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ECE4510: Feedback Control Systems.

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FEEDBACK CONTROL
Control is a very common concept.

e.g., Human-machine interaction: Driving a car.


MANUAL CONTROL.

e.g., Independent machine: Room temperature control. Furnace in winter, air conditioner in summer. Both controlled (turned on/off) by thermostat.
AUTOMATIC CONTROL.
DEFINITION:

Control is the process of causing a system variable to conform to some desired value, called a reference value. (e.g., variable=temperature)

DEFINITION:

Feedback is the process of measuring the controlled variable (e.g., temperature) and using that information to inuence the value of the controlled variable.

Some applications: Airplane autopilots that can land a plane in fog. Space telescopes with pointing accuracy of 106 degrees. Disk-drive read heads with < 1 micron accuracy. Robots for various applications. ... (see next page for a synopsis).

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

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Typical Feedback Applications


Categories Ecological Specic Applications Wildlife management and control; control of plant chemical wastes via monitoring lakes and rivers; air pollution abatement; water control and distribution; ood control via dams and resevoirs; forest growth management. Medical Medical instrumentation for monitoring and control; articial limbs (prosthesis). Home appliances Home heating, refrigeration, and airconditioning via thermostatic control; electronic sensing and control in clothes dryers; humidity controllers; temperature control of ovens. Power/energy Power system control and planning; feedback instrumentation in oil recovery; optimal control of windmill blade and solar panel surfaces; optimal power distribution via power factor control. Transportation Control of roadway vehicle trafc ows using sensors; automatic speed control devices on automobiles; propulsion control in rail transit systems; building elevators and escalators. Manufacturing Sensor-equipped robots for cutting, drilling die casting, forging, welding, packaging, and assembling; chemical process control; tension control windup processes in textile mills; conveyor speed control with optical pyrometer sensing in hot steel rolling mills. Aerospace and Missile guidance and control; automatic piloting; spacecraft conmilitary trol; tracking systems; nuclear submarine navigation and control; re-control systems (artillery).
(reproduced from: J.R. Rowland, Linear Control Systems: Modeling, Analysis, and Design, John Wiley & Sons, (New York: 1986), p. 6.)

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

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Rube Goldberg showed that a knowledge of feedback control was even useful to budding cartoonists!

Rube Goldberg walks in his sleep, strolls through a cactus eld in his bare feet, and screams out an idea for self-operating napkin: As you raise spoon of soup (A) to your mouth it pulls string (B), thereby jerking ladle (C) which throws cracker (D) past parrot (E). Parrot jumps after cracker and perch (F) tilts, upsetting seeds (G) into pail (H). Extra weight in pail pulls cord (I), which opens and lights automatic cigar lighter (J), setting off sky-rocket (K) which causes sickle (L) to cut string (M) and allow pendulum with attached napkin to swing back and forth thereby wiping off your chin. After the meal, substitute a harmonica for the napkin and youll be able to entertain the guests with a little music.

Simple Feedback System Example


Heat Loss (Q out) Desired Temp. Thermostat Gas Valve Furnace Q in House Room Temp.

Block Diagram of furnace-controlled room temperature controller. Identies major components and omits details. Shows information/ energy ow.
Central component = PROCESS or PLANT, one of whose variables we want to control. e.g., Plant = ; Variable = .

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

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DISTURBANCE = some system input out of our direct control. e.g., Disturbance = . ACTUATOR = device that inuences controlled variable. e.g., Actuator = . REFERENCE SENSOR measures desired system output. OUTPUT SENSOR measures actual system output. * COMPENSATOR/ CONTROLLER = device that computes the control effort to apply the the actuator, based on sensor readings. e.g., combines the last three functions. A More Abstract Block Diagram:
Disturbance error Ref. Value Reference Sensor Compensator Actuator Plant Output

Negative Feedback

Output Sensor

An Even More Abstract Block Diagram:


Disturbance Ref. Value Compensator

Plant

Output

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

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The Control Problem: Reject disturbance. Acceptable steady state errors. Acceptable transient response. Minimize sensitivity to parameter changes in the plant. Solution Reached By: 1. Choosing output sensors. 2. Choosing actuators. *3. Developing plant, actuator, sensor equations (models). *4. Designing compensator based on the models and design criteria. *5. Evaluating design analytically, with simulation and prototype. *6. Iteration!! A First Analysis: Auto Cruise Control Want to control speed of automobile. 1. Output sensor = speedometer. 2. Actuator = throttle and engine.

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

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Block diagram:
Road Grade Desired Speed Control Variable Compensator Throttle Actual Speed

Actuator Engine

Plant Auto Body

Speedometer Measured Speed Output Sensor Sensor Noise

3. Model of system: 1. Operate system 55 MPH. Assume linear response near 55 MPH. 2. Measure: 1% change in throttle 10 MPH change in speed. 3. Measure: 1% change in grade 5 MPH change in speed. 4. Measure: Speedometer accurate to a fraction of 1 MPH, so is assumed exact. 5. Functional block diagram:
w(t) r (t)reference speed, MPH. u(t)throttle posn., %. y(t)actual speed, MPH. 0.5 r (t) Compen- u(t) sator w(t)road grade, %.

10

y(t)

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

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4. Design compensator/controller First attempt = open loop controller.


w(t)

0.5 r (t) Compensator u(t) 1/10 yol(t)

10

yol(t) = 10 (u(t) 0.5w(t)) = 10 r(t) 0.5w(t) 10

= r(t) 5w(t). 5. Evaluate design. r(t) = 55, w(t) = 0% yol(t) = 55. r(t) = 55, w(t) = 1% yol(t) = 50. r(t) = 55, w(t) = 2% yol(t) = 45. No Error. . . Good. 10% Error. . . Not Good. 20% Error. . . Not Good.

Suppose you load the trunk with all your ECE4510 notes and the car becomes more sluggish.

e.g., the gain 10 becomes 9


r(t) = 55, w(t) = 0% yol(t) = 49.5. r(t) = 55, w(t) = 1% yol(t) = . . . 6. Iterate design. Go to step #4. 10% Error. . . Not Good.

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, FEEDBACK CONTROL

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4. Second attempt = Feedback controller


w(t) 0.5 u(t) ycl(t)

Compensator r (t) 100

10

Multiply your output error by 100; FEEDBACK GAIN = 100 ycl(t) = 10u(t) 5w(t) u(t) = 100(r(t) ycl(t)) so, ycl(t) = 1000r(t) 1000ycl(t) 5w(t) 1001ycl(t) = 1000r(t) 5w(t) ycl(t) = 0.999r(t) 0.005w(t) 5. Evaluate design. r(t) = 55, w(t) = 0% ycl(t) = 54.945 r(t) = 55, w(t) = 1% ycl(t) = 54.94 r(t) = 55, w(t) = 2% ycl(t) = 54.935 r(t) = 55, w(t) = 10% ycl(t) = 54.895 ... 0.2% Error! Feedback system rejects disturbances. Feedback system has steady state error. r(t) = 55, w(t) = 0%, plant=9, not 10 ycl(t) = 54.939 Feedback system less sensitive to system parameter values. NOTE! High feedback gain = good performance here. Not always true! e.g., Public address amplier.
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, FEEDBACK CONTROL

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4. Third attempt. Try to get rid of steady state error.


w(t)

Compensator r (t) u(t)

0.5 ycl(t)

10

ycl(t) = 10 (r(t) ycl(t)) 5w(t) = 10r(t) 10ycl(t) 5w(t) 10r(t) 5w(t) ycl(t) = 1 + 10 = 10 5 r(t) w(t) 1 + 10 1 + 10
1 set to 1: =1 10

5 w(t). 10 Best results yet! (Try for yourself with = 100.) = r(t) A Brief History of Control
Supply Float

2nd century B.C.: Fluid level/Flow rate control. Still used to ush toilets!

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

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Damper

1624: Drebbels incubator Control temperature using mechanical feedback.

Riser Eggs Float

Water Flue Gasses

Mercury Metal plate Fire Alcohol

1787: Thomas Meads y-ball governor. 1788: James Watts y-ball governor.
Pivot Sleeve To engine inlet Ball Butterfly valve Steam

Rotation

Pulley from engine

Both control a rotating shaft. 1840: Airys telescope controller. and the machine (if I may so express myself) became perfectly wild. Discovery of instability in a feedback control system. Analysis of system with differential equations. Beginnings of feedback control theory.

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

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1868: Maxwell found stability criteria for second and third order (simple) systems. 1877: Routh found stability criteria for more complex (general) linear systems. 1893: Lyapunov: stability of nonlinear systems. 1932: Nyquists graphical stability criteria (1945: Bodes simpler graphical method) 1936: PID Control. 1948: Evans root locus. 1960s: State variable (modern) control design. 1980s: Post Modern H Robust control. Adaptive control...?

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, FEEDBACK CONTROL

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1624
Drebble, Incubator

Chronological History of Feedback Control


1728

Watt, Flyball governor

1868
Maxwell, Flyball stability analysis

1877
Routh, Stability

1890
Liapunov, Nonlinear stability

1910
Sperry, Gyroscope and autopilot

1927
Black, Feedback electronic amplier: Bush, Differential analyzer

1932
Nyquist, Nyquist stability criterion

1938
Bode, Frequency response methods

1942
Wiener, Optimal lter design: Ziegler-Nichols PID tuning

1947
Hurewicz, Sampled data systems; Nichols, Nichols chart

1948
Evans, Root locus

1950
Kochenberger, Nonlinear analysis

1956
Pontryagin, Maximum principle

1957
Bellman, Dynamic programming

1960
Draper, Inertial navigation; Kalman, Optimal estimation

1969
Hoff, Microprocessor
(reproduced from: G.F. Franklin, J.D. Powell, A. Emami-Naeini, Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems, 3rd edition, Addison Wesley, (Reading, Mass: 1994), yleaf.) Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510: Feedback Control Systems.

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SYSTEM MODELING IN THE TIME DOMAIN


Model = Set of equations used to represent a physical system, relating output to input. Required to: 1. Understand system behavior (analysis). 2. Design a controller (synthesis). Developing the model 80%90% of the effort in designing a controller. Methods: 1. Analytic system modelingwe focus on these methods. 2. Empirical system identication. (In practice, there is always an empirical component to system modeling). No model is exact! Inaccuracies due to: 1. Unknown parameter values. 2. Unmodeled dynamics (to make simpler model). LTI Systems This course teaches methods to control linear time invariant (LTI) systems. None exist! But, many are close enough. In the following, suppose a system maps x(t) y(t) as y(t) = [x(t)].
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, SYSTEM MODELING IN THE TIME DOMAIN

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LINEAR :

A system is linear iff [ax1(t) + bx2(t)] = a [x1(t)] + b [x2(t)].

a.k.a. superposition.
TIME INVARIANT :

A system is time invariant iff y(t t0) = [x(t t0)] t0.

(Translation: If we input a specic signal x(t) and record the output y(t), then input a shifted version of the signal x(t), the output will be a shifted version of y(t), with the same shift.)
KEY POINT:

If a system is LTI, then it has an impulse response. This entirely characterizes the systems dynamics. The Laplace transform of the impulse response is the transfer function. Working with the transfer function eliminates the need to mess around with trying to solve complicated differential equations.

A Simple Model Consider a resistor:


i(t) v(t)

Ohms Law (model) says: v(t) = i(t) R. Is the resistor LTI? Is the model of the resistor LTI?
EXAMPLE :

Consider a 1 Ohm, 2 Watt resistor.

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, SYSTEM MODELING IN THE TIME DOMAIN

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Apply 1 Volt; 1 Amp of current is predicted to ow. Power dissipated = V 2/R = 1 Watt. Now apply 10 Volts. 10 Amps of current is predicted to ow. Power dissipated = V 2/R = 100 Watts! Model will no longer be accurate. True behavior depends on input signal levelnonlinear. Model is accurate in certain range of input-signal values. Dynamics of Mechanical Systems I (translational) Newtons Law: F = ma. Vector sum of forces = mass of object times inertial acceleration. Free-body diagrams are a tool to apply this law.
EXAMPLE :

Cruise control model.

Write the equations of motion for the speed and forward motion of a car assuming that the engine imparts a forward force of u(t). 1. Assume rotational inertia of wheels is negligible. 2. Assume that friction is proportional to cars speed (viscous friction). F = ma u(t) b x(t) = m x(t) b . u(t) .. x(t) + x(t) = m m
. .. . b x(t) m x(t) u(t)

or,

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, SYSTEM MODELING IN THE TIME DOMAIN

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If the variable of interest is speed (v(t) = x(t)), not position, u(t) b . v(t) + v(t) = m m Notice that the differential equation has output variables on the left of =, and input variables on the right.
IMPORTANT POINT:

All of our models of dynamical systems will be differential equations involving the input (e.g., u(t)) and its derivatives and the output (e.g., y(t)) and its derivatives. No other signals (intermediate variables) are allowed in our solutions. Car suspension.

EXAMPLE :

Each wheel in a car suspension system has a tire, shock absorber and spring. Write the one-dimensional (vertical) equations of motion for the car body and wheel.
m2 ks b m1 kw r (t) Road Surface Inertial Reference y(t)

Quarter-car model

x(t)

Free-body diagram:
ks (y(t) x(t))

. . b( y (t) x(t)) m2

m1

x(t) ks (y(t) x(t))

y(t) . . b( y (t) x(t))

kw (x(t) r (t))
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, SYSTEM MODELING IN THE TIME DOMAIN

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The force from the spring is proportional to its stretch. The force from the shock absorber is proportional to the rate-of-change of its stretch. F = ma b y (t) x(t) + ks (y(t) x(t)) kw (x(t) r(t)) = m 1 x(t) ks (y(t) x(t)) b y (t) x(t) = m 2 y (t) Re-arrange: x(t) +
.. . kw kw b . ks ( x(t) y (t)) + (x(t) y(t)) + x(t) = r(t) m1 m1 m1 m1 .. k b . . y (t) + y (t) x(t)) + s (y(t) x(t)) = 0 ( m2 m2 . . .. . . ..

Important components for mechanical-translational systems: 1. Mass 2. Spring k


x2 (t) x1 (t)

m
x1 (t)

f (t) = k(x 1 (t) x 2 (t)) . . f (t) = b(x 1 (t) x 2 (t))

3. Damper

x2 (t)

Dynamics of Mechanical Systems II (rotational) Newtons Law is modied to be: M = J (or I )

Vector sum of moments = moment of inertia times angular acceleration. (moment=torque). Satellite control. Satellites require attitude control so that sensors, antennas, etc., are properly pointed. Lets consider one axis of rotation.
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

EXAMPLE :

ECE4510, SYSTEM MODELING IN THE TIME DOMAIN

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(t)

moment = Fc (t) d, so,


..

Fc (t)d = J (t) d .. Fc (t)d (t) = J Note: Output of system (t) integrates Gas jet Fc (t) torques twicedouble-integrator plant. EXAMPLE : Torsional pendulum. A torsional pendulum is used, for example, in clocks enclosed in glass domes. A similar device is the read-write head on a hard-disk drive.
k J b , k: Springiness of suspension wire. b: Viscous friction. ..

M = J (t) J (t) = (t) b (t) k(t) .. b. k (t) (t) + (t) + (t) = J J J


Important components for mechanical rotational systems: 1. Inertia 2. Spring k
2 (t) 1 (t)

..

J
1 (t)

(t) = k(1(t) 2(t)) . . (t) = b( 1 (t) 2 (t))

3. Damper

2 (t)

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, SYSTEM MODELING IN THE TIME DOMAIN

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EXAMPLE :

NONLINEAR Rotational Pendulum. Moment of intertia: J = ml 2. .. M = J (t) l


J (t) = (t) mgl sin((t)) .. g (t) (t) + sin((t)) = l ml 2
Nonlinear!

..

(t), (t) mg

If motion is small, sin ((t)) (t). .. g (t) (t) + (t) = l ml 2 This is a preview of linearization.

Linear.

Summary of Developing Models for Rigid Bodies: 1. Assign variables such as x(t) and (t) that are both necessary and sufcient to describe and arbitrary position of the object. 2. Draw a free-body diagram of each component, and indicate all forces acting on each body and the accelerations of the center of mass with respect to an inertial reference. 3. Apply Newtons laws: F = ma, M = J .

4. Combine the equations to eliminate internal forces. 5. The nal form must be in terms of ONLY the input to the system and its derivatives, and the output of the system and its derivatives.

Dynamics of Electrical Circuits Kirchhoffs Laws: Current Law (KCL): The algebraic sum of currents entering a node equals the algebraic sum of currents leaving the node. Voltage Law (KVL): The algebraic sum of all voltages taken around a closed path in a circuit is zero.
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

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Node analysis is a tool to apply these laws. (i.e., select one node as reference (e.g., ground) and assume all other voltages are unknown. Write equations for the unknowns using KCL. KVL must be used for voltage sources.)
EXAMPLE :

Bridged-Tee circuit.
vi (t) R1 C1

C2

R2

Select reference = . KVL at : v(t) = vi (t). v(t) v(t) v(t) v(t) . KCL at : C 1v (t) = 0. R1 R2 v(t) v(t) . . KCL at : + C 2(v (t) v (t)) = 0. R2 v(t) v(t) + R2C 2(v (t) v (t)) = 0 v(t) + R2C 2(v (t) v (t)) = v(t) v(t) v (t) + R2C 2(v (t) v (t)) R1 v(t) + R2C 2(v (t) v (t)) v (t) R2 C1 v (t) + R2C 2(v (t) v (t)) = 0 R2 v (t) v(t) + R2C 2(v (t) v (t)) R1 v (t) + R2C 2(v (t) v (t)) v (t)
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

. .

. .

.. .

..

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R1 R2C 1 v (t) + R2C 2(v (t) v (t)) = 0.


2 2 R1 R2 C 1C 2 v (t) + R2 C 2 + R1 R2C 2 + R1 R2C 1 v (t) + (R2 ) v (t) 2 2 = (R1 R2 C 1C 2)v (t) + (R2 C 2 + R1 R2C 2)v (t) + (R2)v(t)

..

..

..

..

Important components for electrical systems: 1. Resistor v(t) i(t) v(t) = Ri(t)

2. Capacitor

v(t)

i(t)

i(t) = C

d v(t) dt d i(t) dt

3. Inductor

v(t)

i(t)

v(t) = L

4. Voltage source

v(t)

vs

v(t) = vs

5. Current source

is

i(t)

i(t) = i s vd (t) = 0 i (t) = i +(t) = 0

6. Operational Amplier

i (t) vd (t) i + (t)

vo (t)

vo (t) = Ao (v+ (t) v (t)) as Ao

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

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EXAMPLE :

Op-amp circuit.
R2 R1 C

vi (t)

vo (t)

vi (t) R1 vo (t) = R2i(t) vc (t). i(t) =

dvo(t) di(t) dvc (t) = R2 dt dt dt R2 dvi (t) i(t) = R1 dt C R2 dvi (t) 1 = vi (t) R1 dt R1 C R1C v o (t) = R2C v i (t) vi (t) (as C , we get an inverting amplier.) Dynamics of Electro-Mechanical Systems These are systems that convert energy from electrical to mechanical, or vice versa.
EXAMPLE :

DC Generator.

Assume generator is driven at constant speed. Generator has eld windings (input), and rotor/armature windings (output).
i f (t) R f Ra Lf eg (t) L a i a (t) ea (t) e f (t) Zl

Field circuit
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

Rotor circuit

Load circuit

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e f (t) = R f i f (t) + L f eg (t) = K = K g i f (t). eg (t) = Ra i a (t) + L a ea (t) = Z l i a (t).


e f (t) Field circuit i f (t)

di f (t) dt

e f (t) is input, i f (t) is output. K depends on generator structure. d(t)/dt = angular velocity = cst. = ux, proportional to i f (t).

d(t) dt

di a (t) + ea (t). dt
eg (t)

eg (t) is input, i a (t) is output. i a (t) is input, ea (t) is output.

Kg

Rotor circuit

i a (t)

Zl

ea (t)

This is a preview of a block diagram used to simplify our understanding of the system dynamics. EXAMPLE : DC Motor (servo-motor). Directly generates rotational motion. Indirectly generates translational motion.
i a (t) Ra ea (t) La eb (t) Armature (t), (t) b J

Load

Mechanical resistance of load is translated into an electrical resistance called the back e.m.f. d(t) eb (t) = K e K e = K , as with generator. dt di a (t) ea (t) = Ra i a (t) + L a + eb (t) dt (t) = K i a (t) K = K 1
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

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Combining these equations of motion, recall Newton: M = J J (t) = (t) b (t)


.. . .

= K i a (t) b (t) Assume (FOR NOW ONLY) electrical response is faster than mechanical. L a 0. .. . ea (t) eb (t) J (t) = K b (t) Ra J (t) + b +
..

K Ke . K ea (t) (t) = Ra Ra

back emf indistinguishable from friction! Dynamics of Heat Flow/ Dynamics of Fluid Flow These two subjects will not be covered here. Refer to texts on thermodynamics or uid-dynamics. Transformers and Gears Ideally, both of these devices simply scale their input value. Transformer : Gears : N1 e1 i 2 = = N2 e2 i 1 r1 2 1 = = r2 1 2
r1 r2

System Identication (SYS ID) When we generate models of system dynamics, we are performing system identications.
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

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When we use known properties from physics and knowledge of the systems structure (as we have done here) we are performing white box system ID. If the system is very complex, or if the physics are not well understood, we need to use input/output data to generate a system model: black-box system ID. A topic for the whole course! Linearization We will study how to control linear systems. Linear systems are rare. We can linearize a non-linear systemthe controller designed for linearized model will work on the true nonlinear system (but not as well as a controller designed directly for the non-linear system.)
KEY POINT:

We can convert any differential equation into a rst-order vector differential equation: x = f (x, u) ;
. .

x = vector, u = input.

Iff the system is linear, this will be of the form: x = A x + Bu;


EXAMPLE :

A and B are constant matrices.

Torsional pendulum (pg. 226) .. b. k (t) (t) + (t) + (t) = J J J let x1(t) x2(t) = (t) . (t)

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

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x 2(t) +

b k (t) x 2(t) + x1(t) = J J J x 1(t) . x 2(t)


.

0 1 k/J b/J
A

x 1(t) x2(t)

0 1/J
B

(t).

So, our model of the torsional pendulum is linear. EXAMPLE : Rotational pendulum (pg. 227) .. g (t) (t) + sin((t)) = l ml 2 let x 1(t) x2(t) x 1(t) . x 2(t)
.

(t) . (t) x 2(t)

0 + 1 (t). = g sin(x 1(t)) l ml 2 Not linear because we cannot make a constant A matrix.

Small Signal Linearization


Uses a Taylor-series expansion of the differential equation around some operating condition. (Equilibrium value where . x 0 = 0 = f (x 0, u 0 )). let x = x0 + x u = u 0 + u x = f (x, u). Taylor-series expansion: . . . x = x 0 + x f (x 0, u 0 ) + Ax + Bu
.

x0 = operating state u 0 = nominal control value.

plus higher-order terms

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Subtract out equillibrium (nominal) solution; . x = Ax + Bu, which is linear. This is exactly how we linearized the rotational pendulum before, with 0 = 0; 0 = 0. 3 5 sin() = + 3! 5! .

Feedback Linearization (computed torque)


For rotational pendulum, ml 2 (t) + mgl sin((t)) = (t). COMPUTE: (t) = mgl sin((t)) + u(t). THEN: ml 2 (t) = u(t), no matter how large (t) becomes! Sometimes used in robotics and airplane ight control, but very computationally intensive. Analogous Systems The linearized differential equations of many very different physical systems appear identical. One would suppose they behave in similar ways (dynamic response) and can be controlled with similar controllers.
.. ..

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Mechanical Translational m x(t) + b x(t) + kx(t) = u(t) .. . Mechanical Rotational J (t) + b (t) + k(t) = (t) .. Satellite J (t) = f (t) d .. k ke . k DC Motor (for L a = 0) (t) = J (t) + b + ea (t) Ra Ra .. . Generator (L a L f )ea (t) + (L f (Ra + Rl ) + L a R f )ea (t)+ R f (Ra + Rl ) = (k g Rl )e f (t) These are all of the form .. . .. . a2 x(t) + a1 x(t) + a0 x(t) = b2u(t) + b1u(t) + b0u(t) which is called a second-order form. Therefore, we have seen very specic examples of a very general class of system. If we learn how to control the general class, we can apply this knowledge to specic systems.

..

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510: Feedback Control Systems.

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DYNAMIC RESPONSE
We can now model dynamic systems with differential equations. What do these equations mean? How does this system respond to certain inputs? If we add dynamics (a controller) how will the system respond? How SHOULD the system respond? (specications)

KEY, ESSENTIAL, VITAL, TOOL: Laplace Transform

Some Important Input Signals Several signals recur throughout this course. The unit step function: 1(t) = 1, t 0; 0, otherwise.
t r (t) 1(t)

The unit ramp function: r(t) = t, t 0; 0, otherwise.

The unit parabola function: 2 t , t 0; p(t) = 2 0, otherwise.


Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

t p(t)

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The cosine/sine functions:


cos(t) sin(t)

The impulse function, (t): Very strange generalized function, only dened under an integral. (t) = 0, t = 0 zero duration

(t) dt = 1.
(t)

unit area.

Symbol

Sifting property

x( )(t ) d = x(t).

Response of Linear Time Invariant System Let y(t) be the output of an LTI system with input x(t). y(t) = [x(t)] = [ =

x( )(t ) d ]

(sifting) (linear)

x( ) [(t )] d.

Let h(t, ) = [(t )]


Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

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= If the system is time invariant, =

x( )h(t, ) d

h(t, ) = h(t ) x( )h(t ) d (time invariant)

= x(t) h(t). The output of an LTI system is equal to the convolution of its impulse response with the input. This makes life EASY (TRUST me!)
EXAMPLE :

Finding an impulse response:


.

Consider a rst-order system, y (t) + ky(t) = u(t). Let y(0) = 0, u(t) = (t). For positive time we have y (t) + ky(t) = 0. Recall from your differential-equation math course: y(t) = Aest , solve for A, s. y (t) = Asest Asest + k Aest = 0 s+k = 0 s = k. We have solved for snow solve for A.
0+ . 0 0+ 0+ 0

y (t) dt + k
+

y(t) dt =
0

(t) dt
1

y(t)|0 0

y(0+) y(0) = 1 Aek0 0 = 1 A = 1.


Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett
+

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Response to impulse: h(t) = ekt , t > 0. h(t) = ekt 1(t). Response of this system to general input: y(t) = = = Transfer Function Response to impulse = impulse response h(t). Response to general input = messy convolution: h(t) u(t).
0

h( )u(t ) d ek 1( )u(t ) d ek u(t ) d.

Response to Sinusoid? Cosinusoid?


A j t e + e j t 2 Break it Down: Response to Exponential? A cos(t) = Let u(t) = est , where s is complex. y(t) = = =

h( )u(t ) d h( )es(t ) d h( )est es d

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

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=e

st

h( )es d

Transfer function, H (s)

= est H (s). An input of the form est decouples the convolution into two independent parts: a part depending on est and a part depending on h(t). [Complex exponentials are eigenfunctions of all LTI systems.]
EXAMPLE :

y (t) + ky(t) = u(t) = est : but , y(t) = H (s)e ,


st

y (t) = s H (s)est , (I never integrated!)

s H (s)est + k H (s)est = est 1 H (s) = s+k est y(t) = . s+k Response to Cosinusoid (revisited) Let s= j s= j u(t)=e j t u(t)=e j t u(t)=A cos(t) Now, H ( j) = Me j

y(t)=H ( j)e j t y(t)=H ( j)e j t A y(t)= H ( j)e j t + H ( j)e j t 2

H ( j) = Me j (can be shown for h(t) real) AM j (t+) y(t) = + e j (t+) e 2 = AM cos(t + ). The response of an LTI system to a sinusoid is a sinusoid! (of the same frequency).
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

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EXAMPLE :

Frequency response of our rst order system: 1 H (s) = s+k 1 H ( j) = j + k 1 M = |H ( j)| = 2 + k 2 = H ( j) = tan1 k A y(t) = cos t tan1 . 2 + k2 k

Can we use these results to simplify convolution and get an easier way to understand dynamic response? The Laplace Transform We have seen that if a system has an impulse response h(t), we can compute a transfer function H (s), H (s) =

h(t)est dt.

Since we deal with causal systems (possibly with an impulse at t = 0), we can integrate from 0 instead of negative innity. H (s) =
0

h(t)est dt.

This is called the one-sided (uni-lateral) Laplace transform of h(t).

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

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Laplace Transforms of Common Signals Name Unit impulse Unit step Unit ramp nth order ramp Sine Cosine Damped sine Damped cosine Diverging sine Diverging cosine Time function, f (t) (t) 1(t) t 1(t) t n 1(t) sin(bt)1(t) cos(bt)1(t) eat sin(bt)1(t) eat cos(bt)1(t) t sin(bt)1(t) t cos(bt)1(t) Laplace tx., F(s) 1 1 s 1 s2 n! s n+1 b s 2 + b2 s s 2 + b2 b (s + a)2 + b2 s+a (s + a)2 + b2 2bs (s 2 + b2)2 s 2 b2 (s 2 + b2)2

Properties of the Laplace Transform Superposition: Time delay:

{a f1(t) + b f 2(t)} = a F1(s) + bF2(s).

{ f (t )} = es F(s). 1 s Time Scaling: { f (at)} = F .

|a| a (useful if original equations are expressed poorly in time scale. e.g., measuring disk-drive seek speed in hours).

Differentiation:

f (t) = s F(s) f (0) f (t) = s 2 F(s) s f (0) f (0)


.. .

f (m)(t) = s m F(s) s m1 f (0) . . . f (m1)(0).

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, DYNAMIC RESPONSE

38 t

Integration:

1 = F(s). s 0 Convolution: Recall that y(t) = h(t) u(t)

f ( ) d

Y (s) = {y(t)} = {h(t) u(t)} = = =


t =0 t

h( )u(t ) d h( )u(t ) d est dt h( )u(t ) est dt d.

=t

t=0 =0

=0 t=

Region of integration

Multiply by es es Y (s) = Let t = t :

=0

h( )e

t=

u(t )es(t ) dt d.

Y (s) =

=0

h( )e

t =0

u(t )est dt

Y (s) = H (s)U (s). The Laplace transform unwraps convolution for general input signals. Makes system easy to analyze. The Inverse Laplace Transform The inverse Laplace Transform converts F(s) f (t). Once we get an intuitive feel for F(s), we wont need to do this often.

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

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The main tool for ILT is partial-fraction-expansion. b0s m + b1s m1 + + bm Assume : F(s) = n s + aa s n1 + + an (zeros) (poles) c1 c2 cn = + + + if { pi } distinct. s p1 s p2 s pn c2(s p1) cn (s p1 ) so, (s p1 )F(s) = c1 + + + s p2 s pn let s = p1 : c1 = (s p1)F(s)|s= p1 ci = (s pi )F(s)|s= pi
n

f (t) =
i =1

ci e pi t 1(t)

since ekt 1(t) =

EXAMPLE :

F(s) =

5 5 = . s 2 + 3s + 2 (s + 1)(s + 2) 5 c1 = (s + 1)F(s) = =5 s=1 s + 2 s=1 5 c2 = (s + 2)F(s) = = 5 s=2 s + 1 s=2

f (t) = (5et 5e2t )1(t). If F(s) has repeated roots, we must modify the procedure. e.g., repeated three times: k F(s) = (s p1)3(s p2) c1,1 c1,2 c1,3 c2 = + + + + s p1 (s p1)2 (s p1)3 s p2 c1,3 = (s p1)3 F(s)
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

s= p1

=k

m i =1 (s z i ) n i =1 (s pi )

1 . sk

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c1,2 = c1,1 cx,ki


EXAMPLE :

d (s p1 )3 F(s) ds

s= p1

1 d2 = (s p1)3 F(s) 2 2 ds 1 di (s pi )k F(s) = i! ds i s +3 . (s + 1)(s + 2)2

s= p1

.
s= pi

Find ILT of

ans: f (t) = (2et 2e2t te2t )1(t). from repeated root. TEDIOUS. Use Matlab. e.g., F(s) =
Example 1. >> Fnum = [0 0 5]; >> Fden = [1 3 2]; [r,p,k] = residue(Fnum,Fden); r = -5 5 p = -2 -1 k = []

5 . s 2 + 3s + 2
Example 2. >> Fnum = [0 0 1 3]; >> Fden = conv([1 1],conv([1 2],[1 2])); [r,p,k] = residue(Fnum,Fden); r = -2 -1 2 p = -2 -2 -1 k = []

When you use residue and get repeated roots, BE SURE to type help residue to correctly interpret the result.
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

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Using the Laplace Transform to Solve Problems We can use the Laplace transform to solve both homogeneous and forced differential equations.
EXAMPLE :

y (t) + y(t) = 0,

..

y(0) = , y (0) = . s 2Y (s) s + Y (s) = 0

Y (s)(s 2 + 1) = s + s + Y (s) = 2 s +1 s = 2 + 2 . s +1 s +1 From tables, y(t) = [ cos(t) + sin(t)]1(t). If initial conditions are zero, things are very simple.
EXAMPLE : .. .

y (t)+5 y (t)+4y(t) = u(t),

y(0 ) = 0, y (0) = 0, u(t) = 2e2t 1(t). 2 s 2Y (s) + 5sY (s) + 4Y (s) = s+2 2 Y (s) = (s + 2)(s + 1)(s + 4) 1 2/3 1/3 = + + . s+2 s+1 s+4

2 1 From tables, y(t) = e2t + et + e4t 1(t). 3 3 Time Response vs. Pole Locations: 1st-Order Pole(s) (stable) Pole = root of denominator of H (s) = b(s)/a(s). Poles qualitatively determine the behavior of the system.
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

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Zeros quantify this relationship.


EXAMPLE :

1 h(t) = e t 1(t). s+ If > 0, pole is at s < 0, STABLE i.e., impulse response decays, and any bounded input produces bounded output. H (s) = If < 0, pole is at s > 0, UNSTABLE. is time constant factor: = 1/ .
impulse([0 1],[1 1]);
1 1

step([0 1],[1 1]);

0.8

0.8

h(t)

0.6

y(t) K

0.6

K (1 et/ ) System response. K = dc gain

0.4

1 e

0.4

0.2

0.2

Response to initial condition 0.


t =
1 2 3 4 5

0 0

t =

0 0

Time (sec )

Time (sec )

Time Response vs. Pole Locations: 2nd-Order Poles (stable)


2 b0 K n H (s) = 2 = 2 s + a1s + a2 s 2 + 2 n s + n

(standard form).

= damping ratio. n = natural frequency or undamped frequency. n h(t) = e t (sin(d t)) 1(t), 1 2 where, = n , d = n 1 2 = damped frequency.

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

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= sin ( ) n

(s) 45

(s) 30

(s) 17.5

(s)

(s)

(s)

(s)

(s)

= 0.707 Impulse Response


1

= 0.5

= 0.3

0.5

e t Envelope of sinusoid decays as e t

h(t)

0.5

e t

1 0

10

15

20

25

30

Time (sec) Impulse Responses of 2nd-Order Systems


1

Step Responses of 2nd-Order Systems


2

=0 0.2 0.4 0.6

=0 0.2

0.5

1.5

0.4

y(t)

y(t)

0.6

=1
0.5

0.8

0.5

0.8 1.0

1 0

n t

10

12

0 0

n t

10

12

Low damping, 0, oscillatory; High damping, 1, no oscillations.

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

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314

(s)

(s)

(s) Impulse responses vs. pole locations Step responses vs. pole locations

(s)

0 < < 1 underdamped. =1 critically damped, > 1 overdamped.

Time Domain Specications We have seen impulse and step responses for rst- and second-order systems. Our control problem may be to specify exactly what the response SHOULD be. Usually expressed in terms of the step response.
tp 1 0.9 Mp

0.1 tr ts

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

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tr = Rise time = time to reach vicinity of new set point. ts = Settling time = time for transients to decay (to 5%, 2%, 1%). M p = Percent overshoot. t p = Time to peak.

Rise Time
All step responses rise in roughly the same amount of time (see pg. 3313.) Take = 0.5 to be average. time from 0.1 to 0.9 is approx n tr = 1.8: 1.8 tr . n We could make this more accurate, but note: Only valid for 2nd-order systems with no zeros. Use this as approximate design rule of thumb and iterate design until spec. is met.

Peak Time and Overshoot


Step response can be found from ILT of H (s)/s. y(t) = 1 e t cos(d t) + sin(d t) , d d = n 1 2,
.

= n .

Peak occurs when y (t) = 0 . y (t) = e t cos(d t) + sin(d t) e t (d sin(d t) + cos(d t)) d =e
t

2 sin(d t) + d sin(d t) = 0. d

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

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316
100 90 80 70

So,

d t p = , tp = = . 2 d n 1 / 1 2 Mp = e 100.

M p, %

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0.2 0.4

(common values: M p = 16% for = 0.5; M p = 5% for = 0.7).

0.6

0.8

1.0

Settling Time
Determined mostly by decaying exponential en ts = ... = 0.01, 0.02, or 0.05
EXAMPLE :

= 0.01 en ts = 0.01 n ts = 4.6 4.6 4.6 ts = = n Design Synthesis

ts 0.01 ts = 4.6/ 0.02 ts = 3.9/ 0.05 ts = 3.0/

Specications on tr , ts , M p determine pole locations. n 1.8/tr . fn(M p ). 4.6/ts . (read off of versus M p graph on page 3316) (for examplesettling to 1%)

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

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(s) n (s) sin1

(s) (s)

(s)

(s)

(s)

(s)

EXAMPLE :

Converting specs. to s-plane

Specs: tr 0.6, M p 10%, ts 3 sec. at 1% n 1.8/tr = 3.0 rad/sec. From graph of M p versus , 0.6. 4.6/3 = 1.5 sec.
3 2 1

(s)

0 1 2 3 5

(s)

EXAMPLE :

Designing motor compensator

Suppose a servo-motor system for a pen-plotter has transfer function 2 0.5K a n = 2 . 2 s 2 + 2s + 0.5K a s + 2 n s + n Only one adjustable parameter K a , so can choose only one spec: tr , ts or M p Allow NO overshoot.
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

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M p = 0, = 1. From transfer fn: 2 = 2 n


2 n = 12 = 0.5K a ,

n = 1.

K a = 2.0

Note: ts = 4.6 seconds. We will need a better controller than this for a pen plotter! Time Response vs. Pole Locations: Higher Order Systems We have looked at rst-order and second-order systems without zeros, and with unity gain.

Non-unity gain
If we multiply by K , the dc gain is K . tr , ts , M p , t p are not affected.

Add a zero to a second-order system


2 H1(s) = (s + 1)(s + 2) 2 2 = s+1 s +2 2(s + 1.1) H2(s) = 1.1(s + 1)(s + 2) 0.1 2 0.9 = + 1.1 s + 1 s + 2 0.18 1.64 = + s+1 s+2

Same dc gain (at s = 0). Coefcient of (s + 1) pole GREATLY reduced. General conclusion: a zero near a pole tends to cancel the effect of that pole. How about transient response? H (s) =
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

(s/ n ) + 1 . (s/n )2 + 2 s/n + 1

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Zero at s = . Poles at (s) = . Large , zero far from poles no effect. 1, large effect. Notice that the overshoot goes up as 0.
2nd-order system with zero
2

Overshoot versus normalized zero loc.


2 1.5

Step Response

1.5

= 0.3 0.5 0.7

Mp
6 8 10

0.5

=1 2 4 100
2 4

0.5

0 0

n t

0 0

10

A little more analysis; set n = 1 s/ + 1 H (s) = 2 s + 2 s + 1 1 1 s = 2 + s + 2 s + 1 s 2 + 2 s + 1 = Ho (s) + Hd (s). Ho (s) is the original response, without the zero. Hd (s) is the added term due to the zero. Notice that 1 Hd (s) = s Ho (s). The time response is a scaled version of the DERIVATIVE of the time response of Ho (s). If any of the zeros in RHP, system is NONMINIMUM PHASE.
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

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2nd-order min-phase step resp.


2 1.5 1.5

2nd-order nonmin-phase step resp.


1 0.5

H (s) y(t) Ho (s)

Ho (s) H (s) Hd (s)


2

y(t)

0 0.5

0.5

Hd (s)
2

1 1.5 0

0.5 0

Time (sec)

10

Time (sec)

10

Add a pole to a second order system


H (s) = 1 . (s/ n + 1)[(s/n )2 + 2 s/n + 1]

Original poles at (s) = = n . New pole at s = n . Major effect is an increase in rise time.
2nd-order system with pole
1.4 9 8 7 6

Norm. rise time vs. norm. pole loc.

Step Response

1.2 1

0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 1 2 3 4

100 5 2 =1 n t
5 6 7 8

n tr

0.8

5 4 3 2 1 0 2 4

= 1.0 0.7 0.5

10

Summary of Higher-Order Approximations Extra zero in LHP will increase overshoot if the zero is within a factor of 4 from the real part of complex poles.
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

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Extra zero in RHP depresses overshoot, and may cause step response to start in wrong direction. DELAY . Extra pole in LHP increases rise-time if extra pole is within a factor of 4 from the real part of complex poles.
(s) Insignicant Dominant Unstable region (s)

MATLAB step and impulse commands can plot higher order system responses. Since a model is an approximation of a true system, it may be all right to reduce the order of the system to a rst or second order system. If higher order poles and zeros are a factor of 5 or 10 time farther from the imaginary axis. Analysis and design much easier. Numerical accuracy of simulations better for low-order models. 1st- and 2nd-order models provide us with great intuition into how the system works. May be just as accurate as high-order model, since high-order model itself may be inaccurate. Changing Dynamic Response Topic of the rest of the course.
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

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Important tools: block diagram manipulation and Masons rule. Block Diagram Manipulation We have already seen block diagrams (see pg. 113). Shows information/energy ow in a system. When used with Laplace transforms, can simplify complex system dynamics. Four BASIC congurations:
U (s) H (s) Y (s) Y (s) = H (s)U (s)

U (s)

H1 (s)

H2 (s)

Y (s)

Y (s) = [H1(s)H2(s)] U (s)

H1 (s) U (s) H2 (s) U1 (s) = R(s) Y2 (s) R(s) U1 (s) Y2 (s) = H2(s)H1(s)U1(s) H1 (s) Y (s) so, U1 (s) = R(s) H2(s)H1(s)U1(s) = Y2 (s) H2 (s) U2 (s) R(s) 1 + H2(s)H1(s) H1(s) R(s) 1 + H2(s)H1(s) Y (s) Y (s) = [H1(s) + H2 (s)] U (s)

Y (s) = H1(s)U1 (s) =

Alternate representation

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

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U (s) U (s) H1(s)

H (s) H2(s) H1(s)

Y (s) Y (s)

U (s) H2(s) R(s) H1(s) H2(s)


EXAMPLE :

Y (s)

Y (s)

Recall dc generator dynamics from page 2210


i f (t) R f e f (t) Lf Ra eg (t) L a i a (t) ea (t) Zl

e f (t)

Field circuit

Field circuit i f (t)

Kg

eg (t)

Rotor circuit Rotor circuit

Load circuit i a (t)

Zl

ea (t)

Compute the transfer functions of the four blocks. d if dt E f (s) = R f I f (s) + L f s I f (s) ef = Rfif + L f I f (s) 1 = . E f (s) Rf + L fs eg (t) = K g i f (t) E g (s) = K g I f (s) E g (s) = Kg. I f (s)

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

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ea (t) = i a (t)Z l E a (s) = Z l Ia (s) E a (s) = Zl . Ia (s)

d i a (t) + ea (t) dt E g (s) = Ra Ia (s) + L a s Ia (s) + E a (s) eg (t) = Ra i a (t) + L a = (Ra + L a s + Z l ) Ia (s) Ia (s) 1 . = E g (s) L a s + Ra + Z l

Put everything together. E a (s) E a (s) Ia (s) E g (s) I f (s) = E f (s) Ia (s) E g (s) I f (s) E f (s) = Block Diagram Algebra
U (s) H (s) Y1 (s) Y2 (s) U (s) H (s) 1 H (s) U1 (s) U2 (s) H (s) H (s) Y1 (s) Y2 (s)

K g Zl . L f s + R f (L a s + Ra + Z l )

U1 (s) U2 (s)

H (s)

Y (s)

Y (s)

R(s)

H1(s) H2(s)

Y (s)

R(s)

1 H2 (s)

H2(s)

H1(s)

Y (s)

Unity Feedback

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

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EXAMPLE :

Simplify:
H6 (s)

R(s)

H1 (s) H3 (s) H4 (s)

H2 (s)

H5 (s)

Y (s)

H6 (s) H1(s) 1 H1 (s)H3(s) H4 (s) H6(s) H2(s) R(s) H1(s) 1 H1 (s)H3(s) H4 (s) H2 (s) H5 (s) Y (s) H2 (s) H5 (s) Y (s)

R(s)

H1 (s)H2 (s) 1H1 (s)H3 (s) H (s)H2(s)H4 (s) 1+ 1 1H1 (s)H3(s)

H5(s)+ H6(s)
2

H (s)

R(s)

H1 (s)H2(s)H5(s) + H1 (s)H6(s) 1 H1 (s)H3(s) + H1(s)H2(s)H4(s)

Y (s)

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

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Masons Rule If you dont care to simplify a block diagram using block diagram manipulation, you can use Masons Rule. Node = Common input to several blocks, or output of summing junction.
U (s) H1 (s) H2(s) Y (s)

Path = Sequence of connected blocks, from one variable to another, in the direction of signal ow, without including any variable more than once. Forward Path = Path from input to output. Loop = Path from node back to itself. Path Gain = Product of all transfer functions in a path. Loop Gain = Product of all transfer functions in a loop. Nontouching = Two loops are nontouching if they have no nodes in common.
G6 G1 H1 G2 G3 H2 G4 G5

2 Loops: ,

Nontouching.

2 Forward paths: Touches both loops. Does not touch rst loop, but touches second loop.

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

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Masons Rule p 1 T = Mk
k=1

M1

+ M2

+ + Mp

= 1 (sum of ALL (touching or not) individual loop gains) +(sum of the products of loop gains of all possible combinations of nontouching loops taken two at a time) (sum of the products of loop gains of all possible combinations of nontouching loops taken three at a time) + Mk = Path gain of kth forward path
k

= Value of

for that part of the ow graph not touching the kth

forward path. Key to using rule = organization! Above example: Find the loop- and the forward path-gains. Loops: L 1 : ; Gain=H1 G 2. L 2 : ; Gain=H2 G 4. Forward Paths: M1 : ; Gain=G 1 G 2 G 3 G 4 G 5 M2 : ; Gain=G 6 G 4 G 5. = 1 (L 1 + L 2) + L 1 L 2 = 1 + H1 G 2 + H2 G 4 + H1 H2 G 2 G 4.
k

is easiest determined by redrawing owgraph without path k.

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, DYNAMIC RESPONSE

328

G6 Path 1 removed. No loops. 1 =10 H1 H2

G1

G2 H1

G3 H2
1

Path 2 removed. One loop with gain G 2 H1. 2 = 1 (G 2 H1 )

T =

M1

+ M2

G 1 G 2 G 3 G 4 G 5 + G 6 G 4 G 5(1 + H1 G 2) . 1 + H1 G 2 + H2 G 4 + H1 H2 G 2 G 4

Masons rule may be shorter that block-diagram manipulation. Use the method with which you are most comfortable.

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510: Feedback Control Systems.

41

BASIC PROPERTIES OF FEEDBACK


Two basic types of control systems:
OPEN LOOP :

Disturbance r (t) y(t)

Ctrlr

Plant

CLOSED LOOP :

Disturbance y(t)

r (t)

Ctrlr

Plant

Sensor

We will compare these systems in a number of ways: disturbance rejection, sensitivity, dynamic tracking, steady state error and stability. DC Motor Speed Control Recall equations of motion for a dc motor (pg. 2211) but add load torque.
i a (t) Ra ea (t) La eb (t) Armature (t), (t) b J l , load

Load

Assume that we are trying to control motor speed:


Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, BASIC PROPERTIES OF FEEDBACK

. J + b = k i a + l let output y = , . di a disturbance w = l . ke + L a + Ra i a = ea dt . y + by = k i a + w J s J Y (s) + bY (s) = k Ia (s) + W (s) di a ke Y (s) + s L a Ia (s) + Ra Ia (s) = E a (s) ke y + L a + Ra i a = ea dt
.. .

42

(J L a s s + bL a s + J Ra s + b Ra + k ke )Y (s) = k E a (s) + (Ra + L a s)W (s) This can be re-written as (magic happens) (1s + 1)(2s + 1)Y (s) = AE a (s) + BW (s) 1 Ra J/(k ke ) = mechanical time constant 2 L a /Ra = electrical time constant A = k /(b Ra + k ke ) B = Ra /(b Ra + k ke ) So, Y (s) = A B E a (s) + W (s). (1s + 1)(2s + 1) (1s + 1)(2s + 1)

If ea (t) = ea 1(t) (constant) and w(t) = w 1(t) (constant), What is steady state output? Recall Laplace-transform nal value theorem:
If a signal has a constant nal value, it may be found as yss = lim sY (s).
s0

ea w , W (s) = , yss = Aea + Bw. s s This is the response of the open-loop system (without a controller). E a (s) =
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

So,

ECE4510, BASIC PROPERTIES OF FEEDBACK

43

Dist. w(t) r (t) ea (t)

B A

Motor A (1s + 1)(2s + 1) y(t)

Ctrlr

Lets make a simple controller for the open-loop system. ea (t) = K ol r(t), (gain of K ol ) Choose K ol so that there is no steady-state error when w = 0. yss = AK ol rss + Bwss K ol = 1/A. Is closed-loop any better?
Dist. w(t) r (t) ea (t) B A A (1s + 1)(2s + 1) 1 Tachometer y(t)

Ctrlr

Lets make a similar controller for the closed-loop system (with the possibility of a different value of K .) ea (t) = K cl (r(t) y(t)) The transfer function for the closed-loop system is: AK cl B Y (s) = W (s) (R(s) Y (s)) + (1s + 1)(2s + 1) (1s + 1)(2s + 1) AK cl B = R(s) + W (s) (1s + 1)(2s + 1) + AK cl (1s + 1)(2s + 1) + AK cl AK cl yss = rss , assuming w = 0. 1 + AK cl
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, BASIC PROPERTIES OF FEEDBACK

44

If AK cl

1, yss rss .

Open-loop with load: yss = AK ol rss + Bwss = rss + Bwss y = Bwss . Closed-loop with load: yss = AK cl B rss + wss 1 + AK cl 1 + AK cl B y wss . 1 + AK cl 1.

which is much better than open-loop since AK cl


ADVANTAGE OF FEEDBACK:

Better disturbance rejection (by factor of

1 + AK cl ). Sensitivity The steady-state gain of the open-loop system is: 1.0 How does this change if the motor constant A changes? A A + A G ol + G ol = K ol ( A + A) 1 = ( A + A) A A = 1+ . A gain error In relative terms: G ol A A = = 1.0 . G ol A A sensitivity

Therefore, a 10% change in A 10% change in gain. Sensitivity=1.0.


Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, BASIC PROPERTIES OF FEEDBACK

45

Steady-state gain of closed-loop system is:

AK cl . 1 + AK cl ( A + A)K cl G cl + G cl = . 1 + ( A + A)K cl

From calculus (law of total differential) dG cl G cl = A dA or G cl A dG cl A = G cl G cl d A A sensitivity


G S A cl = S A cl
G

A (1 + AK cl )K cl K cl ( AK cl ) AK cl /(1 + AK cl ) (1 + AK cl )2 1 = . 1 + AK cl Lower sensitivity to modeling error (by a

ADVANTAGE OF FEEDBACK :

factor of 1 + AK cl ) Dynamic Tracking Steady-state response of closed-loop better than open-loop: Better disturbance rejection, better (lower) sensitivity. What about transient response? Open-loop system: Poles at roots of (1s + 1)(2s + 1) s = 1/1, s = 1/2. Closed-loop system: Poles at roots of (1s + 1)(2s + 1) + AK cl . s= (1 + 2) (1 + 2)2 412(1 + AK cl ) . 212

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, BASIC PROPERTIES OF FEEDBACK

46

FEEDBACK MOVES POLES System may have faster/slower response System may be more/less damped System may become unstable!!! Often a high gain K cl results in instability. We need design tools to help us design the dynamic response of the closed-loop system. For this dc motor example, we can get step responses of the following form:
1.5

High K cl y(t)
1

0.5

Low K cl
2 4 6 8 10

0 0

Time (sec)

PID Control General control setup:


R(s) D(s) Disturbance Y (s)

G(s)

Need to design controller D(s). One option is PID (Proportional Integral Derivative) control design.
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, BASIC PROPERTIES OF FEEDBACK

47

Extremely popular. 90+% of all controllers are PID. Doesnt mean that they are great, just popular. We just saw proportional control where u(t) = K e(t), or D(s) = K . Proportional control allows non-zero steady state error. Increases speed of response. Larger transient overshoot. Integral control eliminates steady state error. D(s) = Dynamic response gets worse. Derivative control damps dynamic response. D(s) = K D s. KI . s

Proportional Control
u(t) = K (r(t) y(t)) = K e(t) ... D(s) = K .

May have steady state error, may not be able to completely reject a constant disturbance.
EXAMPLE:

Determine behavior of closed loop poles for the dc motor. Y (s) AK = . R(s) (1s + 1)(2s + 1) + AK

Poles are roots of (1s + 1)(2s + 1) + AK . Without feedback, K 0. s1 = 1/1, With feedback, s1 , s 2 = (1 + 2) (1 + 2)2 412 (1 + AK ) . 212 s2 = 1/2.

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, BASIC PROPERTIES OF FEEDBACK

48

(1 2 )2 K = 412 A K =0 1 2 K =0 1 1 1 + 2 212

(s)

(s)

(We will see many root-locus plots in this course!) (1 2)2 After a certain gain K = , the poles go straight up and down. 412 A Settling time remains the same, rise time decreases, damping decreases (more overshoot.) For larger systems increasing K leads to instability. How do we improve accuracy, but keep stability?

Integral and Proportional Integral Control


K t K Pure integral control: u(t) = e( ) d, D(s) = . TI 0 TI s TI = Integral time = time for output = K with input = 1. Integral feedback can give nonzero control even if e = 0 because of memory. No steady state error, and constant disturbances can be canceled (completely). K EXAMPLE: Substitute: u(t) = TI equations.
t 0

(r( ) y( )) d into dc-motor

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, BASIC PROPERTIES OF FEEDBACK

49 t 0

K 12 y (t) + (1 + 2) y (t) + y(t) = A TI Differentiate,


... .. .

..

(r( ) y( )) d + Bw(t).

AK . (r(t) y(t)) + B w(t) TI ... .. . AK AK . y (t) + (1 + 2) y (t) + y (t) + 12 y(t) = r(t) + B w(t). TI TI 12 y (t) + (1 + 2) y (t) + y (t) = If r(t) = cst, w(t) = cst, w(t) = 0, AK AK yss = rss TI TI Steady-state improves Dynamic response degrades. Very oscillatory. Possibly unstable. Can be improved by adding proportional term to integral term. u(t) = K e(t) +
0 t

no error.
(s)

K =0K =0 1 1 2 1

(s)

K e( ) d, TI

D(s) = K 1 +

1 . TI s

Poles are at 12s 3 + (1 + 2)s 2 + (1 + AK )s + Two degrees of freedom. AK = 0. TI

Derivative and Proportional Derivative Control


u(t) = K TD e(t),
.

D(s) = K TD s.

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, BASIC PROPERTIES OF FEEDBACK

410

TD = Derivative time. PURE DERIVATIVE CONTROL IMPRACTICAL SINCE DERIVATIVE MAGNIFIES SENSOR NOISE! Practical version = Lead control, which we will study later. Stabilizes system. Does nothing to reduce constant error! If e(t) = 0, then u(t) = 0. Motor Control: Poles at roots of 12s 2 + (1 + 2 + AK TD )s + 1 = 0. TD enters term, can make damping better. PD = Proportional plus derivative control D(s) = K (1 + TD s) Root locus for dc motor, PD control.
(s) 1 2 1 TD 1 1 (s) .

Proportional Integral Derivative Control


D(s) = K 1 + 1 + TD s . TI s Need ways to design parameters K , TI , TD . In general (i.e., not always), K , TI error , stability TD stability

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, BASIC PROPERTIES OF FEEDBACK

411

For speed control problem, 1 u(t) = K (r(t) y(t)) + TI


t 0

(r( ) y( )) d + TD (r(t) y (t)) .

(math happens). Solve for poles 12 TI s 3 + TI ((1 + 2) + AK TD )s 2 + TI (1 + AK )s + AK = 0 AK 1 + 2 + AK TD 2 1 + AK s + s+ s3 + = 0. 12 12 12 TI Three coefcients, three parameters. We can put poles anywhere! Complete control of dynamics in this case. Entire transfer functions are: Y (s) TI Bs = . W (s) TI 12s 3 + TI (1 + 2)s 2 + TI (1 + AK )s + AK Y (s) AK (TI s + 1) = . R(s) TI 12s 3 + TI (1 + 2)s 2 + TI (1 + AK )s + AK We can plot responses in MATLAB:
num = [TI*B 0]; den = [TI*TAU1*TAU2 TI*(TAU1+TAU2) TI*(1+A*K) A*K]; step(num, den) Step Reference Response
1.6 1.4

Step Disturbance Response


1.6 1.4

y(t) (rad/sec)

1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 0.01 0.02

y(t) (rad/sec)

PI P

1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2

PID

PI PID

0.03

0.04

0.05

0 0

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

Time (sec)

Time (sec)

Ziegler - Nichols Tuning of PID Controllers Rules of Thumb for selecting K , TI , TD .


Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, BASIC PROPERTIES OF FEEDBACK

412

Not optimal in any sensejust provide good performance.


METHOD I :

If system has step response like this,


Slope, A/

Y (s) Aed s = , U (s) s + 1 (rst-order system plus delay)


d

We can easily identify A, d , from this step response. Dont need complex model! Tuning criteria: Ripple in impulse response decays to 25% of its value in one period of ripple
1 0.25 Period
RESULTING TUNING RULES :

P K = Ad

PI 0.9 A d d TI = 0.3 K =

PID 1.2 K = Ad TI = 2d TD = 0.5d

METHOD II :

Congure system as
r (t) Ku Plant y(t)

Turn up gain K u until system produces oscillations (on stability boundary) K u = ultimate gain.
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, BASIC PROPERTIES OF FEEDBACK

413

Period, Pu

RESULTING TUNING RULES :

P K = 0.5K u

PI K = 0.45K u 1 TI = Pu 1.2

PID K = 0.6K u TI = 0.5Pu Pu TD = 8

Practical Problem: Integrator Overload Integrator in PI or PID control can cause problems. For example, suppose there is saturation in the actuator. Error will not decrease. Integrator will integrate a constant error and its value will blow up. Solution = integrator anti-windup. Turn off integration when actuator saturates.
K e(t) K TI s u(t) u min u max Ka

Doing this is NECESSARY in any practical implementation. Omission leads to bad response, instability.

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, BASIC PROPERTIES OF FEEDBACK

414

Step Response
1.6 1 1.4 1.2 1

Control Effort
0.8 0.6

Without antiwindup u(t)

Without antiwindup

y(t)

0.4 0.2 0 0.2 0.4

0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0

With antiwindup

With antiwindup
2

10

0.6 0

Time (sec)

Time (sec)

10

Steady-State Error System error is any difference between r(t) and y(t). Two sources: 1. Imprecise tracking of r(t). 2. Disturbance affecting the system output. Steady-State Error (w.r.t. Reference Input) We have already seen examples of CL systems that have some tracking error (proportional ctrl) or not (integral ctrl) to a step input. We will formalize this concept here. Start with very general control structure:
r (t) T (s) y(t)

The closed-loop transfer function for the whole system, Y (s) T (s) = . R(s) The error is E(s) = R(s) Y (s)

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, BASIC PROPERTIES OF FEEDBACK

415

= R(s) T (s)R(s) = [1 T (s)] R(s). Assume conditions of nal value theorem are satised (i.e., T (s) is stable) ess = lim e(t) = lim s[1 T (s)]R(s).
t s0

tk We use test inputs of the type: r(t) = 1(t); k!


1(t) t 1(t)

R(s) =
t2 1(t) 2

1 s k+1

As k increases, tracking is progressively harder. 0, type > K ; 1 T (s) ess = lim = constant, type = K ; s0 sk , type < K . If system type = 0, constant steady-state error for step input, innite s.s. error for ramp or parabolic input. If system type = 1, no steady-state error for step input, constant s.s. error for ramp input, innite s.s. error for parabolic input. If system type = 2, no steady-state error for step or ramp inputs, constant s.s. error for parabolic inputs. And so forth, for higher-order system types. Ramp responses of different system types:

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, BASIC PROPERTIES OF FEEDBACK

416

Type 0 System

Type 1 System

Type 2 System

DANGER : Higher order sounds better but they are harder to stabilize and design. Transient response may be poor.

UNITY FEEDBACK: SPECIAL CASE


NOTE : The following method is a special case of the above general method. Be careful to use the apropriate method for the problem at hand! Unity-feedback is when the control system looks like:
r (t) G ol (s) y(t)

There are some important simplications: G ol (s) T (s) = 1 + G ol (s) 1 + G ol (s) G ol (s) 1 T (s) = 1 + G ol (s) 1 + G ol (s) 1 = . 1 + G ol (s) So, E(s) =
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

1 R(s). 1 + G ol (s)

ECE4510, BASIC PROPERTIES OF FEEDBACK

417

For the test inputs R(s) =

1
s0

s k+1 ess = lim s E(s) = lim 1 s0 [1 + G ol (s)]s k K p = lim G ol (s).


s0

For type 0, ess = lim For type 1, ess = lim For type 2, ess = lim 1 1 1 1 = lim 2 , = s0 1 + G ol (s) s 2 s0 s G ol (s) Ka K a = lim s 2 G ol (s).
s0

1 1 , = s0 1 + G ol (s) 1 + Kp

1 1 1 1 , = lim = s0 1 + G ol (s) s s0 sG ol (s) Kv

K v = lim sG ol (s).
s0

These formulas only meaningful for unity-feedback! K p = lim G ol (s). position error constant
s0

K v = lim sG ol (s).
s0

velocity error constant acceleration error constant

K a = lim s 2 G ol (s).
s0

Steady-state tracking errors ess for unity-feedback case ONLY. Sys. Type Type 0 Type 1 Type 2 Step Input 1 1 + Kp 0 0 Ramp Input 1 Kv 0 Parabola Input 1 Ka

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, BASIC PROPERTIES OF FEEDBACK

418

EXAMPLES:

(1) Consider G ol (s) =

s+1 ; System type? (s + 2)(s + 3) G ol (0) =

1 1 = . 23 6 1 6 Therefore, type= 0, ess to unit step= = . 1 + 1/6 7 (s + 1)(s + 10)(s 5) (2) Consider G ol (s) = 2 ; System type? (s + 3s)(s 4 + s 2 + 1) 1 10 (5) = Type > 0. 01 (s + 1)(s + 10)(s 5) sG ol (s) = (s + 3)(s 4 + s 2 + 1) 1 10 (5) 50 sG ol (s)|s=0 = = . 31 3 3 Therefore, type= 1, ess to unit ramp= . 50 s 2 + 2s + 1 (3) Consider G ol (s) = 4 ; System type?. s + 3s 3 + 2s 2 1 G ol (0) = = Type > 0 0 s 2 + 2s + 1 sG ol (s) = 3 s + 3s 2 + 2s 1 sG ol (s)|s=0 = = Type > 1 0 s 2 + 2s + 1 2 s G ol (s) = 2 s + 3s + 2 1 s 2 G ol (s) s=0 = Type = 2. 2 G ol (0) =
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, BASIC PROPERTIES OF FEEDBACK

419

Therefore, type= 2, ess to unit parabola= 2.


KEY POINT:

Open-loop G(s) = G ol (s) tells us about closed-loop s.s. response.


DC-motor example with Proportional control.
r (t) Ctrlr A (1s + 1)(2s + 1) y(t)

EXAMPLE:

Controller: D(s) = K . D(s)G(s) = KA , (1s + 1)(2s + 1)


s0

lim D(s)G(s) = K A. 1 . (This 1+KA

So system is type 0, with s.s. error to step input of agrees with prior results.)
EXAMPLE :

DC-motor example with PI control 1 . TI s KA+


KA TI s

Controller: D(s) = K 1 +

s0

(1s + 1)(2s + 1) lim D(s)G(s) = KA . TI

D(s)G(s) =

s0

lim s D(s)G(s) =

System is type 1, with s.s. error to ramp input of


EXAMPLE :

TI . KA

DC-motor with another integrator

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, BASIC PROPERTIES OF FEEDBACK

420

Controller: D(s) = K 1 +

1 1 . + TI s TI s 2 KA+
KA TI s

(1s + 1)(2s + 1) KA lim s 2 D(s)G(s) = . s0 TI System is type 2, with s.s. error to parabolic input of Steady State Error (w.r.t. Disturbance) Recall, system error is any difference between r(t) and y(t). One source of system error is disturbance. Can nd system type with respect to disturbance. Y (s) = Tw (s) W (s) such that Y (s) = T (s)R(s) + Tw (s)W (s). TI . KA

D(s)G(s) =

KA TI s 2

We do not wish the output to have ANY disturbance term in it, so the output error due to the disturbance is equal to the output due to the disturbance. ess = yss = lim sTw (s)W (s).
s0

Type 0 system (w.r.t. disturbance) has constant lim Tw (s).


s0

Tw (s) . s0 s Tw (s) Type 2 system (w.r.t. disturbance) has constant lim 2 . s0 s Type 1 system (w.r.t. disturbance) has constant lim
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510: Feedback Control Systems.

51

STABILITY ANALYSIS
Many classications of stability in system analysis. For LTI systems, all are basically the same BIBO.

Stable

Neutral

Unstable

If input is bounded: |u(t)| < K 1, then output is also bounded |y(t)| < K 2. In the time domain, y(t) = |y(t)| =

h( )u(t ) d h( )u(t ) d

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, STABILITY ANALYSIS

52

|h( )| |u(t )| d

K1 So if a system is BIBO stable,


u(t) C y(t)

|h( )| d. |h( )| d < . Note: (h(t) = 1(t)).

Stable?

In the Laplace domain, Y (s) K H (s) = = R(s) (assume poles unique)


n

zi ) n 1 (s pi )

m 1 (s

m n.

h(t) =
i =1

ki e pi t iff ( pi ) < 0 i.

|h( )| d <

(If poles are not distinct, h(t) will have terms k t m1e pi t (m 1)! for an mth order root.

|h( )| d <

iff

( pi ) < 0;

Same condition.) Laplace-domain condition for stability: All poles in the transfer function must be in the open left hand plane. (i.e., none on j axis.)

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, STABILITY ANALYSIS

53

EXAMPLE :

T (s) =

2 . Is T (s) stable? s 2 + 3s + 2 2 T (s) = , (s + 1)(s + 2)

Roots at s = 1, s = 2. Stable! 10s + 24 EXAMPLE : T (s) = . Is T (s) stable? s 3 + 2s 2 11s 12 10(s + 2.4) T (s) = , (s + 1)(s 3)(s + 4) Roots at s = 1, s = +3, s = 4. Unstable! s EXAMPLE: T (s) = . Is T (s) stable? s2 + 1 s T (s) = , (s j)(s + j) Roots at s = j. MARGINALLY stable. Use input = sin(t). Y (s) = s 1 s = 2 s 2 + 1 s 2 + 1 (s + 1)2 y(t) = t sin(t) . . . unbounded.

MARGINALLY stable = unstable (bounded impulse response, but unbounded output for some inputs.) Routh Hurwitz Stability Criterion Factoring high-degree polynomials to nd roots is tedious and numerically not well conditioned. Want other stability tests, and also MARGINS of stability.

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, STABILITY ANALYSIS

54

(1) Routh test Can you tell this is (2) Root locus an important topic? (3) Nyquist test (4) Bode stability margins In 1868, Maxwell found conditions on the coefcients of a transfer function polynomial of 2nd and 3rd order to guarantee stability. It became the subject of the 1877 Adams Prize to determine conditions for stability for higher-order polynomials. Routh won this prize, and the method is still useful.

Case 0
Consider the denominator a(s). 2nd order: a(s) = s 2 + a1s + a0 = (s p1 )(s p2) = s 2 ( p1 + p2)s + p1 p2. 3rd order: a(s) = s 3 + a2s 2 + a1s + a0 = (s p1 )(s p2)(s p3 ) = s 2 ( p1 + p2)s + p1 p2 s p3 = s 3 ( p1 + p2 + p3 )s 2 + ( p1 p2 + p1 p3 + p2 p3)s p1 p2 p3 .
TREND :

Stability none of the coefcients ai can be 0.

Does this trend continue?

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, STABILITY ANALYSIS

55

an1 = (1) sum of all roots. an2 = sum of products of roots taken two at a time. an3 = (1) sum of products of roots taken three at a time. . . . a0 = (1)n product of all roots. Conclusions: 1. If any coefcient ai = 0, not all roots in LHP. 2. If any coefcient ai < 0, at least one root in RHP.
TEST:

If any coefcient ai 0, system is unstable. a(s) = s 2 + 0s + 1.

EXAMPLE :

From conclusion (1), not all roots in LHP. Roots at s = j. Marginally stable.
EXAMPLE :

a(s) = s 3 + 2s 2 11s 12.

From conclusion (2), at least one root is in RHP. Roots at s = 1, s = 4, s = +3. Unstable.
EXAMPLE :

a(s) = s 3 + s 2 + 2s + 8.

We dont know yet if this system is stable or not. 1 j 15 Roots at s = 2, s = . Unstable, but how do we nd out 2 2 without factoring?
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, STABILITY ANALYSIS

56

Case 1
Once we have determined that ai 0 i, we need to run the Routh test. Very mechanical, not intuitive. Proof difcult. a(s) = s n + an1s n1 + + a1s + a0. Form Routh Array. sn s n1 s n2 s n3 . . . s1 s0 an an2 an4 an1 an3 an5 b1 b2 c1 c2 j1 k1
b1 = 1 an an2 an1 an1 an3 1 an an4 an1 an1 an5 1 an1 an3 b1 b1 b2 1 an1 an5 b1 b1 b3

b2 =

c1 =

c2 =
TEST :

Number of unstable roots = number of sign changes in left column. a(s) = s 3 + s 2 + 2s + 8.


b1 = c1 = 1 1 2 1 1 8 = (8 2) = 6 = 1 (0 + 68) = 8 6

EXAMPLE :

s3 1 2 s2 1 8 s 1 6 s0 8

1 1 8 6 6 0

Two sign changes (1 6,


Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

6 8) Two roots in RHP.

ECE4510, STABILITY ANALYSIS

57

EXAMPLE :

a(s) = s 2 + a1s + a0.


b1 = 1 1 a0 a1 a1 0 = 1 (0 a0 a1) = a0 a1

s 2 1 a0 s 1 a1 s 0 a0 Stable iff a1 > 0, a0 > 0.


EXAMPLE :

a(s) = s 3 + a2s 2 + a1s + a0. 1 a2 a1 a0


b1 = 1 1 a1 a2 a2 a0 = 1 (a0 a1 a2) a2 a0 a2

s3 s2 s
1

s0

a0 a1 a2 a0

= a1 c1 = 1 a2 a0 b1 b1 0 =

1 (a0b1 ) = a0. b1

Stable iff a2 > 0, a0 > 0, a1 >

a0 . a2

Case 2
0 Sometimes nd an element in rst column = 0 (!) 0 Replace with as 0.

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, STABILITY ANALYSIS

58

EXAMPLE :

a(s) = s 5 + 2s 4 + 2s 3 + 4s 2 + 11s + 10.


b1 = 1 1 2 2 2 4 =

1 (4 4) = 0 2 1 (10 22) = 6 2 1 12

b2 =

1 1 11 2 2 10 1 2 4 6

s5 s4 s3 new s 3 s2 s1 s0 If If

1 2 0 12 6 10

2 11 4 10 6 6 10

c1 =

(12 4 )

c2 =

1 2 10 0 6 10

(0 10 ) = 10

> 0, two sign changes. < 0, two sign changes. Two poles in RHP.

d1 =

12

12

12

(10 +

72

)6

1 e1 = 6

12 6

10 0

1 (0 60) = 10 6

Case 3
Sometimes an entire row in Routh array = 0. This means that polynomial factors such that one factor has conjugate-MIRROR-roots.
(s) (s) (s)

(s)

(s)

(s)

In any case, system is unstable. But how many RHP roots?


Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, STABILITY ANALYSIS

59

Complete Routh array by making polynomial a1(s) from last non-zero row in array. Poly has even orders of s only!! a1(s) is a factor of a(s). It is missing some orders of s, so IS NOT STABLE (by case 0.) We want to see if it has roots in the RHP or only on the j-axis. da1(s) Replace zero row with and continue. ds
EXAMPLE :

a(s) = s 4 + s 3 + 3s 2 + 2s + 2. 3 2 2 2 0
b1 = 1 1 3 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 0 = 1

s4 s3 s2 s1 new s 1 s0

1 1 1 0 2 2

b2 =

= 2

No sign changes in Routh array. So, no RHP roots. Roots of a1(s) at s = j 2. Marginally stable.

1 1 2 c1 = 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 0

= 0

a1(s) = s 2 + 2 da1(s) = 2s ds

d1 =

= 2

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, STABILITY ANALYSIS

510

EXAMPLE :

a(s) = s 4 + 4 (Hard). 1 0 4 0 0 0 0 4 4 4
a1 (s) = s 4 + 4; 1 1 0 4 4 0 1 1 4 4 4 0 1 4 0 4 4 0 da1(s) = 4s 3. ds = 0

s4 s3 new s 3 s2 new s 2 s1 s0

b1 =

16 4

b2 =

= 4

Two sign changes. Therefore 2 RHP poles. Other two poles are mirrors in LHP.

c1 =

16

d1 =

16

16

= 4

Design Tool Consider the system:


r (t) K s+1 s(s 1)(s + 6) y(t)

s+1 K s(s1)(s+6) Y (s) T (s) = = s+1 R(s) 1 + K s(s1)(s+6)

K (s + 1) s(s 1)(s + 6) + K (s + 1)

a(s) = s(s 1)(s + 6) + K (s + 1)


Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, STABILITY ANALYSIS

511

= s 3 + 5s 2 + (K 6)s + K . s3 s2 s
1

s0

1 K 6 5 K 4K 30 5 K

b1 =

1 1 K 6 5 5 K

1 (K 5(K 6)) 5

= (4K 30)/5. 1 5 K b1 b1 0 1 (b1 K ) = K b1

c1 =

For stability of the closed-loop system, K > 0, and K > 30/4.

Step response for different values of K .


2.5 2

Amplitude

1.5 1 0.5 0 0.5 0

K =25 K =13 K =7.5

10

12

Time (sec.)
EXAMPLE :

r (t)

K 1+

1 TI s

1 (s + 1)(s + 2)

y(t)

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, STABILITY ANALYSIS

512 K TI s+K

Y (s) s(s+1)(s+2) T (s) = = K TI s+K R(s) 1 + s(s+1)(s+2) = K TI s + K . s(s + 1)(s + 2) + K TI s + K

a(s) = s 3 + 3s 2 + (2 + K TI )s + K . s3 s2 s1 s
0

1 2 + K TI 3 K 6 + 3K TI K 3 K

b1 =

1 1 2 + K TI 3 3 K 1 3 K b1 b1 0

1 (K 3(2 + K TI )) 3 1 (b1 K ) = K b1

c1 =

For stability of the closed-loop system, 0 < K < 1 K > 0 for TI > . 3
1.2 1

6 1 for TI < or 1 3TI 3

K = 3, TI = 0.5 K = 1, TI = 0.25 K = 1, TI =

Amplitude

0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 2

10

12

Time (sec.)

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

Root Locus: Construction and Design


Plant

R( s )

+ _

Gp ( s )

Y( s ) K is a positive parameter that can be changed

K .Gp ( s ) Y( s ) R ( s ) 1 K .Gp ( s ) s Gp ( s )
m n

}
......

Closed Loop Transfer Function

am bn

1 1

.s m
1

.s n

....... m n N( s ) D( s )

a0 N ( s ) b D( s )
0

General Form for the Transfer Function

N( s )

and

D( s )

are polynomials where

Y( s ) R( s )

K. 1

K .N( s ) N( s ) D ( s ) K .N( s ) K. D( s ) K .N( s ) 0 K


is varied from 0 to

The closed loop poles are the roots of the characteristic equation

( s ) D( s )
The location of the roots of

( s)

in the s-plane change as

A "Locus" of these roots plotted in the s-plane as a function of K is called the

Root Locus

Different ways to write the same thing

( s) 1

K.

N( s ) D( s ) D( s )

K .N( s ) 0

Gives the roots of the closed loop system

Root Locus Rules


1. Starting points (K = 0) 2. Termination points 3. Number of distinct root loci The root loci start at the open-loop poles. The root loci terminate at the open-loop zeros. The open loop zeros include those at infinity. There will be as many root loci as the largest number of finite open loop poles or zeros. For the majority of systems, the number of finite open-loop poles will be greater than the number of finite open-loop zeros. The root loci are symmetrical with respect to the real axis. The asymptotes intersect the real axis at a point given by centroid formula 6. Root Locus locations on the real axis 7. Rool locus asymptotes

4. Symmetry of root loci 5. Asymptote intersection

i =

open

loop poles

n m

open

loop zeros

The root loci may be found on portions of the real axis to the left of an odd number of open-loop poles and zeros. The root loci are asymptotic to straight lines, for large values of s, with angles given by

(1 + 2k ) n m

Let RD (relative degree) = n - m

k = 0,1,..., n m 1 n = no. of finite open loop poles m = no. of finite open loop zeros

Asymptote Chart in the s plane

120

90

72

RD 1

RD 2

RD 3 x

RD 4
in the asymptote charts above

RD 5

The centroids are marked

Example

Plant

R( s )

+ _

Gp ( s )

Y( s )

Gp ( s )

s .( s K. 1

1 2 ) .( s

4) 4) 4)

Open loop poles are at

s 0, 2, 4

Y( s ) R( s )

s .( s s .( s

1 2 ) .( s 1 2 ) .( s 1 s .( s

K.

}
4)

Closed Loop Transfer Function

( s) 1

K.

2 ) .( s

} Root Locus Form for the Denominator


Step 2. Real Axis

Step 1. Pole Zero Plot

j j

X X
-4 -2

X X
-4 -2

Step 3. Centroid / Asymptotes

centroid

centroid RD 3

2 3

-4

X X
-2

Step 4. Draw the Root Locus


4

Imag Axis

a. Locus must be symmetric about real axis b. Open loop zeros at infinity = 3 c. Locus starts at open loop poles and goes to the open loop zeros

-2

Note: Locus is symmetric about the real axis because complex poles always come in conjugate pairs

-4

-6 -6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

Real Axis

Example

Plant

R( s )

+ _

Gp ( s )

Y( s )

Gp ( s )

(s K. 1

1 ) .( s

s 2 3 3j) .( s

3j)

}
3j)

Open loop zero Open loop poles

s=2 s = 3 j3

Y( s ) R( s )

(s (s

1 ) .( s 1 ) .( s

s 2 3 3j) .( s s 2 3 3j) .( s s 2 3j) .( s

3 3

Closed Loop Transfer Function

K.

3j)

( s) 1

K.

(s

1 ) .( s

3j)

Root Locus Form for the Denominator

Step 1. Pole Zero Plot

Step 2. Real Axis

X
|

X
|
centroid

oX

oX

-3 -2 -1

-3 -2 -1

Step 3. Centroid / Asymptotes

X
5 2

Centroid

1 2

( 2)

oX
-3 -2 -1

RD 2

10 8 6

Step 4. Draw the Root Locus


Imag Axis

4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8

a. Locus must be symmetric about real axis b. Open loop zeros at infinity = 2 c. Locus starts at open loop poles and goes to the open loop zeros

-10 -4

-3

-2

-1

Real Axis

Example

R( s )

+ _

Gp ( s )

Y( s )

Gp ( s )

(s K.

1 1 ) .( s

3)

Open loop poles

1, 3

Y( s ) R( s )

1 ( s 1 ) .( s 3 ) 1 K. ( s 1 ) .( s 3 ) 1 1 ) .( s

}
}

Closed Loop Transfer Function

( s) 1

K.

(s

3)

Root Locus Form for the Denominator

Step 1. Pole Zero Plot

Step 2. Real Axis

j
centroid

X X
-3 -1

X X
-3 -1

Step 3. Centroid / Asymptotes

Centroid

3 2

X X
-3 -1

2.5

RD 2

Imag Axis

2 1.5 1 0.5 0

Step 4. Draw the Root Locus a. Locus must be symmetric about real axis b. Open loop zeros at infinity = 2 c. Locus starts at open loop poles and goes to the open loop zeros

-0.5 -1 -1.5 -2 -2.5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2

Real Axis

Example - Continued Open Loop System

R( s ) (s 1 1 ) .( s Gp ( s ) 3)
Step Response

Y( s )

Gp ( s )
Let R(s) = Unit step

0.3

Y( s )

1 3 s

Amplitude

1 2 s 1 s

1 6 3

0.25

0.2 0.15

0.1

0.05

0 0 1 2 3 Time (sec.) 4 5 6

Closed Loop System


+

Y( s )
_

R( s )
Let R(s) = unit step

Gp ( s )

Step Response 1.2

K 30 K 10 K 4 K 1

0.8 Amplitude

0.6

}
10

as K changes it is clear that the transient response can be "shaped"

0.4

0.2

0 0 2 4 Time (sec.) 6 8

Note: Higher values of K speed up the closed-loop response when compared to the open-loop response

Example

R( s )

Gp ( s )

Y( s )

Gp ( s )

s .( s K.

3 ) .( s

1 j .7.4 ) .( s 1 j .7.4 ) .( s 3

j .7.4 )

}
3 3 j .7.4 ) j .7.4 )

Closed-Loop Transfer Function

Y( s ) R( s )

s .( s s .( s

3 ) .( s 3 ) .( s

K.

1 j .7.4 ) .( s 1 j .7.4 ) .( s

( s) 1

K.

s .( s

3 ) .( s

j .7.4 )

} Root Locus Form for the Denominator


j

Step 1. Pole Zero Plot

Step 2. Real Axis

X X
-3 X

X
-3

X
centroid

Step 3. Centroid Asymptotes

Centroid

3 4

9 4

2.25

X X
-3

RD 4

Step 4. Draw the Root Locus a. Locus must be symmetric about real axis b. Open loop zeros at infinity = 4 c. Locus starts at open loop poles and goes to the open loop zeros

8 6 4

Imag Axis

2 0

-2 -4 -6 -8 -4

-3

-2

-1

Real Axis

Magnitude and Angle Conditions K .Gp ( s ) Y( s ) R ( s ) 1 K .Gp ( s )


Poles are determined by

R( s )

+ _

Y( s ) K Gp ( s )

( s) 1 ( s)

K .Gp ( s ) s clp

characteristic equation

=0

clp denotes closed-loop pole

Magnitude Condition

( s) 1

K .Gp ( s ) K .Gp ( s )

s clp

=0

=>

K .Gp ( s )

= -1

s clp

Expression for finding clps

s clp

} }

Take the magnitude of both sides (Note K is a real number)

K . Gp ( s )

s clp

=1

Magnitude Condition

Angle Condition

K .Gp ( s )

= -1

}
=

Expression for finding clps

s clp Angle( 1 )

Angle K .Gp ( s )

Take the angle of both sides

s clp

Angle Gp ( s )

= -180

s clp

Use -180 degrees as opposed to 180 degrees by convention (only here) (Note K is a real number)

Angle Gp ( s )

= -180

Angle Condition

s clp

Example

Find the value of K which places a closed loop pole at -5

R( s ) Gp ( s ) (s s 2 1 ) .( s 4)

+ _

Y( s ) K Gp ( s )

Find the transfer function

Y( s ) R( s )

K. 1

(s (s

s 2 1 ) .( s s 2 1 ) .( s

4) 4)

K.

closed loop TF

1 0.8 0.6

Imag Axis

0.4 0.2 0

Draw the Root Locus

-0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -1 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2

Note that -5 lies on the root locus


Real Axis

Magnitude Condition

K . Gp ( s )

K.

5
=

(s

s 2 1 ) .( s

4) 1

=1

s
=>

5 K 4 3

K.

3 .( 1 ) ( 4)

Angle Condition

Angle Gp ( s )
=

Angle( s

2)

Angle( s

4)

Angle( s

1)

5 Angle( 4 ) 180 ( 180 180 ) 180

= - 180

Angle( 3 )

( Angle( 1 ) )

} Angle Condition is satisfied

ECE4510: Feedback Control Systems.

61

ROOT-LOCUS ANALYSIS
Recall step response: we have seen that pole locations in the system transfer function determine performance characteristics; such as rise time, overshoot, settling time. We have also seen that feedback can change pole locations in the system transfer function and therefore performance is changed. Suppose that we have one variable parameter in our control system. Then, we make a parametric plot of pole locations as that parameter changes. The poles are the roots of the denominator of the transfer function (a.k.a. the characteristic equation.) This plot is a plot of the locus of the roots or the ROOT LOCUS PLOT (First suggested by Evans.)
VERY IMPORTANT NOTE :

Root locus is a parametric plot (vs. K ) of the 1+ K b(s) = 0. a(s)

roots of an equation

A common control conguration is


r (t) K G(s) y(t)

Unity feedback, proportional gain. We will generalize control conguration later.


Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, ROOT-LOCUS ANALYSIS

62

Closed-loop transfer function T (s) = Poles = roots of 1 + K G(s) = 0. Assume plant transfer function G(s) is rational polynomial: b(s) G(s) = , such that a(s) b(s) = (s z 1)(s z 2) (s z m ) a(s) = (s p1)(s p2 ) (s pn ) (b(s) is monic.) (a(s) is monic.) K G(s) . 1 + K G(s)

nm

[a(s) may be assumed monic without loss of generality. If b(s) is not monic, then its gain is just absorbed as part of K in 1 + K G(s) = 0] zi are zeros of G(s), the OPEN-LOOP transfer function. pi are poles of G(s), the OPEN-LOOP transfer function. CLOSED-LOOP poles are roots of equation 1 + K G(s) = 0 a(s) + K b(s) = 0, which clearly move as a function of K . Zeros are unaffected by feedback.
EXAMPLE :

1 . Find the root locus. s(s + 2) a(s) = s(s + 2); b(s) = 1. G(s) = Locus of roots: (aside, stable for all K > 0 .) s(s + 2) + K = 0 s 2 + 2s + K = 0.

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, ROOT-LOCUS ANALYSIS

63

For this simple system we can easily nd the roots. 2 4 4K s1,2 = 2 = 1 1 K . Roots are real and negative for 0 < K < 1. Roots are complex conjugates for K > 1.
(s) K =1 s1 , K = 0 s2 , K = 0 (s)

Suppose we want damping ratio=0.707. We can recall that 2 2 s + 2 n s + n = 0 K =2 s 2 + 2s + K = 0 or we can locate the point on the root locus where | {poles}| = | {poles}|. | 1| = | 1 K | 2 = K. (or, K = 0, not an appropriate solution). How to Plot a Root Locus A value s = s1 is on the (180) root locus iff 1 + K G(s1) = 0 for some real value of K , 0 K .
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, ROOT-LOCUS ANALYSIS

64

[A value of s = s1 is on the (0) complementary root locus iff 1 + K G(s1) = 0 for some REAL value of K , < K < 0.] 1 So, K = G(s) Note, G(s) is complex, so this is really two equations! 1 |K | = G(s) G(s) = 1 . K

(6.1) (6.2)

Since K is real and positive, K = 0. Therefore, G(s) = 180 l360, l = 0, 1, 2, . . . So once we know a point on the root locus, we can use the magnitude equation 6.1 to nd the gain K that produced it. We will use the angle equation 6.2 to plot the locus. i.e., the locus of the roots = all points on s-plane where G(s) = 180 l360.
NOTES :

1. We will derive techniques so that we dont need to test every point on the s-plane! 2. The angle criteria explains why the root locus is sometimes called the 180 root locus. 3. Similarly, the complementary root locus is also called the 0 root locus.
KEY TOOL :

For any point on the s-plane G(s) = (due to zeros) (due to poles). (s z 1) . (s p1)(s p2 )

EXAMPLE:

G(s) =

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, ROOT-LOCUS ANALYSIS

65

(s) z1 p2 p1 (s)

G(s1) = z1 p1 p2 .

Test point s1

Locus on the Real Axis Consider a test point s1 on the real axis. If the point is right of all poles and zeros of G(s), then G(s) = 0. NOT ON THE LOCUS.
p2 (s)

z1

p1

Test point s1 (s)

G(s) = z 1 p1 p2 p2 = 0 0 p2 p2 = 0.

p2

OBSERVATION :

If the test point is on the real axis, complex-conjugate roots have equal and oposite angles which cancel and may be ignored.

If the test point is to the left of ONE pole or zero, the angle will be 180 or +180 (= 180) so that point is on the locus.
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, ROOT-LOCUS ANALYSIS

66

If the test point s1 is to the left of 1 pole and 1 zero: G(s1) = 180 (180) = 360 = 0. 2 poles: G(s1) = 180 180 = 360 = 0. 2 zeros: G(s1) = 180 + 180 = 360 = 0. NOT ON THE LOCUS.
GENERAL RULE #1 All points on the real axis to the left of an odd number of poles and zeros are part of the root locus.

EXAMPLE:

G(s) =

1 . s(s + 4 + 4 j)(s + 4 4 j)
(s)

(s)

EXAMPLE :

G(s) =

s+8 . s+1
(s)

(s)

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, ROOT-LOCUS ANALYSIS

67

Locus Not on the Real Axis


OBSERVATION :

Because we assume that system models are rational-polynomial with real coefcients, all poles must be either real or complex conjugate pairs. Therefore, THE ROOT LOCUS IS SYMMETRICAL WITH RESPECT TO THE REAL AXIS. (s z 1)(s z 2 ) (s z m ) =0 (s p1)(s p2) (s pn ) (s p1)(s p2 ) (s pn ) + K (s z 1)(s z 2) (s z m ) = 0. 1 + K G(s) = 1 + K

What happens at K = 0, ?

At K = 0 the closed loop poles equal the open-loop poles. As K approaches (s p1)(s p2 ) (s pn ) + (s z 1 )(s z 2) (s z m ) = 0; K the n poles approach the zeros of the open-loop transfer function, INCLUDING THE n m ZEROS AT C . Plug s = into G(s) and notice that it equals zero if m < n. The idea of in the complex plane is a number with innite magnitude and some angle. To nd where the n m remaining poles go as K , consider that the m nite zeros have canceled m of the poles. Looking back at the remaining n m poles (standing at C ), we have approximately 1 1+K , (s )nm or n m poles clustered/centered at . We need to determine , the center of the locus, and the directions that the poles take.
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, ROOT-LOCUS ANALYSIS

68

Assume s1 = Re j is on the locus, R large and xed, variable. We use geometry to see what must be for s1 to be on the locus. Since all of the open-loop poles are at approximately the same place , the angle of 1 + K G(s1) is 180 if the n m angles from to s1 sum to 180. (n m)l = 180 + l360, l = 0, 1, . . . , n m 1 or 180 + 360(l 1) l = , nm l = 1, 2, . . . , n m.

So, if n m = 1; = +180. n m = 2; = 90. n m = 3; = 60, 180. (etc) There is one pole going to C along the negative real axis. There are two poles going to C vertically. One goes left and the other two go at plus and minus 60.

To nd the center, , reconsider our approximation as |s| . Divide (by long division) An easier way...
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

b(s) 1 a(s) (s )nm

b(s) 1 and match the top and a(s) (s )nm two coefcients of s, the dominant ones.

ECE4510, ROOT-LOCUS ANALYSIS

69

Note that roots of denominator of G(s) satisfy: s n + a1s n1 + a2s n2 + + an = (s p1)(s p2) (s pn ) a1 = pi . Note that the roots of the denominator of T (s) are s n + a1s n1 + a2s n2 + + an + K (s m + b1s m1 + + bm ) = 0. If n m > 1 then the (n 1)st coefcient of the closed loop system is such that a1 = ri where ri are the closed-loop poles. We know that m poles go to the zeros of G(s), and assume the 1 other n m are clustered at . Therefore, the asymptotic (s )nm sum of roots is (n m) zi . Putting this all together, ri = (n m) + or = zi = pi

pi zi . (n m)

GENERAL RULE #2 All poles go from their open-loop locations at K = 0 to: The zeros of G(s), or To C . Those going to C go along asymptotes 180 + 360(l 1) l = nm centered at = pi zi . nm

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, ROOT-LOCUS ANALYSIS

610

EXAMPLES :

Additional Techniques The two general rules given, plus some experience are enough to sketch root loci. Some additional rules help when there is ambiguity. (As in examples , )

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, ROOT-LOCUS ANALYSIS

611

Departure Angles, Arrival Angles


We know asymptotically where poles go, but need to know how they start, and how they end up there. Importance: One of the following systems is stable for all K > 0, the other is not. Which one?
(s) (s)

(s)

(s)

We will soon be able to answer this. Consider an example:


EXAMPLE:

G(s) =

1 . s(s + 4 + 4 j)(s + 4 4 j)
p1 (s)

2 p2 1 (s)

p1

Take a test point s0 very close to p1 . Compute G(s0). If on locus 90 1 135 = 180 + 360l l = 0, 1, . . .

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, ROOT-LOCUS ANALYSIS

612

where

1 = Angle from p1 to s0 90. 1 = Angle from p1 to s0. 2 = Angle from p2 to s0 135. 1 = 45.

Can now draw departure of poles on locus. Single-pole departure rule: dep = qdep = qarr = (zeros) (zeros) (poles) (remaining poles) 180 360l. (remaining poles) 180 360l. (remaining zeros) + 180 360l. Multiple-pole departure rule: (multiplicity q 1) Multiple-pole arrival rule: (multiplicity q 1) Note: The idea of adding 360l is to add enough angle to get the result within 180. Also, if there is multiplicity, then l counts off the different angles.

Imaginary Axis Crossings


Routh stability test can be run to nd value for K = K that causes marginal stability. Substitute K and nd roots of a(s) + K b(s) = 0. Alternatively, substitute K , let s = j0, solve for a( j0) + K b( j0) = 0. (Real and Imaginary parts)

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, ROOT-LOCUS ANALYSIS

613

Points with Multiple Roots


Sometimes, branches of the locus intersect. (see , on pg. 6610). Computing points of intersection can clarify ambiguous loci. Consider two poles approaching each other on the real axis:
(s) (s)

As two poles approach each other gain is increasing. When they meet, they break away from the real axis and so K increases only for complex parts of the plane. Therefore gain K along a branch of the locus is maximum at breakaway point. Gain K is minimum along a branch of the locus for arrival points. Both are saddle points in the s-plane. So, dK = 0, ds where 1 + K G(s) = 0 1 K = G(s) 1 d or, = 0 multiple root at s0. ds G(s) s=s0 [must verify that s0 is on the root locus. May be an extraneous result.]
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, ROOT-LOCUS ANALYSIS

614

Some similar loci for which nding saddle points helps clarify ambiguity ...
(s) (s)

(s)

(s)

(s)

(s)

(s)

(s)

Finding K for a Specic Locus Point Recall that the root locus is dened by the equation 1 + K G(s) = 0, which can be broken up into a magnitude-equation and a phase-equation (Eqs: 6.1 and 6.2). 1 |K | = G(s) G(s) = 1 . K

The phase equation is used to plot the locus.

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, ROOT-LOCUS ANALYSIS

615

The magnitude equation may be used to nd the value of K to get a specic set of closed-loop poles. 1 That is, K = is the gain to put a pole at s0, if s0 is on the locus. G(s0) Summary: Root-Locus Drawing Rules180 Locus The steps in drawing a 180 root locus follow from the basic phase denition. This is the locus of
1+K b(s) = 0, a(s) K 0 phase of b(s) = 180 . a(s)

They are STEP 1: On the s-plane, mark poles (roots of a(s)) by an and zeros (roots of a(s)) with an .
There will be a branch of the locus departing from every pole and a branch arriving at every zero.

STEP 2: Draw the locus on the real axis to the left of an odd number of real poles plus zeros. STEP 3: Draw the asymptotes, centered at and leaving at angles , where
n m = number of asymptotes. n = order of a(s) m = order of b(s) = l = pi z i a1 + b1 = nm nm 180 + (l 1)360 , nm l = 1, 2, . . . n m.

For n m > 0, there will be a branch of the locus approaching each asymptote and departing to innity. For n m < 0, there will be a branch of the locus arriving from innity along each asymptote.

STEP 4: Compare locus departure angles from the poles and arrival angles at the zeros where
qdep = qarr = i i i 180 l360 i + 180 l360,

where q is the order of the pole or zero and l takes on q integer values so that the angles are between 180 . i is the angle of the line going from the i th zero to the pole or zero whose angle of departure or arrival is being computed. Similarly, i is the angle of the line from the i th pole.

STEP 5: If further renement is required at the stability boundary, assume s0 =


compute the point(s) where the locus crosses the imaginary axis for positive K .

j 0 and

STEP 6: For the case of multiple roots, two loci come together at 180 and break away at 90.
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

Three loci segments approach each other at angles of 120 and depart at angles rotated by 60 .

ECE4510, ROOT-LOCUS ANALYSIS

616

STEP 7 Complete the locus, using the facts developed in the previous steps and making
reference to the illustrative loci for guidance. The loci branches start at poles and end at zeros or innity.

STEP 8 Select the desired point on the locus that meets the specications (s0), then use the
magnitude condition to nd that the value of K associated with that point is 1 K = . |b (s0 ) /a (s0 )|

EXAMPLE :

r (t)

(s + 1)(s + 2) s(s + 4)
(s) (s)

y(t)

EXAMPLE :

This example is NOT a unity-feedback case, so we need to be careful.


r (t) K

s+2 s 10 s+3 s+1

y(t)

Recall that the root-locus rules plot the locus of roots of the equation b(s) 1+ K = 0. a(s)

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, ROOT-LOCUS ANALYSIS

617

Compute T (s) to determine the characteristic equation as a function of K . s+2 K s10 T (s) = (s+2)(s+3) 1 + K (s+1)(s10) = Poles of T (s) at or 1+K K (s + 2)(s + 1) (s + 1)(s 10) + K (s + 2)(s + 3)

(s + 1)(s 10) + K (s + 2)(s + 3) = 0 (s + 2)(s + 3) = 0. (s + 1)(s 10)

(s) (s)

1) Open loop poles and zeros: 2) Real axis 3) Asymptotes 4) Departure angles 5) Stability boundary: Note, characteristic equation = (s + 1)(s 10) + K (s + 2)(s + 3) = s 2 9s 10 + K s 2 + 5K s + 6K = (K + 1)s 2 + (5K 9)s + 6K 10

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, ROOT-LOCUS ANALYSIS

618

Routh Array s2 K + 1 6K 10 s 1 5K 9 s 0 6K 10

K > 1 9 K > = 1.8 5 10 K > = 1.66 6

stability criterion

When K = 9/5, the s 1 row of the Routh array is zerotop row becomes a factor of the characteristic equation. Imag.-axis crossings where 9 9 + 1 s 2 + 6 10 = 0 5 5 14s 2 + 4 = 0
(s) (s)

...

s = j

2 . 7

6) Breakaway points (s + 1)(s 10) K (s) = (s + 2)(s + 3) (s 2 9s 10) = s 2 + 5s + 6 d (s + 1)(s 10)(2s + 5) (2s + 9)(s + 2)(s + 3) =0 K (s) = ds (den)2 = 2s 3 + 18s 2 + 20s 5s 2 + 45s + 50 2s 3 10s 2 12s + 9s 2 + 45s + 54 = 0
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, ROOT-LOCUS ANALYSIS

619

= (2 + 2)s 3 + (18 5 + 10 9)s 2 + (20 + 45 + 12 45)s + (50 54) = 0 322 4(14)(4) 32 1248 s= = 28 28 roots at {0.118, 2.40}. Now we can complete the locus: 32
(s) (s)

= 14s 2 + 32s 4 = 0

EXAMPLE :

r (t)

1 s+a

s+1 s2

y(t)

Two design parameters: K , pole location a. s+1 G(s) = 2 . s (s + a) Test a = 2, a = 50, a = 9. 1) Poles and zeros of G(s).
(s) (s)

2) Real axis.
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, ROOT-LOCUS ANALYSIS

620

3) Asymptotes: nm = 2 pi zi 0 + 0 + (a) (1) 1 a = = 2 2 2 = {0.5, 24.5, 4} 180 + 360(l 1) l = = 90. 2 4) Departure angles for two poles at s = 0. = 2dep = (zeros) (remaining poles) 180 360l = 0 0 180 360l 360 dep = 90 l = 90. 2 5) Will always be stable for K > 0. 6) Breakaway points: s 2(s + a) K (s) = s+1 d (s + 1)(3s 2 + 2as) s 2(s + a)(1) K (s) = ds (s + 1)2 = s 2s 2 + (a + 3)s + 2a = 0 breakaway at 0, a + 3 (a + 3)2 4(2)(2a) 2(2)

=0

sa={2,50,9} = 1.25 j 7/16, (2.04 and 24.46), 3 and 0 not on locus

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, ROOT-LOCUS ANALYSIS

621

a=2

(s)

a=9

(s)

(s)

(s)

a = 50

(s)

(s)

Matlab and Root Loci b(s) b0s m + b1s m1 + + bm If G(s) = . = a(s) a0s n + a1s n1 + + an
b = [b0 b1 b2 . . . bm]; a = [a0 a1 a2 . . . an]; rlocus(b,a); % plots the root locus

Also, k=rlocfind(b,a); returns the value of K for a specic point on the root locus (graphical, with a mouse). Matlab is also able to draw space aliens!
z=[-5+5j -5-5j -4.8+2j -4.8-2j 0.35+0.2j 0.35-0.2j ... 2j -2j 2j -2j 0.7 0.7 1.0+1.5j 1.0-1.5j 1.0+1.5j 1.0-1.5j 2.2]; p=[-4.5+3.2j -4.5-3.2j -0.15+0.8j -0.15-0.8j 0.3j -0.3j 0.4+0.3j ... 0.4-0.3j 0.45+0.6j 0.45-0.6j 1+1.3j 1-1.3j 1+1.3j 1-1.3j 2+0.15j ... 2-0.15j 2]; num=poly(z); den=poly(p); rlocus(num,den);

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, ROOT-LOCUS ANALYSIS

622

6 4 2 Imag Axis 0 2 4 6 6

TAKE ME TO YOUR LEADER!

2 1 Real Axis

Summary: Root-Locus Drawing Rules0 Locus We have assumed that 0 K < , and that G(s) has monic b(s) and a(s). If K < 0 or a(s)/b(s) has a negative sign preceding it, we must change our root-locus plotting rules. Recall that we plot 1 + K G(s) = 0 1 G(s) = K G(s) = 180, if K positive; 0 , if K negative.

In the following summary of drawing a 0 root locus, the steps which have changed are highlighted. The steps in drawing a 0 root locus follow from the basic phase denition. This is the locus of
1+K b(s) = 0, a(s) K 0 phase of b(s) = 0 . a(s)

They are STEP 1: On the s-plane, mark poles (roots of a(s)) by an and zeros (roots of a(s)) with an .
There will be a branch of the locus departing from every pole and a branch arriving at every zero.

STEP 2:

Draw the locus on the real axis to the left of an even number of real poles plus zeros.

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, ROOT-LOCUS ANALYSIS

623 n m = number of asymptotes. n = order of a(s) m = order of b(s) = l = pi z i a1 + b1 = nm nm (l 1)360 , nm l = 1, 2, . . . n m.

STEP 3:

Draw the asymptotes, centered at and leaving at angles , where

For n m > 0, there will be a branch of the locus approaching each asymptote and departing to innity. For n m < 0, there will be a branch of the locus arriving from innity along each asymptote.

STEP 4:

Compare locus departure angles from the poles and arrival angles at the zeros where qdep = qarr = i i i l360 i l360,

where q is the order of the pole or zero and l takes on q integer values so that the angles are between 180 . i is the angle of the line going from the i th zero to the pole or zero whose angle of departure or arrival is being computed. Similarly, i is the angle of the line from the i th pole.

STEP 5: If further renement is required at the stability boundary, assume s0 =


compute the point(s) where the locus crosses the imaginary axis for positive K .

j 0 and

STEP 6: For the case of multiple roots, two loci come together at 180 and break away at 90. STEP 7: Complete the locus, using the facts developed in the previous steps and making

Three loci segments approach each other at angles of 120 and depart at angles rotated by 60 .

reference to the illustrative loci for guidance. The loci branches start at poles and end at zeros or innity.

STEP 8: Select the desired point on the locus that meets the specications (s0), then use the
magnitude condition to nd that the value of K associated with that point is 1 K = . |b (s0 ) /a (s0 )|

Extensions to Root Locus MethodTime Delay A system with a time delay has the form G(s) = ed s G (s) where d is the delay and G (s) is the non-delayed system.
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, ROOT-LOCUS ANALYSIS

624

This is not in rational-polynomial form. We cannot use root locus techniques directly.
METHOD

1: b0 s + b1 , a polynomial. a0 s + 1 First-order approximation Second-order approximation. Very crude.

Approximate ed s by Pad approximation. 1 (d s/2) ed s 1 + (d s/2)

1 d s/2 + (d s)2/12 1 + d s/2 + (d s)2/12 1 1 + d s

Extremely important for digital control!!!


METHOD

2:

Directly plot locus using phase condition. i.e., G(s) = (d ) + G (s) if s = + j. i.e., look for places where G (s) = 180 + d + 360l. Fix , search horizontally for locus.

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510: Feedback Control Systems.

71

ROOT-LOCUS DESIGN
We have seen how to draw a root locus for a given plant dynamics. We include a variable gain K proportional control. What if desired pole locations are not on this locus? We need to modify the locus itself by adding extra dynamicscompensator:
r (t) K D(s) G(s) y(t)

We redraw the locus and pick K in order to put the poles where we want them. HOW? K D(s)G(s) T (s) = let G (s) = D(s)G(s) 1 + K D(s)G(s) K G (s) = We know how to draw this locus! 1 + K G (s) Adding a compensator effectively adds dynamics to the plant. What types of (1) compensation should we use, and (2) how do we gure out where to put the additional dynamics? Types of Compensator Dynamics There are 3 classical types of controllers with some important variations.
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, ROOT-LOCUS DESIGN

72

1) Proportional Feedback D(s) = 1.


T (s) =

u(t) = K e(t)

K G(s) . 1 + K G(s) Same as what we have already looked at. Controller only consists of a gain knob. We have to take the locus as given since we have no extra dynamics to modify it. Usually a very limited approach, but a good place to start.

2) Integral Feedback
1 D(s) = TI s T (s) = 1
K G(s) TI s . K + TI G(s) s

K u(t) = TI

t 0

e( ) d

Usually used to reduce/eliminate steady-state error. i.e., if e(t) constant, u(t) will become very large and hopefully correct the error. Penalty: Steady-state response improves, but often transient response degrades.

Steady-State Response
We apply a step (ramp, parabola) input. How well does our (closed loop) system track this? Ultimately, we would like zero error. e(t) = 0. (Maybe 1%2% in reality) Recall: For a unity-feedback control system as drawn above, the steady-state error to a unit-step input is: 1 ess = . 1 + K D(0)G(0)
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, ROOT-LOCUS DESIGN

73

If we make D(s) =

1 , then as s 0, D(s) TI s 1 ess = 0. 1+

So by adding the integrator into the compensator, the error has been 1 reduced from to zero for systems that do not have any free 1 + Kp integrators. 1 EXAMPLE : G(s) = , a > b > 0. (s + a)(s + b) 1 1 Proportional feedback, D(s) = 1, G(0) = , ess = . K ab 1 + ab
(s)

(s)

We can make ess small by making K very large, but this often leads to poorly-damped behavior and often requires excessively large actuators.

Integral feedback, D(s) =


(s)

1 , ess = 0. TI s Increasing K to increase the speed of response pushes the pole toward the imaginary axis oscillatory.

(s)

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, ROOT-LOCUS DESIGN

74

Proportional-Integral (PI) Control s + (1/TI ) 1 Now, D(s) = 1 + = . Both a pole and a zero. TI s s
(s)

(s)

Combination of proportional and integral (PI) solves many of the problems with just (I) integral.

Phase-Lag Design
The integrator in PI control can cause some practical problems. Integrator windup due to actuator saturation. PI control is often approximated by lag control. (s z 0) D(s) = , | p0| < |z 0|. (s p0 ) That is, the pole is closer to the origin than the zero. Because |z 0| > | p0 |, the phase added to the open-loop transfer function is negative. . . phase lag Pole often placed very close to zero. e.g., p0 0.01. Zero is placed near pole. e.g., z 0 0.1.

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, ROOT-LOCUS DESIGN

75

(s)

(s)

Good steady-state error without overow problems. Very similar to proportional control.

3) Derivative Feedback D(s) = TD s,

u(t) = K TD e(t).

Does not do much (anything?) to help the steady-state error. Derivative control provides feedback that is proportional to the rate-of-change of e(t) control response ANTICIPATES future errors. Very benecial. Used a lot!
EXAMPLE :

G(s) =

1 , (s + a)(s + b)
(s)

D(s) = TD s.

(s)

No ringing. Very stable.

Proportional-Derivative (PD) Control


Often, proportional control and derivative control go together. D(s) = 1 + TD s.
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, ROOT-LOCUS DESIGN

76

(s)

(s)

No more zero at s = 0. Therefore better steady-state response.

Phase-Lead Control
Derivative magnies sensor noise. Instead of D-control or PD-control use lead control. (s z 0) D(s) = , |z 0| < | p0 |. (s p0 ) That is, the zero is closer to the origin than the pole. Lag control does not change locus much since p0 z 0 0. Lag control improves steady-state error. Lead control DOES change locus. Pole and zero locations chosen so that locus will pass through some desired point s = s1. Design may be done analytically: Let a1 s + a0 D(s) = . b1 s + 1 Choose a0 to get specied dc gain. (open-loop gain=K p , K v , . . .) a1 s + a 0 = dc gain. G(s) b1 s + 1 s=0 |a0||G(0)| = dc gain. a0 =
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

Desired dc gain . |G(0)|

ECE4510, ROOT-LOCUS DESIGN

77

a1 and b1 are chosen to make locus go through s = s1, a1 s1 + a 0 G(s1) = 1 b 1 s1 + 1 for that point to be on the root locus. a 1 s1 + a 0 |G(s1)| = 1 Magnitude b 1 s1 + 1 Phase a 1 s1 + a 0 + G(s1) = 180. b 1 s1 + 1

(math happens) sin() + a0|G(s1)| sin( ) a1 = s1 = |s1|e j |s1||G(s1)| sin() sin( + ) + a0|G(s1)| sin() G(s1) = |G(s1)|e j . b1 = |s1| sin() 1 EXAMPLE : G(s) = . s1 = 2 2e j 135 = 2 + 2 j . s2 The point s1 is chosen to achieve = 0.707 and = 0.5 sec. a0: We cannot compute a0 since a0 = 2. 1 s2 . So, arbitrarily choose
s=0

a1: Note, = 135, = 270 because 1 1 G(s1) = 2 = e j 270 . s s=22e j 135 8 sin(135) + 2(1/8) sin(45) (1/ 2)(1 + 1/4) 5 a1 = = = . ) 2 (2 2)(1/8) sin(270 2/4 b1 : sin(135 ) + 2(1/8) sin(135 ) (1/ 2)(1 1/4) 3 b1 = = = . 16 (2 2) sin(270) 2 2

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, ROOT-LOCUS DESIGN

78

So, the compensator is: D(s) =

(5/2)s + 2 . (3/16)s + 1

Example locus passing through (-2,2)


4 3 2

Imag Axis

1 0 1 2 3 4 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1

Real Axis

Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) Control


Most common type of control, even though often approximated by Lead-Lag control. 1 D(s) = K 1 + + TD s . TI s sin( + )TI |s1| K = |G(s1)| sin()[TI |s1| + 2 cos()] sin() K TD = , where s1 = |s1|e j and + |s1||G(s1)| sin() TI |s1|2 G(s1) = |G(s1)|e j for both cases. TI chosen to match some design criteria. e.g., Steady-state error. Compensator Implementation Analog compensators commonly use op-amp circuits. See the following pages. . .
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, ROOT-LOCUS DESIGN

79

(s) (s) K s V1 1 K

1 V2

(s) (s) K s V1

1 K

1 V2

(s) K z 1 (s) K (s + z 1 ) V1 1/(K z 1)

1 V2

(s) (s) K s + p1 1

K p1 1/K V2

p1

V1

(s) (s) K s s + p1 V1 K

K p1

1 V2

p1

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, ROOT-LOCUS DESIGN

(s) (s) or (s) (s) or s + z1 K s + p1 any p1 and z 1 s + z1 s + p1 V1 K2

K p1 1 z1 V1 1 K K1 1 K 1z1 1/K V2

710

K1 K = K2 any p1 and z 1

1 K 2 p1

V2

(s) (s) s + z1 s + p1 z 1 > p1

V1 1 1 p1 1 z 1 p1

V2

LAG

(s) (s) s + z1 s + p1 z 1 > p1

V1 1 z 1 p1 1 1 p1

V2

LAG

(s) (s)

s + z1 s + p1 p1 z1

V1 1 1 p1 p1 z 1 z1

V2

p1 > z 1 K =

LEAD

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, ROOT-LOCUS DESIGN

711

(s) (s)

s + z1 s + p1 p1 z1

V1 p1 z 1 p1 1 1 p1

V2

p1 > z 1 K =

LEAD

(s) K (s + z 1 ) z 1 (s) 1 K = z1

V1 1 z1

V2 1 LEAD

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

Lead Compensator (Using Magnitude and Angle Condition)


+

R( s )
-

Gc ( s )

1 s .( s 1)

Y( s )

Find Let

Gc ( s )

such that the dominant closed loop poles are at

3 j3

Gc ( s ) K 1)
Imag Axis

cl ( s ) 1

K.

1 s .( s

-1

}
-3 -2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1

Root Locus does not go through

3 j3

-2

-3 -3.5

Real A xis

If

Gc ( s ) K . K. b

(s (s (s (s

a) b)

Lead Compensation =>

b> a> 0

cl ( s ) 1

a) . 1 b ) s .( s 1 ) 1 a
Imag Axis

-3+j3 0 -3-j3

Centroid RD 2

0 2

Root Locus goes through

3 j3

-b

-c

-a

Real Axis

Note: a closed loop pole at "-c" has been injected By moving "a" and "b" around we can change the centroid and hence bend the root locus to go through 3 j 3 Note:

3 j3

are more dominant that "-c"

How do we find the values for a, b and K which ensure that are the closed-loop poles ?

3 j3

73

Find Closed Loop Transfer Function

Y( s ) R( s )

K( s a ) s .( s b ) .( s 1 ) s a 1 K. ( s b ) .s .( s 1 )

From the Block Diagram

( s) 1

K.

( s a) .( s b ) .( s s

=0

Achieves the desired result

1)

j3

Angle Condition: Find "a" and "b"

Angle K .

s .( s

( s a) b ) .( s

1)

j .3

= -180

} }

One Equation Two Unknowns

Angle Conditions

Angle

(s (s

a) . 1 .( s 1 ) b) s

3
=

j .3 180

= - 180

One Equation Two Unknowns

Let

a 3

Angle ( s

b)
1

s 3

j .3

Angle s .

(s (s

1) 3)

j .3

Note :

b A Angle B Angle (

tan

11.3 deg

=>

b 18 Angle ( AB ) Angle ( A) Angle ( B )

Angle ( A) j ) tan
1

Angle ( B )

Selection of "a" 1) "a" is not unique 2) If "a" is picked too big, "b" will not exist (i.e., b may become negative) 3) If "a" is picked too small, the system might not exhibit the right dominant behavior (i.e., closed loop pole at -c might dominate the behavior)

74

Magnitude Condition - Find "K"

K.

(s

s 3 18 ) .( s ) .( s

1)

j .3 1

K.

15

j .3 j .3 . 3 j .3 . 2

j .3

K.

3 1 ( 15.3 ) .( 4.24 ) .( 3.65 ) s 3 s 18

K 79 ( approximately)
answer

Gc ( s ) 79 .

75

Lead Compensator (Using Coefficient Matching)


+

R( s )
-

Gc ( s )

Gp ( s )

Y( s )

Find

Gc ( s ) 1 s .( s

so that the dominant closed loop poles are at

3 j3

Gp ( s )

1)

Gc ( s ) K .

s s

a b

K .( s a ) Y( s ) s .( s b ) .( s 1 ) R( s ) ( s a) s .( s 1 K. ( s b ) .s .( s 1 ) cl ( s ) s .( s 1 ) .( s

Select a Lead Compensator for the same reason as before

K .( s a ) 1 ) .( s b ) K .( s

a)

closed loop TF

Note: There are three closed loop poles given by the characteristic equation

b)

K .( s

a)

actual closed loop denominator

j
Imag Axis

-3+j3 0 -3-j3

-b

-c

-a

Still need to draw the root locus to understand the problem

Real Axis

cl ( s ) s

(b

1 ) .s

(b

K) .s 3

a .K j .3 )

} }

actual closed loop denominator desired closed loop denominator

dcl ( s ) ( s dcl ( s ) ( s dcl ( s ) s


3

c ) .( s c) . s (6
2

j .3 ) .( s 18 ( 18

6 .s
2

}
6 c) s 18 c

simplification

c) s

76

Equate the desired denominator to the actual denominator

dcl ( s ) cl ( s ) 6 18 c b 1 K

6c b

aK 18 c

}
18 K K 78

3 equations, 4 unknowns (cannot solve) Let

a 3

(same reason as before)

K 6c 5 c b b 6c c 13

}
}

1 0 1

0 1 1

6 1 6

K . b c

0 5 18

b 18

checks with previous answer

Note we have discovered the third closed loop pole in the process (i.e., s = - 13)

Interesting Side Note


Previous equation can be used to determine how big a can get

c b

b 6c

18

18 . c a

eliminate K and b

c 6 .c

18

18 . c a

one equation and two unknowns

18 a

13

simplified expression

From root locus, "c" must be a positive number for the problem to make sense so if

c> 0

then

18 a

5> 0

therefore

a<

18 5

Any other selection of "a" forces "b" to be negative, and hence, the compensator would have an unstable pole.

77

Find the Structure of the Time Response For the Previous Problem Quickly

Y( s ) R( s ) ( s y( t ) A

78 .( s 13 ) . ( s B .e
13 t

3) 3) C .e
2 3 t.

R( s ) ( 3)
2

1 s

where

r( t)

is a step input

cos ( 3 t )

D .e

3 t.

sin ( 3 t )

write this immediately

A, B,C, D can be found with the PFE tool How can we find A ?

lim sY ( s ) s 0 lim t y( t )

78 .( 3 ) 1 ( 13 ) .( 18 )
so

lim t A 1

y( t )

final value theorem

A 1

Closed Loop Step Response

78

Example

Find the range of K which ensures closed loop stability

r( t)

+ -

y( t ) P( s )

H( s )

H( s )

s 1 ( s 4 ) .( s 2 ) Y( s ) P( s ) R ( s ) 1 P ( s ) .H ( s ) K

P( s )

s 3 s 0.1

Closed-loop Transfer Function

cl ( s ) 1

K .P ( s ) .H( s ) 1

K.

s 3 . s 0.1 ( s

s 1 2 ) .( s

4)

Denominator in Root Locus Form

Draw the Root Locus


1.5

j .a c

Imag Axis

0.5

-0.5

-1

j .a
-4 -2 0 2 4

-1.5 -6

Use coefficient matching to find the value of K which places closed loop poles at

Real Axis

j.a
3 ) .( s 4s 4 .K .s ( 0.8 3 3 .K 3 .K) 1)

cl ( s ) ( s cl ( s ) ( s cl ( s ) s cl ( s ) s
3 3

0.1 ) .( s 0.1 ) . s 6.1 s ( 6.1


2 2

2 ) .( s 6s 8.6 s

4) 8 0.8 ( 8.6

K .( s K. s Ks
2 2

Denominator in Polynomial Form

K) s

4 .K) .s

Simplification

79

cl ( s ) s

( 6.1 c) . s cs
2

K) s
2 2

( 8.6

4 .K) .s

( 0.8

3 .K)

actual denominator

dcl ( s ) ( s dcl ( s ) s
3

2 2

}
a c

desired denominator (see root locus)

a s

simplified

After equating the coefficients, we obtain 1) 2) 3)

6.1 8.6 0.8

K c
2 4 .K a

3 .K a c
2

3 equations 3 unknowns

After multiplying equation 1) by equation 2), and equating the result to equation 3), we obtain one equation for K

( 6.1 4K 4K
2

K) .( 8.6 ( 8.6 18.8 K

4 K) 0.8 24.4 ) .K

3K a c 3K

52.46 0.8

51.66 0

} }

simplified

(K

1.94 ) .( K
or

6.657 ) 0 K 6.657

factored

K 1.94

roots is the answer


1.5

Since K cannot be negative

K 1.94

For

0 < K< 1.94

, the system is stable


1

Imag Axis

0.5

-0.5

-1

-1.5 -6

-4

-2

Real Axis

80

Lead Compensator: Design Example


R( s )
+ -

Gc ( s )

4 s .( s 2)

Y( s )

Design

Gc ( s )

so that the dominant closed loop poles are at and

s s

2 2

j .2 3 j .2 3

Gc ( s ) K .

s s (s (s

a b

Lead Compensator

Y( s ) R( s )

K. 1

a) . 4 b ) s .( s 2 ) ( s a) . 4 K. ( s b ) s .( s 2 )

Closed Loop Transfer Function

cl ( s ) 1

K.

s s

a . 4 .( s 2 ) b s

Imag Axis

j2 3

-b

-c

-a

j2 3

Draw the Root Locus

Real Axis

81

Method I Angle/Magnitude Condition


Angle Condition Let

a 2.9 s 2.9 . s b (s

Do you know why ?

Angle

4 2 ) .( s )

180

j .2 . 3 4 .( s 2.9 ) s .( s 2 )

Angle ( s

b) s 2

j .2 3

180

Angle

j .2 3

tan

2 3 b 2

45

=>

b 5.46

Magnitude Condition

K.

s 2.9 . 4 s 5.46 s .( s 2 )

=>

K 4.68

j2 3

Method II: Coefficient Matching


K. 1 a) 4 .( s 2 ) b) s s a . 4 s .( s K. s b s( s 2) (2 s
3

Y( s ) R( s )

(s (s

4 K (s b ) .( s 2 )

a) ( Ks

Ka ) 4

Closed-Loop Transfer Function

cl ( s ) s dcl ( s )

b ) .s

(2 b 2

4 K) .s

4 Ka

}
c)

simplified actual denominator

2 (4

j .2 3 . s c) s
2

j .2 3 .( s 4 .c ) .s 16 .c

desired denominator (see root locus)

dcl ( s ) s

( 16

simplified

82

4 2 .b

c 2

b 4 .c

4 .K 16

16 .c 4 .K .a
Let

}
}
2 16 0

3 equations 4 unknowns

a 2.9 1 2 0 0 4 11.6 3.4 5.4 4.68 c . b K

Do you know why ?

1 4 16 c b K

3 equations 3 unknowns

Use calculator to solve (same answer as before)

Note: "c" is between "a" and "b"

Imag Axis

j2 3

-b

-c

-a

j2 3

Real Axis

83

ECE4510: Feedback Control Systems.

81

FREQUENCY-RESPONSE ANALYSIS
Advantages and disadvantages to root-locus design approach:
ADVANTAGES :

Good indicator of transient response. Explicitly shows location of closed-loop poles. Tradeoffs are clear.
DISADVANTAGES :

Requires transfer function of plant be known. Difcult to infer all performance values. Hard to extract steady-state response (sinusoidal inputs). Frequency-response methods can be used to supplement root locus: Can infer performance and stability from same plot. Can use measured data when no model is available. Design process is independent of system order (# poles). Time delays handled correctly (es ). Graphical techniques (analysis/synthesis) are quite simple. Frequency Response We want to know how a linear system responds to sinusoidal input, in steady state.
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, FREQUENCY-RESPONSE ANALYSIS

82

Consider system

Y (s) = G(s). U (s)

u(t) = u 0 sin(t) u 0 U (s) = 2 . s + 2 With zero initial conditions, u 0 Y (s) = G(s) 2 . s + 2 Do a partial-fraction expansion (assume distinct roots) 0 1 2 n 0 Y (s) = + + + + + s a1 s a2 s an s + j s j y(t) = 1ea1t + 2ea2t + + n ean t +2|0| sin(t + ) If stable, these decay to zero. yss(t) = 2|0| sin(t + ), = u 0 A sin(t + ). Important LTI-system fact: If the input to an LTI system is a sinusoid, the steady-state output is a sinusoid of the same frequency but different amplitude and phase. Amplitude gain: A; Phase shift: . A and may be found from 0, which is found using partial-fraction expansion techniques. A = |G(s)|s= j = |G( j)| (G( j))2 + (G( j))2; = = G(s)|s= j = G( j)
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

Consider the input:

= tan1

(0) (0)

ECE4510, FREQUENCY-RESPONSE ANALYSIS

83

= tan1
FORESHADOWING :

(G( j)) . (G( j))

Transfer function along j-axis tells us response to a sinusoid...but also tells us about stability since j-axis is stability boundary! Plotting a Frequency Response There are two common ways to plot a frequency response the magnitude and phase for all frequencies.
EXAMPLE:

R U (s) C Y (s)

G(s) =

1 1 + RCs

Frequency response G( j) = 1 (let RC = 1) 1 + j RC 1 = 1 + j 1 = tan1(). 1 + 2

We will need to separate magnitude and phase information from rational polynomials in j. Magnitude = magnitude of numerator / magnitude of denominator (num)2 + (num)2 (den)2
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

(den)2

ECE4510, FREQUENCY-RESPONSE ANALYSIS

84

Phase = phase of numerator phase of denominator (num) (den) tan1 tan1 . (num) (den) Plot Method #1: Polar Plot in s -plane. Evaluate G( j) at each frequency for 0 < . Result will be a complex number at each frequency: a + jb or Ae j . Plot each point on the complex plane at (a + jb) or Ae j for each frequency-response value. Result = polar plot. We will later call this a Nyquist plot. 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 3.0 5.0 10.0 G( j) 1.000 0.0 0.894 26.6 0.707 45.0 0.555 56.3 0.447 63.4 0.316 71.6 0.196 78.7 0.100 84.3 0.000 90.0

The polar plot is parametric in , so it is hard to read the frequency-response for a specic frequency from the plot. We will see later that the polar plot will help us determine stability properties of the plant and closed-loop system.
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, FREQUENCY-RESPONSE ANALYSIS

85

Plot Method #2: Magnitude and Phase Plots


We can replot the data by separating the plots for magnitude and phase making two plots versus frequency.
1 0 10 0.8 20

|G( j)|

G( j)
1 2 3 4 5 6

30 40 50 60 70 80

0.6

0.4

0.2

0 0

Frequency, (rads/sec.)

90 0

Frequency, (rads/sec.)

The above plots are in a natural scale, but usually a log-log plot is made This is called a Bode plot or Bode diagram. Bode Diagrams Simplest way to display the frequency response of a rational-polynomial transfer function is to use a Bode Plot. Logarithmic versus logarithmic |G( j)|, and logarithmic versus G( j).
REASON :

log10

ab cd

= log10 a + log10 b log10 c log10 d.

The polynomial factors that contribute to the transfer function can be split up and evaluated separately. (s + 1) G(s) = (s/10 + 1) ( j + 1) G( j) = ( j/10 + 1)
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, FREQUENCY-RESPONSE ANALYSIS

86

|G( j)| =

| j + 1| | j/10 + 1| 1+ 2 log10
2

log10 |G( j)| = log10 Consider: log10 For n , log10 For n , log10
KEY POINT:

2 1+ . 10

1+ n
2

1+ n 1+ n

log10(1) = 0.

log10

. n

Two straight lines on a log-log plot; intersect at = n .

Typically plot 20 log10 |G( j)|; that is, in dB.


20dB

Exact 0.1n n

Approximation 10n

A transfer function is made up of rst-order zeros and poles, complex zeros and poles, constant gains and delays. We will see how to make straight-line (magnitude- and phase-plot) approximations for all these, and combine them to form the appropriate Bode diagram.
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, FREQUENCY-RESPONSE ANALYSIS

87

Bode-Magnitude Diagrams

Bode-Magnitude: Constant Gain


dB = 20 log10 |K |. Not a function of frequency. Horizontal straight line. If |K | < 1, then negative, else positive.
dB |K | > 1

0.1

1 |K | < 1

10

Bode-Magnitude: Zero or Pole at Origin


20 dB

For a zero at the origin, G(s) = s dB = 20 log10 |G( j)| = 20 log10 | j| dB.
20 dB

20 dB per decade 0.1 1 10

For a pole at the origin, 1 G(s) = s dB = 20 log10 |G( j)| = 20 log10 | j| dB.

20 dB 20 dB per decade 0.1 1 10

20 dB

Both are straight lines, slope = 20 dB per decade of frequency. Line intersects -axis at = 1.

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, FREQUENCY-RESPONSE ANALYSIS

88

For an nth-order pole or zero at the origin, dB = 20 log10 |( j)n | = 20 log10 n = 20n log10 . Still straight lines. Still intersect -axis at = 1. But, slope = 20n dB per decade.

Bode-Magnitude: Zero or Pole on Real Axis, but not at Origin


For a zero on the real axis, (LHP or RHP), the standard Bode form is s G(s) = 1 , n which ensures unity dc-gain. If you start out with something like G(s) = (s + n ), then factor as G(s) = n s +1 . n

Draw the gain term (n ) separately from the zero term (s/n + 1). In general, a LHP or RHP zero has standard Bode form s G(s) = 1 n G( j) = 1 + j 20 log10 |G( j)| = 20 log10
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

n 1+ n
2

ECE4510, FREQUENCY-RESPONSE ANALYSIS

89

For For

n , n ,

20 log10 20 log10

1+ n 1+ n

20 log10 1 = 0. 20 log10 . n

Two straight lines on a log scale which intersect at = n . For a pole on the real axis, (LHP or RHP) standard Bode form is G(s) = s 1 n
1

20 log10 |G( j)| = 20 log10 This is the same except for a minus sign.
0.1n 20 dB 20 dB per decade 0.1n 1n 10n 20 dB

1+ n

1n

10n

20 dB per decade

Bode-Magnitude: Complex-Zero or Complex-Pole Pair


For a complex-zero pair (LHP or RHP) standard Bode form is s n which has unity dc-gain. If you start out with something like
2 s 2 2 n s + n ,
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

s n

+ 1,

ECE4510, FREQUENCY-RESPONSE ANALYSIS

810

2 which we have seen before as a standard form, the dc-gain is n . 2 Convert forms by factoring out n

s 2 n s +
2

2 n

2 n

s n

s n

+1 .

Complex zeros do not lend themselves very well to straight-line approximation.


2 s If = 1, then this is 1 . n Double real zero at n slope of 40 dB/decade.

For = 1, there will be overshoot or undershoot at n . At = n , magnitude value = 20 log10 2 dB. We write complex poles (LHP or RHP) as G(s) = s n
2 1

s n

+1

At = n , peak magnitude value = 20 log10 2 dB. For For


40 dB

n , magnitude 0 dB. n , magnitude slope = 40 dB/decade.


20 dB

Bode Mag: Complex zeros = 0.9 0.7 0.5

20 dB

0 dB

0 dB

20 dB

0.3 0.2 0.1 0.05


n 10n

20 dB

Bode Mag: Complex poles = 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.7 = 0.9
n 10n

0.1n

40 dB

0.1n

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, FREQUENCY-RESPONSE ANALYSIS

811

Bode-Magnitude: Time Delay


G(s) = es ... |G( j)| = 1.

20 log10 1 = 0 dB. Does not change magnitude response.


EXAMPLE :
20000.5 s +1 2000(s + 0.5) G(s) = = 1050 0.5 s s s(s + 10)(s + 50) s 10 + 1 50 + 1

G( j) = j Components:

2
j 10

j 0.5

+1
j 50

+1

+1

DC gain of 20 log10 2 6 dB; Pole at origin; One real zero not at origin, and Two real poles not at origin.
80 60 40 20 0 20 40 60 2 10
1 0 1 2 3

10

10

10

10

10

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

Bode Plot Construction


H( s ) K . (s s n .( s a) ( s c ) .( s s j j a
n j ( j ) . c

b) d ) .( s e)

Typical Transfer Function

a ,b ,c ,d ,e

are

real positive numbers Bode Form : Let and normalize

ab . H( s ) K . ecd

j 1 . b j 1 . d

1 j 1 . e 1

Bode Form

Magnitude Plot 1) Curve breaks { up / down } by 20 dB/dec at { a,b / c,d,e} Angle Plot 2) Curve breaks { up / down } by 45 degrees one decade before { a,b / c,d,e } and breaks { down / up } by 45 degrees one decade after { a,b / c,d,e } Initial Magnitude Plot Case 1: n=0 Calculate

H( j )

and then convert to dB i.e.,

20 .log( H( j ) )

Case 2: n > 0 Calculate the - intercept

20 .n

intercept
dB / dec dB / dec

Kab cde

1 n

Calculate the initial slope

Final Magnitude Slope = -20 . RD

95

Initial and Final Phase Plot 1) Plot a pole / zero plot for the original transfer function 2) Calculate the angle from the picture at

Illustrative Example

Angle

s s

a c ( Angle ( j a) Angle ( j c) ) 0
= 0 degrees

Initial Angle =

Final Angle =

( Angle ( j

a)

Angle ( j

c) )

= 90 - 90 = 0 degrees

1 0.8 0.6

Imag Axis

0.4 0.2 0

-0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -1 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0

Pole / Zero Plot

Real Axis

96

Example - Bode Plot Construction

s 1 H( s ) s 10
Magnitude Plot 1) Initial Magnitude => n = 0 =>

H( j )

1 . j 10 1 j 10
=

}
1 1 10

Bode Form

H( j ) 20 dB

Initial Magnitude =

20 .log

1 10

dB Conversion

2) Plot the negative of the poles and the zeros on the j axis zero at -1 3) pole at -10

Use an "up" arrow to denote a slope of +20 dB/dec and a "down" arrow to denote a slope of -20 dB/dec

RD 0 H( j )
101 100 101 102
Final Slope = 0 dB / dec

dB
-20 -40 Initial Magnitude Decade

( use semilog paper )

4) Start at the initial magnitude and use arrows to draw the asymptotic plot

H( j ) dB
-20

101

100

101

102

+ 20 dB/dec -40

97

Phase Plot

for

s 1 H( s ) s 10

H( j )

1 . j 10 1 j 10 1

Bode Form

1 0.8 0.6

Imag Axis

0.4 0.2 0

-0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -1

10

}
0

Pole / Zero Plot

-10

-8

-6

-4

-2

Real Axis

1) Initial Phase

Angle ( H( j ) )

0
Note :

Angle

j 1

Angle

j 10

= 0-0=0

see picture

Final Angle

Angle ( H( j ) )

Angle

j 1

Angle

j 10


Note :

= 90 - 90 = 0

see picture

98

2) Plot the negative of the poles and the zeros on the j axis zero at -1 pole at -10

3) Use an "up" arrow to denote a slope of +45 deg/dec and a "down" arrow to denote a slope of - 45 deg/dec

Angle ( H( j) ) deg
90 Decade

45

Initial Phase

Final Phase

10 1
4)

10 0

101

10 2

Frequency (rad/sec) Start at the initial phase and use arrows to draw the asymptotic plot

Angle ( H( j) ) deg
90 Initial Phase 45
45 deg/dec

D ecade

F inal P hase
- 45 deg/dec

10 1

10 0

10 1

10 2

F requency (rad/sec)

Use the Asymptotic Plots to draw the actual Bode Plot free hand (rough out the edges)
B o d e D i a g ra m s 0 -5 Phase (deg); Magnitude (dB) -1 0 -1 5 -2 0

50 40 30 20 10 10
-1

10

10

10

F re q u e n c y (ra d /s e c )

99

Example Bode Plot Construction

H( s )

10 ( s 10 ) s ( s 1 ) ( s 100 ) j 1 j 100 1

10 ( 10 ) . H( j ) 100

10 j j 1 1

}
}

Bode Form

Magnitude Plot 1) Initial Magnitude => n = 1 => Calculate the intercept 1 n 10 ( 10 ) 0 I 1 10 n 1 100

Initial slope = -20.n dB / dec = -20 dB / dec

n 1

100

2) Plot the negative of the poles and the zeros on the j axis zero at -10 3) poles at 0 , -1 and -100

Use an "up" arrow to denote a slope of +20 dB/dec and a "down" arrow to denote a slope of -20 dB/dec

H( j )
20 0

dB
-20 -40 -60

-20 dB/dec -20 dB/dec

}
102

( use semilog paper )

I
100
101
Frequency (rad/sec)

4) Use the initial slope and the arrows to draw the asymptotic plot

H( j )
20

dB 0
-20 dB/dec -20 -40 -60 -20 dB/dec -40 dB/dec -40 dB/dec

100

101

10

101

Phase Plot

for

H (s) =

10 ( s 10 ) s ( s 1 ) ( s 100 ) j 1 j 100 1

H (s) =

10 ( 10 ) 100

10 j j 1 1

} }

Bode Form

1 0 .8 0 .6

Imag Axis

0 .4 0 .2 0

Pole / Zero Plot

-0 .2 -0 .4 -0 .6 -0 .8 -1

100

10

R e a l A x is

1) Initial Phase

Angle ( H( j ) )

0 j 1 Angle ( j ) Angle j 1 1 Angle j 100 1 0

10 = 0 90 0 0

Angle

= 90
Final Angle

Angle ( H( j ) ) j 10

1 Angle ( j ) Angle j 1 1 Angle j 100 1

Angle

= 90 90 90 90 = 180

102

2) Plot the negative of the poles and the zeros on the j axis zero at -10 poles at 0 , -1 and -100

3) Use an "up" arrow to denote a slope of +45 deg/dec and a "down" arrow to denote a slope of - 45 deg/dec

Angle ( H( j ) )
10 1
90 0

10 0

10 1

10 2

10 3

deg

-90 -180
Initial Phase

-270
Decade

Final Phase

4)

Start at the initial phase and use arrows to draw the asymptotic plot

Angle ( H( j ) )
-45 -90 Initial Phase Final Phase - 45 deg/dec -180 -225 - 45 deg/dec

deg

-135

10 1

10 0

101

10 2

10 3

Frequency (rad/sec)

103

Use the Asymptotic Plots to draw the actual Bode Plot free hand (rough out the edges)
Bode Diagrams

0 Phase (deg); Magnitude (dB)

-50

-100

-100 -120 -140 -160


-2 -1 0 1 2 3

10

10

10

10

10

10

Frequency (rad/sec)

Bode Plots for Repeated Roots


H (s) =

1 s n
2

H (s) =

1 n
2

1 j n 1 j n 1

}
dB

Bode Form

Magnitude Plot

1
1) Initial Magnitude => n = 0 => Calculate initial magnitude

H( j )

Initial Magnitude =

20 .log

1 n
2

dB Conversion

104

2) Plot the negative of the poles on the j axis 2 poles at - n 3) Use an "up" arrow to deonte a slope of +20 dB/dec and a "down" arrow to denote a slope of -20 dB/dec

H ( j )

20 0
dB

n /10

10n

100n

-20 -40 Decade

105

Phase Plot

for

H (s) =

1 s n 1 n
2 2

H (s) =

1 j n 1 j n 1

} }

Bode Form

1 0.8 0.6

Pole / Zero Plot

Imag Axis

0.4 0.2 0

-0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8

Real Axis

1) Initial Phase

Angle ( H( j ) )

Angle

j n

Angle

j n

1 0

= 0 0 = 0

Final Angle

Angle ( H( j ) )

Angle

j n

Angle

j n

= 90 90 = 180

106

2) Plot the negative of the poles and the zeros on the j axis 2 poles at -n 3) Use an "up" arrow to denote a slope of +45 deg/dec and a "down" arrow to denote a slope of - 45 deg/dec

Angle ( H( j ) )
n 10
90

10 n

100 n

deg 0
-90 -180 -270
Final Phase Initial Phase

4)

Start at the initial phase and use arrows to draw the asymptotic plot

n
90 0 -90 -180 -270

10

10n

100n

Final Phase Initial Phase

107

Use the Asymptotic Plots to draw the actual Bode Plot free hand (rough out the edges) In the following plot

n 1
Bode Diagrams

0 -10 Phase (deg); Magnitude (dB) -20 -30 -40

-50 -100 -150 10


-1

10

10

Frequency (rad/sec)

108

ECE4510, FREQUENCY-RESPONSE ANALYSIS

817

Nonminimum-Phase Systems A system is called a nonminimum-phase if it has pole(s) or zero(s) in the RHP. Consider G 1(s) = 10 G 2(s) = 10 s+1 s + 10 s1 s + 10 zero at 1 pole at 10 zero at + 1 pole at 10 minimum phase nonminimum phase

The magnitude responses of these two systems are: 2 + 1 | j + 1| |G 1( j)| = 10 = 10 | j + 10| 2 + 100 | j 1| 2 + 1 |G 2( j)| = 10 = 10 | j + 10| 2 + 100 which are the same! The phase responses are very different:
(G 1( j)), (G 2( j)) Bode-Magnitude Plot |G 1 ( j)|, |G 2 ( j)|
20 15 180 150 120 90 60 30 0 2 10

Bode-Phase Plot Non-minimum Phase, G 2 Minimum Phase, G 1


10
1

10

0 10
2

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

Note that the change in phase of G 1 is much smaller than change of phase in G 2. Hence G 1 is minimum phase and G 2 is nonminimum-phase
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

Frequency, (rads/sec.)

Frequency, (rads/sec.)

ECE4510, FREQUENCY-RESPONSE ANALYSIS

818

Non-minimum phase usually associated with delay. s1 G 2(s) = G 1(s) s+1 Delay Note: s1 is very similar to a rst-order Pad approximation to a s+1 delay. It is the same when evaluated at s = j.

Consider using feedback to control a nonminimum-phase system. What do the root-locus plotting techniques tell us? Steady-State Errors from Bode-Magnitude Plot Recall our discussion of steady-state errors to step/ramp/parabolic inputs versus system type (summarized on pg. 4417) Consider a unity-feedback system. If the open-loop plant transfer function has N poles at s = 0 then the system is type N K p is error constant for type 0. K v is error constant for type 1. K a is error constant for type 2... For a unity-feedback system, K p = lim G(s).
s0

At low frequency, a type 0 system will have G(s) K p . We can read this off the Bode-magnitude plot directly! Horizontal y-intercept at low freqency = K p . 1 ess = for step input. 1 + Kp
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, FREQUENCY-RESPONSE ANALYSIS

819

K v = lim sG(s), and is nonzero for a type 1 system.


s0

At low frequency, a type 1 system will have G(s) At low frequency, |G( j)|

Kv . s

Kv . Slope of 20 dB/decade. Use the above approximation to extend the low-frequency asymptote to = 1. The asymptote (NOT THE ORIGINAL |G( j)|) evaluated at = 1 is K v . 1 ess = for ramp input. Kv K a = lim s 2 G(s), and is nonzero for a type 2 system.
s0

At low frequency, a type 2 system will have G(s) At low frequency, |G( j)|

Ka . s2

Ka . Slope of 40 dB/decade. 2 Again, use approximation to extend low-frequency asymptote to = 1. The asymptote evaluated at = 1 is K a . 1 ess = for parabolic input. Ka Similar for higher-order systems.
20 10

Example 1 Magnitude

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 2 10

Example 2

Magnitude

0 10 20 30 40 2 10

10

10

10

10

10

10

Frequency, (rads/sec.)

Frequency, (rads/sec.)

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, FREQUENCY-RESPONSE ANALYSIS

820

EXAMPLE

1:

Horizontal as 0, so we know this is type 0. Intercept = 6 dB. . .K p = 6 dB = 2 [linear units].


EXAMPLE

2:

Slope = -20 dB/decade as 0, so we know this is type 1. Extend slope at low frequency to = 1. Intercept=20 dB. . . K v = 20 dB = 10 [linear units]. Stability Revisited If we know the closed-loop transfer function of a system in rationalpolynomial form, we can use Routh to nd stable ranges for K . Motivation: What if we only have open-loop frequency response?

A Simple Example
Consider, for now, that we know the transfer-function of the system, and can plot the root-locus.
EXAMPLE :

(s) r (t) K 1 s(s + 1)2 K =2 y(t) (s)

We see neutral stability at K = 2. The system is stable for K < 2 and unstable for K > 2.
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, FREQUENCY-RESPONSE ANALYSIS

821

Recall that a point is on the root locus if |K G(s)| = 1 and G(s) = 180. If system is neutrally stable, j-axis will have a point (points) where |K G( j)| = 1 and G( j) = 180. Consider the Bode plot of K G(s). . . A neutral-stability condition from Bode plot is: |K G( jo)| = 1 AND K G( jo) = 180 at the same frequency o . In this case, increasing K instability |K G( j)| < 1 at K G( j) = 180 =stability. In some cases, decreasing K instability |K G( j)| > 1 at K G( j) = 180 =stability.
KEY POINT:
40 20 0 20 40 60 80 2 10

K = 0.1 K =2 K = 10
10
1

10

10

90 120 150 180 210 240 270 2 10


1 0 1

10

10

10

We can nd neutral stability point on Bode plot, but dont (yet) have a way of determining if the system is stable or not. Nyquist found a frequency-domain method to do so.

Nyquist Stability Poles of closed-loop transfer function in RHPthe system is unstable. Nyquist found way to count closed-loop poles in RHP. If count is greater than zero, system is unstable. Idea:
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, FREQUENCY-RESPONSE ANALYSIS

822

First, nd a way to count closed-loop poles inside a contour. Second, make the contour equal to the RHP. Counting is related to complex functional mapping.

Interlude: Complex Functional Mapping


Nyquist technique is a graphical method to determine system stability, regions of stability and MARGINS of stability. Involves graphing complex functions of s as a polar plot.
EXAMPLE:

Plotting f (x), a real function of a real variable x.


f (x)

This can be done.


EXAMPLE:

Plotting F(s), a complex function of a complex variable s.

F (s)

?
s

NO! This is wrong!

Must draw mapping of points or lines from s-plane to F(s)-plane.


j s0 s mapping (F ) F (s0) F (s)

(F)

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, FREQUENCY-RESPONSE ANALYSIS

823

EXAMPLE:

F(s) = 2s + 1 . . . map the four points: A, B, C, D


D j A (s)

1 C
EXAMPLE:

1 j B

(s)

Map a square contour (closed path) by F(s) =


D j A j F(s) (D) 1

s . s +2

1 C
FORESHADOWING :

1 j B

F ( A) F (B)1 j F(C)

(s)

By drawing maps of a specic contour, using a mapping function related to the plant open-loop frequency-response, we will be able to determine closed-loop stability of systems.

Mapping Function: Poles of the Function


When we map a contour containing (encircling) poles and zeros of the mapping function, this map will give us information about how many poles and zeros are encircled by the contour. Practice drawing maps when we know poles and zeros. Evaluate G(s)|s=so . G(so) = |v|e j =
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

(zeros)

(poles).

ECE4510, FREQUENCY-RESPONSE ANALYSIS

824

EXAMPLE :

(s) c1 (s)

F(c1)

In this example, there are no zeros or poles inside the contour. The phase increases and decreases, but never undergoes a net change of 360 (does not encircle the origin).
EXAMPLE :

(s) c2 (s)

F(c2)

One pole inside contour. Resulting map undergoes 360 net phase change. (Encircles the origin).
EXAMPLE :

(s) c3 (s)

F (c3)

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, FREQUENCY-RESPONSE ANALYSIS

825

In this example, there are two poles inside the contour, and the map encircles the origin twice. These examples give heuristic evidence of the general rule: Cauchys theorem Let F(s) be the ratio of two polynomials in s. Let the closed curve C in the s-plane be mapped into the complex plane through the mapping F(s). If the curve C does not pass through any zeros or poles of F(s) as it is traversed in the CW direction, the corresponding map in the F(s)-plane encircles the origin N = Z P times in the CW direction, where Z = # of zeros of F(s)in C, P = # of poles of F(s) in C. Consider the following feedback system:
r (t) D(s) G(s) y(t)

T (s) =
H (s)

D(s)G(s) . 1 + D(s)G(s)H (s)


(s) R (s)

For closed-loop stability, no poles of T (s) in RHP. No zeros of 1 + D(s)G(s)H (s) in RHP. Let F(s) = 1 + D(s)G(s)H (s). Count zeros in RHP using Cauchy theorem! (Contour=entire RHP).

The Nyquist criterion simplies Cauchys criterion for feedback systems of the above form.
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, FREQUENCY-RESPONSE ANALYSIS

826

Cauchy: F(s) = 1 + D(s)G(s)H (s). Nyquist: F(s) = D(s)G(s)H (s).


(s) Cauchy

N = # of encirclements of origin. N = # of encirclements of 1.


(s) Nyquist

(s)

(s)

Simple? YES!!! Think of Nyquist path as four parts: I. Origin. Sometimes a special case (later examples). II. + j-axis. FREQUENCY-response of O.L. system! Just plot it as a polar plot. III. For physical systems=0. IV. Complex conjugate of II. So, for most physical systems, the Nyquist plot, used to determine CLOSED-LOOP stability, is merely a polar plot of LOOP frequency response D( j)G( j)H ( j). We dont even need a mathematical model of the system. Measured data of G( j) combined with our known D( j) and H ( j) are enough to determine closed-loop stability.
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

(s) III II I IV (s)

Nyquist Plots/Nyquist Stability Criterion


R( s ) +
_

Y( s ) K Gp ( s )

Y( s ) R( s ) ( s)

KGp ( s ) 1
=

KGp ( s ) 1 KGp ( s )

Closed loop TF

Denominator Form for Nyquist Analysis

1) Plot Nyquist Plot (i.e., a Polar Plot) for

Im K .Gp ( j )

versus

Re K .Gp ( j )

using the Nyquist contour. (Assume K = 1) 2) Apply the Nyquist Criterion to the Nyquist Plot and then determine the stability of the closed-loop system.

Nyquist Criterion P0
denotes the number of poles of

Gp ( s )

inside s-plane contour.

N denotes the net number CW encirclements of the point

1 180

If the contour in the s-plane is CW, then CW is the positive direction. i.e., 1 CW

N =1 N =1

1 CCW

N =1 N =1

If the contour in the s-plane is CCW, then CCW is the positive direction. i.e., 1 CCW 1 CW

Zc

denotes the number of closed-loop poles inside the s-plane contour.

Zc N

P0

Formula for calculation purposes

122

Example
Draw the Nyquist Plot for for the following s-plane contour. Step 1) Let

Im {s}

H( s )

1 s 1 1

Nyquist Contour

s j

H( j . )

j .

1
R
R Re{s}

Step 2) Plot a pole/zero plot for H(s) on the s-plane contour picture and include measurement scheme to the j - axis along with the necessary critical points.

Step 3) Enter a magnitude/phase table entry for each critical point. Point r mag Phase

Im {s}

A B C H ( j )

1 0 0 1 j

0 90 0 r 1 1 1)
-1 A C Re{s}

Angle( H ( j ) )

Angle( j

Step 4) Use critical points to draw Nyquist Plot. Step 5) Nyquist plot is symmetric about real axis. Draw other half.

Im{H(j )}

B,C

A r Re{H(j )}

Draw a Polar plot on a rectangular coordinate system

123

Example
Draw the Nyquist Plot for for the following s-plane contour. Step 1) Let

H( s ) 1 j ( j .

1 s( s 1)

Im{s}

Nyquist Contour

s j H( j . )

1)
R
0

R Re{s}

Step 2) Plot a pole/zero plot for H(s) on the s-plane contour picture and include measurement scheme to the along with the necessary critical points. Step 3) Enter a magnitude/phase table entry for each critical point. Point r mag Phase

axis

Im{s}

A B C D H ( j )


0 0

0 90 180 0 1 j . j 1 Angle( j 1)
Im{H(j)}
B
"Blow-up"
Im {s} B 90
o

A -1

D Re{s}

A Re{s}

Angle( H ( j ) )

Angle( j )

Step 4) Use critical points to draw Nyquist Plot. Step 5) Nyquist plot is symmetric about real axis. Draw other half.

-1

C,D

A r Re{H(j)}

r=

124

Example - Determine stability with Nyquist Plot R( s )


+ _

Y( s ) K Gp ( s ) Gp ( s ) s .( s

1 1 ) .( s

10 )

Im{s}

Use Nyquist Plot, Contour and Criterion to discuss quantitatively how the control gain K affects closed-loop stability.

Nyquist Contour

K .Gp ( s ) Y( s ) R ( s ) 1 K .Gp ( s ) K.

Closed Loop Transfer Function

( s) 1

s .( s

1 1 ) .( s

10 )

} for the denominator


( j ) .( j j

Nyquist Form

R 0

Re{s}

Step 1) Let

s j

K .Gp ( j ) Gp ( s )

K 1 ) .( j
axis

10 )

Assume K = 1

Step 2) Plot a pole/zero plot for

on the s-plane contour

picture and include measurement scheme to the along with the necessary critical points. Step 3) Enter a magnitude/phase table entry for each critical point.

Im{s}

r
point mag

phase

A B C D

0 0

0 90 270 0 1 j . j 1 . j 10

"Blow-up"
Im {s} B 90
o

B A -10 -1

D Re{s}

A Re{s}

Gp ( j )

Angle Gp ( j )

Angle( j )

Angle( j

1)

Angle( j

10 )

125

Step 4) Use critical points to draw Nyquist Plot. Step 5) Nyquist plot is symmetric about real axis. Draw other half. point

r
mag

phase

A B
Im{Gp(j )}

0 0

0 90 270 0

C D

C,D

A r Re{Gp(j )}

Nyquist Plot with K=1

r=

Im{KGp(j)}

-1

C,D

A r Re{KGp(j)}

Nyquist Plot for different values of K

r=
Larger K B

As K is increased, the shape of the Nyquist plot does not change because K is a real number (i.e., K only affects the magnitude (size); K does NOT affect the phase (shape))

126

Im{KGp(j)}
Im {s}

Nyquist Contour CW + CCW -

-1

C,D

A r Re{KGp(j)}

-10

-1

Re{s}

r=

Nyquist Criterion
1) Find

P0

=>

P0 0

( Number of poles of

Gp ( s )

inside the contour)

2) Determine the sign notation for the encirclements. Contour is CW so, CW encirclements are positive and CCW encirclements are negative

3) Find N (i.e., the number of encirclements of (-1,0) for different values of K Also compute

Zc N

Zc N Zc 0 2

P0
Stability Yes No

Number of closed loop poles inside the contour

small K big K

0 2

Nyquist Criterion table

4) Understanding the above table: For small K, no closed loop poles are inside the s-plane contour. From the contour, we can see that this means that for small K the closed loop system is stable For big K, two closed loop poles are inside the s-plane contour; hence, for big K, the closed loop system is unstable

127

Root Locus agrees with the Nyquist Criterion

15

10

Gp ( s )

s .( s

1 1 ) .( s

10 )

Imag Axis

}
-12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4

Root Locus for

( s) 1

K .Gp ( s )

-5

-10

small K: closed loop system is stable big K: closed loop system is unstable

-15

Real Axis

N
small K big K

Zc 0 2

Stability Yes No

0 2

Nyquist Criterion table

128

Example - Clockwise Contour R ( s )+


_

Im{s}

Y( s ) K H( s )

Nyquist Contour

Re{s}

Use Nyquist Plot, Contour and Criterion to discuss quantitatively how the control gain K affects closed-loop stability.

H( s )

s s

1 1
We can see from the root locus that the system goes unstable

Y( s ) K .H ( s ) R ( s ) 1 K .H ( s ) ( s) 1
Step 1) Let

Closed Loop Transfer Function


1

K.

s s

1 1

} for the denominator }

Nyquist Form
Imag Axis

0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0

s j
Assume K=1

K .( j 1 ) K .H ( s ) ( j 1 )

-0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -1 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2

Step 2) Plot a pole/zero plot for

H ( s)

on the s-plane contour

Real Axis

picture and include measurement scheme to the

axis

Step 3) Enter a magnitude/phase table entry for each critical point.

Im {s}

r
point mag

phase

Nyquist Contour

A B C

1 1 1

180
A C 1 Re{s}

0 0

-1

H ( j )

j j

1 1

Angle( H ( j ) ) Angle( j

1)

Angle( j

1)

130

Step 4) Use critical points to draw Nyquist Plot. Step 5) Nyquist plot is symmetric about real axis. Draw other half.

r
point mag

phase

Im{H(j)}

A B K 1

1 1 1

180 0 0

A -1

B,C r Re{H(j)}
Im{s}

Nyquist Contour
A -1 1

CW + CCW -

C Re{s}

As K is decreased below 1, the Nyquist Plot intersects the Re{j } axis before -1 As K is increased beyond 1, the Nyquist Plot intersects the Re{j } axis beyond -1

Nyquist Criterion
1) Find

P0

=>

P0 0

( Number of poles of

H ( s)

inside the contour)

2) Determine the sign notation for the encirclements. Contour is CW so, CW encirclements are positive and CCW encirclements are negative 3) Find N (i.e., the number of encirclements of (-1,0) for different values of K Also compute

Zc N

Zc N Zc 0 1

P0
Stability Yes No

Number of closed loop poles inside the contour

small K big K

0 1

Nyquist Criterion table

4) Understanding the above table: For small K, no closed loop pole is inside the s-plane contour. From the contour, we can see that this means that for small K the closed loop system is stable For big K, one closed loop pole is inside the s-plane contour; hence, for big K, the closed loop system is unstable

131

Same Example - Counterclockwise Contour R ( s )+


_

Y( s ) K H( s )

Im {s}

Nyquist Contour

Use Nyquist Plot, Contour and Criterion to discuss quantitatively how the control gain K affects H( s ) closed-loop stability. Step 1) Let

Re{s}

s s

1 1

s j K .( j ( j 1) 1)

K .H ( s )

} K=1
H ( s)

Assume

Step 2) Plot a pole/zero plot for

on the s-plane contour

picture and include measurement scheme to the

axis

Step 3) Enter a magnitude/phase table entry for each critical point.

r
point mag

phase

Im {s}
Nyquist Contour

A B C

1 1 1

180 0 0
C -1 A 1

Re{s}

H ( j )

j j

1 1 1) Angle( j 1)

Angle( H ( j ) ) Angle( j

Note: Numbers in the table are exactly the same as before

132

Step 4) Use critical points to draw Nyquist Plot. Step 5) Nyquist plot is symmetric about real axis. Draw other half. point

r
mag

phase

Im{H(j)}

A B K 1 C

1 1 1

180 0 0

A -1

B,C r Re{H(j)}
CW CCW +
Im {s}

Nyquist Contour

As K is decreased below 1, the Nyquist Plot intersects the Re{j } axis before -1 As K is increased beyond 1, the Nyquist Plot intersects the Re{j } axis beyond -1

-1

Re{s}

Nyquist Criterion
1) Find

P0

=>

P0 1

( Number of poles of

H ( s)

inside the contour)

2) Determine the sign notation for the encirclements. Contour is CCW so, CW encirclements are negative and CCW encirclements are positive 3) Find N (i.e., the number of encirclements of (-1,0) for different values of K Also compute

Zc N

Zc N Zc 1 1 0

P0
Stability Yes No

Number of closed loop poles inside the contour

small K big K

Nyquist Criterion table

4) Understanding the above table: For small K, one closed loop pole is inside the s-plane contour. From the contour, we can see that this means that for small K the closed loop system is stable For big K, no closed loop pole is inside the s-plane contour; hence, for big K, the closed loop system is unstable

133

Example - Clockwise Contour R ( s )+


_

Im{s}

Y( s ) K H( s )

Nyquist Contour

R 0

Re{s}

Use Nyquist Plot, Contour and Criterion to discuss quantitatively how the control gain K affects closed-loop stability.

H( s )

s .( s

1 1 ) .( s

2)

Y( s ) K .H ( s ) R ( s ) 1 K .H ( s ) ( s) 1 K. 1 s .( s

Closed Loop Transfer Function

1 ) .( s

2) ( j ) .( j

}
K

Nyquist Form for the denominator

Step 1) Let

s j

K .H ( s )

1 ) .( j

2)

} K=1

Assume

Step 2) Plot a pole/zero plot for

H ( s)

on the s-plane contour

picture and include measurement scheme to the Step 3) Enter a magnitude/phase table entry for each critical point.

axis

Im{s}

r
point mag

Nyquist Contour

phase

A B C D

0 0

0 90 270 0
"Blow-up"
Im {s} B 90
o

B A -2 -1

D Re{s}

A Re{s}

H ( j )

1 j . j 1 . j 2 1) Angle( j 2)

Angle( H ( j ) )

Angle( j ) Angle( j

134

Step 4) Use critical points to draw Nyquist Plot. Step 5) Nyquist plot is symmetric about real axis. Draw other half. point

r
mag

phase

Im{Gp(j)}

K 1

A B C

0 0

0 90 270 0

-1

C,D

A r Re{Gp(j)}

r=

Im{s}

CW + CCW -

Nyquist Contour

B
-2 -1

B A

D Re{s}

Nyquist Criterion
1) Find

P0

=>

P0 0

( Number of poles of

H ( s)

inside the contour)

2) Determine the sign notation for the encirclements. Contour is CW so, CW encirclements are positive and CCW encirclements are negative 3) Find N (i.e., the number of encirclements of (-1,0) for different values of K Also compute

Zc N

Zc N Zc 0 2

P0
Stability Yes No

Number of closed loop poles inside the contour

small K big K

0 2

Nyquist Criterion table

4) Understanding the above table: For small K, no closed loop pole is inside the s-plane contour. From the contour, we can see that this means that for small K the closed loop system is stable For big K, two closed loop poles are inside the s-plane contour; hence, for big K, the closed loop system is unstable

135

Same Example - Counterclockwise Contour R ( s )+


_

Im {s}

Y( s ) K H( s )
R

Nyquist Contour

Re{s}

Use Nyquist Plot, Contour and Criterion to discuss quantitatively how the control gain K affects closed-loop stability. H( s ) Step 1) Let

s j K ( j ) .( j 1 ) .( j 2)

s .( s

1 1 ) .( s

R 0

2)

K .H ( s )

} K=1

Assume

Step 2) Plot a pole/zero plot for

H ( s)

on the s-plane contour

picture and include measurement scheme to the

axis

Im {s}
Step 3) Enter a magnitude/phase table entry for each critical point.

r
point mag

phase

Nyquist Contour

B D -2 -1 A Re{s}

A B C D

0 0

0 90 270 540 1
"Blow-up"
Im {s} B 90
o

A Re{s}

H ( j )

j . j

1 . j

2 1) Angle( j 2)

Angle( H ( j ) )

Angle( j ) Angle( j

136

Step 4) Use critical points to draw Nyquist Plot. Step 5) Nyquist plot is symmetric about real axis. Draw other half. point

r
mag

phase

Im{Gp(j)}
K 1

A B C

0 0

0 90 270 540

-1

C,D

A r Re{Gp(j)}
CW CCW +

D
Im {s}

r=

Nyquist Contour

-2 -1

Re{s}

Nyquist Criterion
1) Find

P0

=>

P0 3

( Number of poles of

H ( s)

inside the contour)

2) Determine the sign notation for the encirclements. Contour is CCW so, CW encirclements are negative and CCW encirclements are positive 3) Find N (i.e., the number of encirclements of (-1,0) for different values of K Also compute

Zc N

Zc N Zc 3 2 1

P0
Stability Yes No

Number of closed loop poles inside the contour

small K big K

Nyquist Criterion table

4) Understanding the above table: For small K, all three closed loop poles are inside the s-plane contour. From the contour, we can see that this means that for small K the closed loop system is stable For big K, only one closed loop pole is inside the s-plane contour; hence, for big K, the closed loop system is unstable

137

Example: Using Nyquist Plots to Draw Root Loci


Given the Nyquist Plot and the Transfer Function draw the Root Locus

R( s ) 
B

Y( s ) K H ( s) (s
2 s .( s
Im{s}

H( s )
Im{H(j)}

2 ) .( s 1 ) .( s

4) 3 ) .( s 5)

K 1

-b -1 -1/a

The Nyquist Plot is given

Nyquist Contour

Re{H(j)}

R 0

Re{s}

r=
5

Stable region

4 3

Imag Axis

2 1 0

This is how you might be tempted to draw the root locus without the Nyquist plot Does the Nyquist Plot concur ? 1) Find

-1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2

P0

; the number of poles inside the contour

P0 0

Real Axis

2) Determine the sign notation for the encirclements. Contour is CW so, CW encirclements are positive and CCW encirclements are negative 3) Find N (i.e., the number of encirclements of (-1,0) for different values of K Also compute

Zc Zc 2 0 2

Zc N
Stability No Yes No

P0

N
small K medium K big K

2 0 2

Nyquist Criterion table

=>

The above root locus is wrong

138

N
small K medium K big K

Zc 2 0 2

Stability No Yes No

2 0 2

Nyquist Criterion table

4) Understanding the above table: For small K, two closed loop poles are inside the s-plane contour. From the contour, we can see that this means that for small K the closed loop system is unstable For medium K, no closed loop poles are inside the s-plane contour. From the contour, we can see that this means that for medium K the closed loop system is stable For big K, two closed loop poles are inside the s-plane contour; hence, for big K, the closed loop system is unstable The above table assists in the Root Locus sketch
5 4 3
* K2

}
} small K

large K

Imag Axis

2 1 0 medium K

{
K
* 1

-1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1

Real Axis
From the above root locus, we can conclude that the system is stable for
* K1* < K < K 2

The above result matches that of the Nyquist criterion

K1* =

1 b

and

* K2 = a

-b -1

-1 /a

139

ECE4510, FREQUENCY-RESPONSE ANALYSIS

833

The distance between the current (stable) system and an unstable system is called a stability margin. Can have a gain margin and a phase margin.
GAIN MARGIN :

Factor by which the gain is less than the neutral stability

value. Gain margin measures How much can we increase the gain of the loop transfer function L(s) = D(s)G(s)H (s) and still have a stable system? Many Nyquist plots are like this one. Increasing loop gain magnies the plot. GM =1/(distance between origin and place where Nyquist map crosses real axis). If we increase gain, Nyquist map stretches and we may encircle 1. For a stable system, GM > 1 (linear units) or GM > 0 dB.
PHASE MARGIN :

1 GM PM

Phase factor by which phase is greater than neutral

stability value. Phase margin measures How much delay can we add to the loop transfer function and still have a stable system? PM = Angle to rotate Nyquist plot to achieve neutral stability = intersection of Nyquist with circle of radius 1.
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, FREQUENCY-RESPONSE ANALYSIS

834

If we increase open-loop delay, Nyquist map rotates and we may encircle 1. For a stable system, PM > 0. This is usually easiest to check on Bode plot, even though derived on Nyquist plot! Dene gain crossover as frequency where Bode magnitude is 0 dB. Dene phase crossover as frequency where Bode phase is 180.
30

IRONY:

GM = 1/(Bode gain at phase-crossover frequency) if Bode gain is measured in linear units. GM = ( Bode gain at phase-crossover frequency) [dB] if Bode gain measured in dB. PM = Bode phase at gain-crossover (180).

20

Magnitude

10 0 10 20 30 2 10
1 0 1 2

10

10

10

10

Frequency, (rads/sec.)
90 120

Phase

150 180 210 240 270 10


2

10

10

10

10

We can also determine stability as K changes. Instead of dening gain crossover where |G( j)| = 1, use the frequency where |K G( j)| = 1. You need to be careful using this test. It works if you apply it blindly and the system is minimum-phase.
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

Frequency, (rads/sec.)

ECE4510, FREQUENCY-RESPONSE ANALYSIS

835

You need to think harder if the system is nonminimum-phase. Nyquist is the safest bet. PM and Performance A bonus of computing PM from the open-loop frequency response graph is that it can help us predict closed-loop performance of the system. PM is related to damping. Consider open-loop 2nd -order system 2 n G(s) = s(s + 2 n ) with unity feedback,
2 n T (s) = 2 . 2 s + 2 n + n

The relationship between PM and is: (for this system) PM = tan1 For PM 60, 2 1 + 4 4 2 2

PM . 100 For this system we can also infer M p from PM.


1

Damping ratio versus PM M p , overshoot


20 30 40 50 60 70 80

1 0.9

Overshoot fraction versus PM

Damping ratio

0.8

0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1

0.6

0.4

0.2

0 10

0 0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Phase margin
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

Phase margin

ECE4510, FREQUENCY-RESPONSE ANALYSIS

836

Bodes Gain-Phase Relationship For any stable minimum-phase system (that is, one with no RHP zeros or poles), the phase of G( j) is uniquely related to the magnitude of G( j) 1 dM Relationship: G( jo) = W (u) du (in radians) du M = ln |G( j)| u = ln o

dM slope n of log-mag curve at = o du W (u) = weighting function = ln(coth |u|/2) W (u) (u). Using this re2 lationship, G( j) n 90 if slope of Bode magnitudeplot is constant in the decadeneighborhood of .
2
4 3.5 3

W (u)

2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 6 4 2 0 2 4 6

So, if G( j) 90 if n = 1. So, if G( j) 180 if n = 2.

Normalized freq. u

Want crossover |G( j)| = 1 at a slope of about 1 for good PM. We will soon see how to do this (design!).
KEY POINT:

Closed-Loop Frequency Response Most of the notes in this section have used the open-loop frequency response to predict closed-loop behavior.
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, FREQUENCY-RESPONSE ANALYSIS

837

How about closed-loop frequency response? K D(s)G(s) T (s) = . 1 + K D(s)G(s) General approximations are simple to make. If, |K D( j)G( j)| 1 for and |K D( j)G( j)| 1 for c c

where c is the cutoff frequency where open-loop magnitude response crosses magnitude=1. |T ( j)| = K D( j)G( j) 1 + K D( j)G( j) 1, |K D( j)G( j)|, c ; c .

Note: c bw 2c .

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510: Feedback Control Systems.

91

FREQUENCY-RESPONSE DESIGN
The frequency-response methods we have seen so far largely tell us about stability and stability margins of a closed-loop system based on open-loop response. Now, we look at frequency-response based design methods which primarily aim at improving stability margins. Also, given the relationship between PM and performance, we have some idea of transient response as well. Start thinking of Bode-magnitude and Bode-phase plots as LEGO to make the frequency response we want. PD Compensation Compensator D(s) = K (1 + TD s). We have seen from root-locus that this has a stabilizing effect. Magnitude and phase effect:
90 10K

K 0.1 TD

1 TD

10 TD

0.1 TD

1 TD

10 TD

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, FREQUENCY-RESPONSE DESIGN

92

PD controller increases phase for frequencies over 0.1/TD . So, locate 1/TD < crossover so that phase margin at crossover is better. Problem: Magnitude response continues to increase as frequency increases. This amplies high-frequency sensor noise. Lead Compensation Compensator D(s) = K Ts + 1 , T s + 1 < 1. 1 . T

Approximate PD control for frequencies up to = Magnitude and phase effect:


K

max K 1 T max 1 T 0.1 T 1 T max 1 T 10 T

The phase contributed at frequency is = tan1 (T ) tan1 (T ) . The maximum phase is max = sin1 1 1+ at max =

1 . T

To nd to add a certain phase max 1 sin(max) = . 1 + sin(max)


Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, FREQUENCY-RESPONSE DESIGN

93

1 1 We can show that max occurs mid-way between and on a log T T scale log(max) = log T = 1 1 log 2 T
1 T

1 = log T + log
90 80 70

1 + log T .

1 T

How much can we improve phase with a lead network?

60

max

50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 10
1

10

1/

If we need more phase improvement, we can use a double-lead compensator: Ts + 1 2 D(s) = K . T s + 1 Need to compromise between good phase margin and good sensor noise rejection at high frequency.

Design Method #1 for Lead Controllers


Design specication include: Desired steady-state error. Desired phase margin.
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, FREQUENCY-RESPONSE DESIGN

94

Compute steady-state error of compensated system. Set equal to desired steady-state error by computing K . Evaluate the PM of the uncompensated system using the value of K from above. max initially set to crossover frequency. Add a small amount of PM (5 to 12) to the needed phase lead. (Lead network moves crossover point, so need to design conservatively): Gives max. 1 sin(max) Determine = . 1 + sin(max) 1 Determine T = . max Iterate if necessary (choose a slightly different max or max).
EXAMPLE :

Plant G(s) =

1 s(s + 1)

Want steady-state error for ramp input < 0.1, Want overshoot M p < 25%. Steady-state error ess = lim s
s0

1 R(s) 1 + D(s)G(s) 1 1 s + D(s) (s+1) = 1 D(0)

= lim D(s) = K

s0

Ts + 1 so D(0) = K . T s + 1 1 1 So, = = 0.1 . . . K = 10. This gives max = 3 rads/sec. D(0) K Overshoot spec. M p < 25% gives PM > 45.
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, FREQUENCY-RESPONSE DESIGN

95

Evaluating Bode diagrams of |K G(s)| at crossover, we see we have a phase margin of 18. Need about 27 more to meet spec. Note, addition of pole and zero from lead network will shift crossover frequency somewhat. To be safe, design for added phase of 37 instead of 27. 1 sin(37) 1 = = 0.25. T = = 0.667 1 + sin(37) 0.25(3) D(s) = 10
60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 20 30 40 2 10 10
1

2s/3 + 1 . 2s/12 + 1
1.5 1

Magnitude

Imag Axis
0 1 2

0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0.5 1

10

10

10

(rad/sec)
90 100 6 4

Real Axis

Imag Axis
1 0 1 2

110

Phase

120 130 140 150 160 170 180 2 10 10 10 10 10

2 0 2 4 6 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2

(rad/sec)

Real Axis

Resulting PM = 44. Iterate if desired to meet specs.

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, FREQUENCY-RESPONSE DESIGN

96

Step Response
1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 3 2.5

Ramp Response

Amplitude

Amplitude
0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0

0.5

1.5

2.5

Time (sec.)

Time (sec.)

Summary of design example. 1. Determine dc-gain so that steady-state errors meet spec. 2. Select and T to achieve an acceptable PM at crossover.

Design Method #2 for Lead Controllers


Design specications Bandwidth requirements. PM requirements, rather than ess and PM requirements. Choose open-loop crossover frequency c to be half the desired closed-loop bandwidth. Evaluate K G = |G( jc )|, G = G( jc ).

Compute phase lead required max = PM G 180. Compute = 1 sin(max) . 1 + sin(max)

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, FREQUENCY-RESPONSE DESIGN

97

Compute T 1 T = . c Compensation is D(s) = K |D( jc )| = K Ts + 1 T s + 1


1

+1 +1 1 +1 = K +1 K = .

Open-loop gain at c is designed to be 1: |D( jc )||G( jc )| = 1 K |G( jc )| = 1 K = . KG Our design is now complete. Desired gain crossover frequency of 10 radians per second. 1 Desired PM of 60. G(s) = . s(s + 1) 1 KG = = 0.01, G = 174.3. j10( j10 + 1) max = 60 + 174.3 180 = 54.3. 1 sin(max) = = 0.1037. 1 + sin(max)
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

EXAMPLE :

ECE4510, FREQUENCY-RESPONSE DESIGN

98

1 T = = 0.3105. 10 KD = = 32.36. KG Matlab code to automate this procedure:


% [K,T,alpha]=bod_lead(np,dp,wc,PM) computes the lead compensation of the plant np/dp to have % phase margin PM at crossover frequency wc. e.g., [K,T,alpha]=bod_lead([1],[1 1 0],5,60); function [K,T,alpha]=bod_lead(np,dp,wc,PM) % rst compute the plant response at wc. [magc,phc]=bode(np,dp,wc); % now, compute the needed phase lead at wc and convert to radians for use with "sine" phir=(-180+PM-phc)*pi/180; if abs(phir)>pi/2, disp(A simple phase lead/lag cannot change the phase by more than +/- 90 degrees.); error(Aborting.); end; % the required alpha is alpha=(1-sin(phir))/(1+sin(phir)); % compute the needed gain change K and the time constant T. T=1/(wc*sqrt(alpha)); K=sqrt(alpha)/magc; % compute the new open-loop system by convolving the plant polynomials with the compensator. nol=conv(np,K*[T 1]); dol=conv(dp,[alpha*T 1]); % check the solution by plotting the Bode plot for the new open-loop polynomials. Include the frequency w=1 % to get the full resonance response to show the gain margin. Also, plot the uncompensated Bode response. w=logspace(-2,1)*wc; w(34)=wc; clf; [mag1,ph1]=bode(np,dp,w); [mag2,ph2]=bode(nol,dol,w); subplot(211); semilogx(w/wc,20*log10(mag1),); hold on; semilogx(w/wc,20*log10(mag2)); grid; plot(w/wc,0*w+1,g-); ylabel(Magnitude (dB)); title(Phase-lead design (uncompensated=dashed; compensated=solid)); subplot(212); semilogx(w/wc,ph1,); hold on; semilogx(w/wc,ph2); grid; plot(w/wc,0*w-180+PM,g-); ylabel(Phase); xlabel(Frequency/wc (i.e., "1"=wc));

Matlab results:

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, FREQUENCY-RESPONSE DESIGN

99

Phaselead design (uncompensated=dashed; compensated=solid) Magnitude (dB) 40 20 0 20 40 60 0.01 90 Phase 120 150 180 0.01 0.1 1 Frequency/wc (i.e., "1"=wc) 10 0.1 1 10

PI Compensation In many problems it is important to keep bandwidth low, and also reduce steady-state error. PI compensation used here. D(s) = K 1 + 1 . TI s
TI 10TI

0.1TI 10K

90 TI 10TI

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, FREQUENCY-RESPONSE DESIGN

910

Innite gain at zero frequency Reduces steady-state error to step, ramp, etc. But also has integrator anti-windup problems. Adds phase below breakpoint. We want to kep breakpoint frequency very low to keep from destabilizing system. 1 c . TI Lag Compensation Approximates PI, but without integrator overow. Ts + 1 > 1. D(s) = T s + 1 Primary objective of lag is to add 20 log10 dB gain to low frequencies without changing PM. 1 1
T T

90 1 T 1 T

Steady-state response improves with little effect on transient response.

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, FREQUENCY-RESPONSE DESIGN

911

Typical process
Assumption is that we need to modify (increase) the dc-gain of the loop transfer function. If we apply only a gain, then c typically increases and the phase margin decreases. NOT GOOD. Instead, use lag compensation to lower high-frequency gain. Assume plant has gain K (adjustable), or that we insert a gain K into the system. Adjust the open-loop gain K to meet phase margin requirements (plus about 5 slop factor) at crossover without additional compensation. Draw Bode diagram of system using the gain K from above. Evaluate low-frequency gain. Determine to meet low-frequency gain requirements. 1 Choose one corner frequency = (the zero) to be about one T decade below crossover frequency. (This way, the phase added by the lag compensator will minimally affect PM. The phase added at crossover will be about 5, hence our previous slop factor). 1 The other corner frequency is at = . T Iterate design to meet spec.
EXAMPLE :

G(s) =

K 1 s + 1 (s + 1) 0.5

1 s 2

+1

Design compensator for PM 25, K p = 9.

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, FREQUENCY-RESPONSE DESIGN

912

1. Set K = 4.5 for PM = 30. This gives crossover at c 1.2 rads/sec. 2. Low-frequency gain now = 4.5. 3. Should be raised by a factor of 2 to get K p = 9. So, = 2. 1 4. Choose corner frequency at = 0.2 rads/sec. = 0.2, or T = 5. T 1 1 5. We then know other corner frequency = = . T 10 5s + 1 D(s) = 2 . 10s + 1
Step Response
From: U(1) 1.4 1.2

Amplitude

To: Y(1)

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0 0 5 10 15 20 25

Time (sec.)
20 2

Magnitude

Imag Axis
1 0 1 2

10 0 10 20 30 40 2 10

10

10

10

10

2 3.5

2.5

1.5

0.5

0.5

(rad/sec)
0 30 60 2

Real Axis Imag Axis


1

Phase

90 120 150 180 210 240 270 2 10 10


1

10

10

10

2 3.5

2.5

1.5

0.5

0.5

(rad/sec)
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

Real Axis

ECE4510, FREQUENCY-RESPONSE DESIGN

913

Many other aproaches exist. Typically require both lead and lag to meet specs. Many recipes . . . most require iteration. Design Based on Sensitivity Develop conditions on Bode plot of loop transfer function D(s)G(s)H (s) that will ensure good performance with respect to sensitivity, steady-state errors and sensor noise. Steady-state performance = lower bound on very-low-frequency gain of system. Sensor noise = upper bound on high-frequency gain. Unmodeled system resonance:
0

Magnitude

20 40 60 80 100 1 10

10

10

10

Frequency

Magnitude may go over 1. Can cause instability. Must ensure that high-frequency gain is low so magnitude does not go over 1.

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, FREQUENCY-RESPONSE DESIGN

914

Magnitude of D(s)G(s)

Sensitivity Functions
Consider
r (t) D(s) G(s) w(t) y(t) v(t)

Y (s) = W (s) + G(s)D(s)[R(s) V (s) Y (s)] [1 + G(s)D(s)] Y (s) = W (s) + G(s)D(s)[R(s) V (s)] 1 G(s)D(s) or, Y (s) = W (s) + [R(s) V (s)]. 1 + G(s)D(s) 1 + G(s)D(s) Tracking error = R(s) Y (s) 1 G(s)D(s) E(s) = R(s) W (s) [R(s) V (s)] 1 + G(s)D(s) 1 + G(s)D(s) 1 1 = [R(s) W (s)] G(s)D(s)V (s) 1 + G(s)D(s) 1 + G(s)D(s) Dene the sensitivity function S(s) to be 1 S(s) = 1 + G(s)D(s) which is the transfer function from r(t) to e(t) and from w(t) to e(t).
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

Steady-state Error Boundary

Sensor noise and plant sensitivity boundary

ECE4510, FREQUENCY-RESPONSE DESIGN

915

The complementary sensitivity function T (s) = 1 S(s) G(s)D(s) 1 S(s) = = T (s) 1 + G(s)D(s) which is the transfer function from r(t) to y(t). If V = 0, then and Y (s) = S(s)W (s) + T (s)R(s) E(s) = S(s)[R(s) W (s)].

The sensitivity function here is related to the one we saw several weeks ago T G T SG = G T 1 + D(s)G(s) D(s)G(s) G(s)[1 + D(s)G(s)] = 2 [1 + D(s)G(s)] G(s) 1 = = S(s) 1 + D(s)G(s) So S(s) is equal to the sensitivity of the transfer function to plant perturbations. Recall that T (s) + S(s) = 1 Regardless of D(s) Regardless of G(s) We would like T (s) = 1. Then S(s) = 0; Disturbance is cancelled, design is insensitive to plant perturbation, steady-state error 0. BUT, for physical plants, G(s) 0 for high frequencies. Furthermore, the transfer function between V (s) and E(s) is T (s). To reduce high
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, FREQUENCY-RESPONSE DESIGN

916

frequency noise effects, T (s) 0 as frequency increases, and S(s) 1. Typical sensitivity and complementary sensitivity (closed-loop transfer) functions are:
Performance Spec. Stability Spec.

|T ( j)|

|S( j)|

(s) 1 + D( j)G( j) (s)

Another view of sensitivity:


D( j)G( j)

So, 1 + D( j)G( j) is the distance between the Nyquist curve to the 1 1 point. S( j) = . 1 + D( j)G( j) A large value of |S( j)| indicates a Nyquist plot that is nearly unstable. The maximum value of |S| is a more accurate measure of stability than PM or GM. So, we want max |S( j)| small. How small?
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, FREQUENCY-RESPONSE DESIGN

917

Note: E( j) = S( j)R( j) |E( j)| = |S( j)R( j)| |S( j)||R( j)| put a frequency-based error bound |E( j)| |S( j)||R( j)| eb Let W1() = R( j)/eb . Then, |S( j)|
EXAMPLE :

1 . W1()

A unity-feedback system is to have an error less than 0.005 for all unity-amplitude sinusoids below 500 rads/sec. Draw |W1( j)| for this design.

Spectrum of R( j) is unity for 0 500. Since eb = 0.005, 1 W1() = = 200 for this range. 0.005
200

Magnitude

150

100

50

0 0

500

1000

1500

2000

Frequency (rads/sec.)

We can translate this requirement into a loop-gain requirement. When 1 errors are small, loop gain is high, so |S( j)| and |D( j)G( j)| 1 1 |D( j)G( j)| W1() or, |D( j)G( j)| W1()
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, FREQUENCY-RESPONSE DESIGN

918

Robustness Typically there is some uncertainty in the plant transfer function. We want our design to be robustly stable, and to robustly give good performance (often called H design). Uncertainty often expressed as multiplicative G( j) = G n ( j)[1 + W2( j) ( j)] W2() is a function of frequency expressing uncertainty, or size of possible error in transfer function as a function of frequency. W2() is almost always small at low frequencies. W2() increases at high frequencies as unmodeled structural exibility is common. Typical W2
700 600

Magnitude

500 400 300 200 100 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000

Frequency (rads/sec.)

( j) expresses uncertainty in phase. The only restriction is | ( j)| 1.

Design
Assume design for nominal plant G n (s) is stable. Thus, 1 + D( j)G n ( j) = 0 .
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, FREQUENCY-RESPONSE DESIGN

919

For robust stability,

1 + D( j)G( j) = 0 1 + D( j)G n ( j)[1 + W2() ( j)] = 0 1 + D( j)G n ( j) D( j)G n ( j) W2() ( j) = 0 + 1 + D( j)G n ( j) 1 + D( j)G n ( j)
=0

by assumption recall, T ( j) = D( j)G n ( j) , 1 + D( j)G n ( j) [1 + T ( j)W2() ( j)] = 0 so, |T ( j)W2() ( j)| < 1 or, |T ( j)|W2() < 1.

For high freqencies D( j)G n ( j) is typically small, so T ( j) D( j)G n ( j). Thus |D( j)G n ( j)|W2() < 1 1 |D( j)G n ( j)| < . W2()
EXAMPLE :

The uncertainty in a plant model is described by a function W2() which is zero until = 3000 rads/sec, and increases linearly from there to a value of 100 at = 10, 000 rads/sec. It remains constant at 100 for higher frequencies. Plot constraint on D( j)G n ( j).

Where W2() = 0, there is no constraint on the magnitude of the loop gain. Above = 3000, 1/W2() is a hyperbola from to 0.01 at 10, 000.

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, FREQUENCY-RESPONSE DESIGN


8 7

920

Magnitude

6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000

Frequency (rads/sec.)

Combining W1() and W2() requirements,


100 80

Log Magnitude

60 40 20 0 20 40 60 80 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000

Frequency (rads/sec.)

Limitation: Crossover needs to be with slope 1. So, cannot make constraints too strict, or design will be unstable.

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510: Feedback Control Systems.

101

STATE-SPACE MODELS
1. What are they? 2. Why use them? 3. How do we formulate them? 4. How are they related to the transfer functions we have used already? What are They? Representation of the dynamics of an N th-order system as a rst-order differential equation in an N -vector called the STATE. N rst-order equations. Classic example: 2nd-order E.O.M.
k m b y(t) f (t)

m y (t) = f (t) b y (t) ky(t) f (t) b y (t) ky(t) y (t) = . m


.. .

..

Dene a state vector x(t) = y(t) . y (t)

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, STATE-SPACE MODELS

then, x(t) =

y (t) .. y (t)

y (t) . = k b . 1 y(t) y (t) + f (t) m m m


.

102

We can write this in the form x(t) = A x(t) + B f (t), where A and B are constant matrices. A= , B= .

Complete the picture by setting y(t) as a function of x(t). The general form is: y(t) = C x(t) + D f (t) where C and D are constant matrices. C=
.

D=

Fundamental form for linear state-space model: x(t) = A x(t) + Bu(t) y(t) = C x(t) + Du(t). where u(t) is the input, x(t) is the state, A, B, C, D are constant matrices. We usually assume that x(t) is a vector, so simplify notation by simply using x(t). Why Use Them? Transfer functions provide: u G(s) y. That is, only an input-output mapping. State variables provide easy access to what is going on inside the system (homogeneous dynamics). Convenient way to express E.O.M. The matrix format is great for computers.
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, STATE-SPACE MODELS

103

Allows new analysis and synthesis tools. GREAT for multi-input, multi-output systems. These are very hard to work with transfer functions. How do we Formulate Them? A variety of ways. e.g., from E.O.M. Also from transfer functions. Three cases: 1] Transfer function is only made up of poles. G(s) =
... ..

1 Y (s) = s 3 + a1 s 2 + a2 s + a3 U (s)
.

y (t) + a1 y (t) + a2 y (t) + a3 y(t) = u(t) Choose output and derivatives as the state. x(t) = y (t) y (t) y(t) . Then .. ... y (t) y (t) 1 a1 a2 a3 .. . . x(t) = y (t) = 1 0 0 y (t) + 0 u(t) . y (t) 0 1 0 y(t) 0 y(t) = 0 0 1 x(t) + 0 u(t).
.. .
T

2] Transfer function has poles and zeros, but is strictly proper. b1 s 2 + b2 s + b3 Y (s) G(s) = 3 = s + a1s 2 + a2s + a3 U (s)

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, STATE-SPACE MODELS

104

Break up transfer function into two parts. poles of

Y (s) . Then, Y (s) = [b1s 2 + b2s + b3]V (s). Or, U (s) .. . y(t) = b1v(t) + b2v(t) + b3v(t). But, V (s)[s 3 + a1s 2 + a2s + a3] = U (s), or, ... .. . v(t) + a1v(t) + a2v(t) + a3v(t) = u(t). The representation for this is the same as in Case [1]. Let x(t) = v(t) v(t) v(t) . Then ... .. v(t) v(t) 1 a1 a2 a3 . .. . x(t) = v(t) = 1 0 0 v(t) + 0 u(t) . v(t) 0 1 0 v(t) 0 represents the dynamics of v(t). All that remains is to couple in the zeros of the system. Y (s) = [b1s 2 + b2s + b3]V (s) y(t) = b1 b2 b3 x(t) + 0 u(t)
.. .
T

V (s) contains all of the U (s)

3] Non-proper transfer function. b0 s 3 + b1 s 2 + b2 s + b1 G(s) = 3 s + a1 s 2 + a2 s + a3 1 s 2 + 2 s + 3 = 3 + D, s + a1 s 2 + a2 s + a3 where the i terms are computed via long division. The remainder D is the feedthrough term. Matlab command tf2ss(num,den) converts a transfer function form to state-space form. We will see that we have a lot of freedom when making our state-space models (i.e., in choosing the components of x(t)).
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, STATE-SPACE MODELS

105

Modal (Diagonal) Form There are various canonical forms for representing the dynamics of any particular system. All related by linear algebrachange of basis. Diagonal form very useful. . . N (s) Assume G(s) = , D(s) has distinct roots pi (real). D(s) N (s) G(s) = (s p1)(s p2) (s pn ) r1 r2 rn = + + + . s p1 s p2 s pn Now, let X 1(s) r1 = U (s) s p1 . . . x 1(t) = p1 x 1(t) + r1u(t)
.

X n (s) rn = U (s) s pn Or,


.

x n (t) = pn x n (t) + rn u(t).

x(t) = Ax(t) + Bu(t) y(t) = C x(t) + Du(t) 0 p1 p2 A= ... 0 C= pn 1 1 1 ,

, D=

r1 r2 B= . . . rn 0

Easily extends to handle complex poles s = + j.


Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, STATE-SPACE MODELS

106

Convenient for keeping track of system poles. . . they are right on the diagonal! Good representation to use. . . numerical robustness. State-Space to Transfer Function Start with the state equations . x(t) = Ax(t) + Bu(t) y(t) = C x(t) + Du(t) Laplace transform s X (s) x(0) = AX (s) + BU (s) Y (s) = C X (s) + DU (s)

or

(s I A)X (s) = BU (s) + x(0) X (s) = (s I A)1 BU (s) + (s I A)1 x(0)

and Y (s) = So,

[C(s I A)1 B + D] transfer function of system

U (s) +

C(s I A)1 x(0) response to initial conditions

Y (s) = C(s I A)1 B + D, U (s) (s I A)1 = adjoint(s I A) . det(s I A)

but

adjoint(s I A) = [i, j ]T where i, j = (1)i + j det(Mi, j )


Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, STATE-SPACE MODELS

107

where Mi, j = matrix (s I A) with ith row and jth col. removed. Slightly easier to compute (for SISO systems) Y (s) = C(s I A)1 B + D U (s) det =
EXAMPLE :

sI A B C D det[s I A] 1 B=0 0

a1 a2 a3 A= 1 0 0 0 1 0 C=

b1 b2 b3 s + a1 a2 a3 1 1 s 0 0 det 0 1 s 0 b1 b2 b3 0 G(s) = s + a1 a2 a3 det 1 s 0 0 1 s b3 + b2 s + b1 s 2 = det[s I A] b1 s 2 + b2 s + b3 = 3 s + a1 s 2 + a2 s + a3 Example makes clear that the characteristic equation for the system (Denominator of transfer function=0) is det[s I A] = 0. (eigenvalues).
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, STATE-SPACE MODELS

108

Poles of system are roots of det[s I A] = 0. Transformations State-space representations are not unique. Selection of state x are quite arbitrary. Analyze the transformation of . x(t) = Ax(t) + Bu(t) y(t) = C x(t) + Du(t) Let x(t) = T z(t), where T is an invertible (similarity) transformation matrix. . . z (t) = T 1 x(t) = T 1[Ax(t) + Bu(t)] = T 1[AT z(t) + Bu(t)] = T 1 AT z(t) + T 1 B u(t)
A C D B

y(t) = C T z(t) + D u(t) so z (t) = Az(t) + Bu(t) y(t) = C z(t) + Du(t). Argue that we should be able to use either model. Are they going to give the same transfer function? H1 (s) = C(s I A)1 B + D H2 (s) = C(s I A)1 B + D Need H1 (s) = H2(s). H1 (s) = C(s I A)1 B + D
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, STATE-SPACE MODELS

109

= C T T 1(s I A)1 T T 1 B + D = (C T )[T 1(s I A)T ]1(T 1 B) + D = C(s I A)1 B + D = H2 (s). Transfer function not changed by similarity transform.
EXAMPLE :

b1 s 2 + b2 s + b3 H (s) = 3 s + a1 s 2 + a2 s + a3

Only six parameters in transfer function. But, A has 3 3, B has 3 1, C has 1 3: a total of 15 parameters. Appears that we have 9 degrees of freedom in state-space model. Contradiction? 9 = size . Time (Dynamic) Response Develop more insight into the system response by looking at time-domain solution for x(t). Scalar case rst, then many states and MIMO.

Homogeneous Part (scalar)


x(t) = ax(t),
.

x(0).

Take Laplace. X (s) = (s a)1 x(0). Inverse Laplace. x(t) = eat x(0).

Homogeneous Part (full solution)


x(t) = Ax(t),
.

x(0).

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, STATE-SPACE MODELS

1010

Take Laplace. X (s) = (s I A)1 x(0). x(t) = 1[(s I A)1]x(0). But, (s I A) so,
1

I A2 A = + 2 + 3 + s s s

A2 t 2 A3t 3 [(s I A) ] = I + At + + + 2! 3!
1

= e At

matrix exponential

x(t) = e At x(0). e At : Transition matrix or state-transition matrix. Matrix exponential e(A+B)t = e At e Bt iff expm.m A B = B A.

Will say more about this form (e At ) when we discuss the structure of A. Computation of e At = 1[(s I A)1] straightforward for 2 2.
EXAMPLE :

x = Ax, (s I A)1 = =

A=
1

0 1 2 3

s 1 2 s+3 s+3 1 2 s

1 (s + 2)(s + 1)

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, STATE-SPACE MODELS

1 1 1 2 s+1 s+2 s+1 s+2 = 2 2 2 1 + + s+1 s+2 s+1 s+2 e


At

1011

2et e2t et e2t 2et + 2e2t et + 2e2t

1(t)

This is the best way to nd e At if A 2 2.

Forced Solution (scalar) . x(t) = ax(t) + bu(t),


x(t) = e x(0) +
at 0 t

x(0)

ea(t )bu( ) d convolution

Where did this come from? 1. x(t) ax(t) = bu(t) 2. eat [x(t) ax(t)] =
t

d at [e x(t)] = eat bu(t). dt


t

3.
0

d a [e x( )] d = eat x(t) x(0) = dt


.

ea bu( ) d.

Forced Solution (full solution)


Now, let x(t) = Ax(t) + Bu(t), Follow three steps above to get x(t) = e x(0) +
At 0 t

n1

m1

e A(t ) Bu( ) d

Clearly, if y(t) = C x(t) + Du(t), y(t) = Ce x(0) +


At t 0

Ce A(t ) Bu( ) d + convolution

Du(t) feedthrough

initial resp.
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, STATE-SPACE MODELS

1012

More on the Matrix Exponential Have seen the key role of e At in the solution for x(t). Impacts the system response, but need more insight. Consider what happens if the matrix A is diagonalizable, that is, there exists a matrix T such that T 1 AT = =diagonal. Then, e At = T e t T 1, and e
1 t

0 e2 t ... en t ?

Much simpler form for the exponential, but how to nd T, Eigenvalues/eigenvectors. Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors

is an eigenvalue of A if det(I A) = 0 which is true iff there exists a nonzero vector v so that (I A)v = 0 Av = v v = eigenvector. Repeat to nd all eigenvectors. Assume that v1, v2, . . . vn are linearly independent. Avi = i vi i = 1, 2, . . . , n 0 1 ... A v1 v 2 . . . v n = v 1 v 2 . . . v n
T

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, STATE-SPACE MODELS

1013

AT = T

T 1 AT =

Not all matrices diagonalizable A= 0 1 0 0 det(I A) = 2

One eigenvalue = 0. Solve for the eigenvectors 0 1 0 0 va vb =0 all vectors of the form va 0 = 0.

Dynamic Interpretation
Write T 1 AT =
1 as T A = T 1 with T w1 T w2 = . . . T wn

T 1

i.e., rows of T 1.

wiT A = i wiT , so wi is a left eigenvector of A and note that wiT v j = i, j . How does this help? e At = T e t T 1

1 t

0 e2 t ... en t

v1 v2 . . . v n

0
n

. . . wn T

T w1 T w2

=
i =1

ei t vi wiT

Very simple form. Can be used to develop intuition about dynamic response ei t .
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, STATE-SPACE MODELS

1014

Recall,

x(t) = Ax(t) x(t) = e At x(0) = T e t T 1 x(0)


n

=
i =1

ei t vi (wiT x(0)).

Solution (trajectory) can be expressed as a linear combination of system modes: vi ei t . Left eigenvectors decompose initial state x(0) into modal coordinates wiT x(0). ei t propagates mode forward in time. Stability? vi corresponds to relative phasing of state contribution to the modal response.
EXAMPLE :

Lets consider a specic system . x(t) = Ax(t) y(t) = C x(t)


161

with x(t)

, y(t)

. (16-state, single output).

A lightly damped system. Typical output to initial conditions:

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, STATE-SPACE MODELS

1015

Impulse Response
2 1.5 1

Amplitude

0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2

50

100

150

200

250

300

Time (sec.)

Output waveform is very complicated. Looks almost random or unpredictable. However, such a solution can be decomposed into much simpler modal components. How? Diagonalize A to form an equivalent system. Assume A is diagonalizable by T . Dene new coordinates by x(t) = T x(t) so x(t) = T 1 Ax(t) = T 1 AT x(t) =
.

x(t).

In new coordinate system, system is diagonal (decoupled).

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, STATE-SPACE MODELS


1

1016

1 0.5 0 0.5

50

100

150

200

250

0 1

50

100

150

200

250

50

100

150

200

250

0.5 0 0.5 0 0.5 0 0.5 0 1 0 1 0 1 50 100 150 200 250 50 100 150 200 250 50 100 150 200 250

50

100

150

200

250

0.5 0 0.5 0 50 100 150 200 250

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, STATE-SPACE MODELS

1017

1/s 1

x1

Trajectories consist of n independent modes; that is, xi (t) = ei t xi (0)


xn

1/s n

hence the name, modal form.

Can write x(t) = e At x(0) = T e t T 1 x(0)


n

=
i =1

ei t vi (wiT x(0)).

Thus, trajectory can be expressed as linear combination of modes.

Interpretation.
Left eigenvectors decompose initial state x(0) into modal components wiT x(0). ei t term propagates ith mode forward t seconds. Reconstruct state as linear combination of right eigenvectors. ZerosSISO System Seen eigenvalues of A are the poles. Zeros of transfer function? What is a zero? Put in u(t) = u 0e zi t and you get a zero output at frequency e zi t .
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, STATE-SPACE MODELS

1018

State space: Have input and state contributions u(t) = u 0e zi t , x(t) = x 0e zi t . . . y(t) = 0. x(t) = Ax(t) + Bu(t) zi e zi t x(0) = Ax(0)e zi t + Bu 0e zi t x(0) zi I A B . . = 0 u0 y(t) = C x(t) + Du(t) C x(0)e zi t + Du 0e zi t=0 x(0) C D .. = 0 u0 Put the two together zi I A B C D x(0) u0 =0
.

Zero at frequency zi if there exists a nontrivial solution of det Recall det s I A B C D det(s I A)
EXAMPLES :

zi I A B C D

=0

We see that a specic frequency is blocked in the output by a zero, BUT, the output does not need to be identically zero.

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, STATE-SPACE MODELS


y1out y1out 0 Constant 1 s+1 Transfer Fcn (with initial states) du/dt y2out s 1 1 s+1 y2out

1019

1 0.9 0.8

Intermediate output: , Final output:

Amplitude

0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

Time (sec.)
y1out y1out 0 Constant 1 s+1 Transfer Fcn (with initial states) s+1 s+10 Transfer Fcn y2out y2out

1 0.9 0.8

Intermediate output: , Final output:

Amplitude

0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

Time (sec.)

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, STATE-SPACE MODELS

1020

Feedback Control System dynamics x(t) = Ax(t) + Bu(t) y(t) = C x(t) System poles given by eigenvalues of A. Want to use input u(t) to change the dynamics. Will assume the form of LINEAR STATE FEEDBACK. u(t) = r(t) K x(t), K 1n .
r (t) u(t) A, B, C x y(t) .

Full state feedback with gain vector K . Substitute: x(t) = Ax(t) + B(r(t) K x(t)) = ( A B K )x(t) + Br(t) y(t) = C x(t) If r = 0 . . . regulation. Design objective: Pick K so that ACL = A B K has some nice properties. For example, A unstable, ACL stable. Put two poles at 2 j. (Pole placement). There are n parameters in the gain vector K and n eigenvalues of A. So, what can we achieve?
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, STATE-SPACE MODELS

1021

EXAMPLE :

x(t) =

1 1 1 2

x(t) +

1 0

u(t).

det(s I A) = (s 1)(s 2) 1 = s 2 3s + 1. (Note. The original system is unstable). Let u(t) = k1 k2 x(t) = K x(t) ACL = A B K = = 1 1 1 2 1 0 k1 k2 .

1 k1 1 k2 1 2

So, det(s I A) = s 2 + (k1 3)s + (1 2k1 + k2). By choosing k1 and k2, we can put i ( ACL ) ANYWHERE in the complex plane (in complex-conjugate pairs, that is!) Poles at 5, 6? Compare desired closed-loop characteristic equation (s + 5)(s + 6) = s 2 + 11s + 30 with det(s I A) = s 2 + (k1 3)s + (1 2k1 + k2) So, k1 3 = 11, 1 2k1 + k2 = 30, or, k1 = 14 or, k2 = 57.

K = [14 57].
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, STATE-SPACE MODELS

1022

So, with the n parameters in K , can we always relocate all n i ( ACL )? Most physical systems, qualied yes. Mathematically, EMPHATIC NO! Boils down to whether or not the system is controllable. That is, if every internal system mode can be excited by inputs, either directly or indirectly.
EXAMPLE :

x(t) =

1 1 0 2

x(t) +

1 0

u(t)

u(t) = K x(t). ACL = A B K = 1 k1 1 k2 0 2

det(s I ACL ) = (s 1 + k1)(s 2). Feedback of the state cannot move the pole at s = 2. System cannot be stabilized via state feedback. Reason? Modal form: AV = V
.

1 0 0 2

V =

1 1 0 1

V 1 =

1 1 0 1

convert x(t) = Ax(t) + Bu(t) to . z (t) = z(t) + V 1 Bu(t) V 1 B = 1 1 0 1 1 0 = 1 0

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, STATE-SPACE MODELS

1023

Therefore, modal dynamics z (t) = Decoupled Control input does not inuence second mode directly or indirectly. System is NOT controllable. Easier ways to test controllability. Is the (controllability) matrix Mc = full rank? EXAMPLE : Mc =
EXAMPLE :

1 0 0 2

z(t) +

1 0

u(t).

B AB A2 B . . . An1 B

nn

1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0

Rank =?

Mc =

Rank =?

Design tedious as shown for more than 2 2 since we need symbolic det(s I ACL ). Much easier to work with control canonical form of the state-space representation. a1 a2 a3 1 A= 1 B=0 0 0 , 0 1 0 0 C= b1 b2 b3

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, STATE-SPACE MODELS

1024

Note, K =

k1 k2 k3 , so

k1 k2 k3 BK = 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 Useful because characteristic equation obvious. a1 k1 a2 k2 a3 k3 ACL = A B K = 1 0 0 0 1 0 CL = det(s I ACL ) = s 3 + (a1 + k1)s 2 + (a2 + k2)s + (a3 + k3) = 0. Compare CL with desired CL , and compute K . Summary of Design Procedure 1. Transform arbitrary ( A, B) representation to control-canonical form ( Ac , Bc ): x(t) = T z(t). 2. Solve for gains K c (by inspection). 3. Convert K c to K (for A, B) with K = K c T 1. Ackermanns formula does this entire process in one step. 1 K = [0 0 . . . 1]Mc d ( A) where Mc = [B AB A2 B . . . An1 B] d ( A) = An + 1 An1 + + n I where d (s) = s n + 1s n1 + . . . + n = 0 That is, d (s) is the characteristic equation of desired pole locations.
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, STATE-SPACE MODELS

1025

Revisit previous example. d (s) = s 2 + 11s + 30. Mc = K = = = = 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 3 3 5 42 14 14 57  same as before. + 1 1 1 2 41 11 11 52 1 1 1 2 + 11 1 1 1 2 + 30 1 0 0 1

0 1

0 1

14 57 .

acker.m Very easy in Matlab, but numerical issues. place.m Use this instead, unless you have repeated roots. polyvalm.m To compute d ( A). Reference Input So far, we have looked at how to pick K to get homogeneous dynamics that we want. i ( ACL) fast/slow/real poles ... How does this improve our ability to track a reference? Started with u(t) = r(t) K x(t). Want y(t) r(t) for good tracking. Y (s) Frequency domain, want 1. Usually only get this performance R(s) at low frequencies.
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, STATE-SPACE MODELS

1026

Problem is that u(t) = r(t) K x(t) is simple, but it gives steady-state errors.
EXAMPLE :

A= Let C =

1 1 1 2

B=

1 0

K =

14 57

1 0 . Then Y (s) = R(s) =

Y (s) = C(s I A + B K )1 B. R(s) 1 0 s + 13 56 1 s 2


1

1 0

s2 . s 2 + 11s + 30 2 =1! 30

Final value theorem for step input, y(t)


Partial statespace model: A=[1 1; 1 2], B=[1; 0], C=[1 0; 0 1], D=[0; 0]. x = Ax+Bu y = Cx+Du Sum StateSpace x(t)

K C=[1 0]

y(t)

yout yout

Step

Kx(t)

K K=[14 57]

0.06

Step Response

0.04

Amplitude

0.02

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

10

Time (sec.)
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, STATE-SPACE MODELS

1027

Modication: Need steady-state values for x(t) and u(t) that are nonzero. . . Then, regulate around them. (u(t) u ss ) = K (x(t) x ss ) u ss and x ss related to rss . u ss = Nu rss
11

x ss = N x rss .
n1

How to nd N u and N x ? Use equations of motion. . x(t) = Ax(t) + Bu(t) y(t) = C x(t) + Du(t) At steady state, x(t) = 0 = Ax ss + Bu ss y(t) = rss = C xss + Du ss . Two equations and two unknowns. A B C D Nx Nu = 0 1
.

Control signal is now u(t) = Nu r(t) K (x(t) N x r(t)) = K x(t) + (Nu + K N x )r(t) = K x(t) + N r(t) N computed without knowing r(t). It works for any r(t).

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, STATE-SPACE MODELS

1028

In our example Nx Nu Nu + K N x = 15.

1 1 = 2 1 2

New equations: . x(t) = Ax(t) + B(Nu + K N x )r(t) B K x(t) = ( A B K )x(t) + B Nr(t) y(t) = C x(t) Therefore, Y (s) N R(s) old 15(s 2) = 2 s + 11s + 30 15s + 30 = 2 s + 11s + 30 which has zero steady-state error to a unit-step. Y (s) = R(s) new

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, STATE-SPACE MODELS

1029

r (t)

Nu K

u(t)

A, B, C x

y(t)

Nx

r (t)

u(t)

A, B, C x

y(t)

K
Partial statespace model: A=[1 1; 1 2], B=[1; 0], C=[1 0; 0 1], D=[0; 0]. 15 Step Gain Sum x = Ax+Bu y = Cx+Du StateSpace Kx(t) x(t) y(t)

K C=[1 0]

yout yout

K K=[14 57]

1 0.8 0.6

Step Response

Amplitude

0.4 0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

10

Time (sec.)
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, STATE-SPACE MODELS

1030

Pole Placement Classical question: Where do we place the closed-loop poles? Dominant second-order behavior, just as before. Assume dominant behavior given by roots of
2 s 2 + 2 n s + n

s = n jn 1 2

Put other poles so that the time response is much faster than this dominant behavior. Place them so that they are sufciently damped. Real part < 4 n . Keep frequency same as open loop. Be very careful about moving poles too far. Takes a lot of control effort. Can also choose closed-loop poles to mimic a system that has performance that you like. Set closed-loop poles equal to this prototype system. Scaled to give settling time of 1 sec. or bandwidth of = 1 rad/sec.

Bessel Prototype Systems


Step Response: Constant Bandwidth
1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0

Step Response: Constant ts Amplitude

Amplitude

10

12

14

16

0.5

1.5

2.5

Time (sec.)
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

Time (sec.)

ECE4510, STATE-SPACE MODELS

1031

ITAE Prototype Systems


Step Response: Constant Bandwidth
1 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0

Step Response: Constant ts Amplitude

Amplitude

10

12

14

16

0.5

1.5

2.5

Time (sec.)

Time (sec.)

ITAE pole locations for ts = 1 sec.


1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: 4.6200 4.6598 4.6598 j 4.3503 8.9178 j 4.2358 12.6174 j 3.9484 13.5531 j 2.9905 12.1918 j 5.9126 6.2537 4.139 j 6.0401 5.6006 j 5.6018 7.5540 j 9.3938 7.0889 2.7724 j

Bessel pole locations for ts = 1 sec.


1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: 4.6200 4.0530 2.3400 j 3.9668 3.7845 j 4.0156 5.0723 j 4.1104 6.3142 j 4.2169 7.5300 j 5.0093 5.5281 1.6553 j 5.9268 3.0813 j 6.2613 4.4018 j 6.4480 7.1205 1.4540 j

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, STATE-SPACE MODELS

1032

ITAE pole locations for o = 1 rad/sec.


1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: 1.0000 0.7071 0.7071 j 0.5210 1.0680 j 0.4240 1.2630 j 0.3764 1.2920 j 0.3099 0.9617 j 0.7081 0.6260 0.4141 j 0.5758 0.5339 j 0.5805 0.7828 j 0.8955 0.7346 0.2873 j

Bessel pole locations for o = 1 rad/sec.


1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: 1.0000 0.8660 0.5000 j 0.7455 0.7112 j 0.6573 0.8302 j 0.5906 0.9072 j 0.5385 0.9617 j 0.9420 0.9047 0.2711 j 0.8516 0.4427 j 0.7998 0.5622 j 0.9264 0.9093 0.1856 j

PROCEDURE :

For nth-order systemdesired bandwidth.

1. Determine desired bandwidth o . 2. Find the nth-order poles from the table of constant bandwidth, and multiply pole locations by o . 3. Use Acker/place to locate poles. Simulate and check control effort.
PROCEDURE :

For nth-order systemdesired settling time.

1. Determine desired settling time ts . 2. Find the nth-order poles from the table of constant settling time, and divide pole locations by ts . 3. Use Acker/place to locate poles. Simulate and check control effort.
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, STATE-SPACE MODELS

1033

EXAMPLE :

G(s) =

1 s(s + 1)(s + 4) 5 4 0 A = 1 0 0 , 0 1 0

1 B=0 0

want ts = 2, and 3rd-order Bessel. 5.0093 s1 = = 2.5047. 2 3.9668 3.7845 j s2,3 = = 1.9834 1.8922 j 2 Bessel model has no overshoot, but is slow compared with ITAE. NOT a good idea for exible systems. Why?
0

ITAE: , Bessel,

20

Magnitude

40

60

80

100

120

140 1 10

10

10

, (rads/sec.)

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510: Feedback Control Systems.

111

REVIEW OF FEEDBACK CONTROL


Goals of Feedback Control Change dynamic response of a system to have desired properties. Output of system tracks reference input. Reject disturbances. Dynamic Response We wish to control linear-time invariant (LTI) systems. These dynamics may be specied via linear, constant-coefcient ordinary differential equations (LCCODE). Examples include: Mechanical systems: Use Newtons laws. Electrical systems: Use Kirchoffs laws. Electro-mechanical systems (generator/motor). Thermodynamic systems. Fluid-dynamic systems.
EXAMPLE:

Second-order system: .. . 2 2 y (t) + 2 n y (t) + n y(t) = n u(t).

u(t) is the input. y(t) is the output.


Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, REVIEW OF FEEDBACK CONTROL

112

dy(t) . dt .. d 2 y(t) y (t) = . dt 2 The Laplace Transform is a tool to help analyze dynamic systems. Y (s) = H (s)U (s), where y (t) = Y (s) is Laplace transform of output, y(t); U (s) is Laplace transform of input, u(t); H (s) is transfer functionthe Laplace tx of impulse response, h(t). y (t) = sY (s) for no initial conditions.
EXAMPLE:

Second-order system: 2 2 s 2Y (s) + 2 n sY (s) + n Y (s) = n U (s)


2 n Y (s) = 2 U (s). 2 s + 2 n s + n

Transforms for systems with LCCODE representations can be written as Y (s) = H (s)U (s), where b0s m + b1s m1 + + bm1s + bm H (s) = , a0s n + a1s n1 + + an1s + an where n m for physical systems. These can be represented in Matlab using vectors of numerator and denominator polynomials: num=[b0 b1 . . . bm]; den=[a0 a1 . . . an]; sys=tf(num,den);

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, REVIEW OF FEEDBACK CONTROL

113

Can also represent these systems by factoring the polynomials into zero-pole-gain form: m i =1 (s z i ) H (s) = K n . (s pi ) i =1 sys=zpk(z,p,k); % in Matlab Input signals of interest include the following: k impulse k/s step k/s 2 ramp k/s 3 parabola k u(t) = k sin(t) 1(t) . . . U (s) = 2 sinusoid s + 2 Matlabs impulse, step, and lsim commands can be used to nd output time histories. u(t) u(t) u(t) u(t) The Final Value Theorem states that if a system is stable and has a nal, constant value, lim x(t) = lim s X (s).
t s0

= = = =

k (t) k 1(t) kt 1(t) kt 2/2 1(t)

... ... ... ...

U (s) U (s) U (s) U (s)

= = = =

This is useful when investigating steady-state errors in a control system. Block Diagrams Useful when analyzing systems comprised of a number of sub-units.
U (s) H (s) Y (s) Y (s) = H (s)U (s)

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, REVIEW OF FEEDBACK CONTROL

114

U (s)

H1 (s)

H2 (s)

Y (s)

Y (s) = [H1(s)H2(s)] U (s)

H1 (s) U (s) H2 (s) U1 (s) Y (s) Y (s) = [H1(s) + H2 (s)] U (s)

R(s)

H1 (s)

Y (s) Y (s) = H1 (s) R(s) 1 + H2(s)H1(s)

Y2 (s)

H2 (s)

U2 (s)

Block-diagram algebra (or Masons rule) may be used to reduce block diagrams to a single transfer function.
U (s) H (s) Y1 (s) Y2 (s) U (s) H (s) 1 H (s) U1 (s) U2 (s) H (s) H (s) Y1 (s) Y2 (s)

U1 (s) U2 (s)

H (s)

Y (s)

Y (s)

R(s)

H1 (s) H2 (s)

Y (s)

R(s)

1 H2 (s)

H2 (s)

H1 (s)

Y (s)

Unity Feedback

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, REVIEW OF FEEDBACK CONTROL

115

Dynamic Response versus Pole Locations The poles of H (s) determine (qualitatively) the dynamic response of the system. The zeros of H (s) quantify the relationship. If the system has only real poles, each one is of the form: 1 H (s) = . s+ If > 0, the system is stable, and h(t) = e t 1(t). The time constant is = 1/, and the response of the system to an impulse or step decays to steady-state in about 4 or 5 time constants.
impulse([0 1],[1 1]);
1 1

step([0 1],[1 1]);

0.8

0.8

h(t)

0.6

y(t) K

0.6

K (1 et/ ) System response. K = DC gain

0.4

1 e

0.4

0.2

0.2

Response to initial condition 0.


t =
1 2 3 4 5

0 0

t =

0 0

Time (sec )

Time (sec )

If a system has complex-conjugate poles, each may be written as: 2 n H (s) = 2 . 2 s + 2 n s + n We can extract two more parameters from this equation: = n and d = n 1 2.

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, REVIEW OF FEEDBACK CONTROL

116

plays the same role as aboveit species decay rate of the response. d is the oscillation frequency of the output. Note: d = n unless = 0. is the damping ratio and it also plays a role in decay rate and overshoot.

= sin ( ) n

(s)

(s)

Impulse response h(t) = n e t sin(d t) 1(t). Step response y(t) = 1 e t cos(d t) + sin(d t) . d
Impulse Responses of 2nd-Order Systems
1

Step Responses of 2nd-Order Systems


2

=0 0.2 0.4 0.6

=0 0.2

0.5

1.5

0.4

y(t)

y(t)

0.6

=1
0.5

0.8

0.5

0.8 1.0

1 0

n t

10

12

0 0

n t

10

12

A summary chart of impulse responses and step responses versus pole locations is:
(s) (s)

(s) Impulse responses vs. pole locations


Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

(s) Step responses vs. pole locations

ECE4510, REVIEW OF FEEDBACK CONTROL

117

Time-domain specications determine where poles SHOULD be placed in the s-plane. (step-response).
tp 1 0.9 Mp

0.1 tr ts
100 90

M p, %

Rise time tr = time to go from 10% to 90% of nal value. Settling time ts = time until permanently within 1% of nal value. Overshoot M p = maximum PERCENT overshoot.

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0.2 0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

tr 1.8/n ts 4.6/ / 1 2 Mp e

... ... ...

n 1.8/tr 4.6/ts f n(M p )

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, REVIEW OF FEEDBACK CONTROL

118

Basic Feedback Properties


r (t) D(s) G(s) y(t)

Y (s) D(s)G(s) = = T (s). R(s) 1 + D(s)G(s)

Stability depends on roots of denominator of T (s): 1 + D(s)G(s) = 0. Routh test used to determine stability. Steady-state error found from (for unity feedback) E(s) 1 = . R(s) 1 + D(s)G(s) ess = lim e(t) = lim s E(s) if the limit exists.
t s0

System type = 0 iff ess is nite for unit-step reference-input 1(t). System type = 1 iff ess is nite for unit-ramp reference-input r(t). System type = 2 iff ess is nite for unit-parabola ref.-input p(t). . . For unity-feedback systems, K p = lim D(s)G(s).
s0

postion error constant velocity error constant acceleration error constant

K v = lim s D(s)G(s).
s0

K a = lim s 2 D(s)G(s).
s0

Steady-state errors versus system type for unity feedback: Step input Ramp input Parabola input 1 Type 0 1 + Kp 1 Type 1 0 Kv 1 Type 2 0 0 Ka
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, REVIEW OF FEEDBACK CONTROL

119

Types of Controllers Proportional ctrlr: u(t) = K e(t). D(s) = K . K t K Integral ctrlr u(t) = e(t) dt. D(s) = TI TI s . Derivative ctrlr. u(t) = K TD e(t) D(s) = K TD s 1 Combinations: PI: D(s) = K (1 + ); TI s PD: D(s) = K (1 + TD s) ; 1 PID: D(s) = K 1 + + TD s . TI s Ts + 1 Lead: D(s) = K , < 1 (approx PD) T s + 1 Ts + 1 Lag: D(s) = K , > 1 (approx PI; T s + 1 often, K = ) (T1s + 1)(T2s + 1) Lead/Lag: D(s) = K , 1 < 1, 2 > 1. (1 T1 s + 1)(2 T2 s + 1) . . . Root Locus A root locus plot shows (parametrically) the possible locations of the roots of the equation b(s) 1+ K = 0. a(s) For a unity-gain feedback system, D(s)G(s) T (s) = . 1 + D(s)G(s) The poles of the closed-loop system T (s) depend on the open-loop transfer functions D(s)G(s). Suppose D(s) = K D0(s). closed-loop poles at 1 + K (D0(s)G(s)) = 0
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, REVIEW OF FEEDBACK CONTROL

1110

which is the root-locus form. Drawing the root locus allows us to select K for good pole locations. Intuition into the root-locus helps us design D0(s) with lead/ lag/ PI/ PID. . . controllers. Root-Locus Drawing Rules The steps in drawing a 180 root locus follow from the basic phase denition. This is the locus of b(s) b(s) 1+K = 0, K 0 phase of = 180 a(s) a(s) They are STEP 1: On the s-plane, mark poles (roots of a(s)) by an and zeros (roots of a(s)) with an .
There will be a branch of the locus departing from every pole and a branch arriving at every zero.

STEP 2: Draw the locus on the real axis to the left of an odd number of real poles plus zeros. STEP 3: Draw the asymptotes, centered at and leaving at angles , where
n m = number of asymptotes. n = order of a(s) m = order of b(s) = l = pi z i a1 + b1 = nm nm 180 + (l 1)360 , nm l = 1, 2, . . . n m

For n m > 0, there will be a branch of the locus approaching each asymptote and departing to innity. For n m < 0, there will be a branch of the locus arriving from innity along each asymptote.

STEP 4: Compare locus departure angles from the poles and arrival angles at the zeros where
qdep = qarr = i i i 180 l360 i + 180 + l360

where q is the order of the pole or zero and l takes on q integer values so that the angles are between 180 . i is the angle of the line going from the i th zero to the pole or zero whose angle of departure or arrival is being computed. Similarly, i is the angle of the line from the i th pole.
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, REVIEW OF FEEDBACK CONTROL

1111 j 0 and

STEP 5: If further renement is required at the stability boundary, assume s0 =


compute the point(s) where the locus crosses the imaginary axis for positive K .

STEP 6: For the case of multiple roots, two loci come together at 180 and break away at 90. STEP 7 Complete the locus, using the facts developed in the previous steps and making

Three loci segments approach each other at angles of 120 and depart at angles rotated by 60 .

reference to the illustrative loci for guidance. The loci branches start at poles and end at zeros or innity.

STEP 8 Select the desired point on the locus that meets the specications (s0), then use the
magnitude condition to nd that the value of K associated with that point is 1 K = . |b (s0 ) /a (s0 )|

When K is negative, the denition of the root locus in terms of the phase relationship is 0 locus denition: The root locus of b(s)/a(s) is the set of points in the s-plane where the phase of b(s)/a(s) is 0. For this case, the steps above are modied as follows: STEP 2: Draw the locus on the real axis to the left of an even number of real poles plus zeros. STEP 3: The asymptotes depart at
l = (l 1)360 , nm l = 1, 2, . . . n m.

STEP 4: The locus departure and arrival angles are modied to


qdep = qarr = Note that the 180 term has been removed. i i i l360 i + l360 .

Frequency Response The frequency response of a system directly tells us the relative magnitude and phase of a systems output sinusoid if the system input is a sinusoid. [What about output frequency?] If the plants transfer function is G (s), the open-loop frequency response is G ( j).
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, REVIEW OF FEEDBACK CONTROL

1112

We can plot G( j) as a function of in three ways: Bode Plot. Nyquist Plot. Nichols Plot (we did not cover this). Bode Plots A Bode plot is really two plots: 20 log10 |G ( j)| versus and G( j) versus . The Bode-magnitude plot is plotted on a log-log scale. The Bode-phase plot is plotted linear-log scale. The transfer function G(s) is broken up into its component parts, and each part is plotted separately.
Gain of K ; magnitude & phase dB |K | > 1 0.1 1 10

0.1 |K | < 1

10

Delay; magnitude & phase dB

0.1

10

0.1

10

Zero at origin; magnitude & phase dB 90

0.1

10

0.1

10

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, REVIEW OF FEEDBACK CONTROL


Pole at origin; magnitude & phase dB 0.1 1 10

1113

0.1

10

90 Zero on real axis; magnitude & mp-phase & nmp-phase dB 90 180

90

0.1i

1i

10i

0.1i

1i

10i

0.1i

1i

10i

Pole on real axis; magnitude & mp-phase & nmp-phase 0.1i dB 1i 10i 0.1i 1i 10i 0.1i 1i 10i

90

90 Complex zeros; magnitude & mp-phase & nmp-phase 40 20 90 0 20 0 0.1n n 10n 0.1n Complex poles; magnitude & mp-phase & nmp-phase 20 0 90 20 40 0.1n n 10n 180 0.1n 0 180

180

360 270 180 90 n 10n 0 0.1n 0 0.1n 90 180 270 n


10n 360

10n

10n

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, REVIEW OF FEEDBACK CONTROL

1114

Bode Plot Techniques It is useful to be able to plot the frequency response of a system by hand in order to Design simple systems without the aid of a computer, Check computer-based results, and Understand the effect of compensation changes in design iterations. H.W. Bode developed plotting techniques in the 1930s that enabled quick hand potting of the frequency response. His rules are: STEP 1: Manipulate the transfer function into the Bode form
K G( j ) = K o ( j )n ( j 1 + 1)( j 2 + 1...) ( j a + 1)( j b + 1...)

STEP 2: Determine the value of n for the K o ( j )n term. Plot the low-frequency magnitude
asymptote through the point K o at = 1 rad/sec with the slope of n (or n 20 dB per decade).

STEP 3: Determine the break points where =1/i . Complete the composite magnitude
asymptotes by extending the low frequency asymptote until the rst frequency break point, then stepping the slope by 1 or2, depending on whether the break point is from a rst or second order term in the numerator or denominator, and continuing through all break points in ascending order.

STEP 4: Sketch in the approximate magnitude curve by increasing from the asymptote by a
factor of 1.4 (+3dB) at rst order numerator breaks and decreasing it by a factor of 0.707 (-3dB) at rst order denominator breaks. At second order break points, sketch in the resonant peak (or valley) using the relation that |G( j )| = 1/(2 ) at the break.

STEP 5: Plot the low frequency asymptote of the phase curve, = n 90 . STEP 6: As a guide, sketch in the approximate phase curve by changing the phase gradually STEP 7: Locate the asymptotes for each individual phase curve so that their phase change

over two decades by 90 or 180 at each break point in ascending order. For rst order terms in the numerator, the gradual change of phase is +90 ; in the denominator, the change is 180 . corresponds to the steps in the phase from the approximate curve indicated by Step 6. Sketch in each individual phase.

STEP 8 Graphically add each phase curve. Use dividers if an accuracy of about 5 is desired.
If lessor accuracy is acceptable, the composite curve can be done by eye, keeping in mind that the curve will start at the lowest frequency asymptote and end on the highest frequency asymptote, and will approach the intermediate asymptotes to an extent that is determined by the proximity of the break points to each other.
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

ECE4510, REVIEW OF FEEDBACK CONTROL

1115

Nyquist Plots Nyquist plot is a mapping of loop transfer function D(s)G(s) along the Nyquist path to a polar plot. Think of Nyquist path as four parts: I: Origin. Sometimes a special case. II: + j axis. FREQUENCY response of O.L. system! Just plot it as a polar plot. III: For many physical systems, zero. Some counter-examples. IV: Complex conjugate of II. The test: N = #CW encirclements of 1/K point when F(s) = D(s)G(s). P = # of OPEN-LOOP unstable poles. Z = # of CLOSED-LOOP unstable poles. Z=N+P The system is stable iff Z = 0. For poles on the j-axis, use modied Nyquist path. Bode Plot Performance At low frequency, approximate Bode plot with K G( j) = K 0( j)n . n = system type . . . slope = 20n dB/decade. K 0 = K p for type 0, = K v for type I, . . .
Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett

(s) III II I IV (s)

ECE4510, REVIEW OF FEEDBACK CONTROL

1116

Gain margin (for systems which become unstable with increasing gain) = factor by which gain is less than 0dB when phase = 180. Phase margin (for same systems) = amount phase is greater than 180 when gain = 1. PM related to damping. PM/100 when PM < 70. PM therefore related to M p .
1

Damping ratio versus PM M p , overshoot


20 30 40 50 60 70 80

1 0.9

Overshoot fraction versus PM

Damping ratio

0.8

0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1

0.6

0.4

0.2

0 10

0 0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Phase margin

Phase margin

Gain-phase relationship: For minimum-phase systems, G( j) n 90 where n = slope of log-log plot of gain. (n = 1 if slope = 20dB/decade, n = 2 if slope = 40dB/decade . . . ) Therefore want slope at gain crossover 20dB/decade for decent phase margin.

Lecture notes prepared by Dr. Gregory L. Plett