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Phvsica IX, no 1 Januari 1942

Natuurkundig Laboratorium der N.V. Philips' Gloeilampenfabrieken Eindhoven-Holland

Die W~rmeabgabe bei freier Konvektion in Luft yon vertikalen quadra-
tischen parallelen Platten yon h × h cm'- im gegenseitigen Abstand b wird
gernessen. Die W/irmea15gabe wird berechnet iiir den Fall, dass die Platten
in horizontaler Richtung unendlich ausgedehnt sind (G1.39). Die Oberein-
s t i m m u n g ist gut, wenn eine Korrektion angebracht wird, welche berfick-
sichtigt dass die Messungen an quadratischen a n s t a t t an unendlich langen
Platten ausgefiihrt sind.
Wenn die Platten fiber einen Winkel T aus der vertikalen Lage gedreht
we~den, ist fiir nicht zu grosse Werte yon T, g in (39) durch g cos T zu
Bei gegebener H6he h der Platten und l~bertemperatur 0w wird der
gegenseitige Abstand b,n
berechnet, welcher die gr6sste W/irmeabgabe je
L/ingeneinheit liefert (G1.53). Wird h variiert und der P l a t t e n a b s t a n d je-
wells gleich dem zu jeder H6he geh6renden gfinstigsten Wert bm gew~hlt,
so n i m m t bei Vernachlassigung der Plattendicke die W~rmeabgabe je
Langeneinheit wie %/h zu.

§1. Introduction. a. G e n e r a l formulae. B y m e a n s of si-

m i l a r i t y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s N u s s e 1 t ~) s h o w e d t h a t t h e h e a t dissipa-
t i o n of similar b o d i e s b y free c o n v e c t i o n is g i v e n b y t h e f o r m u l a :
o~l {13gp2Ow~ c~ )
T =/t ~, ~2 ' • (la)

or, i n t r o d u c i n g the N u s s e l t number Nu, the Grashof

n u m b e r Gr a n d t h e P r a n d t 1 n u m b e r P r :
N u ----/t (Gr, Pr) (lb)

H e r e ~ is t h e h e a t d i s s i p a t i o n per u n i t area, u n i t of t i m e a n d u n i t of
t e m p e r a t u r e difference b e t w e e n t h e h e a t d i s s i p a t i n g b o d y a n d t h e

Physica I X I

surroundings, l a linear dimension of the body (since only similar

bodies are considered, it is immaterial which dimension is chosen), 0
the excess of temperature over the temperature of the surrounding
medium, 0= the value of 0 at the surface of the heat dissipating body,
g the acceleration due to gravity, k the coefficient of heat conduction,
p the density, B the viscosity, ~ the coefficient of expansion and cp
the specific heat at constant pressure, the last five quantities all
referring to the surrounding medium.
If the surrounding medium is a gas, the Prandtl number is inde-
pendent of temperature and is the same for gases with the same
number of atoms per molecule. If we, therefore, consider the heat
dissipation in air or in any other diatomic gas, we may write (1 a) as:
al (13g p20=~
= I2 \ Too J (2)
where ~ is replaced by I/Too and Too is the ~tbsolute temperature of
the surrounding gas 2).
If the velocity of the flowing medium is small (,,schleichende Be-
wegung"), so that the inertia forces may be neglected in comparison
with the viscosity forces, similarity considerations show that
Nu = [3 (Gr. Pr) (3)
and this equation holds independently of the nature of the medium.
In gefieral, the form of the functions [2 and [3 cannot be calculated.
For two simple cases, namely the plane vertical plate s) and the hori-
zontal cylinder 4), [3 has been calculated, using the simplification of a
thin sheet of friction on the surface of the body and supposing the
flow to be laminar. For the vertical plate S c h m i d t, P o h 1 h a u-
s e n and B e c k m a n n 3) found:
Nu = 0.525 (Gr. Pr)i (4)
where for l, the height h of the plate must be used. As a result of the
above-mentioned simplification, (4) is only valid in a limited range
(104 < Gr. Pr < 5 x 108). The experiments are in good agreement
with (4). As a mean one finds 5):
Nu = 0.6 (Gr. Pr)~ (5)
Experiments with oil as the surrounding medium 6) are in good
agreement with (4) and (5).
b. S p e c i a l application to cooling r i b s . If a

b o d y would become too hot owing to heat prbduction within, it is

often provided with a n u m b e r of parallel plates, usually in a vertical
position, which are in good thermal contact-.with it (fig.. l.). Sometimes
the energy is produced in the plates themselves (e.g. the d r y rectifier).

• :m ~l
Fig. 1. P r e l i m i n a r y a p p a r a t u s for m e a s u r in g the h e a t dissipation of pa-
rallel plates. The plates are k e p t a distance b a p a r t by the rings R, and are
heated by the h e a t e r H.

I_ o
-I- ~X
Fig. 2. Location of the coordinates. The Y axis passes through o
perpendicular to the X Z plane.

It is surprising t h a t no formulae are known for the rate of cooling

of this arrangement. As all the plates are in the same condition ex-
cept the two outermost ones, whose outer sides lose energy according
to relation (5), we have only to consider the energy carried a w a y
between two parallel plates. In this paper we shall deal with measure-
ments of the heat dissipation of two plates of h x h cm 2, which are
placed parallel to each other at a distance b apart (fig. 2). The plates

have a uniform temperature, 08 higher than room temperature.

Assuming the Z coordinate to be vertical midway between the two
plates and the.X coordinate perpendicfilar to the plates (fig. 2), strips
parallel to Z and 1 cm wide in the Y direction are all equivalent if the
dimensionof the plates in the Y direction is supposed to be infinite.
In our calculations we will start from this assumption, and the
measurements on the square plates will then be corrected for the edge
In the case where b/h is constant, we have to deal with similar
bodies, so that (~) holds, in.which for / either h or b m a y be used. We
m a y therefore, write for the cooling of two parallel plates:
,, Nu = / s (Gr. Pr, b/h) (6)
It is the objecf of. this paper to determine the function [5.

§ 2. The measurements. In order to deter~aine the function [5, we

can varyb, h, 08 and Pr (ms stated at the end of § 3, we m a y v a r y g to
some extent b y turning the plates through an angle ¥, so that only
the component g cos ~"causes the flow of the air). Pr was not varied
as we measured in air only.
We started with an arrangement as indicated in fig. 1 in which a
large number of A1 plates of 12 × 12 cm 2 ~ind 2.8 mm thick were
placed on a brass tube (outer diameter 2 cm) with a heater H inside
it. The plates were kept a certain distance b,apart-, by the brass rings
R (outer diametei 4 cm). By using rings of various thicknesses the
distance b could, be varied. To obtain the heat, dissipated between
tl~e plates by convection, we have to subtract from the input a) the
loss by radiation, b) the loss by convection, first of the two outer sur-
faces $1 and $2 and secondly of the edges $3. When the spacing is
wide (e.g. I cm) the corrections can be made with sufficient accuracy.
With decreasing distance between the plates, however, the heat loss
b y free convection between the plates decreases ultimately, in spite
of the larger number of plates, whereas the other losses increase or
remain the same (the losses of St and $2). For this reason this method
is inaccurate for small values of, b. Furthermore the rings R disturb
the rectilinear flow of the air.
The measurements were, therefore, finally done with an arrange-'
ment as indicated in fig. 3. Two well-flattened and highly polished Al
plates are attached to rods A of heat-insulating material, which can
be shifted through the tubes B. The distance b between the plates can

be varied between 0 and 10 cm. Each plate is ~uilt up of two parts P~

and P2 between which the heater H is arranged. The tubes B are
mounted in a rotating apparatus, so t h a t the plates can turn out of
t h e vertical position routed a horizontal axis, whose proiection lies at
D. The plates can be set parallel to each other with adjusting screws.

Fig. 3. F i n a l a r r a n g e m e n t for measuring the heat dissipation.

The temperature of the plates is measured by means of a chromel-

alumel thermoelement of 100 7 diameter. Each of the wires is mounted
in one boring of-a MgO rod of 1.2 mm diameter, which contains two
longitudinal borings of 250 ~. The spot where the wires leave the rod
and are fused together, is protected by a layer of cement. Holes E of
1.5 mm diameter and about 10 mm depth are drilled in those parts of
the AI plates that face the gap (parts PI). Into these holes the MgO
rod is introduced so that the chromel-alumel junction lies right in-
side the A1 plate. In this way the temperature of the wire junction
will differ only very slightly from the temperature of the plate. The
thickness of the plates (6 mm for the 5.95 x 5.95 cm 2 and the 12 x 12
cm 2 plates and 10-mm for the 24 x 24 cm 2 plates) and the arrange-
ment of the heater in them is such that temperature differences in
the plates m a y be neglected.
For a given input the temperature excess of the plates 0w over
room temperature is measured for a plate distance b ~ 0. Then b
is changed from 0 to a certain value b0 and the input is increa-
sed until 0~ is nearly the same (within a few percent). From this,
the input required to reach exactly the same value of 0w as for
b ~ 0 is calculated, assuming a linear relation between 0~ and the

input. The difference between the inputs for b ---- 0 and b = bo is the
amount of energy 10st by the two inner surfaces of the plates at the
distance b0. From this amount only the radiation emerging from the
gap between the plates must be subtracted to obtain the dissipation
by convection, This radiation was measured by means of a thermo-
pile and a Moll-galvanometer. Since we must measure the radiation in
different directions, the plates can be rotated around D (fig. 3) through
certain angles y from the vertical position, whereas the thermopile
remains in the same position. The galvanometer deflection is
observed arising from the sudden reduction of b from bo to 0. For
each of the various values of b0 and 0~ this measurement has to be
carried out for several values of 7. Instead of drawing R o u s s e a u
diagrams, we measured only in a limited number of directions
(y -----25 °, 45 °, 60 °, 72½° and 85°), so-called R u s s e 1 1 angles, the
mean value of which gives the mean spherical radiation.
The thermopile-galvanometer combination was calibrated with an
AI sphere of 10 cm diameter with a heater built inside. The sphere
was either highly polished or blackened with aquadag, and in both
conditions the temperature of the sphere and the galvanometer de-
flection were measured as a function of the input for a known distan-
ce between the thermopile and the centre of the sphere. In fig. 4 the
values of 0= and the galvanometer deflections u are drawn as a func-
tion of the input for the polished as well as for the blackened sphere.
Supposing the energy dissipated by convection to be independent of
the surfsce condition of the sphere, the galvanometer deflection A u
corresponds to the spherically radiated energy A W (fig. 4).
For each pair of plates, the radiation emerging from the gap was
measured as a function of b at 0~ ~- 330 ° only. To obtain the radia-
tion of the gap for smaUer values of 0w the radiation of the highly
polished A1 sphere was measured as a function of temperature and
the way in which the radiation from the gap depended on the temper-
ature was assumed to be the same as that for the sphere. For the
radiation of the highly polished A1 sphere we found:
S = 3.4 10-t5 (T 4~ - - T~) Watt/cm 2 (7)
(verified ~oetween 350 and 650°K).
The exponent is in good agreement with that found by S c h m i d t
and F u r t h m a n n V ) , who give S = 2 . 4 0 I0 -Is (T 4 " 7 3 - T ~ 3)
Watt/cm 2 (verified between 500 and 850°K). We find, however, the

absolute value of the radiation nearly 1'.5 times higher than

S c h m i d t and F u r t h m a n n .
150 3o

/ / d I ~o
L° r U


0 tO. 20 30
Fig, 4. C a l i b r a t i o n of t h e t h e r m o p i l e - g a l v a n o m e t e r c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h t h e
a i d of an Al s p h e r e w h i c h is e i t h e r h i g h l y p o l i s h e d or b l a c k e n e d . T e m p e r a -
t u r e e x c e s s 0w a n d g a l v a n o m e t e r d e f l e c t i o n u as a f u n c t i o n of t h e w a t t s
d i s s i p a t e d in b o t h cases. T h e g a l v a n o m e t e r d e f l e c t i o n A u c o r r e s p o n d s t o
t h e s p h e r i c a l l y r a d i a t e d e n e r g y A W.

"° ! ! i

~o i ' / / I
--- '- t--T.7; -T, i
." I/T | i
"'0 . . . . . . -T~- t°..=. L t

~0-- -. . . . . . . .

Fig. 5. R a d i a t i o n e m e r g i n g f r o m t h e g a p b e t w e e n t w o h i g h l y p o l i s h e d AI
p l a t e s as a f u n c t i o n of t h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t h e p l a t e s . T h e p l a t e s are
330°C a b o v e r o o m t e m p e r a t m e (20°C).

Since for the smaller values of 0" the radiation loss decreases rela-
t i v e l y to the c o n v e c t i o n loss, an error in the radiation loss for smaller
values of 0= c a n n o t be serious except p e r h a p s for v e r y small values of b,
because with decreasing b the c o n v e c t i o n loss decreases more r a p i d l y
t h a n the radiation loss.
Fig. 5 gives the radiation as a function of b at 0= = 330°C for the
three plate dimensions. F o r similar gaps the radiation per cm 2 m u s t
be the same, so t h a t , on p l o t t i n g the r a d i a t i o n per cm 2 as a function
of b/h, the lines of fig. 5 m u s t coincide. As fig. 6 shows, this is indeed
the case. There are two more tests. F o r large values of b/h the radia-
tion per c m 2 m u s t be the same as t h a t of the A1 sphere. F o r 0~, ---
330 ° and 20 ° room t e m p e r a t u r e we find for the radiation per cm 2
from (7):
S = 3.4 l0 -15 (6234t - - 2934t) ---- 6.2 10 -2 W a t t / c m 2.

9 w:3~o I
,~.I0 "2 _
t -v

,/ _/

o h=5,.95
+ h=f2

L x h=24


Fig. 6. The three lines of fig. 5 coincide when the radiation in Watt/cm:
is plotted as a function of gap width, divided bv the length of the sides of
the squar.e plates.

As fig. 6 shows, this value is indeed reached a s y m p t o t i c a l l y . This

means t h a t the surface condition of the plates was the same as t h a t
of the sphere.
F o r b/h --~ 0 the radiation emerging from the gap will be t h a t of a
black b o d y at the t e m p e r a t u r e T ---- 623°K a n d with an area 4 bh.
The radiation per cm 2 of the plates is therefore in this case :
4 bh 5.75 l0 -t2 ( T ' - - T~)/2 h 2 ---- l l.5 (b/h) l0 - ~ (T 4 - - T~).
The slope of the t a n g e n t to the curve in 0 (fig. 6) is therefore corn-

p u t e d to be 11.5 10 -12 (6234 - - 2934) = 1.65. ,~s m a y be seen, this

agrees v e r y Well with the measurements. At a value of b/h ---- 10 -2
the radiation has a l r e a d y decreased to half t h a t of a black b o d y with
the area 4 bh.
In table I the d a t a are given for the 12 × 12 cm 2 plates for
0, = 132 °. The m e a s u r e m e n t s for y = 0 ° consist of 12 such tables
(three plate dimensions and each for four values of 0~). In table I the
correction for radiation is only large (20%) at the lowest value of b.

I /x'/1 l
•/..2 /

[oew.332 °

K X /I
,Ow=~ °

4 /

~ bCcm)

Fig. 7. "['he h e a t d i s s i p a t i o n b y free c o n v e c t i o n in W a t t s p e r s q u a r e m e t e r

a n d p e r d e g r e e Celsius as a f u n c t i o n of t h e w i d t h b of t h e g a p for d i f f e r e n t
v a l u e s of t h e d i f f e r e n c e 6,0 b e t w e e n t h e t e m p e r a t u r e of t h e p l a t e s a n d r o o m
t e m p e r a t u r e , for v e r t i c a l p l a t e s of 5.95 x 5.95 c m ' in air.

In fig. 7, 8 and 9 the loss of heat b y convection per square m e t e r

and per degree Celsius is drawn as a function of the plate distance b
for different values of e,, and h. F o r high values of b the dissilJation


( p l a t e s 12 x 1 2 c m =,o=~ = 132°C, T o o = 2 9 1 0 I ( , T = 007

energy ==
? II •
Atmos- dissipa. convec-
input input tion radia- tion b
pheric b (era) for tion [I -- Gr*. Pr Nu* : q
0~ loss X
pressure (Watt) 0w = 132 ° b e t w e e n ( W a t t s ) h
g ~.v
mm Hg) the plates (Watts)
..o I"e II

756,4 0 43.2 131.26 43.45

756.4 0.209 45.5 130.6 46.0 2.55 0.51 2.04 0.54 1.29 0.034 0.86 0.62 = 0.023
756.4 0.321 49.85 131.70 49.9 s 6.50 0.75 5.75 1.51 3.61 0.143 4.77 3.48 0.12"
756.4 0.45 58.5 131 58.9 15.46 0.98 14.5 3.82 9.15 0.51 18.5 13.5 0.47
756.4 0.66 71.1 129.5 72.5 29.0 o 1.25 27.8 7.32 17.8 1.43 85.5 6zs 1.37

756.4 0.915 79.6 134.5 78.2 34.7 = 1.55 33.2 8.75 20.9 2.37 315 230 2.26

762.8 0 43.25 133.2 42.86

762.8 0.213 45.9 132.5 45.76 2.90 0.52 2.38 • 0.626 1.50 0.040 0.94 0.685 0.028
762.8 1.2 79.6 133.3 78.9 36.05 1.95 34.3 9.02 21.6 3.20 950 690 3.05
762.8 2.0 79.6 133.2 78.9 36.06 2.05 34.0 8.95 21.4 5.30 7330 5350 5.15
- 762.8 3.0 79.6 133.6 78.7 35.86 2.2 33.6 8.85 21.2 7.90 37000 27000 7.55
762.8 0.421 57.0 132.6 . 56.7 13.8 = 0.92 12.9 3.40 8.13 0.42 14.4 10.5 0.39

becomes independent of b, increases with 0= and decreases slowly

with h. For small values of b the dissipation increases rapidly with b
and increases with 0~ for small values of 0~ only; for large values of
0o the dissipation seems to decrease again very slightly with increa-
sing 0=. The dependency on h is here more pronounced than for large
values of b.

I ,~J.--f'T - I AT o

i//r i.,,,~/
LIL/lll ...L= • :
i i i.k

/~ f2xl3e'ma' I:+.0w=333
Ow:f32 °
e w:,l¥ °
~.Ow:fO °
111 II

r x
ca o,s ---~b(c, 2 4

FiR. 8. As fig. 7. but with plates of 2 x 12 c m ~-.

§ 3. Theory. Calling the velocity components of the surrounding

medium in the X, Y and Z direction u, v and w, the hydrodynamical
equations are"
au ( au au a.'~ ap
p~-+~,.u-~-+v-~-+~-)= ax+

+-~ [~-~
a(a.~ + ~ +av- - ~ -a~) + -a~.
~ + -a~~.- + ~-~-
a~.] (8,,~

p~+p u-~+v-~+w-~ = - - ~ +
+~- ~+~+-~ +-~+ ~- a:~] (sb)

v - ~ + v ~-~-+v-~-+ ~- ----~-~-+
av ow
+ N + ~ -) + -~ + ~ + - ~ + g (ooo--p) (80

• I

/'~_,~-~-I .I '/'I . s w=+....,,,,.,
/ .
"o 0 w = 3 2 5 °
x Ow,.f35 °
+0w=50 °
. O w,: fO °

~ I / / i i:
i ;

. b(cm)

F i g . 9. A s fig. 7, b u t with plates of 24 × 24 cm'-.

The continuity equation reads"

a a a
a-~(pu) + ~-. (pv) + ~ (pw) -- o (9)
and the energy equation :
(~o ~o ~o ~o) (~o ~o ~o~

In (10) the heat produced by the friction of the m e d i u m is ne-

We suppose the plates of fig. 2 to be infinitely long in the Y direc-
tion. Hence v will be zero. The velocity u will not be exactly zero,
sincc ~O/~z depends on x ; as a first approximation, however, we m a y
write u = 0.
Of the three equations (8), therefore, only (8c) remains. Conside-
ring s t a t i o n a r y conditions and introducing u = v = 0, the equations
(8c), (10) and (9) become :
aw [a2w 4 a2w] gp0 (ll)
pw~='O\ax2 +5 ~z2] + Too

pep '/b' ~
(a2o a2o
= k ~ ~.X2 "t- ~ ' ~ ] (12)

a-z- (pw) = 0. (13)

The boundary conditions are:

w=Oforx= ±a
, O=Owforx= ~a.
We t r y to satisfy the eq. (11), (12) and (13) b y '

0 = 0~ ,1 - - e - P ~ c o s ~ - (14)
a2 - - x 2 ~x'l, ~ Too + 0
w = s ~.2 + r cos 2--dqF] Too ( 1 5)

irhe factor (Too + O)]Too in (15) causes (13) to be satisfied. (14) and
(15) satisfy the b o u n d a r y conditions and for a constant value of
x(]x] < a), 0 increases with z to reach asymptotically the value 0,, if
h is large enough.
(14) and (15) are introduced in ( l l ) and (12) and the values of p, s
and r are so chosen t h a t (1 I) and (12) are satisfied at x = 0 and
X ~ -3c a.
F r o m (11) at x = ± a we find"
( 3nr 2s ] Too + 0~ 2~, ( 3nr + 2s I 0~,
e-#, +
0 =- - - ~., k8a2 + -~ / Too Too \ 4a -~1 ~
+ p.g0. (16)
(index w means t h a t the quantities are taken at surface temperature).
14 w. ELEN BA.AS

As (16) must be satisfied for all values of z, we write"

37rr 2s
4a a
from which:
r = - - 3---~s (17)

(Irl m u s t be smaller t h a n Isl because otherwise the flow m i d w a y

between the plates would be downwards).
The remaining part of (16) gives:
p~g 0~ a 2
S= (18)
,~(roo + 0.)
E q u a t i o n (11 ) for x = 0 gives:

Poo (r + s) 20.p e-P" = 270 s Too + 0o .00 (r + s) 0, r~

Too a2 Too + .Too yd~a
2 e-'--
4"00 (r + s) 0= p2 e-P' Po g 0o
-- 3too + Too 09)
(~]oa n d 0o are the Values of .0 and 0 for x = 0; .00 and 0o are functions
of z).
Collecting the terms with e-P', we have:

p2 + 3p~ (r + s) p 3 ~ - o, (20)
4.0o 16a 2
wkile the remaining part of (19) gives:
Pog 8o a 2
s = 2.0o(Too + 0o)" (21)

Eq. (21) is of the same form as (18). It is less rigorous, since 0o and
to a smaller extent .0o and Po are functions of z.
E q u a t i o n (12) gives) for x = ± a
and for x = 0
poo c~ (r + s) 0~ p e-P" = Xo 0~ ~ e-P" - - Xo 0~ p2 e-P" (22)

from which with cp .0o]~o = Pr:

p2 + poo(r + s ) P r
' .00 p -- ~ = 0. (23)

(23) is of the same form as (20) w i t h n e a r l y the same coefficients if

H E A T D I S S I P & T I O N OF P A R A L L E L P L A T E S 15

we have to deal with gases (for mon-atomic gases Pr = 2/3, for dia-
tomic gases 0,73 ; in general Pr = (n + 2)/(n + 4~) if n = the n u m b e r
of degrees of freedom of the gasmolecules).
As can be shown, the t e r m p2 is small compared with the other
terms of (20) and (23). We will, therefore, neglect p2 in these equa-
tions. This means t h a t the terms azw/az2 and M0/az2 in equations (11)
and (12) are heglected. Using (23) to preserve the dependence on Pr,
we find with (17), (18), a = -.}b and replacing ~]o b y v]., which causes
only a small error:

P -- b¢g p~ 0. Pr (24)

It will be obvious t h a t the constant 84 is very uncertain, mainly

due to the influence of (17).
The heat dissipation of a strip 1 cm wide in the Y direction is
given by:

Q= bp ( l - - e - P * ) . (25)
0 0

By the definition of a:
<2 ~- ~ 0. h. (26)

F r o m (25) and (26) follows, with (24):

ab b4g p~0. Pr (1 - - e--~'~'~rodlb°~'P'=0wP'l). (27)

X. = 84 h ~ Too
Introducing the G r a s h o f number Gr* ---- b3g p.2 0.,['~. 2
Too (in
the case of fluids we have to replace 1~Too by the expansion coeffi-
cient ~), and the Nusselt n u m b e r N u * = a b/k., where for the
linear dimensions b is used (Gr and Nu w i t h o u t * mean t h a t h is used
as a linear dimension as is the case in (4) and (5)), (27) becomes:

1 b Gr* Pr (1 -- e -~'*/(bG~''~)), (28)

Nu* = 8-4h

so t h a t we have found t h a t Nu* is a function of (b/h) G r * . Pr. T h e r e -

fore on plotting Nu* as a function of (b/h) G r * . Pr, all points should
lie on one single line. As will be shown later on, this is indeed the case
(fig. 11).

We shall now consider two extreme cases, namely b ~ 0'~and

b ~ oo. For b ~ 0 (27)" gives:
o~b _ 1 Mg p~ 0~, Pr (29)
84 Too
For narrow gaps we find therefore, a proportional to b3 We Call
compute this case exactly and determine t h e r e b y the correct value
of the factor 1/84. For b -+ 0 the flow of the air between the plates
will have the same t e m p e r a t u r e as the plates. Eq. (l l) becomes:
~w g ~ 0~
0 ~.~-~-~x2+ r----~

from which"
g pw 0w
---- 2 ~ T------~( ~ - - '~)" (36)

Per cm width in the Y direction the mass of the escaping air is'
f p~ w d x and this mass is 0~ higher in temperature t h a n at the mo-
ment of flowing in. The energy Q dissipated per cm width in the Y
direction and per plate is therefore :

Q - ~ h O~ --- cp O w f p , , . w d x

With (30), a -----½b and cp ~/X~ ---- Pr we find

•b 1 b 4 ~2g 0 ~ Pr
~ - = 24 h ~ Too (31)
Comparison with (29) shows t h a t the factor 1/84 must be replaced
b y 1/24.
(28) now becomes:
1 b
Nu* -- 24 h Gr* . Pr (1 - - e--24~h/(aG~"~l). (32)

For b -~ oo eq. (32) becomes:

Nu* ~ -- ~ ~.

This means that, if b increases to infinity, ~ diminishes to zero, in.-

stead of reaching the value for the free vertical plate (eq. (5)). I t is
not surprising t h a t (32) fails for large values of b, for eq. (14) and (15)'
mean t h a t the velocity and temperature distributions are as indicat~

ted in fig. 10a, whereas for large values of b the distributions will be
as indicated in fig. 10b. If in fig. 10a b becomes infinite and the form
of the 0 c u r v e remains the same, the 0 curve will be perpendicular to
the wall and no energy can be given off b y the latter. We shall, there-
fore, have to alter (32) and as this alteration must not influence the
case of small values of b, we must change the exponent. In order to
obtain a c o n s t a n t value for ~, when b ~ oo, we.change (32) into:
_ [ --/ c,h y,I c,
1 b Gr* P r 1 - - e ~0Gr..P~, j (33)
Nu* 24 h '

with the c o n d i t i o n '

c2 X c3 = ~. (34)

............................... ~W

L 0
--8 "-'-~'X 8

FI~. 10. T h e t e m p e r a t u r e e x c e s s 0 o v e r t h e t e m p e r a t u r e of t h e s u r r o u n d i n g s
a n d t h e v e l o c i t y w, w i t h n a r r o w g a p s (a) a n d w i t h w i d e g a p s (b).

For b - - oo (33) becomes'

Nu* = c| bt (Gr* . Pr) i
24 hi (35)
Denoting b y N u a n d G r t h e N u s s e l t and O r a s h o f number
with h as linear dimension, (35) m a y be written as'
Nu -- c 1 ( G r . Pr)~]24. (36)
B y this alteration of the e x p o n e n t , not only the dependence
on b for large values of b has disappeared, but the dependence on
the other quantities has at the same time become correct, since
Physica IX 2

(36) has the same (5) where the linear dimension in Nu a n d
Gr is also the height h of the vertical plate.
Comparison of (36)and (5)gives: c~/24 -~ 0,6 from which cl = 35.
(33) becomes therefore:

1 b Gr* Pr l--e ~bG,..~, ] . (37)

Nu* = 2-4 -h

Since (37) is rigorously valid for small values of b and will hold
for large values of b so long as (5) is correct, c2 or cs m a y be chosen in
such a way, t h a t the intermediate region is correctly described b y
(37) shows t h a t the predicted form/5 of (6) m a y be more specially
written as:
Nu* ---- / (Gr*. Pr b/h) (6a)
Until now we have assumed the plates to be in a vertical position.
If the plates m a k e an angle ~, with the vertical direction, we expect
t h a t in (37) we must replace g b y g cos y, since' only this component
of g is active for the flow of the m e d i u m between the plates. For large
values of y discrepancies m u s t be expected, because for y ---- 90 ° the
formula gives no heat dissipation at all, whereas for ~, ---- 90 ° and b
large, the dissipation is equal to the mean of those of the upper and
lower sides of a horizontal plate (which is of the same order as the
dissipation of a vertical plate). For ¥ = 90 ° and b very small, one
expects the heat dissipation to be roughly proportional to the area
4 bh, so t h a t a becomes proportional to b/h and c~ b/), proportional to
b2/h. If, for constant values of h, Nu* is plotted as a function of
(b/h) G r * . Pr cos y (which is proportional to b4/h), we expect there-
fore for small values of b a slope of ½ (Fig. 13). If the dissipation were
proportional to b2/h~, the lines would coincide for different values of
h; now one expects the height of the lines to be proportional t o . h - t
which for y ---- 85 ° is in agreement with the measurements (fig. 13).

§ 4. Comparison baween theory and experiments. The best w a y to

test the validity of (37) is to plot Nu* as a function of (b/h) G r * . Pr.
The five following conditions must then be fulfilled:
I ) The points must lie on one single line.
2) If plotted on a double logarithmic scale the slope m u s t be I for
small values of (b/h) Gr* . Pr.
, ,' ', ',',i',:',i;li',; i IIG-~,<;:~-C-G,'.,>,.~-,-,,-~.~}'; t 4 t - ~ ' 7 - ~ ~
,Hillll I I IIIIIIl:lll I li IIII II1 I III~IU1 i--~.<~.,'-]'~"7.1_LLLLI----I--I-I~L-~
~I-LI-LI-I . ~,l~-,ss,~ e,,,,.33,~°1-~ ' ~ LI I III_I-LZI I Ill !LLIL;_I__~LL~'_iJ~-~.,'!'-'~, ._~I_L~,_]_T~I-N., F!~ ~
.,=.~5,,,, ~.,=,~:L__~. /li!illll,l 1 III '1III ]..-sl I+l.Ll~"rl] ! I I':l/:l-Filll I I/I,Illl
+ hl.~,~Ct'll I~W:.,~ I° l l i i r J ' I -- i I
LI_!.~ .~:~,... ,,,,=,oo I i, I. ,,ll I I,.11
- ~ ~li ¢:~__ Q _oooo| ' ill l l l l l ~
I I11,~~1111.~1
I I I I l ~ , i l t 111tlt li i i I
,ill I.I1i I I
I.,,.,4."~ IIII
-- , , : i~ ~,,, ~ l - o ~ I I I I I i I ] I I I 1 1 I ~a~ ew=~aao! I I I l l I -'-H - i , t H OI . e_i.,'A,g-,~r-Tlftl i ~ I, , ,I , ,I , ~I J: iI i l I , !' I , II I I L _ L J I . L I .I. - . ¢ ~
o ' i '. ', II11 III I I1!11 !fill I I I i/~ ::i::
" ~ o..=~o i t , II1,111,111 t-..t-~,:,,,,:lltt tt Itllll_j_~'lJ ..I.L...,l~'~l'7~" l I, . t'rl
f : : I z l ~ ' *eh=
,'I--+-H-~ '12cm Ow=lO ~ ~ I I ; III I , III .,_,~lll,l~!tlx~.crn.L_L,l..._~_ [_..._1 i I~.~_i.~...~-~[~IB.~ i I ! i II
• I __ I F] 1I
~ =l 2.1'~ e , v = ~ L I o t IIItlItl/A.~,,~, ,I I~ I - H - H - - - ~ # I -_ _" L _ L- -L' , L . I ~ . I , L - . ~ P I 5 " ~ t 1111,1t,ftlt , Ii ,I Ii i l l l
Ih I 24era O W = f 3 5 ° I I I i iil=l._L.'~..,.t#LL_~_~.~,:,idtb;hx~qcm~"iTH-!!l!! I 1 I Iltll !11il I
ti_~;l--l-l-l-~ =h= 24cm e,...50 ° l I I I IlJe~ .t #''"~UTlll![I I1111 i I I lllll II I 1~ lq~l f/)
~l_l_l_LLl.h.~c,,, e~=to. I I / I..4."PII~I_I~I~]S~lq~il~~, I I If!lll!lllf ial Ilillll!lll ! I III111.
.,s III111 " I ! I ItI)'#'Flilll I 11-7~111 I l llllllillll I !llillllll II11111" '-d
IIit111111111 I ll..~.illilHI I.D.~l'lllllllll !1 ',', I i
j I I I iii I I I I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 _ll.,,~_~ ~ i / ~ / I I I! i / q
Ill I 1 I (llll II(ll J , 111111 Illl $ C ~ I ~. ~

OXl i I#II
,,, ,I ,,[i]) ,,,,,,
ill i i111"~¢1- I
~.¢',,,,,,fill ~,llll , 1111111 I
,,,, ,,111 11I tl I Iit ] 0.5
I I I 11 IIl/i~ ' [ I ~ I II 3 ,.~ ,.~ • 4
I I II!1 1 I 117-',I ,s,~:~,l" I I ~'i'I IIII ~.~o ~.~ ~o z:,o ~.~o ~ z,o 5.,o ~,
I I lill I I I I llll I i~rll i i i -J.'lil i iiii
nnS.!, I I 111 I I I I IIII L,4illl I .ll'l 1111 I III III11
'~" 1111 I I I t I-.~, I l l I.;~'~ ! ~,~
llllll i I Il~!lllll tA I

[lllll 1/1 I I llll,,<'4"lllll I I -,~w I I I III11 (~o ~,u -- *ttu/#t] ~ut ._r-i/
i FI a
~, I
I. . 1¼11
l i l l y
... /I I L~ Ik, llll.
. . . _. , ,a, , ~ .
~ . square plates.
I I I I-"I | l~<i-~, ' [ ~ ~ b. c o r r e c t i o n applied in such a way that the measure-
axT051 I l il I li'~l- I I Pr=--P-P-P-P-P-P~- I ' i ' 'iii m e n t s h o l d for p l a t e s t h a t a r e i n f i n i t e l v l o n g in t h e
~r~ I I A/'~ , x~, ~q03 • I Y d i r e c t i o n . T h e line is d r a w n a c c o r c l i n g t o (39).
',,,~1/I / I I I III111111 / " ' • - •
I III I= i T h e s c a l e of b is s h i f t e d a f a c t o r 5 w i t h r e s p e c t t o
I III I I I 1 I I 1 IIII IIIII I I III0~ th~tofa.

3) For large values of (b/h) Gr*. Pr the slope of the line must be ~.
4) For.(b/h) Gr*. P r - - l, Nu* must be 1/24 = 0.0415 (the e
power in (37) m a y be neglected here).
5) For (b/h) Gr*. Pr = l04, Nu* must be 6.0.
In fig. 1 l a all measurements of figs. 7, 8 and 9 are plotted on a
double logarithmic scale. The points are indeed scattered about one
single line. At small values of (b/h) Gr*. Pr the deviations are, how-
ever, rather large. Conditions 3) and 5) are satisfied. The slope at
small values of (b/h).Gr*. Pr is, however, somewhat too small and
the Nu* value for (b/h) Gr*. Pr = 1 is larger than 1/24.
The cause of this discrepancy lies in the fact that the calculation is
done for plates which are infinitely lon.g in the Y direction, whereas
the experiments are done with square plates. In order to take this
into account, we shall correct the measurements so that they hold for
plates infinitely long in the Y direction. V~e assume that small ver-
tical strips near the edges of the plate (at y = ~ ½h) lose energy in
the same w a y as the free vertical plate (eq. (5)). We estimate the
width of these strips to be ½b. Each square plate of h2 cm 2 has, there-
fore, an area of bh cm 2, losing energy according to (5), whereas the
rest loses energy according to (37). As we are only concerned with a
correction occurring for small values of b, we may omit the e power in
(37). Denoting the energy dissipation of the square plates b y Qo and
the energy dissipation of the infinitely long plates by Qoo we find"
Qo 24 x 0.6 ~ , T'& b
q : Qoo - 1 + h,i, b2 g,i, p~, 0'~' Pr'/, h
7.35 -~-" b
= l + h,lob2.p~ , 0 ~ , h (38)
(the last expression holding for air and roomtemperature by substi-
tuting - - Pr = 0.73 - - and Too = 293°K).

I0 1.87 I0 -4 1.16 ~ lO-~ 1.15 lO- t
50 2.04 ! .03 0.46 s
I00 2.26 0.90 0.40
180 2.57 0.748 I 0.41
330 3.10 0.568 i 0.52

In table IT the values of ~,/p~, 0~, are computed for various


values of 0~ (with Too = 293°K). As a result of the omission of the. e

p o w e r in (37), eq. (38) is only v a l i d for b < 0.4 c m in the case of
h = 5.95 cm, b < 0.5 c m for h = 12 c m a n d b < 0.6 c m in t h e case
of h = 24 cm.
E x c e p t for 0,o = l0 ° the values of -~,/p~, 0~, are n e a r l y t h e
same. W e a s s u m e t h a t for 0~ b e t w e e n 50 ° a n d 330 °, the value of
~ ' / p ~ , 0~, is 0.5 10 -2, w h e r e a s for 0w = 10 ° a value of 10 -2 m u s t
be used.

h2f2 '
0w5o0-3o" \\\! ew=,o

\ %..
N 1
o q,s o
,, b (crn) ,~b(cm)

Fig. 12. Correction factors q, by which the heat dissipation valid for
square plates, must be divided to obtain the heat dissipation of plates
infinitely long in the Y direction.

I n fig, 12 the correction factors q are p l o t t e d for b o t h cases as a

function of b, for the three heights h used in our e x p e r i m e n t s . F o r
high values of b we a s s u m e d q = 1.05 instead of 1.0, since w i t h the
s q u a r e free v e r t i c a l plate, a certain a m o u n t of air will flow f r o m t h e
sides, which m a k e s no difference if the p l a t e is infinitely long in the
Y direction. I n the e x p e r i m e n t s of S c h m i d t and B e c k m a n n 8)
this c o m p l i c a t i o n was p r e v e n t e d b y side plates.
I n t a b l e I the last column gives the values of Nu* corrected in this
way. I n fig. 1 l b these c o r r e c t e d m e a s u r e m e n t s are p l o t t e d . All five
conditions are n o w satisfied, so t h a t (37) a c t u a l l y holds for p l a t e s
which are infinitely long in the Y direction.
I n fig, 11 b we can d e t e r m i n e the values of c2 a n d c3. I t a p p e a r s t h a t
c2 ----- 1 a n d ca = ~ give a close a g r e e m e n t w i t h the e x p e r i m e n t s , so

that the equation (37) now runs:

Nu* = ~2-4
- -h Gr*. Pr 1 - - e bG-~:
with N u * = ~bb. Gr* t
b3g~O=" Pr = cp ~____w_~
X= ~}2Too ' ),~

The line in fig. 1 l b is drawn according to this equation.

Eq. (39) is right for those values of h for which (5) is right (in air of
atmospheric pressure with 0~ about 10--100°C, h may vary f r o m
about 1 cm to about 50 cm, while up to about 100 cm the error will
not be serious). For other values of h (39) will be right too, if b is
'small enough (b < 2h '1' ~]~,/g'l, ~, 0~, ~'1, Pr'/,).
As (39) describes the measurements,we ought to be able to inter-
pret figs. 7, 8 and 9 with the aid of (39)~ For low values of (b/h)
G r * . Pr we m a y write according to (39) :
~b b4 g p~ 0~ Pr b3 g X~p2 0,o Pr
h Too or (:) h Too (40)
whereas for large values of (b/h) Gr* . Pr (39) gives:
o~b b c,'/~~'1,A'I, Pr'l, g'l, X~ f~' 0~' Pr'/,
__ (:) ~ ~v~ ~_ or - ........ • (41)
• "" "JW ~ 0 0

As a function of b therefore the heat dissipation increases at first

as b3 and becomes constant further on. The fact that at small values
of b the slope in figs. 7, 8 and 9 is not quite 3, is a result of the edge
The influence of 0~ for small values of (b/h) Gr*. Pr is determined
by X=~ 0~/~, (eq. (40)) and for large values of (b/h) Gr*. Pr by
X~~ , 0~,/~v, (eq. (41)). In table III the values of these quantities are
computed for air at room temperature, and are divided by the value
at 0~ = 10°C.
As is seen in table III, x~ ~ 0dn~ increases rapidly with 0~, but
afterwards decreases again slightly, whereas the value of X~pv, ~A'/'/'~v'~.,~
increases over the whole range. This is just what figs. 7, 8 and 9 show.
The values reached asymptotically for large values of b must accord-
ing to (~ 1) be proportional to h -v,. The heat dissipations of fig. 7 for
large values of b are indeed ~/4 times larger than those of fig. 9. For
low values of b the dissipations are, in agreement with (40), propor-
tional to h -t.


0to°C) ~'w 2 2 ~. t i l t #I*/~V,

I0 I 1
50 3.62 1.49
I00 5.05 1.76
180 5.62 2.02
330 5.05 2.30

In fig. 13 measurements are represented for non-vertical plates.

F o r h = 12 cm and 0, -----330°C measurements were m a d e for y = 30,
60, 72{ and 85 °. For comparison the measurements for T = 0 are
also plotted. Furthermore, measurements for h = 5.95 cm and h = 24
cm are plotted for T = 85° and 0, = 330°C. The correction factor q
is not applied in this figure as this factor only holds for y = 0 °.
As m a y be seen in.fig. 13, the points for T = 72½° and h = 12 cm
still lie on t h e line for ¥ =- 0 ° if (b/h) G r * . Pr is small. For large
values of this q u a n t i t y the points lie, as m u s t be expected, higher if
T is larger. For T ---- 85 ° and (b/h) G r * . Pr small, the slope is about ½
a n d the lines lie higher for smaller values of h, as predicted at the
end of § 3.

§ 5. Discussi6n. If a rod of length L (fig. 1) is to be cooled with

plates of height h and thickness d which have a uniform temperature,
0w higher t h a n their surroundings, we can with (39) compute the
distance b,, between the plates which gives the highest heat dissipa-
tion. If we put
g p~ ~ 0w Pr
= A (42)

we m a y write (39) as

a b ~_ I b' A [l - - e-aSllb"~l] 'h. (43)

X~ 24
The number (n + l) of plates which can be arranged on the length
L is given by: nb + (n + 1) d = L. As d will be small compared with
b, and moreover n >~ l, we write:
n = L/(b + d) (44)
F r o m the (n + I) plates 2n sides lose energy as given b y (43),
whereas the two outer sides lose energy independent of b as given b y
IIII IIII .... Ill "~
I I Ill I ~ ..
iI iii !in IIII ! ! i '""I-~ ::~
Itl J<~We"~. 1 1 l lll ~'~'~, ~ ','.
III1 I II iiii ~2
r. 12x~cnP 7..0 °
i,, 12x12cm a T.30 °
1,. I . ~x12cm a 7.60 °
mu--I| Ix~ 7 IIII p°~+ laxl,?cma 7=rZ ° 11
mmllllU .¢~,r i I n
m m m l l III
I° 12x~cnia 7=a5°
illl | . 24x24cm a 7=a5 °
I l~
I [ I I llll u
I : : : i u
I /

ol I IIIII - -~"
l !
/ J :

! I ,
i~u I i I i iiii
I I ~ I I I L~f
~esI ~- : I lYlL, • I iiii u

] I11 iiii
] I I [ Jill
~. r ~"~'=85 ° ,~4x24cnP I III
0,o, :o,~.~L~-~-- " i " '"' I I I

5jOa ~03 ~:~3 £~0 J XO' ?,X~ £~04

Fig. 13. I f t h e p l a t e s m a k e a n a n g l e y w i t h t h e v e r t i c a l d i r e c t i o n , N u * m u s t b e p l o t t e d a s a f u n c t i o n of (b/h) G r * . P r cos y.


(5). The total energy loss b y convection Q p~r cm width in the Y

direction is thus a constant + 2n h a 0~ or, with (44) :
Q -- constant + 2h L o~O,./(b + d) (45)
~/(b + d) must therefore be a maximum.
With (43) we find that:
b + d [1 --e-~/tb'~l] '/' (46)

must be a maximum.
F r o m (46) it follows that the gap width bm giving the highest
energy dissipation, satisfies the equation :

bm 105 / e-~/(b'm bm
3 b,,, + d + b 4 - ~ ] = 3 b,. + d " (47)

We obtain a first approximation bl by assuming d ---- 0. This gives:

105 ~ e _ ~ l ( b , A ) = 2 (48)
2 + b AJ
from which
b~ A = b~ g f~ ~0~, P r / h ~ = 46. (49)
In fig. ( 11 b) this corresponds to the point P.
As can easily be calculated, the tangent in P has a slope of ½. On
the line S in fig. 1 l b, 0¢ b is, therefore, proportional to b2, so that Gtis
proi~rtional to b. Since the total-energy loss is proportional to
n ~ = L a/b, the total energy-loss is constant on S. The departure of
the curve from S in the vertical direction gives, therefore, the devia-
tion from the greatest cooling. For 10% less cooling (b/h) G r * . P r
m a y differ b y nearly a factor 3 from the value at P. This corresponds
to a deviation of 3 0 % of b from bt.
In order to solve (47), taking into account the thickness d of the
plates, we write:
bm = bl + a (50)

and assume a to be small compared with b 1. Dividing (48) b y (47)

we get :
2 + 105/b4A ~ 14at(ab:) 2 (51)
2 + d/b, + 1 0 5 / b ~ A - 4208/Ab~] e - . 2 + d/b,

W i t h (49) this gives as a first a p p r o x i m a t i o n :

= 0.3d (52)
W i t h (42), (50) a n d (52) we m a y now write (49) as"
( b i n - 0.3 d) 4 gp~ [30~ P r
= 46. (53)
F o r air (53) becomes:
(b,, - - 0.3 d) 4 gp2=0~, = 63.
h~,~ Too


5 fO ~0 50 tO0
,,, h(cm)

Fig. 14. Optimum distance between the plates diminished by 0.,3 of the
plate thickness d as a function of the height h for different values of
temperature excess 0w over room temperature for vertical plates in air
of atmospheric pressure.

At a t m o s p h e r i c pressure and room t e m p e r a t u r e (Too = 293 °) figs.

14 and 15 give the values of b m - 0.3 d calculated with (54) as a
function of h and 0w. If ~- # 0 ° we have to add the factor cos y to the
left h a n d side of (53) and (54). In this case, therefore, the values of
b , - - 0.3 d in figs. 14 and 15 must be divided b y (cos y)'/,.
In the above we have determined, the o p t i m u m value of b for a

given h. If now, we vary h, and for each value of h choose the value of
b equal to bin, we m a y regard the energy dissipation as a function of
h. In neglecting the thickness d of the plates and the heat-loss of the
two outer surfaces, the heat-loss over the length L per cm of width
in the Y direction is according to (45) proportional to od~/bm. Intro-
ducing (53) with d 0 in (39) we find Nu*
= ~b,,/k~ constant = =

(---- 1.2) or c¢ proportional to 1/b,,. The heat dissipation is therefore

\ -%

= fOOcm



2o 5o -.tocJ aoo

Fig. 15. O p t i m u m d i s t a n c e b e w e e n t h e p l a t e s d i m i n i s h e d b y 0.3 of t h e

p l a t e t h i c k n e s s d as a f u n c t i o n of t h e t e m p e r a t u r e e x c e s s 0w o v e r r o o m
t e m p e r a t u r e f o r d i f f e r e n t h e i g h t s h, for v e r t i c a l p l a t e s in a i r of a t m o -
spheric pressure.

proportional to h/bL. According to (53) and neglecting d, b~ is pro-

portional to h, so that the heat dissipation becomes proportional to h 'h.
This may also be stated as follows: if we increase h, and for each value
of h choose the optimum value for b, a decreases proportional to h -v,
and the number of plates also decreases in the same ratio, so that the
total dissipation increases only as h . h - V , . h -v" = h'/,. Since, in
general, d will be small compared with bin, the maximum heat dissi-
pation in practice will also be nearly proportional to h'/,.
The heat dissipation of the two outer surfaces (of the first and the
28 H E A T D I S S I P A T I O N OF P A R A L L E L P L A T E S

last plate) is proportional to h'/" (eq. (5)). If this energy is an impor-

tant part of the total energy loss (this will be the case if L is small
and h large) the total energy loss by convection will be proportional
to h k, where ½ < k < t.
These considerations remain true in princil~le, where square plates
are concerned, because in the neighbourhood of (b/h) Gr*. Pr = 46
the correction vactors q are already practically constant. The value
of, b~, will, moreover, not be influenced much by taking also the
radiation losses into account, because they change only slowly with b
and will generally be small compared with the convection losses.
The radiation losses not having been taken into account, the value
we found for bm is somewhat too Jarge, Since, however, the weight of
the apparatus decreases when b increases, it will always be advisable
to keep on the higher side of the maximum.

Eindhoven, 16th July 194 I.

Received October 29th, 1941.


I) W. Nu s s e 1 t, Gesundh. Ing. 38, 477, 1915.

2) R. H e r m a n n, Phys. Z. 33, 425, 1932.
3) E. S c h m i d t & W. 1 3 e c k m a n n , Techn. Mech. & T h e r m o d y n . I, 341, 1930;
Forschung auf dem Geb. des Ing.wesens, I , 341,391, 1930.
4) R. H e r m a n n , Forschungsheft 379, Beilage Forsch. auf dem Geb. des Ing.wesens
W. E l e n b a a s , Physica 4, 761, 1937;6,380, 1939.
5) M. t e n B o s c b, Die W~rmeiibertragung Berlin 1936, p. 164.
6) H . H . L o r e n z , Z. techn. Phys. 15,362, 1934.
7) H. S c h m i d t &E. Furthmann, Mitt. Kais. Wilh. lnst. E i s e n f o r s c h . ~ -
doff I@, 225, 1928.

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