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A PROJECT REPORT ON Corporate Communication in ONGC

DEHRADUN

(UTTARAKHAND)

Submitted In Partial Fulfillment Of the requirement for the award of the degree of Masters in Business Administration

UTTARAKHAND TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY

SUBMITTED TO: MRS. DILRAJ WADHWA INTERNAL GUIDE Faculty HRM (U.I.M)

SUBMITTED BY: DIVIK KATHAIT MBA IV SEM (HR)

CERTIFICATE

I have the pleasure in certifying that Mr. DIVIK KATHAIT is a bonafide student of IV Semester of the Masters Degree in Business Administration of Uttranahal Institute of Management, Dehardun under Class ID No. .. He/She has completed his/her Summer Training Project work entitled Corporate Communication in ONGC... under my guidance. I certify that this is his/her original effort and has not been copied from any other source. This project has also not been submitted in any other university for the purpose of award of nay degree. This project fulfills the requirement of the curriculum prescribed by Uttarakhand Technical University, Dehradun for the said course.

Signature: Name of the Guide: Mrs. DILRAJ WADHWA Date:

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First of all great reverence, I express my deep sense of gratefulness to ONGC, Tel Bhawan, Dehradun for given an opportunity to conduct a survey organization. It gives me tremendous pleasure in acknowledging the invaluable assistance extended to me by various personalities in the successful completion of this project report. I feel my profound privilege to express to my most sincere gratitude & indebt ness to Mrs. DILRAJ WADHWA (as my Internal guide) for providing their valuable generous cooperation and guidance , in spite of their cumbersome Professional preoccupation, they always made themselves available for assisting me my endeavor. Their inspiration is immense. I am thankful to Mrs. DILRAJ WADHWA for giving me a guidance, suggestions and precious time for competing my project. Lastly I like to thanks all my friends who gives me suggestion and help me to complete my project. in their

SUBMITTED BY: DIVIK KATHAIT M.B.A. (IVth SEM) 2007 - 2009

PREFACE Practical training is an important part of the theoretical studies. It is of an immense importance in the field of management. It offers the student to explore the valuable treasure of experience and an exposure to real work culture followed by the industries and there by helping the students to bridge gap between the theories explained in the books and their practical implementations. Training plays an important role in future building of an individual so that he/she can better understand the real world in which he has to work in future. The theory greatly enhance our knowledge and provide opportunities to blend theoretical with the practical knowledge where trainees get familiar with certain aspects of industries, like shop floor management, production process and industrial relations. I feel proud to get myself trained at ONGC, Tel Bhawan, Dehradun . I have taken up my training in the HR Department of the ONGC and conducted a research study to find out the way of Corporate Communication best for the org. I enjoyed this opportunity in a very satisfactory manner and have tried to cover each aspect that I came across during my training period.

CONTENTS 1. Executive Summary 2. Introduction 3. Objectives 4. Review of literature 5. Research Methodology Research Design Research tool Collection/ Compilation of data Data Analysis & Interpretation 6. Findings & Recommendation 7. Limitation of study 8. Further extrapolation of topic 9. Conclusion 10. Bibliography 11. References

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Problem Formulation: To study the corporate communication in ONGC. Dehradun. Research objective: To study .the coverage area of corporate communication in ONGC. To do qualitative analysis of corporate communication process. Collection of data: The data collected for the project work from two sources i.e., Primary secondary sources. and

Primary Sources: The opinion are received from different categories of management personnel, supervisors. The primary data was collected by 2 ways:Interviews: By conducting interviews of the employees and the supervisors the collected data will help me in my research work. Questionnaire: The filled questionnaire which I have received provides me a guidance to complete my project. Secondary Sources: The secondary data was collected from ONGC diary, Periodicals, articles, recorded and available printed manuscripts etc.

Sampling Technique: Random Stratified Sampling. Sampling frame: Tel Bhawan ONGC, Dehradun Sampling Unit: Sampling Size: ONGC employees 80

INTRODUCTION CORPORATE COMMUNICATION Corporate communication includes Advertising, Marketing, Public relation but they all function under managed perspective. Corporate communication is managing an organization internal and external communication. Corporate Communication is about managing the signals a company sends to its stakeholders and how they react to them. It is also critical that a company considers not only what is communicated to external stakeholders, but also what is communicated internally. Corporate Communication is designed for everyone working in the field of communications, from the expert to the novice. It includes theoretical articles, descriptions of methodologies as well as hands-on examples. Effective corporate communication involves not only the message itself, but also the medium that carries and delivers it. It's these two components of a communication that dictate whether employees will receive and understand it. Communication mediums can be classified into two methods: the sender pushes the message to the receiver (e.g., sending an e-mail) or the receiver pulls the message from a source (e.g., reading an intranet post).

Arthur Pages Corporate Ethics He is a father of corporate communication. He writes some ethics which is essential for effective corporate communication. Tell the truth. Prove it with your actions. Listen to the customer. Manage for tomorrow.the future. Conduct public relations as if the whole company depends upon it. Remain calm, patient and good humored.

Historical Roots: Corporate communication and Public relation Corporate communication began as public relation in major corporations. Corporate communication developed as a communication practice in an industry setting within major corporations as direct spin off public relation. The business aspect came later with advertising, branding and marketing responsibilities assumed by the corporate communication department, sometimes called corporate relation with major industries. Lee, who died in1934, is known for his contributions to corporate communication and public relations management. Lee established that:Business and Industry alignment with the public interest is acting socially responsible manners. Counseling top management directly and only developing communication. Building a network of news contact to maintain effective media relations. Bringing internal and external communication to a Human level for all audience. Aspects of Corporate Communication Managing communication or fulfilling the communication management function. Dealing with controlled and uncontrolled media. Serving both internal and external audiences. Advocating communication strategies and tactics. Branding image and reputation. Branding products and services. Monitoring the responses from audience and markets. Counseling and advising senior executives. Managing issues and responding to crisis situation. Organizational image creation and maintenance. Organizational presence building and monitoring.

SCOPE OF CORPORATE COMUNICATION Corporations: Departments with the task such as community relation and marketing communication are dealing with an organization reputation and services to clients.

Non profit Agencies: Options ranging from membership organization to social and cultural groups, hospital and health care agencies offer public relation opportunities where fund raising is always involved. Entertainment, Sports and Travel: Commitments in these areas are usually concerned with press agentry and promotion of events. Publicity is an important part of practitioner duties here. Government and Military: Here communicators focus on promotion of political issues, information dissemination about govnt activities to citizens and information disturbtion to &about the military. Education: Higher education opportunities cover relationship with faculty, administration, students and general public promoting the college image and raising funds International: With todays almost instantaneous global communication, intriguing new areas have opened. These areas are particularly desirable for bilingual or multilingual practitioners who are familiar with many cultures.

CORPORATE COMMUNICATION FACTSlop Public relation is a multibillion dollar business just in the united state. The US Bureau of labour statistics found more than 2, 00,000 practicing public relation professional in 2000 with a job rate increase predicted of nearly 47% by 2000. Bergen (1999) indicates that a 1999 council of public relation firms study reviewing corporate communication spending patterns of fortune 500 firms found a direct correlation between how much a company spends on public relation and how much that company is respected.

The united state government has 9000 workers employed in just the united state information agency, an additional 1000 communication specialists work in the defense department. BASICS OF CORPORATE COMMUNICATION STRUCTURE In an attempt to create a corporation where stockholders' interests are looked after, many firms have implemented a two-tier corporate hierarchy. On the first tier is the board of governors or directors: these individuals are elected by the shareholders of the corporation. On the second tier is the upper management: these individuals are hired by the board of governors. Let's begin by taking a closer look at the board of governors and what its members do. Board of Directors Elected by the shareholders, the board of directors is made up of two types of representatives. The first type involves individuals chosen from within the company. This can be a CEO, CFO, manager or any other person who works for the company on a daily basis. The other type of representative is chosen externally and is considered to be independent from the company. The role of the board is to monitor the managers of a corporation, acting as an advocate for stockholders. In essence, the board of directors tries to make sure that shareholders' interests are well served. Board members can be divided into three categories: Chairman Technically the leader of the corporation, the chairman of the board is responsible for running the board smoothly and effectively. His or her duties typically include maintaining strong communication with the chief executive officer and high-level executives, formulating the company's business strategy, representing management and the board to the general public and shareholders, and maintaining corporate integrity. A chairman is elected from the board of governors. Inside Directors These directors are responsible for approving high-level budgets prepared by upper management, implementing and monitoring business strategy, and approving core corporate initiatives and projects. Inside directors are either shareholders or high-level management from within the company. Inside directors help provide internal perspectives for other board members. These individuals are also referred to as executive directors if they are part of company's management team. Outside Directors While having the same responsibilities as the inside directors in determining strategic direction and corporate policy, outside directors are different in that they are not directly part of the management team. The purpose of having outside directors is to provide unbiased and impartial perspectives on issues brought to the board.

WHAT IS A COMMUNICATION PLAN? Communications include all written, spoken, and electronic interactions with your audiences. A communications plan puts in writing:

Your objectives-corporate imperatives you want to accomplish with your communications. Goals or program of work-methods by which corporate objectives can be accomplished. Audiences-people to whom your communications will be addressed. Timetable, tools, and budget-what specific products you will produce to accomplish objectives, when those products will be developed, and how much they will cost. Evaluation-how you will measure the results of your overall program.

How to Write a Corporate Communication Plan Overworked and underfunded business communicators (are there any other kind?) have reason to ask whether the work involved in developing a corporate communications plan is worth it. The answer is yes, because a written communications plan will:

Give your day-to-day work a focus, Help set priorities, Provide a sense of order and control, Achieve CEO and staff support, Protect against last-minute, seat-of-the-pants demands, and Provide peace of mind.

What Products Are Included in a Communications Plan? A plan encompasses objectives, goals and tools for all communications, including, but not limited to:

Periodic print publications, Online communications, Documentation and manuals, Meeting and conference materials, Media and public relations materials, Marketing and sales vehicles, Legal and legislative documents, Incoming communications, including reception procedures and voice mail, Communiques with employees and board members,

Corporate identity materials, including logos, print and packaging, Surveys, Certificates and awards, Annual reports, Signage, Speeches, and Invoices.

When to Develop the Plan? The best time to develop your plan is in conjunction with your annual budgeting or organizational planning process.

Where to Get Information? Data for the plan comes from five sources:

Your corporate mission statement, A communication audit (that is, review of all materials currently being used), Customer surveys and focus groups, Input from advisors and consultants, Discussions with employees and other department heads.

How to Develop the Plan? Take the following steps to develop an effective communications plan: 1. Conduct a research-communications audit. Evaluate your current communications. Some companies hire firms to do this, but the price for the objectivity of an outside auditor can be high. To conduct your own audit, find out:

What every employee is doing in the way of communication. What each communication activity is designed to achieve How effective each activity is.

To get the answers to these questions:


Brainstorm with communications staff, Talk to other department heads, Interview the CEO,

Interview board members, Survey customers, Host focus groups, and Query non-customers.

2. Define your objectives. Armed with information from your audit, define your overall communications objectives (that is, the results you want to achieve). These might include such objectives as:

Excellent service to customers, Customer loyalty, Increased sales per transaction, Centralization of the communications effort, Increased employee teamwork, Improved employee retention and recruitment, Improved product delivery, Visibility for the company, and Influence on media, consumers, and other audiences.

3. Define your audience. List all the audiences that your company might want to contact, attempt to influence, or serve. Included on your list may be:

Customers, Noncustomers, General consumers, Competitors, Suppliers, Commissioned sales force, Subcontractors, Employees, Prospective employees, Educators, Federal, regional, and local governments, Industry spokespeople, and The media.

4. Define your goals. With stated objectives-and considering available human and financial resources-develop your goals or program of work. In other words, develop a comprehensive, multi-task approach to achieving each objective. 5. Identify tools. Decide what tools will be used to accomplish the stated goals. These tools are the nitty-gritty tasks you'll be tackling all year-everything from a simple flyer to

a glossy employee magazine to a CD-ROM catalog. Don't overlook less obvious tools such as lead qualification forms, posters, report covers, contact manager software and web sites. Plan to brainstorm ideas with your staff (or even a colleague or two from a noncompeting company) in a totally freewheeling afternoon. 6. Figure costs. In order to select among the options available, develop cost estimates for each approach. At this point, estimates are close enough to land you within established budget parameters so that you can make choices. Later, more precise costs can be pinpointed. 7. Establish a timetable. Once objectives, goals, audiences, and tools have been identified, quantify the results into a calendar grid that outlines roughly what projects will be accomplished and when. Separate objectives into logical time periods (monthly, weekly, etc.). 8. Evaluate results. Build into your plan a method for measuring results. Your evaluation might take the form of:

A monthly report on work in progress, Formalized department reports for presentation at staff meetings, Periodic briefings of the CEO and other department heads, A year-end summary for the annual report.

Developing a written communications plan will take effort. Plan on three or four days the first time you do it. Once in place, the written plan will smooth your job all year, earn you respect from the CEO and other staff, help set work priorities, protect you. CORPORATE COMMINICATION PERFORMANCE LINKED TO BETTER FINANCIAL

Toronto, March 28, 2006 Companies with effective internal communications have a 19.4 per cent higher market premium and deliver 57 per cent higher shareholder return compared to organizations with less effective internal communications, according to a recent study conducted by Watson Wyatt Worldwide. The 2005/2006 Communication ROI Study also found strong correlation between a companys communications and its employee engagement and retention levels. The study of 335 North American companies identified nine communication practice areas that affect market premium. Among these practice areas, managerial communication support that drives supervisors and managers behavior -- which includes, among other things, formal communication training and tools and rewards for effective communicators -- was identified as the element with the highest impact on a companys market premium, contributing 3.8 per cent to the overall 19.4 per cent higher market premium. This communication element was also the main differentiator between

Canadian and U.S. respondents. For example, the gap between top performers and poor performers on formally training managers on communications tools is much wider in Canada than in the U.S. The findings clearly demonstrate that internal communication is a significant business function that directly affects financial performance, said Kathryn Yates, global director of communication consulting at Watson Wyatt Worldwide. As companies begin their yearly planning cycles, they should carefully consider the resources they allocate to this important area. Investing in internal communications also provides other organizational benefits such as improved employee engagement and retention. According the to the study, companies that communicate effectively are 4.5 times more likely to report a high level of employee engagement and are 20 per cent more likely to report lower turnover rates than firms that communicate less effectively. Most and least effective communicators by sector The study found that firms within the financial and wholesale/retail trade sectors rank among the most effective communicators (45% and 40% respectively), while companies from the basic materials (18.2%), general services (21.4%) and healthcare (23.8%) sectors tend to rank among the least effective communicators.

COMMON TRAITS OF EFFECTIVE COOMUNICATORS: Although respondents came from various industry sectors, the findings revealed some interesting commonalities among highly effective companies. These firms were particularly effective in: Treating managers as key audience, regularly providing communication counsel to senior management; Having a communication program in place and a documented internal communication strategy. Openly communicating with employees, sharing business plans and goals as well as providing information about matters that affect them.

About the Study The 2005/2006 Watson Wyatt Communication ROI Study, conducted between May and July 2005, examines the relationship between an organizations communication practices and its business performance. The study included 335 participants in large companies in Canada and the United States. Participants were asked to reply to questions on topics related to employee engagement, global communication, the communications functions

relationship to senior management and emerging communication technologies. A multivariate regression and statistical analyses were conducted to determine the relation between companies communication programs effectiveness and the magnitude of the effect these programs have on surplus market value. BLOGS:- The New Magic Formula for Corporate Communication Opinion is divided on what to think of blogs. As in the days of internet hype the Spectrum of views ranges from their being irrelevant to their heralding a new Era of communication. A blog is a website in the form of a diary with pithy, frequently updated entries. In the USA, corporate blogs have become a popular tool for external communication. In Germany, they have not yet become established as an integral part of corporate communications. Blogs have to be monitored in order to know what they are, what they achieve, and what they jeopardise. Blogs need to be used where they are suitable for developing value-added. We believe there is scope even if limited for using corporate blogs. For example, a company could keep a customer relationship blog as a forum for discussing products. CEO Blogs can be used as an instrument for business agenda-setting or image-building. Before a corporate blog is established the responsible parties must address Various strategic issues in order to decide on the practicality of the tool: 1. Is a blog a good fit for the company, its targets and its culture? As Blogs can sometimes be very provocative, they may not be compatible with a companys image. 2. As regards content, limitations arise especially for listed companies. The content of a blog has to comply with legal and regulatory standards. From the readers standpoint, this substantially dims the attractiveness of CEO Blogs in particular. Even if companies decide against running a corporate blog, the topic should Stay on their agenda with a view to developments going forward. Companies Should keep track of how their image fares in the blogosphere, the new communications arena. This is underpinned by the argument that substantial reputation risks can emerge if the companies misjudge the rapidly formed opinions in the photosphere. In companies employees will inevitably start blogging as private individuals One day. For this reason, companies require a clear blogging policy. Besides setting guidelines for employees blogging privately, it should also set Out rules saying how employees are allowed to blog on behalf of the Company.

PUBLIC RELATION AND CORPORATE COMMUNICATION Public relations (PR) are the managing of outside communication of an organization to create and maintain a positive image. Public relations involve popularizing successes, downplaying failures, announcing changes, and many other activities. Methods, tools, and techniques Public relations and publicity are not synonyms. Publicity is the spreading of information to gain public awareness in a product, service, candidate, etc. It is just one technique of public relations as listed here. Audience targeting A fundamental technique used in public relations is to identify the target audience, and to tailor every message to appeal to that audience. It can be a general, nationwide or worldwide audience, but it is more often a segment of a population. Marketers often refer to economy-driven "demographics," such as "white males 18-49," but in public relations an audience is more fluid, being whoever someone wants to reach. For example, recent political audiences include "soccer moms" and "NASCAR dads." In addition to audiences, there are usually stakeholders, literally people who have a "stake" in a given issue. All audiences are stakeholders (or presumptive stakeholders), but not all stakeholders are audiences. For example, a charity commissions a PR agency to create an advertising campaign to raise money to find a cure for a disease. The charity and the people with the disease are stakeholders, but the audience is anyone who is likely to donate money. Sometimes the interests of differing audiences and stakeholders common to a PR effort necessitate the creation of several distinct but still complementary messages. This is not always easy to do, and sometimes especially in politics a spokesperson or client says something to one audience that angers another audience or group of stakeholders.

Press releases Press release format the typical press release announces that the statement is "FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE" across the top (some may instead be embargoed until a certain date), and lists the issuing organization's media contacts directly below. The media contacts are the people that the release's issuer wants to make available to the media; for example, a press release about new scientific study will typically list the study's lead scientist as its media contact. The bottom of each release is usually marked with ### or -30- to signify the end of the text.

Five "W"s and an "H" There are 6 vital facts to convey in the first paragraph of a release to ensure that it doesn't end up in the bin.

Who What When Where Why How

A press release is a written statement distributed to the media. It is a fundamental tool of public relations. Press releases are usually communicated by a newswire service to various news media and journalists may use them as they see fit. Very often the information in a press release finds its way verbatim or minimally altered, to print and broadcast reports. If a media outlet reports that "John Smith said in a statement today that...", the "statement" usually originated in a press release, or a direct quote from an interview with a John Smith. The text of a release is usually (but not always) written in the style of a news story, with an eye-catching headline and text written standard journalistic inverted pyramid style. This style of news writing makes it easier for reporters to quickly grasp the message. Journalists are free to use the information verbatim, or alter it as they see fit. PR practitioners research and write releases that encourage as much "lifting" as possible. Many journalists believe it is unethical to copy from a press releasethey believe it is a lapse of good judgment (for instance, a direct quote, as in: Senator Smith said, "This is the most fiscally irresponsible bill that the Congress has passed since the Buy Everyone A Mercedes Act." In this case, a journalist may copy the quote verbatim into the story, although ethical reporters prefer to try soliciting an individual quote from the speaker before filing their story). Public relations professionals believe that press releases and other collateral material aid a journalist's job, and it is the job of the journalist to decide whether or not reprinting material verbatim tells the real story.

Since press releases reflect their issuer's preferred interpretation or positive packaging of a story, journalists are often skeptical of their contents. The level of skepticism depends on what the story is and who's telling it. Newsrooms receive so many press releases that, unless it is a story that the media are already paying attention to, a press release alone often isn't enough to catch a journalist's attention. With the advent of modern electronic media and new technology, press releases now have equivalents in these media video and audio news releases. However, many television stations are hesitant to use VNR's that appear canned and are not newsworthy.

A new kind of press release"optimized" for the Internet The advent of the Internet has ushered in a new kind of press release known as an optimized press release. Unlike conventional press releases of yore, written for journalists' eyes only, in hopes the editor or reporter would find the content compelling enough to turn it into print or electronic news coverage, the optimized press release is posted on an online news portal. Here the writer carefully selects keywords or keyword phrases relevant to the press release contents. If written skillfully, the press release can rank highly in searches on Google News, Yahoo or MSN News (or the many other minor news portals) for the chosen keyword phrases. Readers of optimized press releases constitute far more than journalists. In the days before news search engines, a press release would have landed only in the hands of a news reporter or an editor who would make the decision about whether the content warranted news coverage. Although the news media is always privy to online press releases in the search engines, most readers are end-users. Optimized press releases circumvent the mainstream media which is formerlybut no longerthe gatekeeper of the news.

Lobby groups Lobby groups are established to influence government policy, corporate policy, or public opinion. These groups claim to represent a particular interest. When a lobby group hides its true purpose and support base it is known as a front group. Spin In public relations, spin is a sometimes pejorative term signifying a heavily biased portrayal in one's own favor of an event or situation. While traditional public relations may also rely on creative presentation of the facts, "spin" often, though not always, implies disingenuous, deceptive and/or highly manipulative tactics. Politicians are often accused of spin by commentators and political opponents, when they produce a counter argument or position. The term is borrowed from ball sports such as cricket, where a spin bowler may impart spin on the ball during a delivery so that it will curve through the air or bounce in an advantageous manner. The techniques of "spin" include:

Selectively presenting facts and quotes that support one's position) Non-denial denial Phrasing in a way that assumes unproven truths Euphemisms to disguise or promote one's agenda

Ambiguity Skirting Rejecting the validity of hypothetical Appealing to internal policies

IMAGE AND REPUTATION TWO MISUNDERSTOOD SIBLINGS THAT NEED BETTER MANAGEMENT Image and reputation are closely related. In fact, like many sets of siblings, some people have trouble telling which is which. And like many siblings, they dont always get along well together, because they both crave attention. Theres a tendency for image to get a lot more attention than reputation. And in the high flying 90s, the allure of image with little or no attention on reputation, proved the undoing of some. Senior management and especially those in marketing, often do not fully appreciate the differences between image and reputation. PR pros need to help them understand the differences, so that brand marketing and corporate communication efforts work more harmoniously and build to a common goal. To start with, here are a few aspects that help explain the differences: IMAGE Is built REPUTATION Is earned

You have to create and promote an A reputation is something you gain over image. It is very much something you time through your actions. It is very much build to show others. what people see in you. Is a cost Is an asset

You pay to create it and you pay to Because it has to be earned, reputation is an project it. And the more image- asset. Build a strong reputation and it will conscious your market, the more it may help see you through tough times. cost. Is fast Is careful

Because image is a relatively Reputation has a more complex structure, independent sibling, you are able to being a combination of people, actions and change to satisfy market trends with who it builds relationships with. great speed.

As you can see, a key factor with image is recognizing that a brand or corporate image is a tactical tool. Reputation on the other hand is strategic - you decide what you want to be known for and constantly work towards building that reputation. The significant aspect of reputations is that they develop from the actions of the company, how it relates to business and geographic communities, how it attains its successes, who it chooses to employ at the very top and who it chooses to form alliances with. Young companies often have difficulties with coming to terms with reputation - and this is understandable. Their need is for instant awareness and sales, so they are very image focused. And this is a very large danger for such companies. As an example, it can be argued that OneTel was a company 100% focussed on image. Huge advertising and promotional campaigns were mounted to push an image-drive company. There appeared to no thought of, or investment in, reputation. At the end of the day there was no substance behind the image - and it must be remembered that the company had around 4 years in which to define and start building a reputation. Another Telco, Telstra, is an example of a company that does understand reputation. While its products are out there often selling very much on image, the company itself places considerable importance on continually building and managing its reputation. Look at how it has handled the issue of its performance in the bush. 10 years ago you could imagine that the answer to poor services would have been addressed with a jingoistic television commercial linking to traditional country emotions through a jingle sung by a fair-dinkum Aussie male and supported by a chorus of children. It would have been a paid for image campaign. Telstra is now more mature and aware than that. The company decided to set up a special division to proactively address its rural shortcomings and work with its customers. Traditional image communication to this audience continued, but it was supported in a more meaningful way. That was a clever, and meaningful, blend of image and reputation. Obviously the tools employed to promote an image and build a reputation are quite different - but they are complementary and one goes with the other. Here are a few examples of the types of activities that are employed by both: Typical Image Tools Advertising Promotions Direct mail Competitions Typical Reputation Tools Corporate Social Responsibility programs Strategic sponsorships Media outreach Internal corporate counsel

CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITIES y (CSR): Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is:


An obligation, beyond that required by the law and economics, for a firm to pursue long term goals that are good for society. The continuing commitment by business to behave ethically and contribute to economic development while improving the quality of life of the workforce and their families as well as that of the local community and society at large. About how a company manages its business process to produce an overall positive impact on society.

Is CSR the same as business ethics?


There is clearly an overlap between CSR and business ethics Both concepts concern values, objectives and decision based on something than the pursuit of profits And socially responsible firms must act ethically

The difference is that ethics concern individual actions which can be assessed as right or wrong by reference to moral principles. CSR is about the organizations obligations to all stakeholders and not just shareholders.

There are four dimensions of corporate responsibility:


Economic - responsibility to earn profit for owners. Legal - responsibility to comply with the law (societys codification of right and wrong). Ethical - not acting just for profit but doing what is right, just and fair. Voluntary and philanthropic - promoting human welfare and goodwill being a good corporate citizen contributing to the community and the quality of life.

The corporate responsibility view


Businesses do not have an unquestioned right to operate in society Those managing business should recognize that they depend on society Business relies on inputs from society and on socially created institutions

There is a social contract between business and society involving mutual obligations that society and business recognize that they have to each other

Stakeholder Theory The basic premise is that business organizations have responsibility to various groups in society (the internal and external stakeholders) and not just the owners/ shareholders The responsibility includes a responsibility for the natural environment. Decisions should be taken in the wider interest and not just the narrow shareholder interest.

Arguments for socially-responsible behaviour


It is the ethical thing to do It improves the firm public image It is necessary in order to avoid excessive regulation Socially responsible actions can be profitable Improved social environment will be beneficial to the firm It will be attractive to some investors It can increase employee motivation It helps to corrects social problems caused by business

CSR behavior can benefit the firm in several ways


It aids the attraction and retention of staff. It attracts green and ethical investment. It attracts ethically conscious customers. It can lead to a reduction in costs through re-cycling. It differentiates the firm from its competitor and can be a source of competitive advantage. It can lead to increased profitability in the long run.

CSR is a concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interactions with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis, European Union.

How did CSR evolve? In its earliest days CSR was often seen as simply reacting to criticism of corporate behavior (i.e. Nikes issues re sweatshops and Exxons problems re oil spillage from Exxon Valdez) by attempting to do good. As a result, critics accused some companies of using CSR in an opportunistic manner in order to buy goodwill. Many early CSR initiatives were also environmentally focused. In the late 90s activist groups such as Greenpeace and Amnesty emerged. They focused on specific causes, were well organized and knew how to galvanize media and public opinion across international borders. Business felt it had to respond as reputations - and sales - were being impacted. Corporate codes of conduct were developed, and CSR became a formal must do core business principle instead of a would like to do or maybe we have to do activity. As a result today, CSR is a major corporate discipline, with its own body of knowledge. For larger organizations - especially multi-nationals - it is no longer optional; it is linked to core business objectives. HOW DOES CSR FIT WITH PR? In its earliest days CSR was essentially a PR initiative, because it was PR that often played a key role in defending questionable corporate practices. Also, it was PR -in the absence of any other advocate - that often made the recommendation as to proactive steps corporate should be taking to avoid future risks or being seen to be doing the right thing. But PR often found it condemned because in these early days it was seen as helping corporate to communicate that they were doing the right thing - and this was often perceived as buying goodwill. It was a classic case of shooting the messenger (although in retrospect some of the communication was rather over the top and somewhat self congratulatory). Today, much CSR strategy is developed and driven by specialists who integrate it into the business. And in its purest sense it has evolved to encompass environmental and social impacts, workplace practices and corporate governance. This is clearly beyond the PR function. However PR continues to have a role in the communication of the chosen CSR initiatives to various stakeholders. Its currently more fashionable to appear to be reticent and circumspect about CSR initiatives so as to avoid being labeled as trumpeting the good work being done. But at the end of the day an organization that embraces CSR still needs its stakeholders to be aware of its stance and activities - so communication (albeit more subtle) is still a key ingredient.

ROI link between PR and corporate reputation established Ground-breaking research has been undertaken in the US to demonstrate the return on investment (ROI) of public relations spending among Fortune 500 companies. The Council of PR Firms commissioned Thomas L Harris/Impulse Research to assess the impact on corporate reputation of varying levels of spending. Validated an ROI for corporate communication:Identified that there is a correlation between an investment in corporate communications Whether it is the drafting of direct marketing communications, letters from the general manager to clients, service or product brochures or revising the old corporate profile, The PR People are skilled interpreters for your company's message. Communicating the right message, phrased in the right manner to the right audience is our field of expertise. Be Aware, Inform, Communicate No public relations campaign for brand or corporate awareness is developed in isolation. Communication is not a one way conduit. In order to make informed decisions our clients need to be aware of the world outside their own organization. They need to be knowledgeable of news, events and developments in business and finance, technology, the overseas and Australian markets and the general community, in which they live and operate. Models of success & Sustainability (MOSS) is a newly established industry body for individuals, corporations, governments and not-for-profit organizations interested in Corporate Social Responsibility and Corporate Sustainability. Seeded as an initiative from Australias Inaugural Corporate Social Responsibility Summit, MOSS has been developed in consultation with key Australian stakeholders to support business through education, training and advice to drive sustainability and competitive business success through best practice in the area of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). MOSS delivers practical corporate sustainability enabling members to learn from others successes and failures in a non judgmental environment.

As a MOSS member, you will enjoy: Exclusive professional development, networking and peer to peer learning opportunities. Exclusive and simple access to a variety of intellectual property including models, questionnaires and case studies. Regular news and industry updates.

Exclusive opportunities to participate in round table discussions on topics of relevance. Member rates for attendance at business exchanges, networking and educational events, conferences, workshops etc. Free listing in the MOSS Directory. Additional listings can be purchased for a $110 per category. Free recruitment advertising. Invitations to member only events.

MOSS also has the support of a range of professional organizations and universities including the National Institute of Governance and the University of Canberra, the Public Relations Institute of Australia, The Australasian Compliance Institute, The Australasian Sponsorship Marketing Association, The Society for Consumer Affairs Professionals, Australian Centre for Corporate Public Affairs and Griffith University along with a range or community organizations such as the Australian Conservation Foundation, The Corporate Responsibility Index, Social Ventures Australia, and ProBono Australia to mention but a few.

CORPORATE PHILANTHROPY Corporate values have changed in the past decades: no longer are big businesses caught in the eighties mentality of Whats yours is mine. Instead, we are seeing a positive shift to corporate giving and business to community partnerships. This change has arisen for many reasons. Not only has there been an increase in community need, but businesses across all sectors are beginning to see that in order to build and maintain long term market presence, corporate philanthropy must be a strategic part of their management plan. Genuine business-community partnership requires commitment from all levels of the business from company directors to line workers. True corporate philanthropy is based on establishing long lasting relationships with the organizations stakeholders to create a winwin situation. Why Corporate Philanthropy is worthwhile to business and the community? "The behavior of the community is largely dominated by the business mind. A great society is a society in which its men of business think greatly of their functions. Low thoughts mean low behavior, and after a brief orgy of exploitation, low behavior means a descending standard of life".For a business to have a long term focus, whether they are a multinational or a local business, they must recognize their responsibility as corporate citizens.

Benefits Simple measures such as allowing staff to volunteer part of their work time, supplying product or services to various groups and/or being involved directly in community events, all assist in raising the profile of businesses and making a real contribution to the lives of people in the community. Corporate philanthropy contributes to both the community and businesses in many different ways. Benefits to the community:

Community goodwill towards the organization Specific projects can be funded Add to the overall well-being of the community Builds long term company and brand loyalty

Benefits to business:

Assist in building positive public perception. Being socially responsible makes a company more attractive to employees, which in turn increases employee productivity. Improved reputation can raise the share price. A closer link to the community can aid in producing more relevant product. Staff feel greater pride in the company they work for and become more loyal Customers will buy the company behind the brand, rather than the brand itself.

"A company must stand for more than just making a profit. There are two great benefits for doing that: the best people will want to work for you and the consumers will want to support you".

Corporate Philanthropy as a communication tool: Many people see philanthropy merely as a marketing tool. We see it as a communication tool as well. Doing good things and informing people about it is a worthwhile and legitimate business exercise. From a public relations point of view there are many activities that can assist in communicating the benefits of corporate philanthropy to ensure that its primary purpose is well supported:

Using internal newsletters to inform employees and rally support to the cause Positive communications, by way of media representation, can be conveyed to the community to announce the gift and its meaning. Community events and involvement to increase community presence, e.g. family days and event sponsorship, etc. Involving other companies in the community to combine resources and provide a greater contribution.

And finally . . . Building a community responsible business should not be seen as an extraordinary activity in good economic times. It must be viewed as an integral part and underlying basis for all business decisions. Businesses that engage in Corporate Philanthropy will find deeper community acceptance, which will ultimately lead to greater business success. State-owned Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) is planning to set up a state-ofthe-art integrated radio communication system which would interconnect the companys different offices within the country. According to a senior ONGC official, it was felt by the ONGC top brass that microwave radio channels should be set up in order to communicate effectively between various offices and branches of the company. `A decision has been taken to implement such a system on a priority basis so that inter office communication gaps could be minimized, ` the official stated. It is being estimated that the total cost of the project (the first phase of which is scheduled to be kick started by around the last week of April next year) is around Rs 15 crore. The main scope of the project would be the setting up of single channel data radio modulator-demodulators (modems) at the offices of New Delhi, Calcutta, Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Chennai, Rajamundry, Mehsana, Ankaleshwar and Jorhat. An additional point radio system in Mumbai, a hundred plus channel radio network at Dehradun and a special cable system between its two offices at Chowringhee in Calcutta are also scheduled to be installed separately. As part of the enhancement capabilities of the network, several multiplexers would also be set up at various points in the country so that transmission losses and accompanying system noises are cut down to a bare minimum. Several transmission poles and towers would also be constructed as part of the project which is expected to a completed within a time frame of around six months. The company is reportedly scouting for global consultants to implement the project on a turn key basis. This is actually quite a specialized job and there are not many companies in the world who can take up this sort of a project. We may take a decision on the party that will undertake the job by the first week of April 1999, ` the official maintained. With ONGC now focusing on improving its internal communication system, it remains to be seen how the corporate bottomline behaves as a result of this exercise.

OBJECTIVE OF STUDY

ONGC. process.

To study the coverage area of corporate communication in To do qualitative analysis of corporate communication

REVIEW OF LITERATURE Corporate communication - why we can't just 'send and receive' anymore? By: Robert Sussman It may be one of the more convenient and most accessible means of modern communication, but the reality of engaging in corporate email communication is effective management and adherence to legislation. Email has grown to the extent that it is far more than a mere practical way to digitally interact. This established medium in society is widely considered to be, first and foremost, a critical business-tool. As a result of email being a common business communication, users tend to store email correspondence in their inboxes and folders. In effect, this means that a company's corporate and intellectual property is stored in messaging systems. This should already inspire management towards establishing an improved level of corporate communication. Email has to be well-managed in order for a business to achieve optimum levels of digital communication. However, another, arguably more pertinent reason for this discipline, is the current focus on the archiving of data and access to electronic records. Corporate South Africa is being directed, through legislation and industry-led awareness campaigns, to ensure that they tow the line as far as the way information is archived, accesses and reproduced. Beware of corporate communications divide By: Chris Moerdyk South African Airways has made an excellent choice in luring Business Day deputy editor, Robyn Chalmers, to head up its group corporate affairs department, it is debatable whether Chalmers has made anything like as good a choice in picking SAA as a platform to launch a career in corporate communications. Like most journalists who make that leap of faith across the great corporate communications divide, the first two shocks to the system for Chalmers will be a loss of status and also getting used to an environment quite unlike that of a newspaper, where egos and corporate pride take precedence over the search for truth, justice and fair play. There is no question that Chalmers has built up a fine reputation as both a financial journalist and editor. She has enormous respect among her peers and within the corridors of corporate power.. And that top-of-the-pedestal status disappears completely when one crosses over to corporate communications. It is a time when one finds out, sometimes brutally, just who ones media and business friends really are. Chalmers will join SAA at a time when it is in a corporate communications mess of note. Chalmers has considerable integrity and purpose and will either succeed in

persuading her new bosses to accept that when it comes to corporate communications and customer service, the combination of honesty, integrity, transparency and accessibility is always the best policy. Why is corporate communications seen as fluffy? By: Gerry Mc. Govern In many organizations, corporate communications doesnt get a lot of respect. The intranet gives a rare opportunity for corporate communications to get the respect it deserves. Theres real work and then theres communications. Actions, of course, speak louder than words. Theres the people who get their hands dirty and actually deliver value to the organization, and then theres those who are a drain on resources. Content is a form of communications, and its something you store as quickly and as cheaply as possible. Yes, the intranet can have some genuine value, but only where it allows people to access applications. Content, as I have said so many times, is a hidden asset within most organizations. The corporate communications department is ideally placed to tap this hidden asset. First, you must focus on how content helps staff do their jobs better. Focus on specific tasks that staff do. Isolate how intranet content can make these tasks faster and more efficient. It means avoiding big fancy images and lofty sounding words. Second, become obsessive about metrics, about proving to management that content does actually deliver value. This will take time because most managers simply dont view content as something that will help bring in new customers or support already existing customers. Third, keep your intranet lean and mean. Libraries may well deliver long-term value but they rarely deliver short-term quantifiable value, and lets face it short-term value creation gets attention and gets respect. More than once, I have heard managers and staff describes corporate communications as the fluffy stuff. You can take web content and shake quantifiable value out of it. Focused on helping your staff, you can change content from the fluffy stuff to the hard stuff.

Managing Corporate Communication: Adding Value to Your Information By: Tom peters Management guru Tom Peters says white collar workers and managers in functional departments need to protect their futures. First, every department of every organization

generates unique information. Information flows in from suppliers, from staff, and from other stakeholders. For example, people in your department read trade magazines, they attend seminars, they're in touch with people in other departments, and they may belong to trade associations. If your department consciously gathers, sifts, analyzes, and organizes that information - formally or informally - then it's creating new value. It's now more than just information: its business intelligence, information with added value. That's what we refer to as generating new information. Moving to the idea of condensing information, one striking characteristic of modern communication is the amount of it moving around. No doubt you've heard references to information overload, and all too real problem for those whose work life revolves around information. You can add value by monitoring the information that comes into your office and selecting just the critical parts. Many internal newsletters earn their keep by providing regular summaries of useful information. That information can come from outside the organization or from within. Third, there's other side of the same coin, which involves expanding, rather than condensing, information. In summary, you can add value to existing information by turning it into business intelligence, condensing it, or expanding it.

Blogs begin to make mark on corporate communications - HR News - Web logs By: Bill Leonard Blogs have been around for a few years, but their value as a communication tool is just starting to grab the attention of employers. The interest is mainly in developing blogs as external communication tools with customers and clients, though some employers are beginning to consider ways they can use blogs internally." Blogs can be a very flexible way to communicate daily with clients and customers about product releases and new services. Blogs also may help to forge better working relationships among staff.Our employees understand and follow those policies, and I think we all know these policies should cover the use of blogs both internally and externally." Most employers already have e-mail and computer use policies and should probably just review them before developing blogs for internal or external communications," Even with a good computer usage policy in place, employers should screen their blogs to ensure employees aren't posting inappropriate comments and material. Employer-sponsored web logs that feature the personal musings and thoughts of employees also could carry some legal risks Corporate communications grows up By: Toby Ward

Toby Ward has written an interesting overview look (The Evolution of Corporate Communications) at the evolution of corporate communications and with it the use of technology including the more recent use of RSS, podcasting and vodcasting. The technology, however, never lived up to its hype and communications fell back to old stalwarts: the intranet and e-mail. Posting corporate communications on an intranet requires employees to access the system repeatedly because they won't know when new information will be posted." One thing that cant be stressed enough: as valuable as technology is, and despite the intranets pivotal and crucial role and value to the organization, face-to-face communications rules above all other media. Ask employees in almost any organization and in-person meetings formal or informal with ones manager continues to be the single most important communications channel. Corporate Communication By: Miachael gerry Keep in touch with leading-edge thinking in the field of corporate communication All companies are being measured. Stakeholders evaluate continuously how a company is perceived, and how it is positioned in the market. The Corporate Communication handbook can be a source of inspiration in your day-today work in communications. Corporate Communication handbook is about managing the signals a company sends to its stakeholders and how they react to them. It is also critical that a company considers not only what is communicated to external stakeholders, but also what is communicated internally. Corporate Communication is designed for everyone working in the field of communications, from the expert to the novice. It includes theoretical articles, descriptions of methodologies as well as hands-on examples. Henrik Orholst of PA is chief editor; he is responsible for external and internal communications in the Nordic part of PA. The authors of the articles are all experts and have an in-depth knowledge of the field of corporate communication; they are from the Danish business elite in this field, and work as consultants, journalists, marketing and communications managers, etc.

The Evolution of Corporate Communications By: Paul Chin Communicating to hundreds, sometimes thousands, of employees within an organization is no small feat. This challenge is further complicated in organizations with a global presence, where corporate headquarters is responsible for delivering the same message to satellite offices in geographically dispersed locations. But it's not enough to just create the message.

Effective corporate communication involves not only the message itself, but also the medium that carries and delivers it. It's these two components of a communication that dictate whether employees will receive and understand it. Most corporate communications will grab the attention of an employee for no more than a few seconds if at all. Employees are processing more information than ever before information dealing with their projects, their clients, and their industry as a whole. With all this information competing for employees' attention, does a single corporate communication stand a chance of making it through? Organizations have struggled to find the best way to get company communications to their employees for years. These communications can range from notices of service interruptions to announcements of corporate events. Communication mediums can be classified into two methods: the sender pushes the message to the receiver (e.g., sending an e-mail) or the receiver pulls the message from a source (e.g., reading an intranet post). Posting corporate communications on an intranet requires employees to access the system repeatedly because they won't know when new information will be posted. E-mail has the ability to alert every employee once a communication is sent, but there are uncontrollable factors that hinder its effectiveness as a corporate communications medium. The advent of e-mail changed the way organizations communicated with their employees in a big way. At the time, e-mail was the biggest advancement in corporate communication until users just stopped reading them. Has e-mail outlived its usefulness as an internal corporate communications medium?. It's still a big part of corporate communication, but it's lost a lot of its effectiveness. There's perhaps no bigger contributor to this decline than spam. With the sheer volume of e-mail that comes pouring in daily, employees may simply treat these types of internal communications as white noise and ignore them. And with the time-sensitive nature of corporate communications, it might be too late when users finally discover the message. Corporate Communication Strategies By: Anaida gill Speaking of corporate communication strategies for your company, RMR & Associates has helped roll out over 350 companies and products since it was started in 1987. RMR is one of the largest corporate communication strategy firms owned by a woman in Maryland dealing with Business to Business (B-to-B) and Business to Government (B-toG) clients. These clients trust RMR, because RMR delivers the promise of the proposal.

Public Relations o Press releases o Authored articles o Feature articles o Award Opportunities

Speaking Opportunities Web Marketing o Lead-Generating web sites o Email marketing campaigns o Search engine optimization (organic) o Search engine marketing (Ad Words) Trade shows Product launches
o

The article captures the essence of your product, service or company as well as its purpose. It answers frequently answered questions, explains the business and is thoughtprovoking as well as remark-able. If you've left it at that, you're wasting a huge opportunity to leverage your article long after its publication.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research Problem: Corporate communication is one of the most accessible means of communication, as the departments are interrelated with each other. Hence it is essential that no miscommunication occurs between the employees of various departments but it has been observed that corporate communication does not receive that attention in the organization as required. Hence a need was felt to have a deep insight of this topic. . Problem Formulation: To study the Corporate Communication in ONGC. Dehradun. Research objectives: To study the coverage area of corporate communication in ONGC. To do qualitative analysis of corporate communication process. Collection of data: The data collected for the project work from two sources i.e., Primary secondary sources. and

Primary Sources: The opinion is received from different categories of management personnel, supervisors. The primary data was collected by two ways:Interviews: By conducting interviews of the employees and supervisors the collected data will help me in my research work. Questionnaire: The filled questionnaire which I have received provides guidance to complete my project. Secondary Sources: The secondary data was collected from ONGC periodicals, articles , recorded and available printed manuscripts etc. the me diary,

Research Design: Descriptive Research Design. It is concern with describing the characteristics of a particular indivual or a group.

Sampling Technique: To conduct any type of research scientific method must be followed. The universe of study, ONGC, DEHRADUN is large in which it is difficult to collect information from all the employees. So, the sampling method has been followed for this study is Random Stratified Sampling. Sampling frame: Tel Bhawan ONGC, Dehradun Sampling Unit: Sampling Size: ONGC employees 80

QUESTIONNAIRE Corporate Communication in ONGC Respected Sir/Madam This survey is a part of study being conducted by the student of Uttranchal institute of Management, Premnagar , Dehardun. The result of the study is strictly for academic consumption and would not be used for commercial purpose. We would request you to spare to some time to answer the questions that follows the responses will be kept in strict secrecy. Q1. The Process of communication is transparent in ONGC. Strongly Agree Disagree Agree Strongly Disagree cant say

Q2. ONGC uses communication networks to make the working relationship better among employees. Strongly Agree Disagree Agree Strongly Disagree subordinates is encouraged here through Cant say

Q3. Nurturing and helping communication process. Scaling Frequency Strongly agree 40

Agree 33

Cant say 02

Disagree 05

Strongly disagree _

Q4. People feel comfortable communicating in groups of their own affinity. Scaling Frequency Strongly agree 35 Agree 29 Cant say 4 Disagree 12 Strongly disagree _

Q5. Use of technology while communicating from higher level to lower level. Scaling Frequency Strongly agree 0 Agree 8 Depends 12 Disagree 35 Strongly disagree 25

Q6. Use of technology while communicating at a same level. Scaling Frequency Strongly agree 22 Agree 34 Depends 8 Disagree 12 Strongly disagree 4

Q7. From the below mentioned personality type, tick the behavior that applies to you most. I almost neglect reading I communicate only through via E-mail I repeat question until a clear answer is obtained I am not found easily I react only through E-mail

Q8. From the below mention modes of internal communication, tick the modes used in your organization and rate the effectiveness on the scale of 1-5. Level of effectiveness 4 3 2

Internal Communication Speaking opportunities Intranet Trade union magazine Meetings Memos Internal publication Seminars

Tick

Q9. From the below mention modes of external communication, tick the modes used in your organization and rate the effectiveness on the scale of 1-5.

Level of effectiveness External Communication Advertisement Trade fair Product launches Electronic Media Internet Sales Promotion Exercise

Q10. From the below mentioned techniques of public relation, tick the technique which is used in your organization and rate the effectiveness on the scale of 1-5. Level of effectiveness 4 3 2

Tick Publicity Audience Targeting Press Release Video New Release Lobby Groups Campaign

Q11. Following are the benefits of a good public relation policy. Rank on the scale of 1-5. Build a company image Effective communication Increase profit Improved relation of org-client Conflict resolution

Q12. Information flow in the context to the current financial status of the organization is provided to the employees.

Strongly Agree Disagree

Agree Strongly Disagree

Cant say

Q13. Following are the benefits of corporate social responsibility; tick the most important one which is beneficial for your organization. It aids the retention of staff It can move on the basis of HR It attracts ethical investment It can lead to a reduction in crises through recycling It can lead to increase profitability in the long run

Q14. Following are the characteristics of organization; tick the most important one which is important for your organization at middle level management. A - Maintaining Discipline. B - Long-term planning. C - Effective communication. D - Getting the task done.

Q15. Tick the most important one which is important for your organization at middle level management to achieve the benchmark. A Learning from seniors. B Self- discipline. C Assertive behavior. D Team building.

Name (Optional): Age: Designation: Tenure: Thanks for Cooperation

LIMITATION OF STUDY

Due to their busy schedule, employees were generally reluctant to filling the questionnaire. The questionnaire was distributed is among 100 out of which 80 were received as fully filled, due to some non respondents sample size was restricted.

DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION

Q1. The process of communication is transparent in ONGC. Scaling Frequency . Strongly agree 22 Agree 42 Cant say 16 Disagree Strongly disagree -

16

22

st.agree agree can't say disagree st.disagree

42

Interpretation:Majority of employees are agreeing that the process of communication is transparent in ONGC.

Q2. ONGC uses communication networks to make the working relationship better among employees.

Scaling Frequency .

Strongly agree 29

Agree 32

Cant say 14

Disagree 05

Strongly disagree -

14

0 29

st.agree agree can't say disagree st.disagree

32

Interpretation:Most of the employees agree that ONGC use communication networks to make the working relationship better among employees.

Q3. Nurturing and helping communication process. Scaling Frequency Strongly agree 40

subordinates

is

encouraged

here

through

Agree 33

Cant say 02

Disagree 05

Strongly disagree _

St. agree Agree 40 33 C ant say D isagree St. disagree

Interpretation:Majority of the employees are of the opinion that nurturing and helping subordinates is encouraged here through communication process.

Q4. People feel comfortable communicating in groups of their own affinity. Scaling Frequency Strongly agree 35 Agree 29 Cant say 4 Disagree 12 Strongly disagree _

F q e cy re u n

1 2 4

0 S n ly a re tro g g e 3 5 A re g e C n sa a t y D g e isa re S n ly d g e tro g isa re

2 9

Interpretation:Majority of the employees feel comfortable communicating in groups of their own affinity.

5. Use of technology while communicating from higher level to lower level. Scaling Frequency Strongly agree 0 Agree 8 Depends 12 Disagree 35 Strongly disagree 25

Frequency

0 25

8 12 Strongly agree Agree Depends Disagree Strongly disagree 35

Interpretation:Majority of the employees feel that use of technology is not more while communicating from upper to lower level. They use paper for communication.

6. Use of technology while communicating at a same level. Scaling Frequency Strongly agree 22 Agree 34 Depends 8 Disagree 12 Strongly disagree 4

Frequency

4 12 22 Strongly agree Agree 8 Depends Disagree Strongly disagree 34

Interpretation:Majority of the employees feel that use of technology is more than sufficient while communicating at the same level. They also use paper for communication when required.

Q7. From the below mentioned personality type, tick the behavior that applies to you most. A BCDEI almost neglect reading. I communicate only through via E-mail. I repeat question until a clear answer is obtained. I am not found easily. I react through E-mail.

13

16

A B C 14 D E

16 21

. Interpretation:C is the behavior that applies most to the ONGC employees.

Q8. From the below mention modes of internal communication, tick the modes used in your organization and rate the effectiveness on the scale of 1-5.

5 4 3 .4 2 3 4 .1 3 3 .3 2 2 .9 3 .2 9

3 .8 5

1
S p e a kin g In tr a n e t O p p o rtu n itie s Tr a d e u n io n Me e tin g s Mag z in e Me mo s In te r n a l Pu b lic a tio n S e min a r s

Interpretation:Majority of the employees are of the opinion that Meetings and Intranet are mostly used whereas internal publication and seminars are least used as modes of internal communication by the organization.

Q9. From the below mention modes of external communication, tick the modes used in your organization and rate the effectiveness on the scale of 1-5.

5 4.27 4 3.93 3.34 3 3.5

4.57

2.72

1
A dvertisment Trade f air Public relation Electronic media Internet Sales promation exercise

Interpretation:Majority of the employees are of the opinion that Internet and Advertisement are mostly used on the other hand sales promotion exercise and public relation are least used as a modes of external communication by the organization.

Q10. From the below mentioned techniques of public relation, tick the technique which is used in your organization and rate the effectiveness on the scale of 1-5.

5 4 .2 2 4 3 2 2 1 Pu b lic ity A u d ie n c e Pr e s s r e le a sVeid e o n e w lo b b y g r o u p s a m p a ig n C ta r g e tin g r e le a s e 3 .8 2 4 3 .3 5 3 .1 2

Interpretation:Majority of the employees are of the opinion that Publicity and Press release are mostly used whereas lobby groups and campaign are least used public relation techniques by the organization.

Q11. Following are the benefits of a good public relation policy. Rank on the scale of 1-5.

5 4 3 .1 2 3 2 1 B u ild a c o .im a g eE f f e c tiv e In c r e a s e p r oImitp r o v e d r e laCtionnf lic t r e s o lu tio n f o c o m m u n ic a tio n o f o r g - c lie n t 3 2 .5 3

3 .3 3 2 .9 8

Interpretation:Majority of the employees are of the opinion that Increase profit is a most important benefit which organization get through its good public relation policy.

Q12. Information flow in the context to the current financial status of the organization is provided to the employees.

Scaling Frequency

Strongly agree 20

Agree 35

Cant say 20

Disagree 03

Strongly disagree 02

3 20

20

st.agree agree can't say disagree st.disagree

35

Interpretation: Majority of the employees agree that the information flow in the context to the current financial status of the organization is provided to the employees.

Q13. Following are the benefits of corporate social responsibility; tick the most important one which is beneficial for your organization. A - It aids the retention of staff. B - It can move on the basis of HR. C - It attracts ethical investment. D - It can lead to a reduction in crises through recycling. E - It can lead to increase profitability in the long run.

22

10

A B C D

13

29

Interpretation:Majority of the employees are of the opinion that ethical investment and increase profitability in the long run are the benefits of corporate social responsibility, which is beneficial for our organization.

Q14. Following are the characteristics of organization; tick the most important one which is important for your organization at middle level management. A - Maintaining Discipline. B - Long-term planning. C - Effective communication. D - Getting the task done.

1 9 2 5 A B C 1 4 D

2 2

Interpretation:Majority of the employees are of the opinion that getting the task done and effective communication are important characteristics for our organization at middle level management.

Q15. Tick the most important one which is important for your organization at middle level management to achieve the benchmark. A Learning from seniors. B Self- discipline. C Assertive behavior. D Team building..

18

22 A B C D

19 21

Interpretation:Majority of the employees are of the opinion that learning from seniors, self-discipline, assertive behavior & team building are in sequence are important characteristics for our organization at middle level management to achieve the individual target

FINDING & RECOMMENDATIONS Findings: Transparency and awareness regarding the communication process at ONGC is quite high. Majority of employees feels that communication networks are being used to make the working relationship better among the employees. According to survey in both Internal and External communication only few modes are used by the organization. Most of the ONGC employees personality resemble as an explainer [I repeat a question until a clear answer is obtained] type. Majority of the employees says that information flow in the context to the current financial status of the organization is provided to the employee. Survey shows that only two techniques of public relation are used by their organization. Most of the employees feel, build a co. image and increasing profit are the benefits of good public relation policy. Majority of employees state that attraction of ethical investment is the most important benefit for the organization in the field of corporate social responsibility. Recommendations: With a changing time other modes of Internal and External communication should be used by the organization. Training should be provided, so that other techniques of public relation prove to be beneficial for the organization. For the correct flow of information between the departments, top management must used corporate blogs. IEC [information, education, communication] model is being used by the organization, so that the path of communication becomes more effective. Principles of corporate communication are to be taken into consideration.

FURTHER EXTRAPOLATION OF STUDY TOP TEN CORPORATE COMMUNICATION TRENDS FOR 2008 1) Social Media and Web 2.00: The revolution is here. The emerging technologies of web.2 are causing a transformation in the communication profession. These technologies include the use of Blogs to communicate with employees and customers; the use of platforms like social networks and wiki to achieve sharing and collaboration, and other new tools and technologies like podcasts, video-casts, and others. But beyond the technology, Social Media demands a basic shift in the way communicators see their role and approach their stake holders. 2) Employee Engagement: Open communication, motivation, involvement, suggestion systems, team-works, creativity and innovation, culture change, professional development are some of the key elements of employee engagement. This area of practice is enjoying a growing interest among organizational communicators and top executives alike. 3) Strategic Communication Planning: Strategic communication planning continues to be of vital interest to organizations. 4) Communication Audit: To evaluate and improve their current communication strategies, tactics, and tools, many organizations are turning to communication audits. It's also a logical step to take before developing a strategic communication plan for the organization. 5) Manager as Communicator: Training managers to play their role as communicators is an emerging area of interest to communication executives. 6) Creativity and Innovation: Many communication departments are paying increasing attention to the area of creativity and innovation as a force for both developing the employees' creative skills and creating a culture that encourages innovation at work. 7) Electronic Publications: Communicators are increasingly looking at electronic publishing to supplement or replace their print publications. Because of its significant advantages in the areas of speed and cost of delivery, electronic newsletters are used more often to communicate with customers and employees.

8) Corporate Culture: The importance of a positive, dynamic, creative and productive organizational culture is an area of growing interest for organizations. The issue of culture change is present in many initiatives that involve changes in technology, leadership, ownership, market forces, and other types of change.

9) Content is King: With all the changes in technologies, content remains the primary focus of communicators, and it's their main tool for informing and influencing audiences. 10) Conversation Is Queen -The Organization as a Conversation: If content is king, then conversation is queen. The organization as a conversation is an emerging area of interest to many communication executives and training professionals alike. This area is closely related to Social Media and web 2.0.

CONCLUSION Corporate communication is necessary for establishing link between the persons for prosperous business. Communication done well will result rapid economic growth. It is certain from the present study that in ONGC, Dehradun, and the process of corporate communication has been a success. The success is due to the communication network which makes working relationship better among the employees. Majority of respondent shows positive attitude but still the modes of communication and techniques of public relation are not free from certain loopholes like few modes and techniques are used such as speaking opportunities, advertisement, electronic media, publicity and press release which creates lack of communication among departments.

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BIBLOGRAPHY Basic Business Communication Raymond V. Lesikar Marie E. Flatley Business Communication strategies Business Communication Matthukutty M Monippally Meenakshi Raman Prakash Singh Business Communication and Organization & Management Rohini Aggrawal ongcindia.com