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October 26, 2010

[NATIONALISM]

Assignment

Name: Date:

Irfan Syed 26-10-2010

Reg No# 2093078

October 26, 2010

[NATIONALISM]

Nationalism
The concept of nationalism is something which we see examples of all around us, every day of our lives. National flags at sporting events, adverts urging us to choose a particular country for our vacations, comedic representations of foreigners on television. More seriously, we see its effects in wars and terrorist actions across the globe. However, it is an idea that, whilst most would claim to understand, few can actually put into words.

Nationalism is so hard to explain because it cannot be fitted into just one box. It is similar to patriotism, but whilst patriotism could be defined as the love of ones country, nationalism focuses more on what shape that country should take. Because of this, it not only encompasses cultural and emotional aspects, but has political and historical implications also. Nationalism could be described as the support of a nation, but every nationalist movement has different aims and origins, whether they be desires for autonomy, political representation, or self-preservation. Even nationalists cannot agree on exactly what constitutes nationalism, as beyond this shared desire for the success of the nation, they have very little in common.

Nevertheless it has been much disputed by political scientists and sociologists alike, and positive and negative aspects of the ideology have been suggested. On the positive side, nationalism is said to be an expression of identity. National identity is based on history, culture and often language. Nationalism can be seen as the defense of this identity; the defense of the right of a nation to remain or become a recognised entity. It can be classed as standing against the forces of oppression and tyranny.

The negative results of nationalism, however, cannot be denied. It can cause division in societies when one nationality classes itself as superior to another. This
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also generates racism, and can often lead to violent and bloody conflicts. On the personal level, individuals may be persecuted because other individuals or groups believe their nationality to be inferior, or that it poses a threat. Nationalism is often said to be a reactionary rather than a progressive ideology. This is because it is usually the result of some great societal change, which causes individuals and groups to desire a return to previous times. It has often been caused by industrialisation and modernisation. Indeed it has been suggested that the emergence of fascism in Nazi Germany can be traced back to discontent at the modernisation in France, and the idea that this threatened the traditional rural German way of life.

Nationalism is a powerful tool, as it takes its strength from the sentiments of belonging that most individuals possess. This has led to its use by politicians as a way of gaining popular support through uniting a people under a common cause. It is a vague concept, and can be shaped by the bearer to mean almost anything, and most people are vulnerable to it in some form or other. Because of this, it can be a very dangerous weapon in certain hands

Necessary Conditions for Its Development

For people to express nationalism it is first necessary for them to identify themselves as belonging to a nation, that is, a large group of people who have something in common. The rise of centralized monarchies, which placed people under one rule and eliminated feudalism, made this possible. The realization that they might possess a common history, religion, language, or race also aided people in forming a national identity. When both a common identity and a formal authority structure over a large territory (i.e., the state) exist, then nationalism becomes possible.
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In its first powerful manifestation in the French Revolution, nationalism carried with it the notion of popular sovereignty, from which some have inferred that nationalism can occur only in democratic nations. However, this thesis is belied by the intense nationalism that characterized the German Empire and later Nazi Germany. Where nationalism arises, its specific form is the product of each particular nation's history.

History Early Developments

Although nationalism is unique to the modern world, some of its elements can be traced throughout history. The first roots of nationalism are probably to be found in the ancient Hebrews, who conceived of themselves as both a chosen people, that is, a people as a whole superior to all other peoples, and a people with a common cultural history. The ancient Greeks also felt superior to all other peoples and moreover felt a sense of great loyalty to the political community. These feelings of cultural superiority (ethnocentrism), which are similar to nationalism, gave way to much more universal identifications under the Roman Empire and with the Christian Church through its teaching of the oneness of humanity.

As strong centralized monarchies were built from petty feudal states, as regional languages and art forms were evolved, and as local economies widened, popular identification with these developments became increasingly strong. In areas such as Italy, which were not yet single nations, recurring invasions led such thinkers as Niccol Machiavelli to advocate national political federation. The religious wars of the Reformation set nation against nation, though the strongest loyalty continued to adhere to the sovereign. In the 16th and 17th cent. the nationalistic economic doctrine of mercantilism appeared.
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The growth of the middle classes, their desire for political power, and the consequent development of democratic political theory were closely connected with the emergence of modern nationalism. The theorists of the French Revolution held that people should establish governments of equality and liberty for everyone. To them the nation was inseparable from the people, and for the first time in history a people could create a government in accordance with the nation's general will. Although their aims were universal, they glorified the nation that would establish their aims, and nationalism found its first political expression.

The Nineteenth Century


It was in the 19th cent. that nationalism became a widespread and powerful force. During this time nationalism expressed itself in many areas as a drive for national unification or independence. The spirit of nationalism took an especially strong hold in Germany, where thinkers such as Johann Gottfried von Herder and Johann Gottlieb Fichte had developed the idea of Volk. However, the nationalism that inspired the German people to rise against the empire of Napoleon I was conservative, tradition-bound, and narrow rather than liberal, progressive, and universal. And when the fragmented Germany was finally unified as the German Empire in 1871, it was a highly authoritarian and militarist state. After many years of fighting, Italy also achieved national unification and freedom from foreign domination, but certain areas inhabited by Italians (e.g., Trieste) were not included in the new state, and this gave rise to the problem of irredentism. In the United States, where nationalism had evinced itself in the doctrine of Manifest Destiny, national unity was maintained at the cost of the Civil War.

In the latter half of the 19th cent., there were strong nationalist movements among the peoples subject to the supranational Austrian and Ottoman empires, as there were in Ireland under British rule, and in Poland under Russian rule. At the same time, however, with the emergence in Europe of strong, integrated nation-states,
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nationalism became increasingly a sentiment of conservatives. It was turned against such international movements as socialism, and it found outlet in pursuit of glory and empire (see imperialism). Nationalist conflicts had much to do with bringing on World War I.

The Twentieth Century


The early 20th cent., with the breakup of Austria-Hungary and of the Ottoman Empire, saw the establishment of many independent nations, especially through the peace treaties ending World War I. The Paris Peace Conference established the principle of national self-determination, upheld by the League of Nations and later by the United Nations. While self-determination is a nationalist principle, it also recognizes the basic equality of all nations, large or small, and therefore transcends a narrow nationalism that claims superiority for itself.

It was exactly this latter type of nationalism, however, that arose in Nazi Germany, preaching the superiority of the so-called Aryan race and the need for the extermination of the Jews and the enslavement of Slavic peoples in their living space (see National Socialism). Italian fascism was in a similar manner based on extreme nationalist sentiments. At the same time, Asian and African colonial territories, seeking to cast off imperial bonds, were developing nationalist movements. Perhaps the most famous of these was the Indian National Congress, which struggled for Indian independence for over 60 years. After World War II nationalism in Asia and Africa spread at such a fast pace that dozens of new nations were created from former colonial territorial holdings.

Although interdependence and global communications interconnected all nations by the 1990s, nationalism appears to have grown more extreme with the breakup of the Soviet empire, the growth of Muslim fundamentalism, and the collapse of Yugoslavia. Xenophobic, separatist movements are not necessarily confined to
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newly independent states; they appear in many European nations and Canada, as well as India, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Lebanon, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and many others. International organizations, such as the United Nations, the European Union, the Organization of American States, and the Organization for African Unity, represent attempts to curb extreme nationalism, stressing cooperation among nations.

Biblography:
Khon, hans, The Idea Of Nationalism(1944,repx 1967) Carr E.H, Nationalism and after (1945) Snyder,L.L, The Meaning of Nationalism