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CLB 20703 Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics

Guidelines For Lab Report

Contents of Lab Report


Lab report should cover:
Summary (5%) Results & Tutorial (15%) Discussion (20%) Conclusions & Recommendations (5%) References & Appendices (5%)

Contents of Lab Report (contd)


Summary:
Brief review on the objectives, main results, discussion and conclusions of the experiment

Results:
List the data collected from experiment in table

Tutorial:
Show the answers and solutions of the tutorial questions

Contents of Lab Report (contd)


Discussion:
Data analysis and discussion on results/findings

Conclusions & Recommendations:


Summary of the results and suggestions for future improvement

References:
Compulsory, but no limitation for the num. of ref.

Appendices:
Attachments of calculation, data or relevant info

Tables and Figures


Tables:
All tables must be numbered using Arabic numeric (e.g. Table 1, Table 2) A caption (title) should be positioned at the top of the table

Figures:
All figures must be numbered using Arabic numeric (e.g. Figure 1, Figure 2) A caption (title) should be positioned at the bottom of the figure

Mark Allocation
Experiment 1. Refrigeration cycle 2. Performance of a steam plant 3. Steam generation 4. Reaction turbine 5. Centrifugal compressor Total Mark (%) 4 4 4 4 4 20

1. Refrigeration Cycle

1. Refrigeration Cycle (contd)


Point 1: Point of intersection of the isobars for Pe with the isotherms for the temperature T5 of evaporator Point 2: Point of intersection of the isobars for Pc with the isotherms for the temperature T7 of compressor discharge

1. Refrigeration Cycle (contd)


Point 3: Lies on the point of intersection of isobars for Pc with the steam content curve x = 0 (saturated-liquid) Point 4: From point 3, vertically downwards as far as the point of intersection with the isobars for Pe

1. Refrigeration Cycle (contd)


Coefficient of Performance (COP):
COP = q 0 h1 h4 = W h2 h1

1. Refrigeration Cycle (contd)


Heat transfer in evaporator:
q0 = h1 h4

Heat transfer in condenser:


qc = h3 h2

Compressor pressure ratio:


= Pc Pe

2. Steam Plant
Quality of steam at boiler:

x=

hg h f h fg

hg = enthalpy of saturated-vapor at calorimeter temp T2 hf = enthalpy of saturated-liquid at boiler P1 hfg = enthalpy of evaporation at boiler P1

hg, hf and hfg can be obtained from saturated steam tables of water

2. Steam Plant (contd)


Boiler efficiency:

b =

ms (h1 h f ) Q

h1 = enthalpy of saturated/superheated-vapor at boiler P1 and T1 hf = enthalpy of saturated-liquid at boiler P1

h1 and hf can be obtained from saturated/ superheated steam tables of water

2. Steam Plant (contd)


Power output of the engine:
W= 2R( F1 F2 ) N 60

Rankine cycle efficiency:

R =

W ms (h1 h f )

2. Steam Plant (contd)


Thermal efficiency:

th =

W Q + ms (h f h3 )

h3 = enthalpy of saturated-liquid at condensate temperature T5

3. Steam Generation
Heat transfer rate to water and steam:

Q = mw (h2 h1 )
mw = feed water mass flow rate h1 = enthalpy of saturated-liquid at T1 h2 = enthalpy of saturated-vapor/superheatedvapor at P2 and T2

h1 and h2 can be obtained from saturated/ superheated steam tables of water

3. Steam Generation (contd)


Fuel heat rate:

Q f = V s GCV
Vs = fuel volumetric flow rate GCV = gross calorific value of fuel = 119 MJ/m3

Efficiency of steam generator: Q = Qf

4. Reaction Turbine
Plot the following turbine curves for different sets of flow rates:
Torque vs. Speed Efficiency vs. Speed Pressure vs. Speed Electrical Power vs. Speed

Determine the maximum torque, efficiency, pressure and electrical power for each curve

5. Centrifugal Compressor
Plot the following curves for different speeds:
Pressure vs. Flow Rate Efficiency vs. Flow Rate Temperature vs. Flow Rate

Determine the maximum efficiency and the flow rate for each speed from the curves

5. Centrifugal Compressor (contd)


Volumetric flow rate:
Q=

d2

2(100) p

(3600)

Hydraulic power:
Phyd = 100(dp1 + dp2 )Q 3600

Efficiency:
=
Phyd Pel 100%

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