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GUIDE TO ESSAY WRITING AND REFERENCING WRITING AN ESSAY Mark Cousins Director of History and Theory Studies
These notes are designed to help students understand the importance of writing during their training at the AA, to understand the nature of an essay, and to provide advice on how best to prepare to write an essay, and how to plan it. It may be that some lucky individual students already possess a proven way of doing this and if this is the case then they can continue with their method and the habits that suit them. But experience teaches us that very few students have thought about the issue carefully and have developed a successful solution to the problems involved. Hopefully this guide will help them to approach the question in an intelligent way. Architecture and writing Often students take a negative view of the role of essay writing in their work as students at the AA. I have often heard it said that students feel that their real work as students is design and learning to design. In this sense students often experience the obligation to write essays as a rather unwelcome supplement, as if essay writing is an onerous diversion from their real work. And so the first issue to be addressed is why essay writing is a vital part of a students work. Firstly, essay writing is central to the overall objective of enabling a student over a five year period, to develop an individual identity not just through their design work but through the capacity to articulate an independent and critical intelligence in respect to architecture. At the end of five years students should know what they think and should be able to justify that in terms of argument. One of the central functions of writing essays is to develop a skill in argument, which is the students own argument. This skill determines their capacity to explain and justify their own design work and to assess the designs of others. These are skills, they can be learned and the best way to learn them is to practice them. The second point which needs to be made is that professionally speaking, arguing in both speech and in writing is a fundamental dimension of the work of an architect and someone who lacks the skills will soon find themselves severely disadvantaged in practice. To this should also be added the general point that architects need to be able to describe architecture and architectural projects in words whether written or spoken. But the verbal description of architecture is a complex skill. We may think that architecture is best represented by plans, elevations, sections, etc. and we may use various forms of imagery to describe buildings and projects but this does not dispense with the centrality of the word. A student who graduates without having acquired the skill of describing buildings will not be able to animate their relation to architecture with the power of speaking or writing. The essay is a crucial starting point of being able to represent architecture in discourse. It is a skill just as much as drawing. What is an essay? An essay is the attempt to answer a question through argument and the presentation of evidence for the argument. In this sense a good essay requires a good question. You cannot write an essay on a topic. It makes no sense to write an essay on the architecture of Michelangelo or of Le Corbusier. A topic is just a title. It provides the student with no definition of the essay- which is a problem to be solved. All that a topic invites is information. But information can never be the basis of an essay even though information has a subordinate role as evidence. This is why from the beginning reliance upon sources of information such as Wikipedia or encyclopedias, or even scholarly books can never provide the basis of an essay. Of course information or facts are crucial in the field of evidence. You cannot construct a reasonable argument which doesnt have evidence or which runs counter to the

evidence. In this sense an essay is by its nature hybrid, it is an argument but one which must appeal to the evidence. In practice this means that every time you use a fact in an essay it must be in support of an argument. An essay then is an answer to a question based upon an argument which in turn justifies itself by reference to evidence or facts. But what is an argument? This is worth asking because the answer is to some extent counter to the ways in which some educational systems have developed. There are still some systems in which a certain privilege is accorded to an official line whether that is expressed by the lecturer or manifest in a textbook. In this case learning, memorizing, and repeating the line is the desired outcome. If anything the essay would simply be a test to the students capacity to reproduce the line. This is absolutely what we do not mean by an essay. Taken to an extreme this is actually what we would call plagiarism. Perhaps this is why there is still some confusion about what the AA and other universities mean by plagiarism. Had one been brought up in an authoritarian educational system, the uncritical reproduction of the official line, be it the professors or the textbooks, then what we call plagiarism would presumably be judged as a virtuous form of the completion of an academic task. We do not take this view at all. While we would hope that you find lectures helpful and interesting and while we insist that you read more than you do, the objective of the essay is not to reproduce them but to ask you what you think about them. In this sense the essay is a subjective response to a question. You ask yourself what you think about the question and your essay will be guided by your conclusions. In this way you are using the essay to come to a decision about what you yourself think. This may take the form of agreement with what youve read or it may take the form of violent disagreement. But in either case what is important is what you think. Only in this way can you come to learn what you think. Perhaps you will change your mind next year but this doesnt matter, you will still be using the basic skill of asking yourself what you think now. We have established that an argument must be made from a subjective point of view. It must be from your point of view. But that does not mean that it is what we might call merely subjective. An essay is not just the dogmatic presentation of personal opinions. While the whole essay is from a subjective point of view, at the same time it is controlled by the need to justify your claims and perhaps to changing your views in the light of the evidence which you have been studying. An argument is different from the expression of an opinion because it is constructed via the use of evidence. The evidence you use will support your argument. Central to the nature of the essay is this connection between the argument and the evidence. To establish your argument you need to select and present evidence that supports it. Sometimes this might involve your need to deal with the fact that your argument is in opposition to other arguments. In this case you will use evidence to reject the opposing arguments. So the fact that the essay is subjective, is your own argument, nonetheless has to be justified in terms of evidence. We might think of evidence as the public space of arguments. My definition of the essay is one which both insists upon its subjective character, that it is your answer and what you think but that this is quite different from it being just a personal expression of feeling and intuitions. You are as it were subjecting your subjectivity to the public forum of evidence. The essay is both subjective and public. You can see then that it follows the basic logic of design- of a private creation transformed into a public object. Preparing for the essay Having tried to explain what an essay is, let us look at the stages of preparing for it. Obviously it is here that you will be preparing by consulting a range of sources. It would be too much to call this research but it has about it the elements of research and the skills which you acquire here will enable you to undertake larger projects than just the essay. Assuming that you have attended the lectures and have done the reading indicated by the course bibliographies and assuming that perhaps in conjunction with your tutor, you have formulated an appropriate question at a certain point you will be ready to prepare the essay. You should regard this preparation as a vital and independent stage. Many students still leave no gap between the research they have been doing and starting to write the essay. It is as if they are largely concerned to get the essay done. This is a minor but real piece of insanity. You cannot start writing without knowing what to write. You need to prepare for the essay by thinking about the essay. Some will do this with a piece of paper, some will do it by going for a

walk, and some will ask a friend to listen to their proposal. Each person will probably find a different way of performing this task. You should follow whatever device seems to suit you. But in one way or another it is a vital and indispensable moment. You are asking yourself what you think and you are coming to some sort of conclusion. As we have already implied, those conclusions which will form the outline of your argument need to be fitted together with the evidence for them. Planning the essay Many students essays do the students a real injustice. The essay they produce, one can tell, is not nearly as good as it could have been. This is not necessarily about the quality of the student or the amount of research done, it stems solely from the students failure to plan the essay and therefore to organize the argument of the essay. They could have done it but they didnt. No one can write an essay expecting to answer the question as a result of just writing it. You must make a clear distinction in your mind between the structure of your argument and the process of writing. In other words you must have a plan which contains both the argument you wish to make and what is a separate issue, the sequence in which you are going to make it. If perhaps out of urgency if you think you will just start writing and hope that the argument will miraculously appear, you will inevitably produce a much poorer essay than you are capable of. You cannot burden the process of writing with too many simultaneous tasks. If we look at this problem carefully we see that there are in effect three quite separate tasks. The first we can call the argument as such or the logic of the argument. You should put down, and it need not take more than half a sheet of paper what the overall argument is and how it connects to different pieces of evidence. The second stage is a somewhat different task- it is how you are going to sequence the first stage in a continuous piece of writing. You may, for example, decide to start the essay in a way which is different from a logical sequence of your argument. Often successful openings concentrate upon the nature of the question rather than stating the logical sequence of the argument. Often conclusions return to the opening paragraph as a way of ending the essay. The end of an essay is rather different from the conclusion of the essay. If the first stage is a plan for the logic of the essay, the second outline concerns a plan of the sequence of the essay- what we might call the rhetoric of the essay. In all events this process of planning the essay should leave you in no doubt about what you are going to argue and how you are going to argue. You are now ready to write the essay, and can now concentrate on the literary task of writing it in as clear and interesting a way as you can. You are no longer burdening the writing with all the other tasks of organization within the essay. You now know at every moment in writing the essay what is coming next. Indeed if you have planned properly, you yourself will no longer be burdened with the anxiety of what you are going to say next. You already know. I would hope at this point that you begin to experience the pleasure which can come from writing. If you experience it as a dreaded punishment, it almost certainly means that you havent prepared the argument. The essay and the paragraph This section is implied by the previous section but looks at the problem from a functional point of view. The essays you are asked to do are really very short. But even in a short piece of writing it is worth breaking it down further into basic units. We might say that the basic unit of an essay is the paragraph. In an essay of say 3,500 words there are only a limited number of paragraphs- perhaps between ten and twelve. There is here a useful convergence between the number of paragraphs and the number of points which you might make in the essay. Each paragraph is the place where you make a point, an element of your overall argument. In this case we can look at the essay overall in which it is useful to think of the first paragraph as a statement of your overall argument. Paradoxically the first paragraph is really a statement of your conclusion. Apart from anything else this makes it much easier on the reader. It is as if the reader is now in the position of immediately seeing what it is overall that you wish to argue. The reader can now understand where you are going in the essay. This is very important. Too often students write essays without any sense that the essay is designed to be read by someone else. Too often one reads an essay which might in itself be full of interesting observations. But at the same time one has no idea where the essay is going and you begin to suspect that the writer did not either.

These points establish a kind of strategic link between the opening paragraph and all subsequent paragraphs. Indeed what is true of the essay as a whole is true about each paragraph. One can regard each paragraph in terms of an opening sentence which establishes the nature of the point that the rest of the paragraph argues for as well as presenting evidence that supports the argument. This advice should not become a mechanical formula for the essay but it is certainly worth applying it to the plan for the essay. The actual essay will deal with the plan by drawing it back to considerations of the essay in terms of its literary composition. But I have never seen an essay which suffered from too much clarity. Footnotes and Bibliography Overall these notes are designed to help students think about how to do an essay. There are of course published guides on how to write an essay but they tend both to be very obvious and not very concerned with how skills of argument and writing are in fact part of the general skill of an architect. But such guides might be useful in establishing a number of conventions such as how to present footnotes and bibliographies. My only observations on these issues would be that footnotes are mostly used by students to identify the source of a quotation. Obviously students must always acknowledge quotations, or they risk being accused of plagiarism. Certainly the correct way to acknowledge a quotation is to provide the source with a footnote. But there are other uses of a footnote. Sometimes one will have some very interesting piece of information which one wishes to express to the reader although it may not be relevant to the argument. It might confuse the reader if it were in the main body of the text. In this case it is better to put it as a footnote and to free the main text from it. Sometimes it is worth putting in your own thoughts in a footnote if they do not directly bear on the argument. Conclusion Although these notes were intended to deal with issues which are not usually part of the practical guides to essay writing, they also I hope serve as a justification for the importance of essay writing. An essay is an opportunity to develop your skills in argument and writing. These skills at an intellectual level are an absolute condition of acquiring an independent identity as an architect. Like all skills it is neither natural nor spontaneous, it develops only through and with practice. In professional terms it cannot be overstated how important these skills are. Without them, a student would emerge into a professional world with one hand tied permanently behind his or her back. It is the means through which you will be able to translate your design skills into a public world of architecture. The practice of architecture requires skills of analysis, of advocacy, and of analysis. The architect is by definition a public intellectual. No one can and no one can afford to neglect the centrality of these skills. Their effective employment is one which is both required and rewarded in architecture. I hope you find these notes useful and I am more than willing to discuss them individually with students during the year.

ARCHITECTURAL ESSAY WRITING: REFERENCING GUIDELINES Mollie Claypool and Ryan Dillon Course Tutors History and Theory Studies
Referencing Referencing may seem constraining or overly detailed. Keep in mind, these systems exist to facilitate research. Once you learn a system, it becomes automatic and enhances your research and writing. Referencing is a type of hypertext link. Instead of connecting you to another website, references indicate other sites of knowledge. Bibliographies are a way to categorise information, enabling you to work with sources in more creative ways. A bibliography places a work within a larger constellation of works, showing the corpus of knowledge from which it is drawn and the position it takes in regard to previous arguments. A footnote can lead to unexpected material, indicating new possibilities or holes in the argument. Notes document as well as develop connections and arguments not central to the main arguments of the paper. In some styles of writing, footnotes carry the burden of academic proofand argument, which allows the main text to become more fluid. Inconsistent referencing is unacceptable. Casual citation displays a general lack of rigour; it becomes unclear how you have utilised the materials of the course and how you understand and interpret them; your arguments are less clear, and it is difficult to discern what you are trying to say versus the opinions the other authors are referencing. In extreme cases, casual referencing practices veer into plagiarism. Do not plagiarise. You must cite the words of another author. This is not confined to verbatim transposition; excessive paraphrasing is also plagiarism. Cite anything you did not generate that is not of "general knowledge. Cite images. Cite music. Cite recognisable code. Every academic professional journal requires standard referencing. If you are interested in writing or publishing your design work, learn the conventions as soon as possible. Transforming or developing variations of a standard referencing style is often effective as long as you understand exactly what is being altered. Referencing must be treated in a precise and critical manner. For creative referencing that falls within acceptable academic parameters see Rosalind Krauss annotated referencing style in The Optical Unconscious. Referencing Manuals The following are perhaps the two most complete reference books used for referencing and for the preparation of manuscripts. Most academic journals use one of these as their model. These compendiums have an example for every type of reference imaginable including referencing samples for electronic sites and databases. They are available in most libraries and bookstores. Alternately, the notes, used by a major publisher may clarify more common citations. Be careful which publisher you use and utilize the same one throughout (MIT Press is a good example). The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition The Humanities Referencing Style This form of referencing puts the bibliographic information into a footnote or endnote called out in

the text by corresponding superscript number. Short articles may be accompanied by a bibliography, although this is unnecessary if every source is cited in a reference. Longer works almost always have a bibliography. Please note, according to this style, references within a note or within the bibliography have slightly different forms. Its also the most common within architecture. Referencing with a footnote- at the bottom of the page for a footnote or at the end of the text as with endnotes, you have the following citation: 57 PaulVirilio,War and Cinema (London:Verso Books, 1989), 68 The reference marker occurs within the body of the text, usually as a superscript number. Full footnotes appear at the bottom of the page on which the reference occurs, endnotes at the end of a chapter or at the end of an entire work. Both footnotes and endnotes refer to a quote, paraphrase or reference to a text or object. Dont over footnote; provide one whenever you are utilising an idea from another writer that is not a well-known fact / something that could be assumed to be common knowledge. Referencing with the bibliography- at the end of the text you may have a bibliography in which the book appears in alphabetical order according to author: Virilio, Paul.War and Cinema:The Logistics of Perception. London:Verso Books, 1989. Bibliographies should list every book used in the construction of your argument, whether explicitly cited in the text or not. More traditionally a bibliography would list the complete corpus of writings on a topic; anything less complete would be called References or Works Cited. Bibliographic citations have different forms than the footnote/endnote and are listed alphabetically according to the authors last name. If you use more than one work from a single author, list these in ascending chronological order. If a text has more than one author (e.g. Deleuze and Guattari), use the name that appears first on the title page of the text. Remember that bibliographic references and footnotes/endnotes vary slightly in form.The former is considered a complete and independent phrase; the latter is a dependent, an extrapolation, or refers to the main text. Using ibidandop. Cit.- Most people who useibidwithin their citations do so improperly. Ibid may be used only when a reference is exactly the same as the one immediately preceding it. You may not use ibid if any aspect of the reference is different besides the page number. For example: 34 Rosalind E, Krauss,The Optical Unconscious (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1993), 56 35 Ibid, 67 op.cit.orloc. cit.[Latin abbreviations for in the works cited and in the place citedrespectively] are often used to refer to a previously cited work. For example: 34 Rosalind E, Krauss,The Optical Unconscious (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1993), 56 57 Krauss, op. cit., 78 Both of these methods can confuse the reader and are prone to mistakes. For example, what if you also referred to another book by Krauss earlier in the text, but overlooked this fact? Or, of the last reference was pages before, the reader must do too much work to find the information. In such a case,

using op. cit. could misdirect the reader. As a result, general use ofibid and op. cit. is now discouraged Instead, use the short form of author, date, page number.This does not take any more time, is clearer, and avoids any confusion due to mistakes in referencing. For word processing, it has the added advantage of remaining correct even if the citation moves to a different point in the text; this is not necessarily so with the abbreviations. Examples of some basic referencesFootnote: 1.RudolfWittkower, ArchitecturalPrinciplesintheAgeofHumanism, (NewYork:W.W. Norton, 1962), 89 The footnote's bibliographic reference: Wittkower, Rudolf. ArchitecturalPrinciplesintheAgeofHumanism. NewYork:W.W. Norton, 1962. The following examples are offered as bibliographic references. Two authors: Deleuze, Gilles and Felix Guattari. A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia.Trans. Brian Massumi. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1988. An article in a journal: Hacking, Ian.Canguilhem among the Cyborgs.Economy and Society, 2 & 3, vol. 27 (1998): 202-215. An article or essay on an edited anthology or monograph: Canguilhem, George.Machine and Organism.Zone6:Incorporations. NewYork: Zone Books, 1992. An edited anthology or monograph: Crary, Jonathan and Sanford Kwinter, ed. Zone6:Incorporations. NewYork:Zone Books, 1992. An entire internet site: 2004. Cable News Network. 20 January 2004 <>. Information form a website: Symbiosis.UCMP Glossary. Ed. Allen Collins et al. 1 May 2002. U of California Museum of Paleontology, Berkeley. 15 May 2002. <>.

Quoting Material If a quoted passage of text is shorter than three lines, it should be indicated by quote marks (and)If you leave out part of the quote, use an ellipsis (...) at the point of omission unless it is absolutely

obvious the quote is a fragment. If the omission occurs at the end of a sentence add a period or ending punctuation. If the omission is longer than three lines of text, indicate this by breaking the quoted text into a new paragraph after the ellipsis. For example: As Georges Bataille states monsters thus would be the dialectical opposite of geometric regularity.1 If longer than three lines it should be set on its own without the use of quotes, the following paragraph is an exampleAs Georges Bataille states in his short essay,Deviations of Nature: Without broachingthe question of the metaphysical foundations of any given dialectic, one can affirm that the determination of a dialectical development of facts as concrete as visible forms would be literally overwhelming2 From this statement, one can begin to understand the problematic moment when the ideal, the average becomes epistemologically consonant they are, as Georges Canguilhem argues, degree zero of monstrosity. Quotes within quotes should use single marks (and)As Georges Bataille states,a freak in any given fair provokes a positive impression 3

This course introduces foundational concepts and seeks to create a dialogue between contemporary practice and themes of investigation within the history of architecture and urbanism from antiquity to the present. Employing wide-view thematic lenses such as authority, pluralism, language, media, landscape, ecology, technology, utopia and fantasy, we will explore key moments in a global history of buildings, cities and texts. Although rooted in the Western tradition, our discussion will draw upon case examples from a range of continents and cultures. Our approach will incorporate an analysis of evolving theoretical concepts of formal production and aesthetics and will also situate built environment constructs within their social and political contexts. Course readings will provide an orientation in fundamental ideas while writing assignments emphasize the development of original arguments and criticism. Autumn: 1 Introduction 2 Authority 3 Cosmos 4 Language 5 John Soane house: lecture + visit 6 Pluralism (Architecture) 7 Pluralism (Urbanism) 8 Media Winter: 1 Landscape 2 Ecology 3 Technology 4 The Barbican: lecture + visit 5 Infrastructure 6 Utopia 7 Fantasy 8 Conclusion Course Texts: Kostof, Spiro. A History of Architecture: Settings and Rituals Ching, Francis, Jarzombek, Mark and Prakash, Vikramaditya. A Global History of Architecture Trachtenberg, Marvin. Architecture from Pre-history to Postmodernity Curtis, William. Modern Architecture since 1900 Frampton, Kenneth. Modern Architecture: a critical history Ockman, Joan ed. Architecture culture 1943-1968: a documentary anthology

Hays, K. Michael ed. Architecture Theory since 1968 Nesbitt, Kate ed. Theorizing a New Agenda for Architecture Sykes, A. Krista, ed. Constructing a New Agenda: Architectural Theory 1993-2009 Select Readings: Tafuri, Manfredo. Architecture and utopia: design and capitalist development Foucault, Michel. Discipline and punish Hardt, Michael and Negri, Antonio. Empire Easterling, Keller. Enduring Innocence: global architecture and its political masquerades Gandelsonas, Mario. From Structure to Subject: the formation of an architectural language Vidler, Anthony. The Idea of Type: the Transplantation of an Academic Ideal, 1750 1830 Frampton, Kenneth. Industrialization and the Crises in Architecture. Fisher, Ole W. Precisions on Precisions Architecture, Art and Science Picon, Antoine. Architecture and the Sciences: Scientific Accuracy or Productive Misunderstanding?

The 2nd Year History and Theory course has typically been a history course. This is certainly not a survey course. Thus, we will focus on the variety of types of architecture both in historical terms and within different cultures. In this sense, the lecture and seminar course is about how culture influences architecture and about how architecture influences culture. The aim of the lecture series will attempt to show how different cultural forms produce different architectural forms. To demonstrate this we look at how different religious forms have been related to different architectural forms; or how different forms of political power have produced different types of architecture; or how people have argued that different national identities have resulted in different architectural styles. The course attempts to make students aware of the relation between architectural form and a range of social focus. The lectures will cover a wide range of topics exposing the relationship of architecture to culture. We will look at the variety of ways in which buildings are designed in many cultures and traditions throughout time. We will investigate modernitys recent invention of the figure of the architect while comparing this with other building traditions, as well as buildings without an architecture and with vernacular architecture. The concentration of architectural designs within the profession of trained architects would strike many cultures as strange and it is important to be aware of the other methods and design practices that are devoid of the architect. A central dimension of the course is to provide an opportunity for students to develop their own arguments through the practice of writing. Unlike previous courses, the Thursday morning session will start with the seminar and conclude with the lecture. The seminar will provide the students a forum to discuss readings, present readings to the class in groups, and engage with graphic exercises that are aimed at developing arguments through research and writing. Time will be set aside to deal with the problem of how to research and write well-structured essays. This course-booklet contains an example paper on how to think about writing an essay. We hope you find it and the course useful in improving your ability to construct an argument through the important skill of writing. Autumn Term Please note that all assigned readings for each lecture topic will be discussed in the seminar portion of the class during the following week. For example, Week 1 readings on Architecture will be discussed during the Week 2 Seminar. Week 1 ARCHITECTURE How is architecture defined, and how is it distinguished from building, from the vernacular and from architecture without architects. Required Seminar Readings: Readings for this week will be a collection of short texts provided by the tutors from a diverse selection of many publications including but not limited too the following: Vitruvius, Then Books on Architecture; Alberti, L.B., On the Art of building in Ten Books; Laugier, MarcAntoine, An Essay on Architecture; Durand, Jean-Nicolas-Louis, Prcis of the Lecture on Architecture; Le Corbusier, Towards a New Architecture; Gideon, Sigfried, Space, Time and

Architecture: The Growth of a New Tradition; Venturi, Robert, Complexity and Contradiction; Koolhaas, Rem, Delirious New York These texts will be handed out to the students prior during Week 1 Seminar Week 2 DESIGN What is design? How did it evolve? How does it relate to the emergence of architectural representation, plans, sections, etc.? Required Seminar Readings: Forty, Adrian, Design, p. 136-141, in Words and Buildings: A Vocabulary of Modern Architecture Agrest, Diana, Design versus Non-Design, p. 198-213 in Hays, Michael K. (ed.), in Architecture Theory since 1968, The M.I.T. Press, 1998. Suggested Seminar Readings: Koolhaas, Rem, Junkspace, in Chuihua, Judy Chung; Inaba, Jeffery; Koolhaas, Rem; Leong, Sze Tsung, et al, Harvard Design School Guide to Shopping, Harvard Design School, 2001. Latour, Bruno, A Cautious Prometheus? A Few Steps Toward a Philosophy of Design presented as the Keynote Lecture for the Networks of Design for the meeting of Design History Society, 3 September, 2008. Week 3 THE ARCHITECT Can there be architecture without architects? How did the figure of the architect evolve? Required Seminar Readings: Saint, A. 1985, The Architect as Hero and Genius, p. 1-18, in The Image of the Architect, Yale University Press. Koolhaas, Rem, The Talents of Raymond Hood, pp. 162-77, in Delirious New York: A Retroactive Manifesto for Manhattan, Monacelli Press, 1994. Alberti, L.B., Prologue, p. 1-6, in On the Art of building in Ten Books, The MIT Press, 1991. Rudofsky, B., Before the Architects, Design Quarterly (118/119), pp. 60-63, 1982. Suggested Seminar Readings: Rand, A., The Fountainhead, 1st edition ed. Blakinston Co. 1943. Kostof, S., The Architect in the Middle Ages, East and West, p. 59-95, in The Architect: Chapters in the History of the Profession, University of California Press, 2000. Week 4 PROFESSION The nineteen-century emergence of architecture as a profession is compared with medicine. Why has the architect occupied a weaker position then the lawyer or the doctor? Required Seminar Readings: Wigley, Mark, Prosthetic Theory: The Discipline of Architecture in Assemblage No 15, August 1991, p. 7-29. Martin, Reinhold, Architecture and Its Pasts Symposium Lecture at the Architectural Association, 22 May 2010. Suggested Seminar Readings: Hays, Michael, Oppositions of Autonomy and History (Introduction), p. xi-xv in Oppositions Reader, Princeton Architectural Press, 1998. Michel, Foucault, The Archaeology of Knowledge & The Discourse of Language, Vintage, 1982.

Week 5 ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY An account of how architectural history has evolved as a concept and as a practise in the nineteenth-century. Why is it based upon a narrative of a successions of styles, classical, gothic, renaissance, baroque, etc. and why this is a problem for architectural students? Required Seminar Readings: Colquhoun, Alan, Introduction: Modern Architecture and Historicity, p. 11-19 in Essays in Architectural Criticism: Modern Architecture and Historical Change, MIT Press, 1995. Forty, Adrian, History, p. 196-205, in Words and Buildings: A Vocabulary of Modern Architecture, Thames and Hudson Ltd. 2004. Gideon, Sigfried, History A Part of Life, p. 1-10, in Space, Time and Architecture: The Growth of a New Tradition, Harvard University Press, 2008 Edition. Suggested Seminar Readings: Benjamin, Walter, Theses on the Philosophy of History, p. 235-264 in Illuminations, Schocken Books, 2007. Vidler, Anthony, Foreword and Introduction, p. 1-16, and Postmodern or Posthiorie?, p. 191-200 in Histories of the Immediate Present: Inventing Architectural Modernism, MIT Press, 2008. Colquhoun, Alan, Three Kinds of Historicism, p. 1-17 in Oppositions 26. Week 6 RELIGION Each of the major monotheist religions is associated with major architectural outcomes. The lecture will question the extent to which the religions in themselves stamped particular forms upon architecture. It shows how each of them derived from Roman and other forms. Required Seminar Readings: Kostof, S. & Castillo, G., The Reinassance: Ideal and Fad, p. 403-412 in A History of Architecture: Settings and Rituals, Oxford University Press, 1995. Kostof, S. & Castillo, G., Chartres, p. 333-348, in A History of Architecture: Settings and Rituals, Oxford University Press, New York, 1995. Laugier, Marc-Anotine. 1985, On the Style in Which to Build Churches, p. 100-120, in An Essay on Architecture, Hennessey & Ingalls, 1985. Suggested Seminar Readings: Kostof, S. & Castillo, G., The Triumph of Christ, p. 245-68 in A History of Architecture: Settings and Rituals, Oxford University Press, 1995. Wittkower, R., Part 1. The Centrally Planned Church and The Renaissance, p. 1-32 in Architectural Principles in the Age of Humanism, Academy Editions, Chichester, West Sussex, 1998. Alberti, L.B., The Seventh Book: Art of Building. Ornament to Sacred Buildings, p. 189243 in On the Art of Building in Ten Books, The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1991. Miller, K., St. Peter's, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass. 2007. Week 7 POWER Architecture has emerged as always been central to the exercise and expression of power. Rulers have tried to convey their power through architecture; different types of regimes have sought to clarify their nature through architecture. Considers the form of the palace and its mutations. Required Seminar Readings:

Foucault, M., Space Power and Architecture, p. 296-306, in M Hays (ed), Architecture Theory Since 1968, MIT Press. 1998. Benevolo, L., Chapter 3: Rome, City and Worldwide Empire, p. 135-251, in The History of the City, Scolar Press, 1908. Suggested Seminar Readings: Benton, T., Elliott, D., Ades, D. & Hobsbawn, E.J., Art and Power: Europe Under the Dictators 1930-1945, Hayward Gallery catalogue ed. Thames & Hudson Ltd, 1995. Foucault, M., Docile Bodies, p. 135-148 in Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison, Vintage Books, 1995. Hirst, P.Q. 2005, Foucault and Architecture, p. 155-178, in Space and Power: Politics, War and Architecture, Polity, 2005. Week 8 THE HOUSE Describes why the house, a site of human shelter has often been regarded as its fundamental unit of architecture and why I argue that this is wrong. Considers the emergence of the nineteenth-century of the category of housing as a category of urbanism. Required Seminar Readings: Laugier, Marc-Antoine, Introduction, p. General Principles in Architecture, p. 11-32, in An Essay on Architecture, Hennessey and Ingalls, Inc. 1977. Alberti, Leon Battista, The Lineamants Book One Chapter 9, p. 23-24 in On the Art of Building, Translated by Joseph Rykwert, Neil Leach, Robert Tavernor, The MIT Press, 1988. Le Corbusier, Eyes Which Do Not See, p. 85-129 in Towards a New Architecture, Dover Publications, 1986. Rossi, Aldo, Problems of Classification, p. 48-55 in Architecture and the City, The MIT Press, 1984. Suggested Seminar Readings: Durand, Jean-Nicolas-Louis, Private Buildings, Volume Two, Section Three, p. 170-181 in Prcis of the Lecture on Architecture, The Getty Research Institute, 2000. Le Corbusier, Mass-Production Houses p. 229-265 in Towards a New Architecture, Dover Publications, 1986. Alberti, Leon Battista, Works of Individuals Book Five Chapter 14-18, p. 140-153 in On the Art of Building, Translated by Joseph Rykwert, Neil Leach, Robert Tavernor, The MIT Press, 1988. Twain, Mark, The Diaries of Adam and Eve, Fair Oaks Press, 1998. Winter Term Week 9 MODERNITY AND ITS EXPORT The lecture will look at the new types of architecture, which evolve in industrial capitalism. The Factory, the Office, the Railway Station. Required Seminar Readings: Quatremre de Quincy, Type, p. 616-620 in Oppositions Reader, Princeton Architectural Press, 1998. Banham, Reynar, Introduction, p. 9-12, Germany: Industry and the Werkbund, p. 68-78, The Factory Aesthetic, p. 79-87 in Theory and Design in the First Machine Age, The MIT Press, 1983. Pevsner, Nicholaus, Foreword and Introduction, p. 6-10, Railway Station, p. 225-234, Warehouse and Office Buildings, p. 213-224, Factories, p. 273-288. Suggested Seminar Readings:

Le Corbusier, Eyes Which Do Not See, p. 85-129 in Towards a New Architecture, Dover Publications, 1986. Frampton, Peter, The Deutsche Werkbund 1898-1927, p. 109-115 in Modern Architecture: A Critical History, Thames and Hudson, Ltd. London, 1992. Week 10 THE ENGINNER AND INFRASTRUCTURE The lecture traces the overlap between architects and engineers in building and projects to provide an infrastructure for cities, for transports, etc. It will also attempt to specify the different by tracing the hostility of architects to the proposal for the Eiffel Tower. Required Seminar Readings: Berman, M., In the Forest of Symbols: Some Notes on Modernism in New York, p. 287-348 in All That is Solid Melts Into Air: The Experience of Modernity, Viking Penguin, 1998. Saint, A., Eiffel and 1889, p. 161-71, in Architect and Engineer: A Study in Sibling Rivalry, Yale University Press, 2007. Benevolo, L., Chapter 12: The 'Post-Liberal' City, p. 765-839 in The History of the City, Scolar Press, 1980. Suggested Seminar Readings: Benevolo, L., Chapter 11: The Setting of the Industrial Revolution, p. 733-64, in The History of the City, Scolar Press, 1980. Barthes, R., The Eiffel Tower, p. 3-18, in The Eiffel Tower, and Other Mythologies, University of California Press, 1997. Pevsner, N., Engineering and Architecture in the 19th Century, p.118-147 in Pioneers of Modern Design: from William Morris to Walter Gropius, Yale University Press, 2005. Week 11 NATIONAL IDENTITY AND ARCHITECTURE In what sense are the national identities, which are expressed in architecture? The lecture will discuss of contemporary India and China, architecture and national identity. Required Seminar Readings: Frampton, Kenneth, Critical Regionalism: modern architecture and cultural identity, p. 314327, in Modern Architecture: A Critical History, Thames and Hudson, Ltd. London, 1992. Hitchcock, Henry-Russell and Johnson, Phillip, Introduction, p. 33-37; Chapter IV-VII, p. 55-89, in International Style, W.W. Norton & Company, 1995 Edition. Hobsbawm, Eric and Ranger, Terrance (Ed.), Introduction, p. 1-15, in The Invention of Tradition, Cambridge University Press, 2003 Edition. Suggested Seminar Readings: Trevor-Roper, Hugh, The Invention of Tradition: The Highland Tradition of Scotland, p. 15-42, in The Invention of Tradition, Cambridge University Press, 2003 Edition. Hobsbawm, Eric, Mass-Producing Tradition: Europe, 1870-1914, p. 263-308, in The Invention of Tradition, Cambridge University Press, 2003 Edition. Week 12 POLITICAL IDENTITY AND ARCHITECTURE Can we speak of architectural forms as an expression or representation of politics? Was there a Nazi architecture, or a Fascist architecture, or a Communist architecture? What does it mean by calling a building conservative, or indeed revolutionary? Required Seminar Readings: McLeod, M., 1989, Architecture and Politics in the Reagan Era: From Postmodernism to Deconstructivism, p. 23-59, Assemblage (8), 1989.

Frampton, K. 2007, Giuseppe Terrangi and the Architecture of Italian Rationalism, p. 203-9, in Modern Architecture: A Critical History, Thames & Hudson, 2007. Frampton, K., Architecture and the State: Ideology and Representation, p. 210-223 in Modern architecture: A Critical History, Thames & Hudson, 2007. Suggested Seminar Readings: Harvey, D., Consumerism, Spectacle and Leisure, p. 209-224, in Paris, Capital of Modernity, Routledge, 2003. Harvey, D., Natural Relations, p. 245-52, in Paris, Capital of Modernity, Routledge, 2003. Eisenman, P., Tafuri, M. & Terragni, G., Giuseppe Terragni: Transformations, Decompositions, Critiques, illustrated ed. Monacelli Press, 2003. Week 13 THE MONUMENT Architecture has had a traditional task to help the remembrance of events and persons. How can one think of dimensions of memory within the contemporary city and architecture? Required Seminar Readings: Sert, J.L., Leger, Fernand, Gideon, Sigfried, Nine Points of Monumentality p. 27-30 in Architecture Culture 1943-1968, Rizzoli, 1993. Riegl, Alois, The Modern Cult of Monuments: Its Character and Its Origin, p. 621-651 in Oppositions Reader, Princeton Architectural Press, 1998. Libeskind, Daniel, Global Building Sites - Between Past and Future, p. 69-83, Memory Culture and the Contemporary City, Palgrave Macmillan, 2009. Suggested Seminar Readings: Harbison, Robert, Monuments, p. 37-67, in The Built, the Unbuilt, and the Unbuildable: In Pursuit of Architectural Meaning, The MIT Press, 1991. Yates, Frances, The Art of Memory, Pimlico, 1992. Choay, Francoise, The Concept of the Historical Monument As Such, p. 84-94, in The Invention of the Historic Monument, Cambridge University Press, 2001. Week 14 ARCHITECTURE WITHOUT BUILDING Architects have traditionally designed objects, which are not built theatrical entertainment, pageants into twentieth-century projects for staging, exhibition, design as well as furniture and household objects. How does architecture relate to the general industrial field of design? Required Seminar Readings: Tschumi, Bernard, The Manhattan Transcripts, John Wiley & Sons, 2nd Edition, 1994. Libeskind, Daniel, Chamber Works, p. 476-479, in M Hays (ed), Architecture Theory Since 1968, MIT Press. 1998. Evans Robert, In Front of the Lines That Leave Nothing Behind, p. 480-489, in M Hays (ed), Architecture Theory Since 1968, MIT Press. 1998. Forty, Adrian, Foreword and Introduction, p. 4-10; Design and Mechanisation, p. 42-61, in Objects of Desire, Design and Society Since 1750, Thames & Hudson, 1986. Suggested Seminar Readings: Forty, Adrian, Differentiation in Design, p. 63-69, Design, Designers and the Literature of Design, 239-245, in Objects of Desire, Design and Society Since 1750, Thames & Hudson, 1986. The Wrong House: The Architecture of Alfred Hitchcock, Steven Jacobs, 010 Publishers, 2007 Power of Ten, Film Documentary by Ray and Charles Eames, 1968 Week 15 THE LIFE AND DEATH OF ARCHITECTURE

Most architectural histories treat history of a building as the date of design and construction. But one important dimension of architecture is that it frequently survives. Through the case study of the Parthenon and its new Museum the life span of the building will be addressed. Required Seminar Readings: Hugo, Victor, The Hunchback of Notre Dame, Ruskin, John, The Lamp of Memory, p. 146-164, in The Seven Lamps of Architecture, Dover Books, 1990 Edition, Phelan, Peggy, Building the Life Drive: Architecture As Repetition, p. 289-300, in Herzog de Mueron, Natural History, Lars Mueller, 2003, Required Seminar Readings: Forty, Adrian, Memory, p. 206-219, in Words and Buildings: A Vocabulary of Modern Architecture Forster, Kurt, Monument/Memory and the Mortality of Architecture, p. 25-35 in Oppositions Reader Lavin, Sylvia, The Temporary Contemporary, In: Perspecta No. 34, p. 128-135 Week 16 CONCLUSION Why should we be concerned with the architectural past? What is it?

In 2010/11 Year 3 will continue to re-calibrate its sixteen entries to a twentieth-century architectural canon while also introducing an equal number of alternative, less consensual, projects that signal other important architectural trajectories in the rise of modern architecture in Western Europe. The course will start with the Amsterdam Bourse and Adolf Looss Ornament and Crime and this finish with the Vanna Venturi House and Denise Scott Browns and Robert Venturis, On Ducks and Decoration. On a week-by-week basis students will come to understand and interpret key texts and decipher their different terms and issues. At the same time, they will learn ways to comprehend and analyse wildly different architectural projects and consider and question the role of the architect in practice. Between design and architectural theory there is a constant exchange of categories and students will develop knowledge of these and the wide range of debates and practices defining modern architecture. In short, this course will make the discourse of modern architecture more intelligible, while expanding and interrogating its definition, and ground the idea of an experimental or critical modern practice and the relationship between architectural theories and projects. The autumn term will chart the arrival of modern architecture at the start of the 20thc to pre-World War II. The winter term will trace the expanding nature and geography of this architectural discourse up to 1968. It prioritizes individual buildings over urban schemes (like ones that consumed Kahn, Corbusier and Niemeyer in the middle of the century) and it privileges built work, although a few un-built projects have slipped in. You will gain a clear and rigorous historical sense of the emergence of contemporary practice and develop a robust knowledge of the history and theory necessary for the practice, analysis and interpretation of modern and contemporary architecture and urbanism. AUTUMN TERM Session 1 Reading Session 1 Project Alternative Reading Alternative Project Adolf Loos, Ornament and Crime (1908) Hendrik P. Berlage, Stock Exchange, Amsterdam (1898-1903) Hermann Muthesius New Ornament and New Art (1901) Antonio Gaud, Colonia Gell, Santa Coloma de Cervell (1900, unfinished) Architecture as Project Robin Evans, Translations from Drawing to Building (1986) Paul Scheerbart, Glass Architecture (1914) Erich Mendelsohn, Einstein Tower, Potsdam (1917-1921) Theo van Doesburg, Towards a Plastic Architecture (1924) Eileen Gray, House E-1027, Roquebrune-Cap-Martin, France

Session 2 Session 2 Reading Session 3 Reading Session 3 Project Alternative Reading Alternative Project

Session 4 Session 4 Reading 1 Session 5 Reading Session 5 Project Alternative Reading Alternative Project Session 6 Session 6 Reading

Architecture as Publication Beatriz Colomina, Publicity, in Privacy and Publicity (1994) Walter Gropius, Principles of Bauhaus Production [Dessau] (1926) Walter Gropius, Bauhaus, Dessau (1926) Werner Oechslin, Raumplan versus Plan libre Ivan Illich Leonidov, Lenin Institute, Moscow (1927) Architecture as Provocation Antonio SantElia and Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, Futurist Architecture (1914) Henry-Russell Hitchcock and Philip Johnson, Intro to The International Style (1932) Giuseppe Terrangi, Casa del Fascio, Como (1932-1936) R. Buckminster Fuller, Designing a New Industry (1946) R. Buckminster Fuller, Dymaxion House (c. 1920-1945) Architecture as Portfolio Peter Eisenman, Diagram Diaries (1999)

Session 7 Reading Session 7 Project Alternative Reading Alternative Project Session 8 Session 8 Reading

Key Source Texts Banham, Reyner, Theory and Design in the First Machine Age (London: Architectural Press, 1960) Conrads, Ulrich, ed., Programs and Manifestoes on 20th-Century Architecture (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1970) Frampton, Kenneth, Modern Architecture: A Critical History, 3rd rev. and enl. ed. (London: Thames & Hudson, 1992) Giedion, Sigfried, Space, Time and Architecture: The Growth of a New Tradition (1941) (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1968) Hitchcock, Henry-Russell and Philip Johnson, The International Style (1922) (New York: W. W. Norton, 1995) Le Corbusier, Towards a New Architecture, tr. Frederick Etchells (London: Architectural Press, 1948) Mallgrave, Harry Francis and Christina Contandriopoulos, eds., Architectural Theory, Volume 2: An Anthology from 1871-2005 (Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2008) Mallgrave, Harry Francis, Modern Architectural Theory: A Historical Survey, 16731968 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005) Ockman, Joan, ed., Architecture and Culture 1943-1968: A Documentary Anthology (New York: Rizzoli International Publications, Inc., 1993) Pevsner, Nikolaus, Pioneers of Modern Design: From William Morris to Walter Gropius (Yale: Yale University Press, 2005) WINTER TERM Session 9 Reading Session 9 Project Alternative Reading Alternative Project Session 10 Reading Session 10 Project Jos Luis Sert, Fernand Lger, Sigfried Giedion, Nine Points on Monumentality (1943) Oscar Niemeyer, Casino, Pampulha, Brazil (1942) Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Technology and Architecture (1950) Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Farnsworth House, Plano, Illinois (1946-1951) Colin Rowe & Robert Slutzky, Transparency: Literal and Phenomenal (1955-56) Gordon Bunshaft, Lever House, NY (1950-1952)

Alternative Reading Alternative Project Session 11 Reading Session 11 Project Alternative Reading Alternative Project Session 12 Reading Session 12 Project Alternative Reading Alternative Project Session 13 Reading Session 13 Project Alternative Reading Alternative Project Session 14 Reading Session 14 Project Alternative Reading Alternative Project Session 15 Reading Session 15 Project Alternative Reading Alternative Project Session 16 Reading Session 16 Project Alternative Reading Alternative Project

Louis Kahn, Order Is (1954) Alvar Aalto, Syntsalo Town Hall, Finland (1951) Philip Johnson, The Seven Crutches of Modern Architecture (1954) Le Corbusier, Unit dHabitation, Marseilles, France (1947-53) William Katavolos, Organics (1960) Constant, New Babylon (1959-) Situationists: International Manifesto (1960) Frank Lloyd Wright, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, NY (1943-1959) Richard J. Neutra, Human Setting in an Industrial Civilization (1958) Pierre Koenig, Case Study House 21, Los Angeles (1958) Manfredo Tafuri, Modern Architecture and the Eclipse of History (1968) Le Corbusier, Palais des Congrs-Strasbourg, France (1962-64) Aldo van Eyck, Steps toward a Configurative Discipline (1962) James Stirling and Gowan, Leicester University Engineering Building (1959) Werner Ruhnau/Yves Klein, Project for an aerial architecture (1960) Eero Saarinen, TWA Terminal, New York (1956-62) Peter Cook, Zoom and Real Architecture (1964) Friedrich Kiesler, Endless House (1958-60) Charles W. Moore, Plug it in, Rameses, and See if it Lights Up (1967) Jorn Utzon, Sydney Opera House (1965) Reyner Banham, A Home is Not a House (1965) Paul Rudolph, Art & Architecture Building, Yale University (1963) Denise Scott Brown and Robert Venturi, On Ducks and Decoration (1968) Robert Venturi, Vanna Venturi House, Chestnut Hill, PA (1959-1964) Alan Colquhoun, Typology and Design Method (1967) Claude Parent & Paul Virilio, Church of Saint Bernadette, Nevers, France (1966)

Key Source Texts Banham, Reyner, A Critic Writes: Selected Essays by Reyner Banham (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997) Colquhoun, Alan, Collected Essays in Architectural Criticism (London: Black Dog Publishing, 2009) Eisenman, Peter, Ten Canonical Buildings, 1950-2000 (New York: Rizzoli International Publications, 2008) Nesbitt, Kate, ed., Theorizing a New Agenda for Architecture: An Anthology of Architectural Theory 19651995 (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1996) Stern, Robert A.M. et al., Re-Reading Perspecta (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2005) Tafuri, Manfredo, Theories and History of Architecture (London: Granada, 1980) Tafuri, Manfredo and Francesco Dal Co, Modern Architecture, tr. Robert Erich Wolf, 2 vols. (London: Faber, 1986) Venturi, Robert, Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture (New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1968)

Vidler, Anthony, Histories of the Immediate Present (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2008)

Submissions The submission, which will be discussed in group and individual tutorials, is to develop and present an in-depth understanding of a single project/building (built or un-built) or text which has not been directly addressed in the lectures and that was conceived or written between 1900 and 1968. You will be expected to present your initial ideas to your tutorial group in the form of a short PowerPoint presentation outlining your essay topic and outline during the middle part of the term. The form of the final submission will normally be a written submission. However we are willing to accept submissions in other forms e.g. drawing etc., although we will expect that the alternative submission format be substantial enough to replace a 3,000-word essay.

HISTORY AND THEORY STUDIES DIPLOMA SCHOOL Autumn Term only The HTS courses are listed in alphabetical order by course tutor surname

The seminar addresses the development of the modern city through the lens of architectural and urban theories from the 15th to the 20th century. The aim is to trace implicit and explicit ideas of and for the city that can be found in speculations about architectural and urban form. Instead of viewing form as the by-product of forces that transcend the materiality of the city, the seminar addresses form as the necessary precondition any project of political and economic government of the city. Form will be addressed as the dialectical relationship between two categories that have a fundamental impact on the development of the modern city: the concept of the political and the concept of labour. As such the concept of form will be addressed as mode of relationship, as the organizational principle that binds the constituent elements of the city. The hypothesis that the seminar maintains is that issues that are internal to the discipline of architecture such as order, representation, imitation, composition, abstraction, genericness are rooted within the transformations of the organization of labour. From the 15th century with the rise of Capital the organization of labour has been a fundamental, if not the most important, act of government. Even if, according to the famous definition of Hannah Arendt, political action must be considered autonomous from the other two essential spheres of the human condition labour and work - labour has been a fundamental site of political struggle. It is for this reason the relationship between form and labour is never a symmetrical relationship. The destabilizing factor is always the possibility of political decision. Political decision intervenes by directing the organization of labour in order to confront and tame the class of producers. The outcome of this process has consequences on (and sometimes is anticipated by) issues of formal syntax in architecture, and invention of new urban types. In this process architecture and urban form become a fundamental instrument of government whose subject is not only the power(s) that architecture celebrates, but also those new emerging subjects whose power is suppose to be subjugated. Subjugation, or better subjectification, is here intended as the establishment of apparatuses whose goal is to subtly control emerging subjects by giving to them the possibility of development. This process of subjectification a process that in history has taken radically different forms from language, to culture, to space, to art has forced urban form to evolve and transform itself. In order to analyze deep into architecture the conditions of this process the seminar will analyze architectural and urban theories that have formulated an idea of form either for architecture, for the city, or for both. Categories such as abstraction, reification, and the generic in relationship with the rise and affirmation of capital will be addressed as the fundamental conceptual background of the evolution of architectural language and its consequences on the form of the city.

General Readings for the Seminar: Manfredo Tafuri, Interpreting the Renaissance: Princes, Cities, Architects (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006), 1-22. Karl Marx, Grundrisse, translated from German by Martin Nicolaus (London: Penguin Classics, 1973), p. 81-114. Carl Schmitt, The Concept of the Political, translated from German by George Schwab (New Brunswick, NJ:. Rutgers University Press, 1976). Hannah Arendt, Introduction into Politics, in Arendt, The Promise of Politics, ed. Jerome Kohn (New York: Schocken Books, 2005), 186187. Leonardo Benevolo, The Origins of Modern Town-Planning, (Cambridge, Ma.: The Mit Press, 1995). 1st Session: What is a city? What is labour? Notes on the organization of the city from the Ancients to the Moderns. Readings: Stephen Greenblat, Murdering Peasants: Status Genre, and the Representation of Rebellion, in Representations no.1, Feb. 1983, p. 1-29. 2nd Session: The order of space: On Filippo Brunelleschis perspectival space, and Leon Battista Albertis concept of Concinnitas. Readings: Eugenio Battisti, Filippo Brunelleschi (London: Phaidon Press). Leon Battista Alberti, On the art of building in ten books, translated by Joseph Rykwert, Neil Leach, Robert Tavernor (Cambridge, Ma: The Mit Press, 1988) 3rd session: The order of form: On Sebastiano Serlios materialist approach to architecture. Readings: Sebastiano Serlio, Books I-V of Tutte lopere d architettura et prospettiva, translated from the Italian by Vaughan Hart, and Peter Hicks (New Haven: Yale University Press), 2005. 4th session: Towards Inclusivism: On Jean Nicholas Louis Durands rational design method Jean Nicholas Louis Durand: Precis of the Lectures on Architecture: With Graphic Portion of the Lectures on Architecture, Translated by David Britt with an introduction by Antoine Picon (Los Angeles: Tex & Documents Getty Research Institute, 2000). Antoine Picon, French Architects and Engineers in the Age of Enlightenment, trans. Martin Thom (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992), 107. 5th Session: Background Architecture: On Pierre Le Muets architecture daccompagnament Readings: Carl Schmitt, The Leviathan in the State Theory of Thomas Hobbes: Meaning and Faliure of a Political Symbol, Translated by George Schwab and Herna Hilfstein (The University of Chicago Press: Chicago, 1996). 6th session From city to Urbanization: On Ildefonso Cerds. Teora general de la urbanizacin Readings:

Ildefonso Cerd, The Five Bases of the General Theory of Urbanization, ed. Arturo Soria y Puig, trans. Bernard Miller and Mary Fons i Fleming (Madrid: Electa Espaa, 1999), 81. This book is a partial translation of Ildefons Cerd, Teora general de la urbanizacin (Madrid, 1867). Joan Busquets with the Harvard University Graduate School of Design, Barcelona: The Urban Evolution of a Compact City (Rovereto: Nicolodi; Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Graduate School of Design, 2005). 7th session: Towards Nothingness: on Ludwig Hilberseimer and Mies Van Der Rohe and the rise of post-fordism. Readings: Massimo Cacciari, Architecture and Nihilism: On the Philosophy of Modern Architecture, trans. Stephen Sartarelli (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993) Ludwig Hilberseimer, The New Regional Pattern: Industries and Gardens, Workshops and Farms (Chicago: Paul Theobald, 1949). See Sven-Olov Wallenstein, The Silences of Mies (Stockholm: AXL Books, 2008). 8th session: The dissolution of the city: on Cedric Price, and Archizooms city without form. Conclusions Readings: Raniero Pnazieri, The Capitaist use of Machinery, Marx vs. the Objectivist, Originally published in Quaderni Rossi n.1, 1962, available in English at Andrea Branzi and Archizoom Associati, No-Stop City (Orleans: HYZ 2006), pp. 139-155.


This seminar investigates the spaces and infrastructures of an emerging 21st century urban paradigm: the polycentric megacity or city of flows. Focusing on high-speed transport and communications links, we will employ frameworks from the field of science, technology, and society studies (STS), including the work of Bruno Latour, to explore the cultural complexity underlying technological megaprojects. In addition, we will make use of a technological megaproject currently unfolding in Paris, Supermtro, as a field in which to test conceptual ideas. On one hand, the evolution of the city from node to network has been characterized by splintering and specialization. The design of a network is a battleground upon which metropolitan culture, form, and power relations are determined lines between civil and social engineering are finely drawn. Yet infrastructure may open an other space within the city, a heterotopia as conceptualized by Michel Foucault. Networks are also liminal zones that invite participation or subversion in a dispersed, polarized metropolis. Here is a new public sphere, one appropriated by graffiti artists, political protest, happenings, teen subcultures, and the subtle everyday exchanges of urban dwellers.
Autumn: 1 Flows and Networks 2 Remaking Paris as the City of Flows 3 Technology and Conflict

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Infrastructure as Heterotopia Civil and Social Engineers Paris Workshop Presentations Presentations

READINGS LArchitecture dAujourdhui # 376, Special Volume on Grand Paris (Feb-March 2010) Marc Aug, The Metro Revisited (2008) Marc Aug, Non-places: Introduction to an Anthropology of Supermodernity (1995) Samuel Beckett. Roundelay (1976) Manuel Castells, The Space of Flows in The Rise of the Network Society (2nd edition, 2000) Michiel Dehaene and Lieven de Cauter eds., Heterotopia and the City: public space in a postcivil society (2008) Gilles Delalex, Go With the Flow: Architecture, Infrastructure and the Everyday Experience of Mobility (2006) Keller Easterling, Enduring Innocence: Global Architecture and Its Political Masquerades (2005) Michel Foucault, Of Other Spaces (1967) Stephen Graham and Simon Marvin, Splintering Urbanism: Networked Infrastructures, Technological Mobilities and the Urban Condition (2001) Peter Hall and Kathy Pain, From Metropolis to Polyopolis in The Polycentric Metropolis: learning from mega-city regions in Europe (2006) Alan Latham and Derek McCormack. Globalizations big and small: notes on urban studies, ActorNetwork theory, and geographical scale in Ignacio Farias and Thomas Bender eds. Urban Assemblages: How Actor-Network Theory changes urban studies (2010) Bruno Latour, Aramis, or the Love of Technology (1993/2002) Bruno Latour, Spheres and Networks: Two ways to Reinterpret Globalization in Harvard Design Magazine 30, Spring/Summer 2009 Bruno Latour, Reassembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor-Network-Theory Lars Lerup, Stim and Dross: Rethinking the Metropolis in After the City (2000) Mauro Magatti ed., The City of Flows: territories, agencies and institutions (2010) Francois Maspero, Roissy Express: A Journey through the Paris Suburbs (1990/1994) Saskia Sassen, The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo (1996/2001) Gary Strang, Infrastructure as Landscape in Simon Swaffield, ed., Theory in Landscape Architecture (1996/2002). Tommasso Venturini, Representing Controversies (2008) VIEWINGS: Chantal Akerman, News from Home (1977) Luc Besson, Subway (1985) Laurent Cantet, Entre les Murs (2008) Walter Hill, The Warriors (1979) Mathieu Kassovitz, La Haine (1995) Ugo Rondinone, Roundelay (2003) Tony Silver and Henry Chalfant, Style Wars (1983)


Scratch beneath the surface of normality and you are likely to find the complete opposite the perverse, paranoiac, or maladjusted. This course will examine the architectural dynamics of normalcy and perversion in the post-war American suburb through a critical reading of a series of textural, cultural, and filmic references. As JG Ballard once offered, this architecture expressed his fear that nothing exciting or new or interesting is ever going to happen again, the future is just going to be a vast, conforming suburb of the soul. Course Outline: Session 1: This may be my Beautiful House: Julius Shulman and the invention of California, Reyner Banham, Los Angeles: The Architecture of Four Ecologies (1971), The Truman Show (1998) This is not my Beautiful Wife: The Stepford Wives (1975), Invasion of the Body Snatchers (1956; 1978), Far from Heaven (2002), Beatriz Colomina, Sexuality and Space (1992) & Cold War Hot Houses (2004) Suffer Little Children: Daniel Paul Schrebers Memoirs of My Nervous Illness (1903), Funny Games (1997; 2008) Shes Lost Control: Siegfried Giedion, Mechanization Takes Command (1946), Reyner Banham, The Great Gizmo (1965), Jean Baudrillard, The System of Objects (1968), and Mr Blandings builds his Dream House (1948) Thats not Natural: The Swimmer (1968), Straw Dogs (1971), The Wicker Man (1973), Blue Velvet (1986) and The American Lawn: Surface of Everyday Life (1999) On the Couch: Georges Canguilhem, The Normal and the Pathological (1943), Frederic Jameson, The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism' (1992), Klute (1971) and The Ice Storm (1997) Suburban Apocalypse: Cul-de-Sac (1966), Clockwork Orange (1971), Death Wish (1974), Revolutionary Road (2008), JG Ballard, Super-Cannes (2000) and Rem Koolhaas, Junkspace (2002) Dead Ends: Richard Hofstadter, The Paranoid Style in American Politics (1964), The Zapruder Film (1963) and Parallax View (1974)

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Bibliography: Reyner Banham, Los Angeles: The Architecture of Four Ecologies (1971), Design by Choice (1981) Jean Baudrillard, System of Objects (1968) Victor Burgin, In/Different Spaces: Place and Memory in Visual Culture (1996) Georges Canguilhem, The Normal and the Pathological (1943) Beatriz Colomina, Sexuality and Space (1992), Cold War Hot Houses (2004)

Don DeLillo, Americana (1971), White Noise (1985) Joan Didion, The White Album (1979) Sigmund Freud, Psycho-Analytic Notes on an Autobiographical Account of a Case of Paranoia (Dementia Paranoides) (1911), A Case Of Paranoia Running Counter To The Psycho-Analytic Theory Of The Disease (1915) Siegfried Giedion, Mechanization Takes Command (1946) Richard Hofstadter, The Paranoid Style in American Politics (1964) Frederic Jameson, The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism (1992) Rem Koolhaas, Delirious New York (1978) Adam Phillips, On Flirtation (1994), Side Effects (2006) Eric Santner, My Own Private Germany: Daniel Paul Schreber's Secret History of Modernity (1996) Daniel Paul Schreber, Memoirs of My Nervous Illness (1903) Felicity Scott, Architecture or Techno-Utopia: Politics after Modernism (2007) Georges Teyssot (ed.), The American Lawn: Surface of Everyday Life (1999) Hunter S. Thompson, Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas: A Savage Journey to the Heart of the American Dream (1972) Anthony Vidler, Warped Space: Art, Architecture, and Anxiety in Modern Culture (2002) Mark Campbell is a PhD candidate in the School of Architecture at Princeton University. His research interests include contemporary American culture between 1960 and 1975, paranoia, cultural exhaustion and dreams. A practising architect, he is a founding principal of paperaeroplane and has taught at Auckland University, Princeton University and the Cooper Union.


In our culture the term home is usually associated with a built objectthe home. But the equation is not always or everywhere true. Even now when a migrant or an exile speaks of home, we do not assume that this is the same as a house. To start, the course will consider how we have come to conflate the house with the idea of home, a largely modern and urban phenomenon. In order to organize a large body of literature, the course will concentrate upon the aspect of the topic which we will call homecoming. What has the subject lost by needing to return home? The course will look at the most famous case of homecoming, that of Odysseus, told by Homer. It considers how the emotional appeal of returning has an effect, not simply on narrative but within philosophy. It then considers how culturally the loss of home led in the seventeenth century to the clarification of nostalgia as an illness. From that it investigates the role of exile as a figure, within modernity of displacement. At the same time it considers how home became territorialized leading to the discourse of patriotism and nationalism, in which the defence of home became the basis for exclusionary

strategies. Part of this involves understanding the relation of the family and terms of kinship in which father and mother are projected onto geography. As a way of tracing these themes into the contemporary, the course will engage in a detailed analysis of Jean Luc Godards film Le mpris (Contempt) which concerns a film about Odysseus being made and its location in Capri and the famous twentieth century house La Casa Malaparte, as well as the apartment of the central couple. Lectures 1. The home/house and its role in architecture. 2. The loss of home: exile and nostalgia. 3. Odysseus and the epic of the return to Ithaca. 4. The return as a figure in culture and knowledge. 5. The territorialization of home. 6. Dwelling and Heidegger. 7. Le mpris (Contempt) 8. The Casa Malaparte Bibliography J. L. Godard: Le Mepris (DVD) M. I. Finley: The World of Odysseus Homer: The Odyssey J. P. Vernant: The Universe, The Gods and Mortals Cavafy: Poems A. Moravia: Contempt M. Cousins: Away from Home

Jonathan Meades ten page essay (Zaha; The First Great Female Architect; Intelligent Life, The Economist 2008) is the best thing Ive read about architecture for years said a good friend of mine, who was the best architect I knew, until he started throwing so much coke up his nose. In that sentence resides the content of the course; a penetrating if oblique and over stylish essay; a smart but inebriated and now dulled individual (lost) a hoity, self aggrandising and often preposterous discourse to be slapped around; a concern for the everyday, for the wider facts (whatever they are) with Bukowskiesque leanings. When people ask me what the generic in architecture might be (not often) since reading Jonathan Meades essay, I say By the look of it, everything Zaha hates. By outlining what she dislikes, I hope to show (each of us in our own minds) what she is for, or what in general contemporary architectural genius seems to consist of. As JM points out, ZH appears to talk perfect sense about everything OTHER than architecture. This would seem problematic. It is not easy to tell what Zaha does and why and how she does it. It is no longer easy to work out what architecture students are doing and how and why they do it either (as you know from personal experience). The process will be rather satirical, but grounded in the analysis of deeply troubling historical processes.

Sessions: 1. The Jonathan Meades essay: General Introduction. 2. General Questions of representation of space and time. 3. General Questions on the future in the past 4. General Questions as to being a great architect today 5. General Questions as to architecture and everyday life 6. Particular discussion of theories supporting the ugly and the ordinary 7. Particular discussion of architecture in the service economy 8. Group discussion of essay topics. Reading List Chase. J: Glitter Stucco and Dumpster Diving Badiou. A : The Communist Hypothesis Jerde, J: You are Here Hickey, D: Air Guitar Fuller, B: Ownership Manual for Spaceship Earth Waugh, E: Decline and Fall Venturi, R: LFLV Girouard, M: Big Jim Klosterman, C: Chuck Klosterman 1V Eagleton, T: After Theory Hudson, M: Super Imperialism


The Rococo of the 18th century, the stylistic eclecticism of the 19th century, and the Art Nouveau of the early 20th century have habitually been described as architectural periods of decline and decadence. But who is it that condemns such ornamental virtuosity? And what are their ulterior motives? Are there alternative points of view? Using source texts from all three periods we will discover how ornament had repeatedly become the battleground upon which the future of architecture was forged. Authors such as William Hogarth, Gottfried Semper, Owen Jones, Alois Riegl, John Ruskin, Louis Sullivan or Adolf Loos have all defined ornament for their own age and for their own wilful objectives. We will discuss the historical contexts, underlying pathologies and enduring legacies of these seminal texts, and we will determine their relevance in establishing a desperately needed contemporary theoretical framework. We will also discover how each author provides us with interpretative tools that allow us to critically assess contemporary ornamental production, be it by Herzog & de Meuron, Toyo Ito or yourself. This course will give you a glimpse into one of architectures biggest conspiracies and equip you with the knowledge and vocabulary to partake in a rapidly emerging discourse. Sessions will take place on Wednesday afternoons from 3pm. Session 1 (06/10/2010): Introduction: The Four Elements of Ornament (Naturalism, Geometry, Materialism, Iconography) 18th Century: The Rocaille: Line of Beauty or Micromegalic WILLIAM HOGARTH, The Analysis of Beauty, 1753. F.A. KRUBSACIUS, Reflections on the Origin, Growth, and Decline of Decoration in the Fine Arts, 1759. ISABELLE FRANK, The Theory of Decorative Art (chapter III: Introduction pp245-253), Yale University 2000.

Session 2 (13/10/2010): Intemperance? Required reading:

Recommended reading:

Karsten Harries, The Bavarian Rococo Church. Between Faith and Aestheticism (pp210-219; 243-246), Yale University 1983. Coffin/Davidson/Lupton/Hunter-Stiebel, Rococo. The Continuing Curve, 1730 2008 (pp3-10), Smithsonian Institution 2008. 19th Century (1): Ornament as Symbolic Mask or Expression of GOTTFRIED SEMPER, Style in the Technical and Tectonic Arts; or, Practical Aesthetics 1860. ISABELLE FRANK, The Theory of Decorative Art (chapter II: Introduction pp135-137), Yale University 2000. Debra Schafter, The Order of Ornament, The Structure of Style, (chapter 2: Gottfried Semper and Evidence of Function pp32-44), Cambridge University Press 2003. Mari Hvattum, Gottfried Semper and the Problem of Historicism (pp57-83), Cambridge University Press 2004. Hartmut Mayer, Die Tektonik der Hellenen: Kontext und Wirkung der Architekturtheorie von Karl Btticher (pp92-98), Edition Axel Menges 2004. 19th Century (2): Style as Formal Eclecticism or Historical OWEN JONES, The Grammar of Ornament, 1856. ALOIS RIEGL, Problems of Style, 1893. Debra Schafter, The Order of Ornament, The Structure of Style, (chapter 2: Owen Jones and Natural Structure pp22-32; Alois Riegl and the Psychological Disposition pp44-59), Cambridge University Press 2003. Heinrich Wlfflin, Prolegomena to a Psychology of Architecture (VII. Ornament; VIII. Principles of Historical Judgment), 1886. 19th Century (3): Ornament as Indexical Icon or Machined JOHN RUSKIN, The Seven Lamps of Architecture (The Lamp of Beauty; - Truth; - Life; - Sacrifice), 1849. P. RIOUX DE MAILLOU, The Decorative Arts and the Machine, Debra Schafter, The Order of Ornament, The Structure of Style, (chapter 2: John Ruskin and the Representation of Divine Order pp17-22; Ornament as Emblem pp63-72), Cambridge University Press 2003. Augustus Welby Pugin, On Metal-work, 1841. William Morris, The Arts and Crafts of To-day, 1889. 20th C. (1): Ornament as Emotional Expression or Machined LOUIS H. SULLIVAN, Ornament in Architecture, 1892. FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT, The Art and Craft of the Machine, 1901. BRETT STEELE, Bending and Stacking by Code: Machines and Ornament in Architecture (in: Re-sampling Ornament pp26-28), Merian 2008. Kent Bloomer, The Nature of Ornament (chapter 11: Ornament and Modern Technology pp137-171), W.W. Norton & Company 2000.

Session 3 (20/10/2010) Structure? Required reading:

Recommended reading:

Session 4 (27/10/2010) Evolution? Required reading: Recommended reading:

Session 5 (03/11/2010) Decoration? Required reading:

1895. Recommended reading:

Session 6 (10/11/2010) Impression? Required reading:

Recommended reading:

David Van Zanten, Sullivans City (chapter 4: Architecture as Ornament pp114-119; chapter 5: Finis pp134-151), W.W. Norton & Company 2000. Louis H. Sullivan, The Tall Office Building Artistically Considered, 1896 (in: Kindergarten Chats and Other Writings pp202-213), Dover Publ. 1979 Session 7 (17/11/2010) Required reading: 20th C. (2): Ornament as Crime or Redemption? ADOLF LOOS, Ornament and Crime, 1908. ADOLF LOOS, Ornament and Education, 1924 LE CORBUSIER, The Decorative Art of Today, 1925. Mark Wigley, White Walls, Designer Dresses (chapter 1: The Clothing of Space; Prosthetic Fabrications; Architecture after the Eye pp9-33; chapter 3: The Architects Dresses pp67-76), MIT 1995. Panayotis Tournikiotis, Adolf Loos (chapter 2: Writings pp22-31), Princeton 2002. Debra Schafter, The Order of Ornament, The Structure of Style, (chapter 5: The Subsequent Impact pp183-194), Cambridge University Press 2003. 21st C.: Future Ornament: A Production of Meaning or Pattern? KENT BLOOMER, The Nature of Ornament (chapter 13: On the Absence of Ornament pp205-229), W.W. Norton & Company 2000. ANDREA GLEINIGER, Editorial; New Patterns? Old Patterns? On the Emotional Appeal of Ornament. (In: PATTERN Ornament, Structure and Behaviour pp7-24), Birkhuser Verlag 2009. Robert Venturi, Iconography and Electronics upon a Generic Architecture (A Not So Gentle Manifesto (1994) pp11-38), MIT 1996. Henri Focillon, Forms in the Realm of Space, 1934. Kent Bloomer, Ornament or Decoration? (In: Re-sampling Ornament pp46-48), Merian 2008.

Recommended reading:

Session 8 (24/11/2010) Required reading:

Recommended reading:

Required Submission: Illustrated essay, min. 2000 words (incl. captions). The essay will describe and compare the ornament of two buildings, one historical and one contemporary, in light of relevant theories discussed during the seminar. You will present your selection of buildings and bibliography during session 8 (or earlier). Submissions are due Friday 10th December. Oliver Domeisen AA dipl. produces, teaches, curates and writes about architecture, currently with a focus on ornament. He produced the Re-sampling Ornament exhibition for the Swiss Architecture Museum Basel and Arkitekturmuseet Stockholm in 2008-09. He as lectured on the topic at the V&A, Eikones Institute Basel, Yale University, Art Basel and the Werner Oechslin Foundation. His writings on ornament were published in Detail, S AM, Volume, A.D., Archithese et al. He has been a Unit Master at the AA since 2001, currently teaching Diploma Unit 13. Previously a project architect at Zaha Hadid he founded dlm architectural designers ltd in 2000.


This course concerns itself with physical (and not ethical) error in architecture; though as we shall see morality does permeate all questions of error. Head in the clouds, feet in the clay: the clich adroitly defines architects by their location between abstraction and materialisation. The architects feat: to put into material that which is outside of materiality is necessarily plagued by the error that accompanies all physicality. Not for nothing then are the architects relations to precision, error and matter both highly convoluted and highly compromised. This course is a critique of these relations. Through an analysis of Aristotles original conflation of matter with error the seminars will argue that examination of error as a category in its own right provides a potential way in to the sticky question of matter. Establishing a distinction between enforceable and redundant precision, the sessions will argue further that the symptomatic excess of precision in architectural culture, inflated above all reasonable performance, is nothing less than the architects fear of matter itself. Not surprisingly then do we find a complex architecture of fortification erected to protect all formal production from incursions by erroneous matter: margins for error, standards and specifications, tolerance and material failure thresholds. Within this, at a systemic level, strategies of inference, approximation and ideological weighting have been imported from other fields to establish a false economy of precision deployed versus error controlled. Meanwhile in the cultures of architecture, ever-increasing apparent precision (often largely redundant in its error reducing efficacy) is highly fetishised. Suffice to say there is little neutral or rational about architectures relations to error and the currency of precision. Through critical analysis of key operative and historical moments in architectural production and its representation - see session outlines below - we will examine the construction of these relations and the peculiar economy it engenders. Session presentations will be illustrated with slide and video material and followed by discussion informed by weekly reading of specified chapters or passages in texts listed below. Students are required to submit a 3000 word written (and drawn if appropriate) essay to be discussed initially mid term and presented in progress to the group in session 8 before final submission in term 2. Session 1: Error & Precision The Troping of Precision: From Hookes needles to Wittgensteins beads. In order to look critically at the economy of error and precision in architectural production, this introductory seminar plots the historic shifts in the meaning of precision - itself a most imprecise term and the consequent changing role of approximation. Required reading: Wise, M.Norton, ed: The Values of Precision, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1995. Wittgenstein, Ludwig: Remarks on the Foundations of Mathematics, Wright, Rees, Anscombe eds., trans Anscombe, Oxford, Blackwell, 1964, II-66-78 Hooke, Robert: Micrographia, New York, reprint of Royal Society edition of 1665, Dover publications,1961 Further reading: Hacking, Ian: Speculation, Calculation, Models, Approximations, Representing and Intervening, Cambridge, Cambridge UP, 1983 Session 2: Error & Matter Forensics of an Ideology In Metaphysics, Aristotle set out the architecture of form and matter relations, which, despite the many changes C20th matter has undergone, to this day underpin almost all material and formal thought. Crucially, within this schema, error is conflated with matter, emerging as both a possible agent of matter, and, its only physical (formal) register.

Required reading: Aristotle: The Metaphysics, trans Lawson Tancred, London, Penguin Books, 1998. Further reading Bowness, Alan ed: Alan Bowness: Conversations with Barbara Hepworth, Barbara Hepworth 19601969, London, Lund Humphries, 1971. Session 3: Error & Material I - Indeterminacy Room for doubt: Instrumentalism, Inference and Ideology. The architects engagement is of course not with matter per se, but with material, always mediated by material technology. In the period between the wars, a massive cultural shift in material tolerance saw a wholesale rejection of organic materials, even in the perhaps most sacred site of technological instrumentalism: aviation engineering. This seminar examines what happens when, haunted by error, technological sites become ideological. How does the latent indeterminacy inherent in such sites provide prime territory for false inference and ideological colonisation? Given this, how then can architecture apply to technology as acultural arbitrator of its own conflicts? Required reading: Le Corbusier: Lesthetique de Lingenieur: Maison en Serie, Nouvelle Esprit, 13, December 1921. Ricoeur, Paul: Ideology and Utopia, From Text to Action, Trans. Blaney and Thompson, Northwestern University Press, 1991 Schatzberg, Eric: Wings of Wood, Wings of Metal, Culture and Technical Choice in American Airplane Materials, New York, Princeton University Press, 1999 Further reading: Cartwright, Nancy: How the Laws of Physics Lie, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1983. Session 4: Error & Material II: Authorship Abdicated Measures: The Politics of Optimisation One hundred years before parametric optimisation, in pursuit of the miraculous potential of buildings that could literally be poured into being, the construction industry embarked on the frenzied invention of standards and specifications: as lab coats first walked into the dust of the construction site to contain unruly slurry, precision and error relations in architecture reconfigured forever. Through joint examination of the rhetoric of Le Corbusiers euphoria at his drawing being poured in from above and that of contemporary writing on parametric production where form is found, this seminar asks: what does instantaneity do to the cultural economies of architectural production? What does it do to authorship and its potential abdication? How is it that the instantaneous, when properly marketed, has the authority of the immaculate and, more curiously, the neutrality of the optimised? Required reading: Le Corbusier: Mass production Housing, Towards a New Architecture, trans Goodman, London, Frances Lincoln ltd, 2008. Various sample articles regarding parametricisation see folder provided. Further reading: Lesley, Robert W: Appdx D, American Society for Testing Materials, Standard Specifications and Tests for Portland Cement, History of the Portland Cement Industry in the United States, Chicago, International trade press Inc, 1924, pp303. Slaton, Amy E.: Reinforecd Concrete and the Modernisation of American Building 1900 1930, John Hopkins University Press, 2001. Session 5: Error & Representation Radical Exteriorisation: Visuality, Vitality and Viridicality In seminal accounts of the genesis of architectural form a crucial middle stage is always eclipsed usually by an over emphasised beginning (concept sketch) and end (rendered perspectives). However in recent years concept has been declared dead. If so, with it must go the metaphoric internalisation of gestation: morphogenesis concealed. This class focuses on the radical exteriorisation of methodological interiority in Gordon Matta-Clarks Unbuilding works and Mary Kellys Frankenstein

in order to ask: if concept is dead, then how might the exteriorising action of representation now meet the previously hidden phases of architectural production? With reference to Aristotles inflection of matter with impermanence, and therefore vitality, putting matter firmly on the wrong side of the visuality/vitality axis that so polarised Newton and Hooke, (then becoming Bohrs battle between light and life), we will ask: exactly how does matter disrupt representation? How are these battles now manifest in the representations of architecture where, increasingly, we are able to conjure up vitality that is not there and a viridicality (truthfulness) that is not reliable? As imaging technology homes in on matter, does its illusion of apparent precision paradoxically only obscures matter further? Required reading/viewing: Shelley, Mary: Frankenstein or the Modern Prometheus, London, Penguin Books, revised edition, 1992. Gordon Matta-Clark: Splitting, Super 8, 10:50 mins, 1974. Baroque, 16mm, 44 mins, 1977. Conical Intersect, 16mm, 18:40 mins, 1975. Fox Keller, Evelyn: Making Sense of Life, Explaining Biological Development with Models, Metaphors and Machines, Harvard University Press, 2002. Further reading/viewing: Atlee, James and Lefeuvre, Lisa: Gordon Matta Clark, The Space Between, Nazraeli Press, 2003. Diserens, Corinne, ed: Gordon Matta Clark, London, Phaidon Press, 2003. Jacob, Mary Jane: Gordon Matta Clark A Retrospective, Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, 1985. Lee, Pamela M: Object to be Destroyed, Cambridge, MIT Press, 2000. Verne, Jules: Journey to the Centre of the Earth, Penguin, London, 1994. Video of Jane Crawford lecture at AA. Session 6: Error & Reproduction Matter and Message A question that can be deferred, though not forever, is whether there is some other matter in addition to that of substances of the kinds that we have been examining, whether we should look for some other sort of substance, such as, perhaps, numbers. Aristotle, Zeta 11 They are law code and executive power or, to use another simile, they are architects plan and builders craft in one Schrdinger 1944 on chromosomes A hen is merely an eggs way of making another egg Wierner, God Golem Inc Matter and error in the digital model: Behind the digital model is the cybernetic machine. Within the cybernetic machine that is increasingly central to the way we not only make but also think architecture is the body that has always been embedded in architectures discourses of production: the reproducing body. This session examines how the cybernetic tools that drive contemporary practice owe their origins to the critical return to embryogenesis in the 1960s in order to crucially account for and incorporate difference and nonlinearity. Here, Aristotle lingering doubt and the post-war cells that would not obey Schrdinger architects met as somatic body and message conflated, and matter was allowed to become information. Required reading: Evelyn Fox Keller: Refiguring Life, Metaphors of Twentieth Century Biology, New York, Columbia University Press, 1995. Wiener, Norbert: God Golem Inc: a Comment on Certain Points Were Cybernetics Impinges on Religion, MIT Press, Cambridge: 1964. Schrdinger, Erwin: What is Life? 1943 Dublin Lectures, Folio Society, London, 2000.

Session 7: Error & Ornament The sublimation of ornament: Lineament, Error and the Indexicalised Surface Ornamentation has traditionally been the key surface strategy for the incorporation (and concealment) of error: the fertile sites of ornament are the seminal low tolerance junctions, the meeting of wall and floor, wall and ceiling. With reference to Loos surface lineament and Wittgensteins saturation precision, this chapter examines the relations between the rise of a desire for an effect of precision that marks modernism and the concurrent reorganisation of the space of ornament. An analysis of Loos lineament of veneers, argues that ornament was not removed as such but in fact sublimated; and second, of Wittgensteins house, that sublimated ornament here resurfaces as a not localised but uniform distribution of precision, prefiguring the distrubution of precision in the digital. This session concludes that redundant precision is, in fact, the ornament of our age. Required reading: Leitner, Bernhard: The Wittgenstein House, New York, Princeton Architectural Press, 2000. Loos, Adolf: My First Building!, Architecture On Architecture, Riverside CA, Ariadne Press, 2002. Further Reading: Leitner, Bernhard: The Architecture of Ludwig Wittgnestein, London, Academy Editions, 1995. Gravagnuolo, Benedetto: 'The Removal of Ornament' in Adolf Loos, Theory and Works, London, Art Data, 1995. Loos, Adolf: Ornament and Crime, Selected Essays and On Architecture, both trans Michael Mitchell, Ariadne Press, 1998 and 2002. Session 8: Conclusion and student presentations This final session will be used for a general conclusive discussion and for students to present a full synopsis of their submission. Having taught at the Bartlett for 5 years, Francesca Hughes joined the AA in 2003 where she has been unit master of Dip 15 since 2004 and intermittently taught HTS. She has lectured internationally and served as external examiner in numerous schools, both in the U.K. and abroad. Author/editor of The Architect: Reconstructing her Practice (MIT Press: 1996), she is currently completing a book entitled Error. Hughes Meyer Studio is an art /architecture practice whose work has been published by AR, ANY, Art Forum, Merrel, Routledge and Wiley and exhibited in the UK and abroad.


The seminar investigates the relations between the process of construction of inhabited space and the forms of polity in the twenty-first century. Using architecture as both the object and the method of inquiry, we will analyse a series of complex territorial transformations to reveal the underlying organisational processes in the theoretical junctures between notions of inhabitation, architecture, space, territory, government, intervention. The contemporary territory is the seat of a multiplicity of transformational patterns and evolutive rhythms wrought by concurrent and often distant interests and promoted by a growing number of actors. Their interplay and competition reshapes, carves, moulds and reorganises their spaces of operation. Natural, mineral, technological, linguistic, biological, economic, political, cultural, social and institutional factors constantly interact and form the materials that constitute the complex dynamics of the contemporary territory. The seminar with explore a series of transformations in the connections between organisation of contemporary politics and their spaces of operation with architecture and urbanism being agents of that relation.

Course Outline:

Session 1: Session 2: Session 3: Session 4: Session 5: Session 6: Session 7: Session 8: Bibliography:

Observing transformations: uncertainty in the inhabited landscapes Between space and society Self-organisation: multiple autonomous agents A Nature: contemporary sovereignties Territories, circulations, boundaries, horizons: knowledge production and architecture Inter Alia: architecture as a practice amongst other practices Agency Potentialities

Giorgio Agamben , State of Exception, Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press 2005 Arjun Appadurai, Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization, University of Missesota Press 1996 tienne Balibar, We, The People of Europe? Reflections on Transnational Citizenship, 2004 Fernand Braudel, The Perspective of the World, Berkeley: University of California Press 1992 Norman Davies, Europe A History, London: Harper Collins 1996 Gilles Deleuze, Bergsonism, New York: Zone Books 1991 Gilles Deleuze, Pure Immanence: Essays on A Life, New York: Zone Books 2001 Manuel De Landa, A Thousand Years of Nonlinear History, New York: Zone Books 1997 Keller Easterling, Enduring Innocence, Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press 2007 Okwui Enwezor et al. (eds.) Democracy Unrealized. Documenta 11 Platform 1, Ostfildern: Hatje Cantz 2002 Michel Foucault, Security, Territory, Population, Lectures at the Collge de France 1977-1978, New York: Picador 2007 Michael Hardt, Antonio Negri, Empire, Cambridge Massachusetts: Harvard University Press 2001 Nicole Loraux, The Divided City, New York: Zone Books 2006 Bruno Latour, Peter Weibel eds., Making Things Public, Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press 2005 Jean-Luc Nancy, Being Singular Plural, Stanford: Stanford University Press 2000 Irit Rogoff, Terra Infirma: Geographys Visual Culture, London and New York: Routledge 2000 Aldo Rossi, The Architecture of the City, Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press 1984

Saskia Sassen, Territory, Authority, Rights: From Medieval to Global Assemblages, Princeton: Princeton University Press 2008 Carl Schmitt, Political Theology: Four Chapters on the Concept of Sovereignty, Chicago: University of Chicago Press 2006 Daniel Heller-Roazen, The Enemy of All. Piracy and the Law of Nations, New York: Zone Books 2009 Isabelle Stengers, Cosmopolitics I, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press 2010 Immanuel Wallerstein, World System Analysis, Durham: Duke University Press 2004 John Palmesino has established with Ann-Sofi Rnnskog Territorial Agency, an independent organisation that combines contemporary architecture and urbanism, advocacy and action for integrated spatial transformation of contemporary territories. He is Research Advisor at the Jan van Eyck Academie, Maastricht. He is Diploma Unit Master at the AA where he also teaches at the MA HCT. He previously has been Head of Research at ETH Studio Basel Contemporary City Institute. He has co-founded Multiplicity in Milan, an international network that investigates transformations of the contemporary city. He is the initiator of the multi-disciplinary project Neutrality that researches the transformations of contemporary space. He is researching for his PhD at the Research Architecture Centre at Goldsmiths, where he also is in charge of the MA seminars.


Those outside the architectural profession often perceive a building to be brilliant for the aesthetic experience it offers. And yet bizarrely, from the advent of modernism, architects have invented a multitude of strategies to absolve themselves from making visual judgments. The prevailing architecture of the 20th century with its impersonal nature resulted with a consistent reduction of the complexity of our profession where its cultural, artistic, poetic, or metaphysic aspects were questioned too often while rationality, economy, utility and technologies were always deployed. Objectifying the design process, enhancing a cerebral input and reducing the intuitive personal moves, especially involving the eye as a tool of judgment (the I and the eye) and not resorting to it as a secret weapon, led in time to a lack of confidence in how much intellectual depth can be captured by intuitive architectural imagery. The modern usage of the word aesthetics, meaning taste or sense of beauty, tied the term to a personal attitude and therefore conflicted with an objectified architectural process. Self expression doesn't necessarily lead to beauty, but when the self is removed beauty is avoided. The battle among vanguard architects is at a new peak; there are new voices for who the removal of the Self is not an issue anymore and the I goes along with the eye as they generate form and spatial experience with character and atmosphere. The computational design process does not limit the presence of personalities if the aspiration is there. We will discuss the Troubled Relationship between Architecture and Beauty, based on my new book written with Fleur Watson entitled: Architecture and Beauty, Conversations with Architects about A Troubled Relationship, published by Wiley at 2010. We will focus on the architectural culture that brought this troubled relationship through the profile of sixteen leading architects* of different generations discussing their formative experiences, creative processes and motivations, whether they think beauty is integral or non-essential to architecture.

We will raise poignant issues regarding the place of beauty, aesthetics and self-expression, within the psychology of the design process of the architectural avant-garde, and many more relevant terms that influenced the discourse, such as determinism in design, non-determinism, lateral visual thinking, architectural contents, the notion of vision, imagery, poetics and aesthetics. *Frank O. Gehry, Zvi Hecker, Peter Cook, Juhani Pallasmaa, Lebbeus Woods, Gaetano Pesce, Wolf D.Prix(Coop Himmelblau), Thom Mayne (Morphosis), Eric Owen Moss, Will Alsop, Zaha Hadid, Odile Decq, Mark Goulthorpe(dECOi), Greg Lynn, Kolatan-McDonald(Kol/Mac), Hernan Diaz Alonso 1st session Introduction- As seen by Reisner: the genesis of a troubled relationship between architecture and beauty & Pallasmaas view on Beauty in architecture. Required reading: Yael Reisner and Fleur Watson, Architecture and Beauty, Conversations with Architects about A Troubled Relationship, Wiley, 2010. (Introduction: pp.11- 29, (always including footnotes), Juhani Pallasmaa: pp.77-87) Recommended reading: Pallasmaa, Juhani. The Eyes of the Skin, Architecture and the Senses. Polemics, Academy Editions, UK, 1996. Rowe, Colin, The Architecture of Good Intentions, Towards a Possible Retrospect, Academy Editions, London, 1994. pp.15-29 Pehnt, Wolfgang, Expressionist Architecture, Thames and Hudson, London 1973. (Forward pp.7-12, Hans Poelzig pp.13-22.) Miller, Arthur I., Insights of Genius, Imagery and Creativity in Science and Art, MIT Press, Cambridge USA, 2000 (Preface, Common sense and Scientific Intuition, pp. 1-23, 35-36.) Banham, Reyner, Theory and Design in the First Machine Age, Architectural Press, ButterworthHeinman, Oxford, 1997 (Choisy: Rationalism and Technique pp.23-34, De Stijl: the Dutch phase pp.148-162, Expressionism: Amsterdam ad Berlin pp.163-184, Conclusion: Functionalism and Technology pp.320-330) Ong, Walter J. The Presence of the Word. Yale University Press, Yale, 1967 (The word and the Sensorium pp.1-16. ) 2nd Session Frank Gehry, Wolf Prix and Zaha Hadid - Deconstructivist Architecture Required reading: Yael Reisner and Fleur Watson, Architecture and Beauty, Conversations with Architects about A Troubled Relationship, Wiley, 2010. (Ghery pp.31-43, Prix pp.117-131, Hadid pp.176-191.) (always including footnotes) Recommended reading: Prix, Wolf D, Get Off of My Cloud, Texts, 1968-2005. Kandeler-Fritsch, Martina, and Kramer, Thomas, (eds). Publisher, Vienna, 2005. (Programatic Texts pp. 24-109, Coop Himmelblau in conversations with Alvin Boyarsky pp.232-249.) Domenig, Gunther, Stone House at Steindorf, Dawings and Models, Ritter Verlag, Klagenfurt, 1993 Johnson, Philip and Wigley, Mark, Deconstructivist Architecture, The Museum of Modern Art, New York. June 23 - August 30, 1988, [exhibition catalogue]. Wines, James, De-Architecture, Rizzoli, NY, 1987. (De-Architecture pp.133-142, Project Portfolio pp.168-187)

3rd Session Zvi Hecker, Lebbeus Woods and Gaetano Pesce. Ethics vs. Aesthetics; Art Povera, Social critic Angst and Humor. Required reading: Yael Reisner and Fleur Watson, Architecture and Beauty, Conversations with Architects about A Troubled Relationship, Wiley, 2010. (Hecker pp.45-57, Woods pp.89-103, Pesce pp.105-115.) Recommended Reading: Pehnt, Wolfgang, Expressionist Architecture, Thames and Hudson, London 1973. (Visionary Architects pp.89-106) Woods, Lebbeus Lebbeus Woods: Anarchitecture: Architecture is a political Art, Architectrual Monographs No.22 , Wiley, London, 1992 (Anarchitecture pp 8-13, Heterarchies p. 46, Glossary p.142.) 4th Session Peter Cook, Will Alsop and Odile Decq - Drawings Models Metaphors and Imagery Required reading: Yael Reisner and Fleur Watson, Architecture and Beauty, Conversations with Architects about A Troubled Relationship, Wiley, 2010. (Cook pp.59-75, Alsop pp.163-175,Decq pp.193-205.) Recommended Reading: Miller, Arthur I., Insights of Genius, Imagery and Creativity in Science and Art, MIT Press, Cambridge USA, 2000 (Scientific Progress and Metaphors, pp.217-225, 246-249, Visual Imagery in Scientific thought pp.312-320, Art, Science, and the history of ideas pp. 379-439, Conclusion pp.441-445) Forty, Adrian, Words and Buildings, A Vocabulary of Modern Architecture, Thames & Hudson, London, 2000 (The Language of Modernism pp.19-27, Character pp.120-131, Space, pp.256-275.) Cook, Peter, The City seem as a Garden of Ideas, The Monacelli Press, NY,2003. (The city of surprise pp.76-95, Looking at and Looking out pp.162-164) 5th Session Thom Mayne and Eric Moss - Complex Systems vs. A Deterministic Voice Required reading: Yael Reisner and Fleur Watson, Architecture and Beauty, Conversations with Architects about A Troubled Relationship, Wiley, 2010. (Mayne pp.133-147, Moss pp.149-161) Recommended Reading: Moss, Eric Owen, Gnostic Architecture, Monacelli, New York, 1999. (1.The Oustside of the Inside pp.1.1-1.14, 3.The Glue pp.3.1-3.33, 5.Inside of the inside pp.5.1-5.12.) Sontag, Susan. Against Interpretation. Vintage, London, 1961 (Against Interpretation pp.3-14, On Style pp.15-36, One Culture and New Sensibility pp.293-304) 6th Session Mark Goulthorpe and Greg Lynn - Indifferent Beauty, Form and Technique Required reading: Yael Reisner and Fleur Watson, Architecture and Beauty, Conversations with Architects about A Troubled Relationship, Wiley, 2010.(Goulthorpe pp.207-217, Lynn pp.219-231.) Recommended Reading: Big Bang, Creation and Destruction in the 20th Century, Centre Pompidou, 2005.[exhibition catalogue] The Modern Big Bang by Catherine Grenier pp.13-20 Goulthorpe, Mark Notes on Digital Nesting: A Poetics of Evolutionary Form ,AD magazine, Poetics in Architecture ,March 2002

Carpo, Mario Larchitecture a lere du pli, Larchitecutre daujourdhui Vol 349, Nov-Dec 2003, p.98 (in English) Lynn, Greg (ed), AD magazine, Folding in Architecture, 1993 Bachelard, Gaston, The Poetics of Space, Beacon Press, Boston, 1958, (translated to English, 1964). (Read the Introduction chapter) 7th Session KolatanMac Donald and Hernan Diaz Alonso - Creative Impurities & Virtuosity Required reading: Yael Reisner and Fleur Watson, Architecture and Beauty, Conversations with Architects about A Troubled Relationship, Wiley, 2010. (Kol-Mac pp.233-243, Hernan Diaz Alonso pp.245-258.) Recommended Reading: Frazer, John, An Evolutionary Architecture, Architectural Association, London, 1995.pp.58-103 Kolatan, Sulan and McDonald, Bill Lumping AD magazine, vol 72 no 2 , Jan. 2002 Diaz-Alonso, Hernan, Exuberance I dont know; Excess, I like, AD magazine, Exuberance: New Virtuosity in Contemporary Architecture,March/April, 2010. pp.70-77. 8th Session Conclusions & Students presentations* Recommended reading: Beckley, Bill and Shapiro, David, Uncontrollable Beauty, Towards New Aesthetics, Allworth Press, New York, 1988. *Students will submit one page submission abstract and an eight minutes presentation as an introduction to their essay. Seminar Requirements: attendance, weekly readings, active participation, production of a 3000 word illustrated essay (including captions) with relevant images. Bibliography Books in general Yael Reisner with Fleur Watson, Architetcure and Beauty, Conversations with Architects about A Troubled Relationship, Wiley, 2010. (The seminar is based on Reisners new book) Bachelard, Gaston, The Poetics of Space, Beacon Press, Boston, 1958, (translated to English, 1964). (The Introduction chapter.) Banham, Reyner, Theory and Design in the First Machine Age, Architectural Press, ButterworthHeinman, Oxford, 1997 (Choisy: Rationalism and Technique pp.23-34, De Stijl: the Dutch phase pp.148-162, Expressionism: Amsterdam ad Berlin pp.163-184, Conclusion: Functionalism and Technology pp.320-330) Beckley, Bill and Shapiro, David, Uncontrollable Beauty, Towards New Aesthetics, Allworth Press, New York, 1988. Forty, Adrian, Words and Buildings, A Vocabulary of Modern Architecture, Thames & Hudson, London, 2000 (The Language of Modernism pp.19-27, Character pp.120-131, Space, pp.256-275.) Frazer, John, An Evolutionary Architecture, Architectural Association, London, 1995.pp.58-103

Miller, Arthur I., Insights of Genius, Imagery and Creativity in Science and Art, MIT Press, Cambridge USA, 2000 (Preface, Common sense and Scientific Intuition, pp. 1-23,35-36, Scientific Progress and Metaphors, pp.217-225, 246-249, Visual Imagery in Scientific thought pp.312-320, Art, Science, and the history of ideas pp. 379-439, Conclusion pp.441-445) Ong, Walter J. The Presence of the Word. Yale University Press, Yale, 1967 (The word and the Sensorium pp.1-16.) Pallasmaa, Juhani. The Eyes of the Skin, Architecture and the Senses. Polemics, Academy Editions, UK, 1996 Pehnt, Wolfgang, Expressionist Architecture, Thames and Hudson, London 1973. (Forward pp.7-12, Hans Poelzig pp.13-22, Visionary Architects pp.89-106) Rowe, Colin, The Architecture of Good Intentions, Towards a Possible Retrospect, Academy Editions, London, 1994. pp.15-29

Wines, James, De-Architecture, Rizzoli, NY, 1987. (De-Architecture pp.133-142, Project Portfolio pp.168-187) 2. Architects Monographs Cook, Peter, The City seem as a Garden of Ideas, The Monacelli Press, NY,2003. (The city of surprise pp.76-95, Looking at and Looking out pp.162-164) Domenig, Gunther, Stone House at Steindorf, Dawings and Models, Ritter Verlag, Klagenfurt, 1993 Moss, Eric Owen, Gnostic Architecture, Monacelli, New York, 1999.(1.The Oustside of the Inside pp.1.1-1.14, 3.The Glue pp.3.1-3.33, 5.Inside of the inside pp.5.1-5.12.) Prix, Wolf D, Get Off of My Cloud, Texts, 1968-2005. Kandeler-Fritsch, Martina, and Kramer, Thomas, (eds). Publisher, Vienna, 2005. (Programatic Texts pp. 24-109, Coop Himmelblau in conversations with Alvin Boyarsky pp.232-249, On Friends and Foes (Choose your mix)... On Eric Moss p.394, On Zvi Hecker p.414....) Woods, Lebbeus Lebbeus Woods: Anarchitecture: Architecture is a political Art Architectrual Monographs No.22 , Wiley, London, 1992 (Anarchitecture pp 8-13, Heterarchies p. 46, Glossary p.142.) 3. Exhibition catalogues Big Bang, Creation and Destruction in the 20th Century, Centre Pompidou, 2005.[exhibition catalogue] (The Modern Big Bang by Catherine Grenier pp.13-20) Johnson, Philip and Wigley, Mark, Deconstructivist Architecture, The Museum of Modern Art, New York. June 23 - August 30, 1988, [exhibition catalogue]. 4. Magazines Diaz-Alonso, Hernan, Exuberance I dont know; Excess, I like, AD magazine, Exuberance: New Virtuosity in Contemporary Architecture, March/April, 2010. pp.70-77. Goulthorpe, Mark Notes on Digital Nesting: A Poetics of Evolutionary Form ,AD magazine, Poetics in Architecture ,March 2002,pp...

Kolatan, Sulan and Macdonald, Bill Lumping AD magazine, vol 72 no 2 ,Jan. 2002, pp... Lynn, Greg (ed), AD magazine, Folding in Architecture, 1993 Dr. Yael Reisner has a PhD in Architecture from RMIT in Australia, a Diploma from the Architectural Association in London and a BSc in Biology from the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. Born in Tel Aviv, she lives in London since 1990 where she runs her own Studio of Architecture and Design. She currently teaches internationally after nine years of teaching at the Bartlett (UCL) where she was the Master course coordinator, a group tutor and a Unit master of Diploma Unit 11. Her book with Fleur Watson Architecture and Beauty, Conversations with Architects about A Troubled Relationship was published in April 2010 by Wiley UK. She is one of the contributors for the AD Magazine on the issue of Exuberance, March 2010. Lately she was commissioned by the Karelic company to be the art director of a new porcelain lighting line, to be designed by architects.


This course develops on a recent collaboration between Patrick Wright, the architect and film-maker Patrick Keiller and the geographer Doreen Massey (Landscape and Mobility, 2007-2010). Intended as the elaboration of a critical perspective connected to contemporary urbanism, it will use Patrick Keillers films as the prompt for a broader enquiry into melancholy, ruin, facadism, memory and forgetting and other concepts central to the collaboration. We will also consider Keillers new film, Robinson in Ruins (2010). Course Outline: Session 1: Melancholia: archaic mental disorder or modern critical perspective? On the meaning and modern afterlife of Drers angel (see the engraving Melancolia I). Film: London (1994) Londons East and the contemporary cult of ruin Pilgrimage in a land of Potemkinist facades: journeying as enlightenment or critique Film: Robinson in Space (1997) History/Heritage: remembering and forgetting Film: The Dilapidated Dwelling (2000) Enclosure and Clearance: the legacy of Speenhamland Film: Robinson in Ruins (2010)

Session 2: Session 3: Session 4: Session 5: Session 6: Session 7: Session 8:

Bibliography (in approximate order of appearance) Jacky Bowring, A Field Guide to Melancholy, Oldcastle Books, 2008. Jacky Bowring London and Passaic: The Melancholy Geographies of Patrick Keiller and Robert Smithson, unpublished article (available as typescript by permission of the author), 2009. Jacques Rancire, Victor Hugo: The Ambiguities of a Bicentenary, August 2002 in Rancires Chronicles of Consensual Times, Continuum, 2010.

W. G. Sebald, Rings of Saturn, Harvill, 1995. Emanuel Litvinoff, Journey Through a Small Planet, Penguin Modern Classics, 2008. Patrick Wright, A Journey Through Ruins: the Last Days of London, Oxford University Press, 2009 Peter Hall, The City of Capitalism Rampant, in Cities in Civilization, Orion, 1998, 888-931. Tim Edensor, Industrial Ruins, Berg, 2005.

Owen Hatherley, A Guide to the New Ruins of Great Britain (London: Verso, 2010).
Michel de Certeau, Walking in the City in The Practice of Everyday Life, University of California Press, 1984, 91-110. Henri Lefebvre, Everyday Life in the Modern World (1968), Penguin, 1971. Louis Aragon, Paris Peasant (1926), Exact Change, 1999. Potemkin Villages an entry from Joseph L Wieczynski (ed.), The Modern Encyclopedia of Russian and Slavic History, Vol. 29. Academic International Press, 1982. Patrick Wright: Iron Curtain: From Stage to Cold War, Oxford University Press, 2007 (paperback 2009) Paul Connerton, How Modernity Forgets, Cambridge University Press, 2009. Patrick Wright, On Living in an Old Country (1985), revised and enlarged edition, OUP, 2009 Karl Polyani, The Great Transformation (1944), Beacon Press, 2002. Patrick Keiller, Robinson in Space, Reaktion, 1999. A DVD set combining Patrick Keillers films London and Robinson in Space is issued by the BFI. Copies of The Dilapidated Dwelling are available in the AA. The new film, Robinson in Ruins, is to be distributed by the British Film Institute. Patrick Wright is Professor of Modern Cultural Studies at Nottingham Trent University and a fellow of the London Consortium. His books include Passport to Peking: A Very British Mission to Maos China (2010); Iron Curtain: from Stage to Cold War (2007); Tank; the Progress of a Modern War Machine (2000); The Village that Died for England (1995); A Journey Through Ruins (1991, revised edition 2009); On Living in an Old Country (1985, revised edition 2009). He has written widely for the Guardian and other papers, and his television work includes The River (BBC 2 2000), a four part series about the Thames.