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# Strength of Materials

Handout No.11

Principal Stresses
Asst. Prof. Dr. Hani Aziz Ameen Technical College- Baghdad Dies and Tools Eng. Dept.
E-mail:haniazizameen@yahoo.com www.mediafire.com/haniazizameen

Strength of materials Handout No. 11- Principal Stresses- Dr. Hani Aziz Ameen

11-1 Introduction
In the most general case normal stress ( ) and shear stress ( ) at a point in a body may be considered to act on three mutually perpendicular planes . The most general state of stress is usually referred to as a tri-axial is shown in Fig(11-1)

Fig(11-1) If all stress components in the z direction are equal to zero , the stress condition reduces to bi-axial ( or two dimensional or plane stresses ) state of stress . i.e. in the x , y planes 0 , 0 , , xz zx yz 0 z 0
zx

0 ,

xz

zy

and x 0 , y 0 , xy 0 , yx 0 Many of the problems encountered in practice are such that they can be considered plane state of stress . e . g . thin shells , beams , plate etc .

Strength of materials Handout No. 11- Principal Stresses- Dr. Hani Aziz Ameen

11-2

## Analysis of Plane Stress

From the plane Fig(11-2) shown .

## Fig(11-2) Taking moment a Mo 0 xy (dydz )dx

xy yx

yx (dxdz )dy

Similarly yz zy & xz zx This s that the shear stress on any two mutually perpendicular planes through a point in a stressed body must be equal in magnitude and opposite in direction . It is desirable to be able to relate those stresses on the X and Y planes to t defined by the angle and then to determine the normal ( n ) & shear ( n ) stresses . as shown in Fig(11-3) .

Fig(11-3)

Strength of materials Handout No. 11- Principal Stresses- Dr. Hani Aziz Ameen

Applying the equilibrium equation to the incline plane ( t ) as shown in Fig (11-4) yields

Fig(11-4)

FN
n .dA

0
x cos

.dA cos y sin .dA sin + xy sin .dA cos 0 yx cos .dA sin
n x

cos2
x

y sin

xy

## sin cos 11-1)

2 cos 2 y sin xy sin 2 using the trigonometric identities 1 cos 2 1 cos 2 & cos2 sin2 2 2 :. Eq.(11- 1) will be n

cos 2 xy sin 2 2 2 Similarly , summation of all forces along the direc equation
n x y n

11- 2)

sin 2 ...................... (11-3) xy cos 2 2 In order to ascertain the orientation of XnYn corresponding to the max , or min . ( n ) , the necessary condition d n 0 is applied to Eq(11-2) yielding : d

Strength of materials Handout No. 11- Principal Stresses- Dr. Hani Aziz Ameen

d d (

cos sin
y sin 2

2 2

y sin xy

cos 0

xy

cos 2

x sin 2

cos 2

y ) sin 2

2
2
xy

xy

cos 2

0
.............. (11-4)

tan2

p x y

where the subscript ( p ) denotes the principal stress . Similarly to ascertain the orientation of XnYn corresponding to max . of min n , the necessary condition d n 0 is applied to eq.(11- 3) yielding : d .................. (11-5) 2 xy where the subscript s denotes the shear
s

tan 2

Eq.(11-4) is inverse of Eq(11-5) and the value of 2 differs at 90 , so the plane of max. shear will be at =45 Eq(11-5) defines two values of 2 p differing by 180or two values differing by 90.(Similarly Eq(11-4) differing by 90) As one of these two planes the normal stress n become max. i.e. 1 and on the normal stress the two plans are known as principal planes. Thus principal stresses are normal stresses acting on the principal planes The principal planes are free of any shear stress and therefore another way of defining principal stresses is to say that they are normal stresses acting on planes or the shear stress is equal to zero ( n=0) From Eq(11- 3) tan2
x

0 2
xy y

sin 2

xy

cos 2

which is equivalent to Eq(11- 4) , hence substituting Eq(11-4) into Eq(11-2) yields the max & min . and substituting Eq(11- 5) into eq(11-3) yields max .

Strength of materials Handout No. 11- Principal Stresses- Dr. Hani Aziz Ameen
2 x max min y x y 2 xy

2
2 x y

........ (11- 6)

&
2 xy max

................... (11-7)

Note that the algebraically larger stress given in eq(10- 6) is the max . principal stress , denoted by 1 & the min. represented by 2 .

11-3

Two

Dimensional Stress .

A graphical technique , predicated from Eqs(11- 2) & (11-3) permits the rapid transformation of stress from one plane to another , and leads also to the determination of the max . normal and shear stresses . In this approach Eq(11-2)&Eq(11-3) are depicted by a stress circle , called circle . 1 Establish a rectangular coordinate system , indicating + . and + . Both stress scales must be identical . 2 1 ( x y ) from the origin . 2 3 x , xy , or A ( x , xy ) 4 Draw a circle with center ius of AC .

## From the above raduis can be deduced

Strength of materials Handout No. 11- Principal Stresses- Dr. Hani Aziz Ameen
2

## 2 Draw a line AB through point

R=

y xy

At the points A & B the tensile stress is positive & the compressive stress is negative and also the shear stress is positive if the rotation is clockwise about the center . 6- From the circle , it can be stated that the value of stress at point E is 2 ( min . principal stress ) and the value of stress at point D is 1 (max . principal stress ) and the shear stress at point F is max . ( max ) i.e. 1 = OC + R 2 = OC R

## 11- 4 Strain in Three Perpendicular Directions

The rectangular bar shown in Fig(11-5 a) is subjected to three perpendicular forces in the x, y, and z directions to induce the normal stresses x, y & z

Fig(11-5 a)

Strength of materials Handout No. 11- Principal Stresses- Dr. Hani Aziz Ameen

The strain in any direction indicated is due to simultaneous action of the normal stresses shown in Fig.(11-5 b ,c & d)

x

only =

y only

z only

x x y z

E x, y &

is

E
y z z

E
x x

z)/E

Similarly

( ( z where y &
y

z)/E y)/E

## are the total strain in y & z direction

Strength of materials Handout No. 11- Principal Stresses- Dr. Hani Aziz Ameen

11-5

## Principal Stresses in Terms of Principal Strains

Have from previous sections x ( x y z)/ E ( y y x z)/E In the case of two dimensional stress system , and for an element which is subjected to x & y only , the stress in the z- direction = 0 , i.e. z 0 . Note that when the element is free of shearing stresses , the normal stresses x & y are regarded as the maximum & minimum principal stresses and may be written as 1 & 2 respectively . The resulting strains x & y are the max. and min. principal strains and may be written as 1 & 2 respectively . , z 0 x 1 , y 2 Putting , , z 0 x 1 y 2 Hence 1 ( 1 2) E 1 ( 2 2 1) E when solving the above two equations simultaneously , we obtain
1 1

E(

2 ) /(1 1 ) /(1 2

and

E(

11- 6 The Relation Between the Modulus of Elasticity E and the Modulus of Rigidity G
The element of Fig(11- 6a) is subjected to pure shearing stresses .The max. & min. principal normal stresses due to pure shearing stresses may be found by applying . 1 1 2 2 * x 1, 2 x y y 2 2 Since x and y each equals to zero ,hence
1,2 1

0 &

0
2

Strength of materials Handout No. 11- Principal Stresses- Dr. Hani Aziz Ameen

## to find the planes on which tan2

1&

2 act

0 hence , 2 = 90 and 1=45 , 2 = 90 + 45 = 135 substitute 1=45 in the general equation. sin 2 * 45 n 0 0 therefore, the max .principal stress acts at an angle of 45 to the vertical and the minimum principal stress acts at an angle of 135 to the vertical.

-a-

-b-

Fig(11-6) The element in Fig(11-6 b) is equivalent to the two element shown in Fig(11- 6 c)

Fig(11-6 c) Thus , The strain in the direction of The strain in the direction of
1due to 1 1

E
2

1 due

to

## the total strain in the direction of

Strength of materials Handout No. 11- Principal Stresses- Dr. Hani Aziz Ameen

E 1=
1
1

E , = E
2

E
2

E ) (1
2

(1
=

11-8 ) ) 11-9 )

Similarly

## can be derived in other way :

In the direction of 1 oa oa oa = 1 = oa oa

.................. (11-10)

## Eq(11-8 ) & Eq(11-10) yields: oa (1 )= 1 E oa oa oa[1 E (1

2

)]

11-11)

in the direct of
2

= (

ob ob ) (negative) ob

Strength of materials Handout No. 11- Principal Stresses- Dr. Hani Aziz Ameen

i.e.

## ob ob ob ) = 1+ ob ob Eq(11-9) & Eq(11-12) gives

2=

..................... (11-12)

ob

ob 1

(1

) ac oa

.......................... (11-13)

tan( 45 ( / 2))
ac ob

ob oa

tan( 45 ( / 2))

## is the shearing strain

from Eq(11-13) and Eq(11-11) & Eq(11-14) ob oa ob[1 oa[1 E 2(1 ) G E 2(1 ) (1 (1 ) / E] 1 ( / 2) ) / E ] 1 ( / 2)

Strength of materials Handout No. 11- Principal Stresses- Dr. Hani Aziz Ameen

11-7 Examples
The following examples explain the different ideas of the principal stresses problems . Example (11-1) Fig(11-7) shows a tank of diameter 1 m and wall thickness t=20mm is subjected to an internal pressure of 6 MPa .Find : (a) The state of stress in the rectangular element shown in Fig. (b) The normal and shear stress along the inclined plan m-m

y

x n y

(b)

2 75 150 2
x y

## sin 2 xy cos 2 2 75 150 sin ( 2 * 120 ) = 32.48 MPa 2

Strength of materials Handout No. 11- Principal Stresses- Dr. Hani Aziz Ameen

1 , 2 and

## using two methods .

(i.e. Mathematical method and Graphical (Mohr s circle) Fig(11-9) Solution ( a ) Graphical Method take a scale that : 1 cm = 10 MPa 20 40 x y the center C = 10MPa. 2 2
2

2 xy

20 40 2

30 MPa.

## OC + R = 10 + 30 = 40 MPa 2 OC R = 10 30 20 MPa 2 xy 0 tan2 p 0 20 40 x y

1

2
p

0 0

Strength of materials Handout No. 11- Principal Stresses- Dr. Hani Aziz Ameen

( b ) Numerically
x 1 y

2 20 40 1 2 2 1 x y 2 2

1 2

2 x y

xy

20 40 2 =40 MPa
2 x y

xy

20 40 2

1 2

20 40

20MPa

Example(11-3) Fig(11-9) shows a cylindrical vessel , 300 mm external diameter , wall thickness 3 mm , is subjected to an axial tensile force of 100 kN and an internal pressure of 3.5 MN / m2 . Find the normal and shear stresses on a plane making an angle of 30 with the axis of cylinder .

Fig(11-9) Solution
y

Pd 2t

&

Pd 4t

where d ..... is the internal diameter The longitudinal stress due to the axial load is given by := where F Dt ,

Strength of materials Handout No. 11- Principal Stresses- Dr. Hani Aziz Ameen

D ......... is the mean diameter =(Pd/4t)+(F/ DT) 6 3 y= [(3.5*10 *0.294)/(4*0.003)] + [(100*10 )/ ( *0.297*0.003)]=121.5 MPa 6 y= [ ( 3.5*10 *0.294)/ ( 2* 0.003)] = 171.5MPa n=( x+ y) /2 + (( x y) /2 )* cos2 xysin2 n=(121.5+171.5)/2 + ( (121.5 171.5)/2)* cos(2*60) =159 MPa n = (( x y) /2) * sin2 xy *cos2 = ((121.5 171.5)/2)*sin(60*2) = 21.7 MPa
x

Example(11-4) At a point in the cross section of a loaded beam the major principal stress is 140 N/mm2 tension and the max. shear stress is 80 N/mm2 . Using either graphical or analytical methods , find for this point :a) the magnitude of the minor principal stress. b) The magnitude of the direct stress on the plane of max. shear stress. c) The state of stress on a plane making an angle of 30 o with the plane of the major principle tensile stress . Solution.
x max y

## 2 For max. shear

x y n 45 o

80 = (140 = 45 o +
x y

y)

/2

= -20 N/mm2

## cos 2 2 2 2 n )45 = (140 20)/2 + ((140+20)/2)* cos(2*45) =60 N/mm

Strength of materials Handout No. 11- Principal Stresses- Dr. Hani Aziz Ameen

when =30 2 n)30=(140-20)/2 +((140+20))/2 cos(2*30)=100 N/mm 2 n ) 30 o = ((140 + 20 )/2 )*sin(2*30) = 69.3 N/mm

Graphical solution scale 1 cm = 20 MPa center C = ( x y ) / 2 (140 y)/ 2 the max. shear max =Radius of the circle =80 MPa set off OA=140 N/mm2 =140MPa i.e QA=80 MPa Then minor principal stress , y = OB = 20 MPa .(-ve) QC1=2*45 =90 QC2=2*45=60 OQ 60MPa 45 OD 100MPa 30 C2 D 69.3 MPa 30

Strength of materials Handout No. 11- Principal Stresses- Dr. Hani Aziz Ameen

Strength of materials Handout No. 11- Principal Stresses- Dr. Hani Aziz Ameen

Example(11-6) At a point in a stressed material , the normal ( tensile) and shear stresses on a certain plane xx are 95 N/ mm2 of max. shear is 55 N/mm 2 and 65 N/mm2 respectively . The tensile stress on the plane of max. shear is 55 N/mm2. Find (a) The principal stresses (b) The max .shear stress (c) The direction of the plane xx relation to the plane on which the major principal stress acts. Illustrate your answer to (c ) by a sketch . Solution
x n x n y x y

2
y

2 sin 2
y

cos 2

2 m

let then

and n

i) ii) n iii) sub.Eq(iii) into Eq(i) yields 45 55 n cos 2 40 = n cos 2 Eq(ii) & Eq(iv) are
n

m n cos 2 n sin 2

iv)

tan 2

65 40

58.4

## From the triangle m = 55 & n=76.3 55

x y

n
x

402 652
y

76.3

. 2 2 Solving this two equations give 2 2103 N/mm2. x 131.3 N/mm y The position of xx in relation to x is shown in Fig(11-10)

&

76.3

Strength of materials Handout No. 11- Principal Stresses- Dr. Hani Aziz Ameen

Fig(11-10) Example (11-7) Fig.(11-11) shows a thin cylindrical tube, 75 mm internal diameter and wall thickness 5mm, is closed at the ends subjected to an internal pressure of 5.5 MN/m2. A torque of 1.6 kN.m is also applied to the tube. Find the max. and min. principal stresses and also the max. shearing stress in the wall of the tube.

Fig(11-11) Solution Pd x 4t Pd y 2t T=F.r F xy A 5.5 * 106 * 0.075 20.6MN / m 2 4 * 0.005 5.5 * 106 * 0.075 41MN / m 2 2 * 0.005 T r.A torque mean raduis * cross - sectional area

Strength of materials Handout No. 11- Principal Stresses- Dr. Hani Aziz Ameen

xy

1.6 *103 31.8 MPa 0.04 * * 0.08 * 0.005 1 ( x y) 2 1 (120.6 41.2) 2 64.3MPa. 2.5MPa. 2
x xy y x y) 2

1, 2

xy

1, 2

(20.6 41.2) 2

4 * (31.8) 2

1 2

tan 2 2 180 (

## 2 * 31.8 20.6 41.2 53 56

72 .4
x y 2

max

max

20.6 41.2 2 ) (31.8) 2 2 2 33.4 MPa acting on planes at 45 to the principal planes. )
2 xy

Example(11-8) Fig(11-12) shows a propeller shaft of a ship is 0.45 m diameter and it supports a propeller of mass 15t .The propeller can be considered as a load concentrated at the end of a cantilever of length 2m .The propeller is driven at 100 rev/min. When the speed of the ship is 32 km/h , if the engine develops 15 MW , find the principal stresses in the shaft and the max . shear stress. It may be assumed that the propulsive efficiency of the propeller is 85 percent.

-aFig(11-12)

-b

Strength of materials Handout No. 11- Principal Stresses- Dr. Hani Aziz Ameen

Solution At the bearing M = 15*103*9.81*2= 294.3 kN.m power 15 * 106 * 60 T= 1.433MN.m 2 n / 60 2 * 100 Pv Engine power = where P is the propulsive force P 15 * 106 * 0.85 * 3600 32 * 103 10435N M
d3 32

2

## Direct stress due to end thrust =

4

* 0.45

9.02MN / m 2

The total direct stress x 32.9 9.02 41.92MPa Shear stress due to torque T 1.433 * 106 * 16 80MN / m 2 3 3 d * 0.45 16 The stresses on the element on the upper surface of the shaft at the bearing are there free as shown in Fig(11-12 b) these being the greatest applied stresses in the shaft
1, 2

1 { 2

2 x x

xy }

1, 2

1 2

## 1 {41.42 (41.92) 2 2 103.7MPa 61.8 MPa

4 * 802 }

2 max = x 2 xy

41.92 2

802

80.75MPa

Strength of materials Handout No. 11- Principal Stresses- Dr. Hani Aziz Ameen

Example(11-9) At a point in a piece of stressed material the normal stress on a certain plane is 90 N/mm2 tension and the shearing stress on this plane is 30N/mm2 . On a plane inclined at 60 to the first named plane , there is a tensile stress of 60 N/mm2 . Find :( a ) The principal stresses at the point . (b) The intensity of shearing stress on the plane having 60 N/mm2 normal stress relative to the given planes , and show the relative positions in a clear diagram . Solution As in example ( 11- 6) n m n cos2 n sin2 n where 2 2 90 = m+ n cos2 30 = n sin 2 60 = m + n cos2( + 60 ) 1 3 sin 2 ) 60 = m n ( cos 2 2 2 3n sin2 i.e. 120 = 2m n cos2 solving Eq.( i ) , Eq( ii ) & Eq( iii ) , yields m = 87.32 N / mm2 n=30.12 N/mm 2 42 27 m=
x y

and

n=

## Fig(11-13) from which

x
y

117.44 N/mm 2

57.14 N/mm 2 on the plane of the 60 N/mm2 normal stress 30.12 sin2 (24 27 60 ) -12.68 N/mm2

Strength of materials Handout No. 11- Principal Stresses- Dr. Hani Aziz Ameen

The positions of the various planes are shown in Fig(11-13) Example(11-10) At a point in a material under two-dimensional stress, the normal stresses , all tensile, on three planes are as follows:Plane A B C Inclination to plane A 0 45 90 Stress (N/mm2) 97 133 27

Find (a) The shearing stresses on planes A.B and C (b) The principal stresses and the inclination to plane A of the planes on which they act. (c) The max. shearing stress. (d)The inclination to plane A of the plane whose the normal stress is zero. Show by a sketch the relative positions of the various planes . Solution As in example (11- 6 ) n m n * cos 2 m
x y

&n

97 = m + n cos2 133 = m + n cos2 ( 45 ) = m n sin 2 90 ) = m n cos2 27 = m + n cos2( Adding Eq( i ) and Eq( iii ) , 2m = 124 n* sin 2 = 17 n* cos 2 = 35

= 62

## n 712 352 79.2 62 + 79.2 = 141.2 N / mm2 x 2 y = 62 79.2 = 17.2 N / mm

Strength of materials Handout No. 11- Principal Stresses- Dr. Hani Aziz Ameen

71 = 2.028 35 2 =360 63 46 296 14 148 .7 Since n has been assumed position , sin2 negative & cos2 positive , hence 2 lies in the 4th quadrant . n sin 2 when 71 N/mm2 184 7 79.2 sin 246 .14 when 139 .7 79.2 sin 386 .14 = 35 N/mm2 when 238 .7 79.2 sin 476 .14 71 N/mm2 2 max = 79.2 N / mm 62 + 79.2 cos2 when 0 n =0 from which 90 19 .4 The relative positions of the various planes are as shown in Fig(11-14) . tan2 =

Fig(11-14) Example(11-11) Fig(11-15) shows a point in the structural member , the stresses

graphically:aThe magnitude and orientation of the principal stresses bThe magnitude and orientation of the maximum shearing stresses and associated normal stresses.

Strength of materials Handout No. 11- Principal Stresses- Dr. Hani Aziz Ameen

- axis.

1 2

OC R OC R

## 96.05 MPa 23.45 MPa

Locate point A(80-30) Draw line through C to B The plane on which the principle stress acts is given by tan2
xy p
x y

2
p

tan

1 30

20

56 30

28 15

Strength of materials Handout No. 11- Principal Stresses- Dr. Hani Aziz Ameen

( b ) The max. shearing stresses are given by points D and E , thus 36.05 MPa . max = 80 40 40 20 x y tan2 s 2 xy 2 * 30 60 30
s

28 .15

45

73.15

= 163 15

Example(11-12) Fig(11-16) shows an element of a loaded body . The stresses ( in MPa ) act on an element. Apply Mohr s circle to find the normal and shear stresses acting on a plane defined by = 30

## Fig(11-16) Solution . Scale 1 cm Center C

x

= 10 MPa 14 28 y 2 2

## C = 27 MPa Locate point A ( 28 , 0 ) R = CR =21 MPa

Strength of materials Handout No. 11- Principal Stresses- Dr. Hani Aziz Ameen

A B A .B

## 7 21cos 60 17.5 3.5MPa 21sin 60 = 18.186MPa

Example(11-13) Fig(11-17) shows a rod with 850 mm2 cross sectional area . 60 kN is applied axially to it at its ends , find the n & n the plane incline 30 on the direction of loading and max . numerically & graphically .

Fig(11-7)

Strength of materials Handout No. 11- Principal Stresses- Dr. Hani Aziz Ameen

Solution. ( a ) Numerically
x

P A

60 * 103 850

70.6MPa

1 x (1 cos 2 ) 2 1 ( 70.6 ) ( 1 cos 60 ) = 17.65 MPa 2 1 x sin 2 2 1 ( 70.6 ) sin 60 = 30.6 MPa . 2

the , max Value of n at 45 1 ( 70.6) sin 90 35.3MPa n ) max 2 (b) Graphically Scale 1 cm = 10 MPa.

Point A = (70 , 0) Radius R=35 MPa Now the value of 2 is measured anti-clockwise from OC Draw Cd & dK .: the value of OK = n 17.65 MPa. The value of Kd = n 30.6 MPa

Strength of materials Handout No. 11- Principal Stresses- Dr. Hani Aziz Ameen

11-8 Problems
11-1) A cylindrical , 300mm external diameter, wall thickness 3mm, is subjected to an axial tensile force of 100 kN and an internal pressure of 3.5 MN/m2 . Find the normal and shear stresses on a plane making an angle of 30 with the axis of the of cylinder? 11-2) At a point in the cross section of a loaded beam , the major principal stress is 140 N/mm2 tension and the max . shear stress is 80N/mm2 .Using either graphical or analytical methods, Find for this point, (a) The magnitude of the minor principal stress; (b)The magnitude of the direct stress on the plane of max . shear stress (c) The state of stress on a plane making an angle of 30 with the plane of the major principal tensile stress. 11-3) Derive formulae for the normal and tangential stresses on an oblique plane within a material subjected to two perpendicular direct stresses. A piece of steel plate is subjected to perpendicular stresses of 80 and 50 MN/m2 , both tensile , find the normal and tangential stresses and the magnitude and direction of the resultant stress on the interface whose normal makes an angle of 30 with the axis of the second stress. 11-4) Show that the principal stresses are the extreme values of the normal stress for any interface under conditions of complex stress. A 50mm diameter bar is subjected to a pull of 70 kN and a torque of 1.25 kN.m. Find stresses for a point on the surface of the bar and show by a diagram the relation between the principal planes and the axis of the bar. 11-5) A hollow propeller shaft , having 250 mm and 150 mm external and internal diameters respectively transmits 1200 kW with a thrust of 400kN. Find the speed of the shaft if the max . principal stress is not to exceed 60 MN /m2 . what is the value of the max . shear stress at this speed ? 11-6) At a section of a rotating shaft there is a bending moment which 75 MN/m2 and a torque which produces a max . direct stress of produces a max. shearing stress of 45 MN/m2. Consider a certain point on the surface of the shaft where the bending stress is initially

Strength of materials Handout No. 11- Principal Stresses- Dr. Hani Aziz Ameen

75 MN/m2. tension and find the principal stresses at the point in magnitude and direction (a) When the point is at the initial position . (b) When the shaft has turned 45. (c) When the shaft has turned through 90. Make sketches to show the changes in the principal planes & stresses 11-7) A flywheel of mass 500 kg is mounted on shaft 80 mm in diameter and midway between bearings 0.6 m apart in which the shaft may be assumed to be directionally free. If the shaft is transmitting 30 kW at 360 rev/min . Find principal stresses and the max. shearing stresses in the shaft at the ends of a vertical and horizontal diameter in a plane close to the flywheel. 11-8) Fig(11-18) shows two separate uni-axial states of stress. Find (a) the state of stress, referred to as an element whose sides are parallel to the xy axes that results from a superposition of these two stress states and (b) the magnitudes and directions of the principal normal stresses associated with the combined state.

Fig(11-18) 11-9) A right angle triangle ABC with the right-angle at C represents planes in an elastic material. There are sheaving stresses of 45 N/mm2 acting along the planes AC and CB towards C, and normal tensile stresses on AC and CB of 75 N/mm2 respectively. There is no stress on the plane perpendicular to planes AC and CB . Find the position of the plane AB when the resultant stress on AB has (a) The greatest magnitude (b) The least magnitude (c) The greatest component normal to AB (d) The greatest tangential component along AB (e) The least inclination to AB Analytical or graphical methods may be used; in the case of a graphical

Strength of materials Handout No. 11- Principal Stresses- Dr. Hani Aziz Ameen

solution, indicate how the diagrams are constructed. State for each plane found its angular position relative to AC and the magnitude of the stress referred to. 11-10) Establish a relationship between the modulus of elasticity, modulus of rigidity and Possion s ratio for an elastic material. A close-coil helicalspring of circular wire and mean diameter 100 mm was found to extend 42.6mm under an axial load of 50 N . The same spring ,when firmly fixed at one end, was found to rotate through 90 under a torque of 6 N.m applied in a plane at right angles to the axis of the spring. Find the value of Possion s ratio for the material of spring.