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3D Display Methods

View an object from any spatial position: front, top etc. Projection onto a flat viewing surface.

3D Display

projection is any method of mapping three-dimensional points to a twodimensional plane. As most current methods for displaying graphical data are based on planar twodimensional media, the use of this type of projection is widespread, especially in computer graphics, engineering and drafting.

Orthographic projection is a means of representing a three-dimensional object in two dimensions. It is a form of parallel projection, where the view direction is orthogonal to the projection plane, resulting in every plane of the scene appearing in affine transformation on the viewing surface. It is further divided into multiview orthographic projections and axonometric projections. Orthographic projection corresponds to a perspective projection with a hypothetical viewpointe.g., one where the camera lies an infinite distance away from the object and has an infinite focal length, or "zoom".

Specify a view plane Projections
Parallel Perspective

Projection transformation Clipping

Parallel Projection

Perspective Projection

Different Viewing Directions

Changing of Reference Point

3D Surface
3D Surface Detection:
Identify the visible surface example: ray-casting method

Depth Cueing
the intensity of lines decreases from the front to the back of the object.

3D Surface Detection

Depth Cueing

Types of Depth Cues

Stereoscopic display (different image for different eye) Hidden lines/surface removal Depth weighting (less intensity for distant object) Illumination (surface lighting) Rotation (cine loops)

Surface Illumination
Surface illumination:
the intensity of light that we should see.

Surface rendering algorithm

calculation of the light based on physical laws. Radiosity algorithm: based on the propagation of radiant energy between the surface and the source.

Modeling with polygons

From now on the modeling will be based on polygons (with some few exeptions such as spline and fractal surfaces). This means that a 3D object will be completely made up by polygon surfaces with interior content.

Object representation
The data representation may contain: geometric data

slope vertices

polygon surfaces
bounding boxes/rectangle plane equation edges

attribute info (surface properties)
transparency properties reflectivity properties textures/colors

Geometric data representation