material s and the density of the fluid . From dimensional considerations, F0 is a measure of the ratio of the tractive force acting on the bed particle to the submerged specific weight of the particle.

Due to the practical importancelocal scour caused by the jets has been a topic of continued interest to the researchers and the design engineers as well. Farhoudi and Smith (1985) studied the development of scour holes downstream of a spillway due to hydraulic jump over an apron. Ali and Lim (1986) conducted experimental investigations to study the localized scour caused by two- and three-dimensional turbulent wall jets. Recently published results indicate that the scour hole develops rapidly in the early stages and progresses towards an asymptotic stage beyond which the scour profile does not change significantly with time and reaches an equilibrium state (Balachandar et al., 2000; Kells et al., 2001; Lim and Yu, 2002; Sarkar and Dey, 2004; Dey and Sarkar, 2006; Alihosseini et al., 2008; Oliveto et al., 2008, Sarathi et al., 2008, Hamidifar et al., 2010, 2011; Omid et al., 2009).

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Hossein Hamidifar

Dey and Westrich (2003) investigated the flow characteristics of submerged jets over an apron and in an equilibrium scour hole in cohesive beds. Moghim et al. (2008) developed an empirical equation by using regression analysis to predict the maximum scour depth downstream of aprons. In a more recent study Khwairakpam and Mazumdar (2009) conducted a review on local scour around hydraulic structures.

However, nowadays many criteria are proposed to determine dimensions of the scour hole. The research reported in this paper focused on finding the interrelations between characteristic lengths of local scour hole downstream of an apron.

2. MaterialsandMethods

Experiments were carried out in a recirculating glass-sided flume in the central laboratory of water researches in University of Tehran. The flume was 9m long (the test reach being 3 m long), 0.5m wide and 0.6m deep. Water was continuously pumped from the downstream reservoir into the upstream head tank with a maximum capacity of 25 l/s. A calibrated rectangular sharp crested weir was used to measure the discharge.

A submerged horizontal jet was produced by flowing water through a sluice gate opening equal to 2cm over an apron of 1m length followed by a 0.2m deep sediment bed container. The initial bed slope was adjusted to zero for each run using a carriage system riding on the

*Corresponding author (H. Hamidifar). Tel/Fax: +982612231787. E-mail addresses: hhamidifar@ut.ac.ir . 2011. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 2 No.3. ISSN 2228-9860. eISSN 1906-9642. Online Available at http://TuEngr.com/V02/355-364.pdf

357

rails over the flume. At the downstream end, a tailgate allows the regulation of the flow depth in the flume. The discharge Q, was set constant for each run and a constant tailwater depth Tw, 10 times the gate opening Y1, was also set in order to satisfy the conditions of deeply submerged horizontal jet.

3. ResultsandDiscussion

As soon as the water flowing from the sluice opening reached the erodible bed, the movement of bed materials from the end of the rigid apron started and the geometry of the scour hole started changing with time. The scour profiles at various times were marked on one of the glass walls of the flume. It was observed that during the initial stage the rate of scouring was very high. It then gradually tapered off as time elapsed. Ultimately the equilibrium stage was reached when no movement of grains was observed at the location of maximum scour.

For each type of bed material, experimental runs have been undertaken for different tailwater depths and for various discharges. Before starting a particular run, the initial bed surface was leveled. To avoid the disturbance of the bed before regulating the tailwater depth and discharge, the alluvial bed surface was covered with a Plexiglas plate with the same width as the flume. After the desired conditions were established, the plate was removed gently from the downstream.

Before starting the next run, the disturbed bed was leveled after dewatering and drying the bed. The whole procedure was then repeated, and a new scour profile was obtained. The scour profiles have been used to determine the characteristic lengths of the scour hole at the equilibrium state.

Time variations of the maximum scour depth was measured for some experiments. It was found that the scour hole does not reach the equilibrium state even after 48 hours. However, after the first 12 hours, the rate of extension of the maximum scour depth is found to be less than 0.05cmh-1. From the scour profiles, the maximum scour depth dsm, the location of maximum scour depth Xm, the maximum scour point L0, the maximum dune height hd and the location of maximum height of the dune Xd for all the test runs has been measured. To obtain relationship 358

Hossein Hamidifar

between the characteristic lengths of the scour hole, these parameters were plotted against the dimensionless maximum scour depth. Figure 2 shows the variation of the maximum dune height hd. It is observed from this figure that the variations of these two parameters follow a linear trend which can be expressed as Eq. (1):

d hd = 2.827 sm d d 50 50 8.84

R2=0.96

(1)

In Figure 3 variations of the maximum scour point L0 is plotted against the maximum scour depth. It is clear that the variation trend is not linear and a quadratic equation as Eq. (2) can fit the experimental data.

R2=0.95

(2)

In Figure 4 the variations of the location of the maximum dune height Xd, is shown. By examination of different parameter to nondimensionalize Xd, it was found that the gate opening Y1 is more appropriate than the particle median size d50. So, a new dimensionless equation is proposed as below to determine Xd when dsm is known.

2

R2=0.88

(3)

Variations of Xm, against dsm is plotted in Figure 5 where Xm is the location of the maximum scour depth downstream of the apron. As figure 5, the gate opening Y1 was used to nondimensionalize this parameter as shown in Eq. (4). However, using Y1 was not remedial to cover scattering of the data as well as figure 5.

R2=0.74

(4)

*Corresponding author (H. Hamidifar). Tel/Fax: +982612231787. E-mail addresses: hhamidifar@ut.ac.ir . 2011. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 2 No.3. ISSN 2228-9860. eISSN 1906-9642. Online Available at http://TuEngr.com/V02/355-364.pdf

359

Figure 2: The relation between maximum scour depth and maximum dune height.

Figure 3: Variations of maximum length of the scour hole against maximum scour depth.

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Hossein Hamidifar

Figure 4: Relation between the location of the dune maximum heigth against dsm.

Figure 5: Variation of the location of maximum scour depth against dsm. A comparison between the results of the present and previous studies is shown in Figure (6). A dimensionless parameter, r, is defined as Eq. (5) to find the relative error between the results. It is seen from Figure (6) that as the dimensionless parameter dsm/Y1 increases, the relative error decreases and the results of the different studies come close to each other.

*Corresponding author (H. Hamidifar). Tel/Fax: +982612231787. E-mail addresses: hhamidifar@ut.ac.ir . 2011. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 2 No.3. ISSN 2228-9860. eISSN 1906-9642. Online Available at http://TuEngr.com/V02/355-364.pdf

361

However there is considerable scatter in data for small values of the dimensionless scour depth.

r=

(d sm

(d sm

Y1 ) present study

(5)

4. Conclusion

The interrelationships between different parameters of local scour hole downstream of a rigid apron is studied experimentally. The experiments were conducted in the wide range of tailwater depths and different flow discharges. Results showed that there are good

correlations between scour hole parameters. So, some experimental equations were presented by using regression analysis. It was found that the maximum dune height, the maximum extension of the scour hole, the maximum extension of the dune, the distance between end of the apron and both the maximum scour depth and the maximum dune height will increase if the maximum scour depth increases. These proposed criteria can help hydraulic structure enginners to design structures more safely.

5. Acknowledgement

A very special thank you is due to Associate Professor Dr. Chavalit Chaleerakthrakul for insightful comments, helping clarify and improve the manuscript. 362

Hossein Hamidifar

6. References

Ali, K.H.M. and S.Y. Lim, 1986. Local scour caused by submerged wall jets. Proceedings of the Institute of Civil Engineers Part 2 (81):607645. Alihosseini, P., K. Ebrahimi, M. Sanei and M. Mashaal, 2008. Experimental investigation of temporal variation of scour profile downstream of submerged hydraulic jumps. Proceedings of the 7th Iranian Conference on Hydraulic. Nov. 11- 13. Sh. Abbaspour University. Tehran. Iran (in Farsi). Balachandar, R., J. Kells, and R. Thiessen, 2000. The Effect of Tailwater Depth on the Dynamics of Local Scour. Canadaian Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 27, 138-150. Dey, S. and A. Sarkar, 2006. Scour Downstream of an Apron due to Submerged Horizontal Jets. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, Vol. 132, No. 3, 246-257. Dey, S. and B. Westrich, 2003. Hydraulics of Submerged Jet Subject to Change in Cohesive Bed Geometry. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, Vol. 129, No. 1, 42-53. Farhoudi, J. and K. Smith, 1985. Local Scour Profiles Downstream of Hydraulic Jump. Journal of Hydraulic Research, Vol. 23, No. 4, 343-359. Hamidifar, H., M.H. Omid, and M. Nasrabadi, 2010. Bed Scour Downstream of Sluice Gates. Journal of Water and Soil, Vol. 24(4), 728-736. Hamidifar, H., M.H. Omid, and M. Nasrabadi, 2011. Scour downstream of a rough rigid apron. World Applied Science Journal, (Accepted). Khwairakpam, P., and A. Mazumdar, 2009. Local scour around hydraulic structures. International Journal of Recent Trends in Engineering, 1(6), 59-61. Kells, J. A., Balachandar, R., and K. P. Hagel, 2001. Effect of Grain Size on Local Channel Scour Below a Sluice Gate. Can. J. Civ. Eng, 28, 440451. Lim, S. and G. Yu, 2002. Scouring Downstream of Sluice Gate. First International Conference on Scour of Foundation, Texas Transportation Institute, Nov. 17-20, Texas A & M University, College Station, Texas, USA. Moghim, M. N., Dorsangi, M. G. and M. Ghodsian, 2008. Prediction of maximum scour depth due to wall jets by using neural networks, 4th National Congress on Civil Engineering, Tehran, Iran. (in Persian) Oliveto, G., V. Comuniello, and B. Onorati, 2008. Temporal development of local scour downstream of positive-step stilling basins. Proceedings of River Flows. Sep. 3-5. Izmir. Turkey. 1673-1678. Omid, M. H., H. Hamidifar, and A. Reisi, 2009. Effect of tailwater depth on local scour downstream of an apron. Proceedings of 8th International Congress on Civil Engineering. May 11-13. Shiraz, Iran (in Persian).

*Corresponding author (H. Hamidifar). Tel/Fax: +982612231787. E-mail addresses: hhamidifar@ut.ac.ir . 2011. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 2 No.3. ISSN 2228-9860. eISSN 1906-9642. Online Available at http://TuEngr.com/V02/355-364.pdf

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Sarathi, P., M.A.A. Faruque and R. Balachandar, 2008. Influence of tailwater depth, sediment size and densimetric Froude number on scour by submerged square wall jets. J. Hydra. Res. 46(2): 158-175. Sarkar, A. and S. Dey, 2004. Review on local scour due to jets, International Journal of Sediment Research 19(3), pp. 210238.

H. Hamidifar is a PhD candidate of Water Structures at the Department of Irrigation and Reclamation Engineering at University of Tehran. He received his B.Sc. from Shiraz University. He continued his M.Sc. study at University of Tehran where he obtained his M.Sc. in Water Structures. He focuses on local scour (cohesive and non-cohesive sediments), Hydraulic jump and energy dissipaters.

Peer Review: This article has been internationally peer-reviewed and accepted for publication according to the guidelines given at the journals website.

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Hossein Hamidifar

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