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A PICTORIAL MANUAL FORMEDITATORS

Achan Sobin S. Namto

the who perceive "Those of and arising ceasing and mental Physical they eventhough states, livefor a day,arelar thanthosewho better never the arising see of andceasing mental and states andphysical years." livea hundred Dhammapada

MOMENT TO MOMENT MINDFULNESS A PICTORIAL MANUAL FOR MEDITATORS

A C H A N SOBIN S. NAMTO 1989

Vlpassana Dhura Medllation Soclety PostOlticeBox 355 92333 Fawnskin, Calitornia

u.s.A.

lsBN 974-86904-6-6 ALLBIGHTS FESERVEO REFER THE LAST TO PLEASE AND PAGE FORRETREAT INFOBMATION. ORDERING

1989 S. @ Sobin Namto

THIS BOOK IS DEDICATED MY PRECEPTOR, TO HIS EMINENCE THE SOMDEJPHRA BUDTHACHARN, AN ESTEEMEO FRIENDOF MAHASISAYADAWOF BURMA,WHO, WITH REMARKABLE COURAGEAND BODY.WITNESS THE TRUTH, SPBEAD THE TO OF INSIGHTMEDITATIOil SUBLIMETEACHINGS AROUNOTHE WORLD.

BYTHESAME AUTHOR
INSIGHT MEDITATION: Practlcal Steps to Ultlmato

CoverDesign:Paisan Suvanthada

Printed by Wongswang Press Co., Ltd.


6?0/?4G9 J.r.n6nitwong Rd., B|ngpl.d, BKIC lo?O0, THAILAND TcL 42443tl, 424-5O19, 424-7459 Tclex.2l582 rcInNG TH Frr. (662) 4335394

CONTENTS
Page FOREWORD PREFACE. PUBLISHER'S FOREWORD IMPORTANT MESSAGES THEREADER TO ABOUT THEMETHOD MINDDEVELOPMENT: Theory Pradice and Whatis Insight Meditalion? 1 TheBenefits Training . of 2 The Developmenl Vipassana Meditation of 3 Investigating Palh . . . the 4 TheWorking Ground MindDevelopmenl. . . . . o ol Differences Between Concenlralion Meditation andInsight 7 Whalis Mindfulness?.. . . 9 The FourFoundations Mindlulness ol 11 Why Practice Stepby Step Mindfulness? 12 . . 13 ClearComprehension . Factors Comprising ind-and-Body M 14 TheSenseBases 15 Distinguishing MenlalProcesses f r o m h y s i cP r o c e s s e s P al ,,,,.'17 Howto Focus Mental Physical on and Objecls. . . , . . |9 S e l f - d e d i c attooh eT r a i n i n g itn ........20 Preparalions Intensive for Praclice. . ,,,.21 l s G u i d e l i n eo rC o n d u c l ......22
Thp tridhtPrp.anlq ....,..23

i iii vii viii

Tr O nE n t e r i n g a i n i n g . Pr C o m m e n c iIn g e n s i v e a c t i c e nt E s s e n t ila fs l r u c t i lo n B e g i n n e r s . n or L a b e l i n ge n t a ln dP h y s i cO lb j e c t.s M a a Mindlulness Abdominal Movement on B orthe realh.

.,...., z4 ......26 ,,...28 .........29 .....30

INSTRUCTION MINDFULNESS: STEPBY STEPILLUSTRATED Resolution Entering Practice: Making ..... 33 a n dO t f e r i n g l u l a l i o n . Sa ..... Poslure. 35 I n t r o d u c t t o nh e S i t t i n g i t l r o mS i t t i ntg S t a n d i n go s t u r e . P ....,.37 o Changing .......,.4'l l n t r o d u c t i o nh e S l a n d i nP o s l u r e . t l g . . . . 43 Posture lntroduction the Walking to Pe a c l i c e . r ......,,44 W a l k i nS c h e d ufl o rl n t e n s i v g e ......... 50 I n t r o d u c t li o t h e R e c l i n i n g s t u r e n Po -H M n ....5? R h y t h mPc a c t i c e a n d - B y - H a nid d f u l n e s s i r ..... 55 M i n d f u l n e sM e a l l i m e . al s ....57 Generalindlulness. M Intensive Praclice Transfer of Concluding De ......... 58 M e r io l W h o l e s o m e e d s , t MEDITATION PROBLEMS CORRECTING H o w o H a n d lP h y s i cP a i nn T r a i n i n g al i t e H o w l o o r r e c tl e e p i n ea n dD u l l n e s s . C S ss withsevereEmotional Howto Work PaininEarlyTraining..,. Recurring Memories Howlo Handle m a n d v e r a c l ilv ea o i n a t i o n . O ......... ........ ......... ......... 60 61 62 63

FOREWORD His Emlnence the Somdei Phra Budthacharn Acllng Supreme Patrlarch of the Buddhlsl sangha of Thalland
Whenthe VensrableMaha SobinS. Namtofirstbecammy closedisciplein B.E. 2492 (1949), I was Abbot ol Wat Maha Dhatu Monastsry, Bangkok. I acted as Preceptor at his novice ordination, and laler he became a monk al Wat MahaDhatu,Bangkok. Throughoutthe years, I have found him to be a forthrightand amiabl person. From the earlydays of his novitiate, displayed ken interestin he a practicing Vipassana(lnsight)meditation.At that time, h was the very lirst novice to complete seven continuous, non-stop months of Insight meditation under the guidancs ol the late mditation master, The Most VenerableChao pursuehis studies ot KhunBhavanapirama to Thra. He conlinued earnestly and meditalion.lappointedhim as teacherand Dharma(Buddhisl teachings) by menlorto his students.He was highlyrespectd boththo clergyand laity. I am aware that the study and practiceof Buddhismis lhe only way to gain its benelits. In B.E. 2496 (1953), I founded a Vipassanacenter at Wat Maha Dhatu. lt is well known locallyand intsrnationally.Maha Sobin taughtlhers tol many years. I fervently wish lhat all monks,nuns,novicesand laitydedicats tho themselves faithfully to servingand practicing Dharma. Maha Sobin has long agred with my aspiration. Seekingto depen his Dharma knowledge, I sent him for lurthsr sludies with the VenerableU Visudha Sayadaw,Kabaae,Rangoon, Burmain 8.E.2500 (1957). Returning to Thailand, he continued as teacher ol meditation and Abhidharma (Buddhist psychology) and Dharma. In 1960, I was pleasedto honor lhe for requests the Lao Buddhlst of Sanghaand the Head Instructol Vipassana Medilation, and lhe invitationof the Governmentof Laos to appolnt Maha Sobin to teach meditationand Abhidharmaat Wat Buddhavipassanaram, Luangphrabang,Laos. P , H e r e s u m e d e a c h i n gi n S o u t h e r n h a i l a n d , h u k e tP r o v i n c ew h e r e h t T established Abhidharma th Vidhvakorn lnstitute.

Chairperson of Later,the Most VenerableChao Khun Dhammakosacharn, lhe "Wat Thai in America'Commitlee, selectedhim and lour other monksto establish first Thai temple in Los Angeles,California.Maha Sobin was the aooointed firstAbbot. its He is also the Founder-Abbot a Vipassana of lempl in Denver, Colorado.In '1980 he decided to resign from ths monkhood,but conlinuosto dedicate himself entirely and untiringly to teaching Vipassana, Abhidharma and Buddhism NorthAmericansand the Southeast to Asiancommunity.He has established several meditation centrs and has a numbsr of Westsrn disciples. I was delightedto learn lhat hs is the author of lwo books in Englishon Insightmeditation.I am confident these publications b of greatworth in will transmifiing messageol Vipassana the meditation the generalpublicin the to Western World. These oflerings are the rssult of his many years of persevering eflorton behalfof the Dharma. progressand lind pace and contentment May he and his Westerndisciples in the Dharma. May all beingsenterthe streamof Buddha-Dharma forever.

S.P WaWdtltozltuz.
His Eminence SomdejPhra Budthacharn the LordAbbot,Wat Maha Dhatu,Bangkok Directorot VioassanaMeditationin Thailand

PREFACE Atitam nanvegameyya yadatitampahlnantam Paccupannam ca yo dhammdm nappalikankhe anagatam appattsnca anagetam tatlhe tatthe Vipassati

"Thepast is gone;the luturehas nol come. But whoever seesths Truth in moment, knows which unshakable, in a and thal is livs clearly theprssenl unmoving of still, stale mlnd.The Buddha Bhaddekarctta Sutaa

(Vipassana) to For a longtime, I havs had th intsntion writea bookon Insight meditationbased on the "Four Foundationsof Mindfulnsss'ol the Maha
q.ti^.tthr^r qr rtt.

As a novice monk in Bangkok, monastictraining centefd on mmorizalionof texts by rote. No manuals were availableon Vipassanapractic,but my teacher,The Most VensrableChao Khun Bhavanabhirama Thera, did not teach us to parrol the material ws learned by heart. He would rconslructlhe way untilwe had building blocksol abslruse scriptural matrial a systematic in a thorough knowledg ot our studies. No certificatewas awarded for Vipassana study and vry few novices joinsd these classs. In thos days, and lfelt lorlunateto was not wide-spread, the practice Insightmeditation of an be the sludntol so conscientious instructor. with xlraordinarily Almost70 years ago, my teacherstudiedand practiced giftedmonksat the Burmse temple in Bangkok. Throughths years,I had a number ol instruclors from whom I learned the principles ol teaching yet I retainedthe basic methodof my first leachr, Vipassanameditation, approachto trainingbassd on lindingit lo be a preciseand highlyetfective Sutla. lhe early Commentaryto th Maha Satipatthana to lobserved many Americans wer introducsd When I arrivedin Calilornia, meditalion throughthe writtenword. Ovsr 90% of Buddhistbooks in Norlh practices varioustraditions, only a of but Americaexplored concenlration the which is the handlulol publications producedon Vipassanameditation, ars given by the Buddha. As lar as lknow, no dotailsdbook earliestinstruction on lhe slep by step approachlo training exists on Insightpracticein th Wssi.

guidance the Therelore,lwrote lhs presenlbook on theoryand practical for noviceand the morg exoerienced mditator. The publication ot this book bcame a reality through the gsnsrous donations of practitionsrs and supportsrs. Inasmuch as thsy have olfered the grateslol gifts - lhe teachingof th Oharma- the crdit belongsto lhsm lor spreading messageof Insightmeditation. the May all Dharmacomradesshare any meritgaindthroughths publication of lhis book. May we all practic togethsr lo end delusion and sutfering and rsalize lh tasle of Absolute Freedom. Nibbana. I tfansfrany merit realizedlrom the offeringol this book lo my parents, tachrs, allfriendswho have supportsd me, and to all sentisnt beings. May ws striveto 6liminal6sutfringat all times.

J )/^AAchan Sobln S. Namto Bangkok, Thailand 8.E.2s321989

PUBLISH R'S FOBEWORD E


Many individuals today, in unparalleled numbers, are burdened a crisisof by identity manifssting as stress-relatddisease or mor severe mental symptoms.This personalcrisis is mirrored a worldcommunity in continually plunginghsadlong into entanglemenlsand lurmoil in the political,social, rliglous and economic arenas. Some thoughtfulmen and women have searchedfor and found an escape route from life's dilemmas, if not from misery, by the practics of mind development known as Insight(Vipassana) meditalion.Alter realizing some bnelitsol the practice,meditatorsoften teel bound to shar lhis teaching with others, who, like lhemslves, are seking tor a solutionlo conllict. Perhaps, one day, Insightmedilation may be an agendaitem at meetings to seltleglobalconllict! The sharingol lhis teachingls growing in evr greaternumbers. In a Iittle more than two decades, interest in the practiceof Insight meditationhas captufed ths atlention ol mental health workers, oducatorsand artists. lt has had noticeablsimpact on lhe North American, European,and, to some degree, world-wide lhe spiritual community. A discourss th Buddhaknown as the -Four Foundalions Mindlulness" of ol lorms th foundationol lhe practic. Recordedby monks in Ceylon in the FirstCentury, this teachingstandsas a timelessrgmindr that lh mind has changed linle sincs ancient times. We remain atflicted,as did our lorebears, with ths endemic dis-ease of menlal ills. Through lhe passag of two millennia, this "Proclamation Emancipation" from mentalbondagehas nol of been lost. There is a WAY OUT of the human gredicament those who for travelthecourseio complelion, Achan Sobin S. Namto is one ol a number of instructors now sharinoths rosponsibility teaching Insight medilalionin North Amrica. ol monk,ths thsn Venerable Trainedin the classical mannerof a Buddhist Phra Maha Sobin S. Namto was invitedin 1972 6y lhe Thai Sangha Councilto stablish the lirst Thai temple in the United States. Primarily a teacher ol (Buddhisl Vipassana and Abhldharma Psychology) over 30 years,Achan lor Sobinmadelhe teachingavailable bothThaisand Americans.As a result, to Americans wsre soon requesting opportunitigsto snlsr intensive meditation pracllce under his direclion. Some yoars later, he mads ths decisionlo widen his scop ol acliviliesby teachingas a lay inslructor.

For over lhre decades, majorteaching his dutiesin Thailand cent6r6d around instructing thousands teachers, of monks and laity,manyof whom intended trainolhers the practic Insight to in mditation Abhidharma. of and As a lacher's lachr,AchanSobintesls a kesnobligation prssrv6 to and transmit prislin lh character Vipassana of meditation th Occidsnt, to specially theseearlydaysof establishing roots this sxlraordinary in the ot teaching Delivsrance. of Rathet thandiminish diluteth "Giftot Truth" popular or lor consumption, AchanSobinndeavors maintain integrily th originalintntol the lo the of training, is, as a vehicle Enlightsnmsnt. haslherefore lhat of He retained a 'no{rills'approach. Without compromising principlss thetraining, the ol h has madadaptations only veryminorfsatures in and has provided some options cerlain in matters the@nvnionc6 Westrn tor of mditators, Achan Sobin's hartllt wishis to leave legacy Western-born a of leachsrs to carry th essential on workot sharing mssage healing liberation this of and lh around world. journy. Maythisolf6ring encourage guidsyourlirststeps ths Insight and on

Bangkok,Thailand B.E. 2532l't989

IMPOBTANT MESSAGES TO THE READER worker whowish entsr to under carol a mental the health 1 . Persons their intention withtheir training strongly are advised discuss to psycholherapist, lf permission given, is consultation th with elc. is medilation teacher necessary. Vipassana meditation a path of lndlvlduallzed instruction. is withothermeditators a at Whilesharing csrtainroutine activiliss an training nota group and center, training ths remains individual activity. for and The instruction olleredin this bookis a guideline praciics tor contactbslwsen cannot substitute ths essential oersonal meditators sncouraged are to teacher and studenl. Prospecliv and training. lindan instructor nler designed novica lor meditators, sssnlial only 4 . As an introduction pointsof Vipassana theoryhave bsn includsd mditators. for used when Both Pali and Sanskrit lerms have been minimallv for neded clarity. I n - d e p t h m s d i t a t i o ng u i d a n c e ,s u i t a b l s f o r i n l r o d u c t o r y , in and levels training b tound Achan of may intermediary advanced S o b i n ' sb o o k n t i t l e dI N S I G H T M E D I T A T I O N :P r a c t l c a l Sleos lo Ultlmate Truth.

vtl

ABOUT THE METHOD The tschnique training of dolailedin thesepagsis an oxpanded mthod basedon lhe originalinstruction insightmeditation ol developsd th lat by andronown meditation master, Mahasi Sayadaw, Burma. of Achan sobin has lurthr elaboralsdthe principleol step by step mlndtuln.ss (a skilIultraining device) 6nabling insight th worksr gain to Increegod bonefits thepraclic. of Maydevotees insighlmeditation, lhe yearslo come,turthorrefingthis ot in mosl remarkable lrainir as an otteringto all sekersot truth.

M I N D D E V E L O P M E N T :T H E O R YA N D PRACTICE

WHAT IS INSIGHTMEDITATION?

(Vipassana) Insight medilation meansinward seeing- seeingReality it as is, not as we would like it lo be. lt bringsa radicalchange in our personal world, a change in how we see oursslves and others. Insightis lh tool which revealsthe Awakened Mind ol purity and clarily, allowingthe prfectionot the "Artof Living." We are allfamiliar wilh the joys and disappointments whichdetermine our day-lo-day reality. Caughtin the grip of neurotic emotions and attachments, we know something not right- lita hurts. is Yet, another Realily exists and thrs is another way to live. But whal do we do with the massivetorstol entangled emotionsand thoughlscollected through years? Vipassana the meditation usesall lh e conlenls themind as of preciouskindling.Insightmeditationconsumesthe stress,frustration and pain whichdarkensour lives. This personalpurification process, whichmay be practicedby personsot all taiths,resloresthe warmthof tru humanity, cleansesmental impurities and developscomplelementalhalth,it we ars willinglo put the trainingto the lest. Insightmeditalion shows us who and what we are - and whal we can becom. The techniqueis simple, systematicand direct. Trainingfocuses on observing the mind in its natural state, with a non-attached,objeclivo awareness(mindfulness) what is acluallypresenl, momntto momenl. of N.4editationnol our goal, but a tool for realizalion. No suppression is of m e n l a l s t a t e s o c c u r s i n l h e t r a i n i n g , U n l i k e o u r n o r m a la t l i t u d e sa n d perceptions daily life, which carry an ethicalcontenl,duringth training in periodwe observeonly bare mentaland physical phenomena. practice,step by step training slrenglhens A gentle, non-aggressivo consciousness mind and body processesuntil inluilivsknowledge, ol finely balanced and linelytuned,arisesspontaneously the mditator. for

THE BENEFITS OF TRAINING

P r a c t l c l n gI n s l g h t m d l t a t l o n . Rosuhs in lh sxperientialknowledge Wisdom, and ths ol a b a n d o n m e no f c l i n g i n g t o c o n c e p t s ,r . v h i c h r s u s e t u . t a conventions, which notUltimat but are Truth; Develops, lhe deepest in sense,a person trus spiritual ot culturo; joy Develops loving-kindness compassion, andpeace mind; and of Equips msditator the withsell-knowledge whichrsults natural in self-governing; gratitude gentlensss; Cultivates and Promotes selflessness aiding in others, wilhout ego-involvemenl; Gvesrelief lromstrss andanxiely dailylife; in Promotes lreedom from anger,worry, cravings, conceit, spirilual doubt, restlessness mental and turmoil; Develops powersof concentration; the Results freedom in fromgrielandsorrow; Banishes menlal conlusion promoting by clarity mindandbody ot stales; Promotes unity humanity respect allsentiont the of and lor life.

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THE DEVELOPMENT OF VIPASSANAMEDITATION

Gautama is Insightmeditation based on the teachingsof the historical who livedin India(modernNepal)in the sixthcsntury,B.C. Buddha, The cntral lachings of Buddhism,which culminale in lull spirilual Awakening,are based on th Four Noble Truths and lhe Nobl Elghtfold Palh. fields two complementary the teachings comprise Traditionally, Buddhist (or of activity duty)for monks,nuns and laity: GANTHADHURA - The study of the BuddhistCanon (IheTripitaka) ot tsxts: consisting lhe following

ABHIDHARMA SUTRAS VINAYA

Buddhist Psychology of Discourses the Buddha and for Codeof Discipline monks nuns

teachings, the theoryof Buddhist VIPASSANA DHURA - After studying which is dividedinto by ol the Path is then developed the practice meditation (lnsight). (concentration) and y,Fassana two areas: Samadhl meditation, whichleads ln our present studywe shalllocuson Vipassana and to the to the end of all mental sulfrings, to fruitionol the Teachings, realization of Enlightenment (Nirvana). This is the practiceof Insight m e d i t a t i o n ,w h i c h r e s t s o n t h e b a s e o f E t h i c a l C o n d u c t ( S / a ) a n d Concentration.

INVESTIGATING THE PATH

Buddhism, a non-proselytizing as rsligion Wayot Lils,ncourages or free inquiry and not blindbeliel;therefore, is a pathopnto all lor tull it investigalion. Afterdeeplyprobing natursof lits,the Buddha the cameto the following conclusions rosolution. and

THE FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS 1. Life,by its imprfoct is natur, unstabl basically and unsatisfactory, (as duo to the potentiality strss, of conllictandfrustration opposed to stability complate and happiness). 2. Thisdistrss caused a special ol "thirst'- thegreedand is by kind atlachment arising fromdelusion not seeing true naturs in ths ol Beality. 3. Thiscondition conllict of andpaincanceasewithrslsassfromgrd andneurolic clinging. 4. Frdomfrom this stressjrustration-pain cycle is realizsdby investigating, THE NOBLEEIGHTFOID testingand practicing PATH:

THE NOBLE EIGHTFOLDPATH

Consists RIGHT(complele balanced) UNDERSTANDING cd or (comSte or balanced) INTENTION RIGHT RGfIT (onpkle c bakred) SPEECH

(6mplotoo. balancd) ACTION RIGHT (cornplete bahrEd) LIVELIIIOOD RIGHT or REHT(snphle d bahc.d) EFFORT

(6tnpltoo. balalrd) MINDFULNESS RIGHT (comCete babrrd) RIGHT or CONCENTMTION

T H E W O R K I N G . G B O U N DF M I N D D E V E L O P M E N T O

The normalmind is alwaysthinking,rsstlss, disquieted and rarelystill. Oftn ovrwhslmed and smothred by mntal hindrancesor laints, ws lind ourslvesdesigning our own suftsring day in and day out, from birth to death. When ths mind is not groundedin a skiltlul, wholesome mentalstale, it rangss far and wide, unlamed, uncontrollsd, wak and inefficient. Fortunately,it possesses grat potsntialto be tamed, to become pliable and fit for work. Ths potontialol ths mind is snormous! Each of us has a monlal "work station" - a bas or ground lor mind dvelopmnt. Th Pali lerm kammatthana may be divided inlo kawta (action)and thara (work). h is the place of pracl'rce where one works on the psntramind. ll is the workingground th mind in which lnsight of develops tionof the Truth. ll playsan indispensable in Insighl role meditation. Thre are two kinds ol workinggrounds tor msntal cuhivation,namely SamadhiBhavana,or Concntration mditationleadingto Tranquilily blisslul states. Ths defilemntsor passionsar temprarily sudued by and the powsr of concsntration and Vipassana Bhavana, or Insight mditalion, which lads to pnotrating Knowladge. This, in turn, unfoldsths Wisdom ol Enlightnment and th deslructionot lgnoranca- ot all mentalcravings and altlictions.

D I F F E R E N C E S E T W E E NC O N C E N T R A T I OA N D B N MEDITATION INSIGHT

msditation mlhods xisted many canluris Concentratlon (Samadhl reflct ons streamol bforsthe blrth of the Buddha. Thesemethods prac{ice subjects, lisledin Classical as meditative consisting 40 traditional of basedon ths Thesemethods dividsdinto six catsgories, are Buddhism. temoramsnt th mditator. of rality,with atintion Semedhl practicetocussson convonlional (visualization) a sound oI directod a slngle objsct,such as an imags to (Danfa),or lhe brath. lts praclicolsadsth devotee advanced to stalesol every day hindrancss ol tranquilily, called tranquilityabsorptions. The worry and skeptical doubt ar temporarily sensuality, will, lassitude, ill gradually ol ascends lh blissful to states ths suppresssd. Consciousness retalning only the barosttracs of rsalms of torm and lormlsssness, "voidnsss'or 'smplinss' Ths mditator thn experiencss @nsciousnss. lhe are of mind. Thesestales,especially lanrabsorplions, rats anddilficull lo accomplish. lor The externalrequirsments that lorm ol practiceincludqui|, good companionship, Such Samadhi atlainments rssullin ths solhud, stc. powers.lt is the pathof lhe abilitios, svenpsychic cultivation manyspcial of powe,slo aid others. The lssling, Bodhisaltva,bsstowingstrongmnlal ol happiness lhs ths is uponreaching limitsof samadht', lhal of permansnt plesnl. is wilhthatformol medilalion, delusion still self. However, is trom samadhi, the as Vlpassanz or Inslght meditation, distinct of vehicleleadingto tull Liberation. lt is ultimatknowlsdg Rality, trom mntal faclorol sutlering eliminating lgnorance, whichis the causativ poffutanls.Unlikelhe practiceot samadhi, whichfocussson oxlernal that to training xamines whichis clossst us - our own mlndobjcts, Insight for of the and-body. Thseconstitule only objscts th practic Insight this who rs-discovered Pathot of meditation. wastho genius th Buddha lt Truth. Insight ths roalization Ultimale lor ol

The dawningof delivrancs signals,and is accompanid th by, cessalion all msntaldefilements.The lour NobleTruthsars penstratsd of and lhe Noble EightfoldPath is traverssdto compltion.The knowledge whichdawnswhen lhis state of ralization occursis that of the Truthsof fmpermanence, Suftsringand of Non-Self. Niruana Ultimate of is Roleass from sutfsring,lrom recurring the cyclesof Birth-and-Dath.

WHAT IS MINDFULNESS?

Mindfulness the dlrscl xperience touching is of only th prssent moment our lives. Whentraining tho practice, meditator ditsctly io of the can worldand not b led experience constanl the shiftsof th phenomenal is lrom astrayby deludedthinking. This experionce entirelydifferent theorizing concaptualizing or intormation about realily. Ws will understand lhatthe prssentmomnt lhs onlytimstor living. is placed any montalobjecl(thinking, Mindlulnessfocusd is attntion on anger,calm, etc.) or any physlcal object (body postures, movsmnl, brealhing, stc.) (torm)objects Physical aro simplymateriality and, of course, not do possess of consciousness. Formis an objoct ths mind;it is consciousnsss to form which knows form. During Insight training, medilator lhe neds know typ6s msntal physical and inthe pregent moment only. Among many tho of is lorms,thers are eys-, nos-,touchinqand thinking forms (idoalion by considered sense-form). the 28 dillerent a Of typsol formrecognized psychology (Abhidharna), above usedin the formsare mainly Buddhist Vipassana meditation training. and is subiect lo Mindlulnss, msntallactor,is a tool usedin training a flux. lt rises and lalls, and varisin intensity. lt cannotb6 arlificially moving manufaclured. Insight The worker needs have mind to the constantly on on to the nextobjoctin consciousness, is, focusing tho pressnt that shouldnot be objeciand lhen "torgetting" roleasing Mindfulnss or it. grasped. practice. TOUCH-AND-GO KEYto mindfulness is th physical mental Whatever objectappears consciousness the in is or present object whichmindfulness no on focuss atlention; ther6for, nsd arisesto 'search" for objects. Essentially, Vipassana allowsus to know(be mindful any object'touching'themindon a momntary ol) basis. This "knowing'can itself moderate extrsmes mental any ol agitation oxcsssss or ol anytyp6.

Ouelo ihe exlremerapidity the msntalflux,it oftenoccurs the nw of to mditator lwo objsc{s that arisein consciousness simullaneously, as such sing hsaring. and Actually, mindcanhavsonlyone obloct at atims th jusl procssss in consciousnsss, as a c,omputer databh by bit. Onomindmoment rapidly is rising lalling, and bingimmediatev rsplaced another, by thenanother.In training, simply focusmindfulness the pradomlnani on mental objsct,noting whichis th stronger locus.

10

OF MINDFULNESS THE FOUR FOUNDATIONS

ol of The "FourFoundations Mindfulnss" ths ltaha SatlPatthana baseol Insighl servesas the Primary Buddhism, Sunr, as taught in sarly praclice.Thyareas follows: moditation or (broath, movement poslurs) of Objocts 1. Mindfulness Bodily sensations) or (pleasant, unpleasant nsutral ol 2. Mindlulnsss Fselings (mindwith oJ withoul ol 3. Mindlulness Stalsof Consciousness gred, hatrsd delusion) or (joy,apathy, calm'doubl worry, of 4. Mindlulness MntalContents slc.) rgstlessness, MINDand ol mindfulness 8ODY, FEELINGS' statd, Or, simply MENTAL OBJECTS as is ol Ths practics ths FourFoundations th samepractice lollowing Way. ol Path,as bothconstitut lh Eightfold Practics th Middle in of tol obiects the locusing mindfulnss th aro The FourFoundations or the prsnt momsnt.Bydoing workol the FourFoundations,byfollowing to for aversion and attraction dslroys the Eightlold Path,the mditator faclors. of balancs mental thusachisving objcts,

'll

WHY PRACTICESTEP BY STEP MINDFULNESS?

Whileimpossible fullyobservethe incredible of mind,slep by step to llux mindfulness trainingis designedto "go againstlh stream'ot our habitual action-reaction response and normalroutine. Step by step observationresults in th de-acceleration the menlal of llux, trainingthe mind to remain in the pressnt momont for close investigation. Reductionin the speed of physical movemnt 'slows the mind"sufficiently permitscrutinyof lhe highlights activity. ft is also the to of "actionof mind"which works as skillfulmeans,enablingWisdomto see the Truthsof lmpermanence, Dissatisfaction Non-Self. The lechnjqueis a and training device,and not an end in itself. Mind and body states arise and cease with the FOUR MAJOR POSTURES, WithMOVEMENTS OF THE BODY, ANdWithth SIX SENSE BASES. T h i s t e c h n i q u ep e r m i t st h e o b s e r v a t i o n f t h e r i si n g- a n d { a l l i n go f o EACH change of posture, EACH physicalmovement,and EACH shift in the mental process. Therefore,lhe principleot step by step mindfulness training lulfills the criteria praclicein lhe "FourFoundations Mindfulness' of of givenby the Buddha,and its commentarial discourse literature. This lechnique permits easy locusing on objects as they arise in consciousness,one by one on a momentary, non-stop basis. This lastfac'tor a fundamenlal KEY lo praclice. is As mindfulnessmatures, physicalmovemenl reestablishes itself in a pattern. morenatural

CLEAR COMPREHENSION

T h e a p p l i e d f o r m o f m i n d l u l n e s si n d a i l y l i f e i s c a l l e d C l e a r Comprehension,which ws carry with us throughout our ordinary life. Clear Comprehension WISDOM lN ACTION and is a vast fild for cullivation. is Clear Compf6hension and mindfulness work in tandem by penetrating the object or action wilh regard to its purpose and naiure. ll shows us how to procesdskillfully any situation, in lreelrom deludedmentalstates.lt differsin just as ths quality,intensity application with sach individual, and usIulnss ol lightdependsupon its source. Clear Comprehension conveysth duty ol deeplyprobingthe Truthsof (Non-Self). As an and lnsubstantiality lmpermanence, Unsalisfactoriness permitsus to mold our karma (volilional activelactor, clear comprehension activity). To a grat extent,we can learn lo respondlo circumstances a in skilllulway. Functioning ths Wisdom Faculty,clear comprehsnsion as regardsand lully comprehendsthe object contactedby mindfulnsssand preventsth birth ot delusion- Since no ignorance is associated with ths objct, defilementscannot arise. By investigating the phenomenalworld in this manner,withoutthe overlayol smotionalstates,conceptualizations bias, or the individual achievs non-altachmnllo the "passing show'yet still maintains efficient funclioning daily lile. in Clear Comprehension flort which is correctand timely. lt is a state is basis. informed mindlulness alltimes,on a momenlary by at

13

F A C T O R SC O M P R I S I N G I N D - A N O . B O D Y M

According Buddhist to Psychology, humanmindand bodycan b6 th analyzed terms tactors in ot callsd FIVE the GROUPS CLINGING. OF These groups compriso intsrlinksd the elements which regardd a temporary are as personality. THE FIVE GBOUPS OF CLINGING 1. 2. 3. 4. 5, Form(physicality) (pleasant, physicalor Sensalion unplsasanl neutral or mentallesling) (msmory, Percsption worldof ideas) Mental Formations (faculty mental ol activity (awareness various Consciousnsss of objects)

The abovesl6mntscan be reducsdto Four MentalFactorsand on Physical Faclor simpv or, T H E M I N D - A N D - B O DS T A T E S Y Thssemind-and-body stalsariseandcease, se andcease, a ariseand posturos th body, movemenl the body, ceas, $/ilh lour major ths ol the ol andth sense bas6s. In th ordinary unsnlightened being, mind-and-body conditions creats mntal alflictions dsfilemnts. oJ Thyarelhs intraslructur th Firstand of SecondNoble Truths. Howsvsr,mind-and-body also the path to are Enlightenment, it is mindfulnss for whichis walking lh Path. Insight on pursued meditation the practice is untilthe mgditator experience can th physical msntal stal6 Insight whichunderstands phsnomsna rising of and as and lalling away. This realization Insight-Knowlsdge basd on lhe ol is practice Insight of mditation. '1 4

N o o v e r r i d i n g' S e l f " c a n b e f o u n d t o c o n t r o lt h e a p p e a r a n c e n d a disappealance f mind-and-body tates. Penetratinghe nalure of o s t physicality and mentality leadsto lhe Truthsol lmpermanence, Sutfering and Non-Self . THE SENSE BASES

Mentality-and-physicality states aris and ceas at the six INTERNALand (including the six EXTERNAL sense-bass mindor consciousness), namely:

INTERNAL SENSE BASE Eyes Ears Nose Tongue Body Mind-base Therefore, whenever

EXTEFNAL SENSE BASE Visible Object SoundObject OdorObject TasteObjoct Body-lmpression Object Mind'Object

eyessee alorm - mind-and-body conditions arisand perishinstantly: - mind-and-body conditions arissand perishinstantly; earsheara sound ariseand perishinstantly; nose smellsan odor - mind-and-body conditions - mind-and-bodycondilionsarise and psrish inslantly; tongue tastes a tast and when bodycontacts somsthing cold,hot, soti or hard mind-and-body condilions ariseand perishinstantly; and n/nen mindcreates seizesan ideaor mind-and-body condilions ariseand perishinstantly.

'1 5

m a j o r i t yo f l n s i g h tw o r k e r s ,l h e V l p a s s a n a B h u m l

While the groups mentionedabove serve as the main objectsfor the (ot'Grounds for

list Establishing Insight")outlines a comprehensive of all objects used in training(thoughnot intendd use by nervmditators).Six categories tor are mentionedwhich total 73 objects lor practice. ariseand ceassat the six Internal The birthof greed,hatredand delusion and Exlernalsense bass. Lack ol mlndlulness with rsgard to the reality behindsenseformations causesdelusion and mentaltaintsto arise in either subtleor gross form. Their appearance cloudsthe mind,which is originally luminous and pure.

D I S T I N G U I S H I N G E N T A L P R O C E S S E SF R O M M PHYSICAL PBOCESSES

Belore the of meditation,is essential commencing practice Insight h the processs. aspiring meditator lo distinguish learn mental physical and I T I S I M P O S S I B L E T O P R A C T I C EV I P A S S A N A E D I T A T I O N M CORRECTLY WITHOUT ISFUNDAMENTAL TH INFORMATION. l n s e e l n ga f o r m : THECOLOR AREFORM; ANDTHEEYES CONSCIOUSNESSSEEING MIND-KNOWN. OF IS l n h e a r i n ga s o u n d : THESOUND ANDTHEEARS AREFORM; CONSCIOUSNESSHEARING MIND.KNOWN. OF IS I n s m e l l i n ga n o d o r : THEODOR ANDTHENOSE AREFORM; CONSCIOUSNESSSMELLING MIND-KNOWN. OF IS In lastlng: THETASTE ANDTHETONGUE AREFORM; OF IS CONSCIOUSNESSTASTING MIND,KNOWN. In touchlng: THEOBJECT (cold,hol,softor hard) CONTACTED AND THEBODY AREFORM; CONSCIOUSNESSCONTACT MIND-KNOWN. OF IS

17

When sittlng: SITTING FORM; IS CONSCIOUSNESSSITTING MIND.KNOWN. OF IS When standlng: IS STANDING FORM; OF IS CONSCIOUSNESSSTANDING MIND.KNOWN. When walking: MOVEMENT FORM: IS IS CONSCIOUSNESSMOVEMENT MIND.KNOWN. OF W h e n r e c l i nn g : i IS BECLINING FORM; CONSCIOUSNESSRECLINING MIND.KNOWN. OF IS W h e n m i n d l u l o f a b d o m i n a lm o v e m e n lo r w h s n l o c u s l n g o n l h e breath: IS RISING ANDFALLING THEABDOMEN BBEATH FORM; OF OR OFTHEMOVEMENT MIND-KNOWN. IS ACKNOWLEDGMENT Form(maleriality) Thewholebodyis lorm andmindperceives materiality. cannolknowanything itssff. Formis onlytheobjed ot the mind. by
O n l y m l n d - a n d - m a l t e re x i s t I n t h e w o r l d ! 'Knowing"is the observing consciousness. Threis only one meaning to "knowing'inInsightmeditation, that is, beingawareof mentalandphysical objeclsrising-and-falling consciousness, a momentary in on basis (objctby objecl). We designatsobjectsconventionally givingthem names or labels; by ultimately, however, lhere is no "being,'no "1,'no "self,"no "he,""sh,"and so lorlh.

18

HOW TO FOCUS ON MENTALAND PHYSICAL OBJECTS

It is ossential lhal a nsw meditator undersland how to focus mindfulness correctly and complotely on a mental or physical object. The Insightworkr has to know (be mindfulof) leeling" with th objecl. Feeling, this context,meansthat attention locusedon lh object. in is

on a momeolary basis inth present tims,and phas6s. in itsrising-and-falling


All lhroe taclorg must be present to conslitute a complete and correctobjectof mindfulness. Feeling,as an emotjonalstate,or leling as a pleasanl,unpleasant or neutralmsntal and physicalsensation,is not what is referredto here, yourslfby litlingyour arm in a normalmolion,as You can experiment performed evsrydaylil. This type of generalmindfulness awareness in or is somewhat vagus and disporsed. Nor,vlift your arm quite slowly, giving locused altentionto lhe intentionto move, lhe initial lifting,intefmediate lifting and stopping ol lh movemnt. Now lower the arm in lhe sams manner,notingth fallingstage and stopping movment. ol Are you aware ol the great ditferencebetween each ol these actions?

19

SELF-DEOICATION THE TRAINING TO

An important ara of Insightpracticeusuallyovsrlookedin the West is the aspirant's nesd to voluntarily dsdicatoneslfto lh training. possiblto progrssin Insightpracticewithoutsuch While it is certainly lormaldedication, on is sincsreand earnest, if knowsthe correctpath,and practicol Insight has th right attitud,still, lhroughoulthe canturiss-old meditation,Buddhist and non-Buddhisl moditators hav reaped many benellts lrom a lirm slf-resolulion, formally mads. In SoutheastAsia, enteringVipassanatrainingis considered pivotalexpsrisnc6in one's life. a This tradition has also contributed to saleguarding the training from commercialism otherintersts. or Th Following ssctionrsllectsthe atliludof the aspirant who dsiresto observthis custom. In a sense,it is a "by-law" trainingand is usuallynol ol repatd, unlessa specialrequestis made. ll desired,non-Buddhists may take all or any parl of this briel observance. Having dedicated oneself to th practics, th m6ditator, when conlronting the invitable challnges of training, can lace them with composurs, rcalling the invincibls courageof the Buddha(and other great spiritual figurss) nho facsdthsss or similar lrialswhh uttrfearlessness. Th rlationshioestablishedbelwen teachr and msditatorfor the training period ssrvss as a mutual commitmenl. The meditator gives permission th teacherto guid and correctthe trainingand knowsthat he to or she is not practicingin isolation. Ths mditation teacher is lhe Good Friendin 0harma (theTeachings) and pledges assistthe medilator every to ln w a y , g u i d i n g a n d s u p p o r t i n gt h e t r a i n i n g . C o m m u n i c a t i o ni n k s a r e l establishdand practicbsgins on a sound basis ol mulual conlidenc.

20

PREPARATIONS '1.

FOR

INTENSIVE

PRACTICE

For the periodof intensive training,meditators requssted arrang ara to all sxternal activities(family, business aflairs, etc.) prior lo onlering practice, providing, course,for smergncies.This is in ordrio allow of an uninterruptedpriod of practics.

2.

Pleasgforego reading,writing,practicingother forms of m6ditation or prayer, stc.), and othef religious exercis6s (mantras, visualization, aclivitis. Praciicemindfulnssexsrcissexclusively.

3.

Except at intervi6w tims, intensive rtreats are conducted in total srlencs.

4. 5.

Beginnersare individuallyintervieweddaily, and as nesded. Wheneverpossible,the statt is instructed assistthe mditator. lt is lo prefrablethat the Insight worker perform no housekepingchor6s, tc. duringthis trainingperiod.

6. 7.

The practiceol fasting is not permitted. Please rport any illnessor accidnt immdiately th assistantor to teacher.

8.

Telephoningor leaving the premises is not allowed without spcific prmission. Wear plain,loossand easilylaundered clothing.

9.

10. Eat enoughfood and sleep the minimumnumberof hours required for good health.

21

GUIOELINES OB CONDUCT F

For ths period ol commitment to intensiv rsidntialtraining, all meditatorsar requsstd to voluntarilyaccept the Eighi Precepts. The practice of observing the prcepts reveals many aspects of lhs medilator's mind; designedto simplify lhe lrainingperiodand moderate daily lils of the the moditator, observancs of the prscepls enables attentionto locus solly on lhe practics. Most Vipassanameditationcenters offer the Five or Eighl Prcspts. Anolherlssser-known st ofProcepls xislscalldths'Eight Pathsol Right Living" ( Aliva Attha Slla Magga) ot lhe'Middle Way Precepts.' Thy are suitablelor daily living as well as lor intensivepraclice. Both sels of precepts page. are listodon th following These codes ol conducl are complemenlaryin natur, One set of guidelines not superioror interior the other. The first guideline strict is lo is practicaland wilh regardto worldly convention;the second cods is mors reflects higherstandard sthicalbhavior.The rulefor maintaining a of silenc from ths MiddleWay Precepts. duringintensive trainingwas developed Oepending ths msditator's on inclination, health, age,as well as tacilitis practitioner the optionof choosing olleredat a meditalion center,the has to abideby eitherset of guidelines.

THE EIGHTPRECEPTS

chooseto take eitherset of precepts, may volunlarily The meditator fromlhe following: agreeing abstain to (STANDARD) EIGHT PFECEPTS Intenlionally lakinglife
Stealing All sexualconduct

EIGHTPATHSOF RIGHTLIVING life taking Intentionally


Stealing All sexual conduct, taking intoxicating drugsand drinks

Falseand uselessspeech drugs Takingintoxicating or drinks Eatingsolidlood alter mid-day* Seeingshowsand using cosmetics

Uselessspeech Lying speech

Harshspeech speech Gossiping

Uslngverysoftbeds

tales Bearing

' Coflee,tea, chocolate, juices,soft drinks,clear soup, yogurtand cheese are advisedto moderateintakeof lood (to avoid are permitted. Meditators etc.). sleepiness,

23

O N E N T E R I N GT R A I N I N G

1.

Endsavorio b mindlul ol EACH and EVERY movsmenlon a momentary basis. The meditator should try to sit, walk and pedorm any wilhoutwishingto discontinu interrupt lraining, or the action mindlully using skilflul means to ss whal is happeningin each moment.

2.

thal you will not b discouragedas long as th Make a positiv resolrrtion end of sulfering has not been accomplishsd. Work with balancedeflort Stay in lh Middle Path, and mindfulnsss trainingwill not be a burden. When you lose mindfulness, just begin again,and again. not too loos and not too tight.

3,

ned to be challenged."Wlcome'them Msnlal taints and hindrancos as teachefs and regard lhgm with mindtulnss. Thy rise-and{all continuously in consciousness,

4.

mindlulnss alternales with dlusion. 0uringlhe arlyslagesof training, It is similarto quicklyswitchinga light on and off in a dark room. lf a m o m e n t o f c l a r a i l s n t i o n l o l l o w s a m o m n t o f d e l u s i o nw h n is a mind has immdiately arisen. mindlulness dropped, whol6some

5.

has A new meditalorhas to'babysit'mindfulnsss.Mindlulnsss to learn how to sit, stand, walk, eat, slc., and it cannot keep up whh thss actions all at once. When it'grows up" and becomes indpendentand can take care ot itslf, il can cooperals with other factors in training. The 'babysinef in mindlulness is the object in lhe presnt moment.

6.

Problems in practic need to be discussedwilh lhe tachef, whose problems clmmitmntis to help and work with you. Don'tlst mediiation praclica. in lingraroundwithoutrssolulion.h delaystrainlng lnsight

Insightwithdsirs achieve stateof Balization. to any 7. Don'tpractica Knowledge by itsell. rises please 8. Ouring training, avoid: jobs for yourslt, suchas non-essenlial cleaning, olhsrwork, or making to escapeboredom; Sleep only in sleep, withconsequnt of fiorl. loss indulging excessive 4-6 hourseachnightl comPany; seeklng of lossof rstraint the senses immoderation ating in whsnth mindseizes or loses on failingto acknowledg monlalactivity holdol an idea. that attsntion focusedsolslyon your own is 9. lt is a principle practic of training. OF THE 10. WHENYOUCLEARLY UNDERSTAND PRINCIPTES TRAINING, 'PRACTICE'FUNCTIONS ITSELF. YOU WILL SIMPLY BY THEN OUTEVERY ACTION A NATUMLDUry OFTHEMIND. AS CARRY

25

COMMENCINGINTENSIVEPRACTICE

A medilatorvoluntarilyacceptslhe Eight Prceptstor ths durationof formaltraining. A Buddhist may pay respectto the TripleGem of th Buddha(Teacher), D h a r m a ( u n i v e r s a l a w o r T r u t h ) , a n d S a n g h a ( O r d e ro l E n l i g h l e n e d L Disciplss). Non-Buddhistsmay make a suilable acknowlsdgmsntto laithtully practice and to rspectthe training. Please repeal, in lhe ancient Pali language,after th mditationtacher: IMAHAM BHAGAVA ATTABHAVAM TUMHAKAM PARICCAJAMI. "Teacher,may I pay you respectfor the purposs of practicinglnsight meditation from lhis momentl' NIBBANASSAME BHANTE SACCHI KAFANATTHAYA KAMMATTHANAM DEHI. "Teacher, you give me instruction insight will for msditation that I may so comprehend Palh, lhe Fruitionand Enljghlenment the later?' Exlendyourlriendship all belngs. to Pleaserepeatafterlhe Teacher: "May I and all beingsbe happy,free from suftring, lree lrom longing for revenge, ffoe from troubls, dilficulties and dangars. May all bings be protecledfrom misfortuneand loss.

of May all beingshave the slrength mindto conqusrlhsir own suflering. All beings have thir karma. They have karma as theit origin,as hsredity, and as refuge. Whatevrkarmicactivityone psrforms,by body' spechor returns one.' to or mind,be it wholesome unwholesome, Remind onesell ol th brevity ol lile. Plsase recite: 'Our lives are transintand dath is certain. That being so, we aro tortunale to have snlerod upon the practics ol Insight medilation on lhis occasion. as now we have not besn bofn in vain and have not missed lhe oppodunityto practicethe Dharma.' is of Rcalllhalthis practice Insightmsdilation that of allthe Buddhasol disciples. past and their enlightened th6 Plase recite: ' T h e ' F o u r F o u n d a t i o n s l M i n d f u l n e s s , ' a sa u g h l b y t h e h i s l o r i c a l t o Shakyamuni Buddha, is the Path comprehended by lhe Wise. On my own initialivsand lo the bsl of my ability,I will lollow lhe Path in sincerityto realize hs highstfruition, Enlightenment. I will practictrom this momnl onwards. In memory of the Buddha, I ofler this practicaol oharma worthy of Dharma.'

27

E S S E N T I A L N S T R U C T I O NO R B E G I N N E B S I F

(mindfulness) In the xercisos described below,focused attntion is placedon lhe sitting,slanding, walking movemnt, rclining, aMominal movment mindfulnss the brealh, or of ating, etc. No activity outsid is the scopsof lraining. ( STEP BY STEP MINDFULNESS oblsct by oblct), as d e m o n s l r a l o d I n t h e s e p a g e s , I N C n E A S E Sl h e o p p o r t u n l l l e s f o r m l n d f u l n o s sl o f o c u s o n t h 6 r l s l n g - a n d - l a l l l n g s p e c t s o f a oblocts, on a momentary basls In a CONTINUOUS sequenoe. Instructions emphasiz mindfulnsss focusing 9ivnlo new meditators mainly themovemenls thea&omenandwalking. on ol Thislnltlallynarrow focus facilitats the learningof ths methodand developsmomsntary concentration a relatively in shorltim. Latr, meditation lhe teacher vary will instructions balancing for conc6nlration mindtulnsss other and and factors in training. The exercises designed relrat for condilions, maybe modified but are practice. fornon-intensivedaily or Mosl medllalors tend lo break lh momentum of contlnuous mlndfulness when changlng postures. Please follow through wlth the prlnclple ot cultlvatlng STEP BY STEP (oblect by oblect) mlndfulness. Wh.n "breaks" sppear In the p r a c l l c e ,l u s t b e g l n a g a l n a n d a g a l n . THISIS THEKEY TO COBRECT ANDCOMPLETE PRACTICE.

28

LABELINGMENTAL AND PHYSICALOBJECTS

Newcomers mindfulness to trainingmay lacilitat knowing objscls 'hearing,' "seeing,' appsaring consciousness msnlallyropoating in by thinking," stc.,or "hselup,""litting,' so forth. and Labeling phenomenalobjects ssrvss certain uselul purposes, lessening excessive obsessivo and mntal physical or ac{ivity. Labeling also prtorms to helps rootoutthe mistaken embdded but notion a "self" lhat or is responsible therising-and-falling ol mental-and-material lor away states. As practice matures and mindfulness directly knowsobjects, these labels, usedinthe beginning a lemporary willautomatically away as aid, fade asfocusing becomss morenatural.

29

M I N D F U L N E S SO N A B D O M I N A L M O V E M E N TO R T H E BREATH

on on The followinginstructions mindfulness aHominal movmenimay be adapted for meditaiors who have already stablishda prac'ticeol on focusing the locusingattention the breathin the nasalarea. Generally, on which is too intnssfor Insighlwork. breathproducesa degreeof tranquility Insightmeditalorsare instructednot to follow the breath insideths body. F o c u sm l n d l u l n e so n l y o n k n o w i n g t h e i n - a n d - o u t b r e a t h s 8 s l h e y s occur, on a momentary basis. posture a floorcushion, low benchor chair, Take a comfortable sitting on 1. New meditators askedto tocus mindfulnsss abdominal are on movmnt and alertmannerin a relaxed 2. ll movementis vague, placeyour hand on the abdomenuntilths risingandJalling stagesare clear. 3. 4. controlthe movement. Do not try to consciously W h e n b r e a t h i n gi n , l h e a b d o m e n r i s e s ; w h e n b r e a t h i n go u l , t h e abdomenlalls. Place attentionon a sDotabout two inchosabove the aspect ot each navel. Be mindfulol the appearing-and-disappearing phaseas lt occurs, on a momentary basls. 5. As a beginner,you may label the movementby mentallynoting tise' a n d ' f a l l , ' o r" i n "o r " o u t . " lf movementbecomes long, short, shallowor desp, simply nams the and reiurnto knowing"rise"and "lall"- your "anchor'objecl. occurfence

6.

30

"disappearing.' 7. lf movement seems disappear, to acknowldg When movement returns, it ac@rdingly. nol
8. ll lhe mind becomescalm. nole "calm mind.'

9 . lf ths mind wishes to think, permit it to do so. Thinking,as with any other
object, rises and falls. Acknowledge'lhinking,' "planning,""anger,' the'anchor" objct. "joy,"etc.,and relurnto observing is stimulus, such as hearing, 1 0 . lf attention avertedto a slrongexternal not "hearing" and relurnto the 'anchor"object.

'l 1. Thebeginnefs mindwillwander lrequently. soonas you are awarsot As 'wandelingmind' (or anolher attenlion straying, not6 word),and rturn to the 'anchor"object. Observe mentalstatescomingintoxistence, all peaking ladingaway. and 12. As muchas possible, beginner the lry should lo be awareof abdominal movement mindfulness the breath. or ot Sit tor 30, 45 or 60 mlnutes. Do not slt less lhan the minlmum or more than the maxlmum tlme. A perlod of mindlulness on abdomlnal movment or the brealh ig alternated with mindtulnsss on other postures. As m i n d f u l n e s sI n c r e a s e s t h e e x p e r l e n c e d e d i t a l i o nt e a c h e rw i l l , m glve turther Instructlons.

31

M I N D F U L N E S S :STEP BY STEP I L L U S T R A T E DI N S T R U C T I O N

E N T E R I N GP B A C T I C E : M A K I N G R E S O L U T I O N A N D OFFEBING SALUTATION

33

BIGHT HANO MINDFULLY: 1. Plac hands on knees. llat 2. Turnright handon itsdge; stop. (not highor low); lorearm 3. Bring straight up too stop. 4. Bring handhorizonlally mid-chst: to slop.
LEFT HAND MINDFULLY: '1. Repeatsteps2-3 with left hand. 2. 3. 4. 5. Bring hand horizontally mid-chest,but stop belore louching right to hand. T o u c hh a n d s . Lowerheadslightly. pay Make resolution, respect.

TO RETURN EACH HAND TO KNEES

MINDFULLY: '1 . Raisehead. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Moverighthaod horizontally (sideways); out slop. Move righl hand straight down towardsknee;stop beforetouching. Touchknee (handis stillon edge);stop. Turn handover (palmdown)to reston knee. Repeatsteps2-5 wilh lefthand.

34

I N T R O D U C T I OT O T H E S I T T I N G O S T U B E N P

position, Assumea comlortable eitheron a thickfloor cushion, benchor in a chair (preferably wilh no back rest). A hardwoodslanted medilation l b e n c hi s 2 0 i n c h e s o n g ,6 i n c h e s i d e ,a n d 6 i n c h e s i g h . L e g sa r e l u c k e d w h y u n d e r n e a t hh e b e n c h . A m e d i t a t i o n u s h i o ni s a p p r o x i m a t e l1 0 i n c h e s t c high and 14 inchesin diameter. A hard loam rectangl l8 incheslong, 12 is '112 incheswide and 6 incheshigh. Personswith physicalproblemsmay adjustthe sittingarrangement as necessary. position ll seated on the,loor, adjust to a comfortablecross-legged y w h i c hc a n b e h e l d r e l a t i v e l s t a b l ef o r 3 0 , 4 5 o r 5 0 m l n u l e s . ( l f l o o you uncomfortable, wiLl acquireany concentration.) not K e e pt h e r o o m l e m p e r a t u r e l i g h t l y n l h e c o o l e rs i d e . D o n o t t r y t o s o quietplace will shutout ordinaryslreel noises,bul beginners find a relatively usefulin the earlystagesol training. Wear loose clothing. Keep the back straightand relaxed. Hold your h e a d g e n t l y u p r i g h t . R e l a x t h e m u s c l e si n y o u r s c a l p ,l a c e , n e c k a n d shoulders.Eyes may remainclosedor half-closed. F o c u s o n t h e s i t l i n g p o s t u r ef o r 2 - 3 m i n u t e sb y p l a c i n ga t t e n l i o n momentarily lhe hands restingin the lap. Do not locus on the entireform on "sitting." sitling. Acknowledge

35

When focusing on sifting, the beginner may target mindfulness by locusing momentarily the hands in the lap. Do not locus on any othet place. on (Focusing on the whole body sitting is difficult lor beginners.) Mindlullyfocus on sitting 2-3 minutes belorc meditating on abdominal movement,or mindfulnessol the breath.

36

FROM SITTINGTO STANOING CHANGING POSTUBE

ll sittingon a lloor cushion(adapttor olhrsittingstyles),noteintention move, lo MovsSLOWLY, focusing altention one actlon at a time as you on lollow through with slop by step mindlulness (obiectby objct). Maintain conlinuity ths techniqu. the of Be mindtulot tilringthe lorso, the shifiingot tho cushion(if usingtwo haods, tocuson one hand), shiflof weight, moving eachleg,the the ihe ot placement the toesof eachloot,ths strtching th6 body, raising of of th of eachknee,andlhe raising the bodyto its lull ensnsion. Useon or two ot hands, necessary, balance. if for

37

Note intentionto move and mindlully bend body. Takeyour time.

3B

Mindfullynote body rising.

39

Mindfullyraise one knee at a time.

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P I N T R O D U C T I OT O T H E S T A N D I N G O S T U R E N

to When movingto a standingposture,be mindfulol "intention stand." Acknowledge"Standing." with arms hangingdown at sides. Relaxhead,neckand Standmindfully shoulders. Eyes may be closed or directed about three leet ahead. lf movement. necessary shiftweight,note the shifting to lf mind wanders, nole the mental state and return to acknowledging ' s l a n dn g . " i Personswith physicalproblemsmay rducstandingtime or omit this posture.

41

Whatareyou doing? Standing. Whatis standing? Body (fom) is standing. Whatknows standing? Mind or consciousness inows ;hndin:q. Beginners may locus mindfulness standing the solesof the feel, at the of at aodomen, al anolherclear point. or Sland 10-15minutes, 30-60secondsand go on to the walkingmovemenl. or

42

INTRODUCTION THE WALKING POSTURE TO

For walking msditation,an area permlttingabout 20 paces is idsal, allhoughsmallrspacs can be ussd. Walkingis besl done in stockingor bare feel, on a bars or carpetsd surface, prelerably wilh a neulral and plain background. In order to minimiz distractionstor ths beginner, walking is done Indoors. Acknowledge ths'standing- postureand "inlention walk.' Relaxthe lo hsad,ys, neck and shoulders.Oirectsys aboutthreefet ahead. Place handsin front,crossodal wrists. Walk in a straighl lins,gentlyand slowly. Do not pay attentionlo th brath or muscle movemntin the leg or fool. lf jmpatience,boredom, etc. riss, note the mental state, bul keep to the spscifisdtime you have deierminedlor $/alking(30,45, or 60 mlnutg). Personswith physicalproblems may adjustlhe praclice as necessary. ll you wish lo stop walking bcauss of tiredness,mindfullystand lor a few minutes, and lhen continuewalking. ll you leave the mditation room, do not break th conlinuily ol m i n d l u l n s s .M i n d f u l l y a l k t o t h d o o r , n o t e t o u c h i n gt h e d o o r k n o b , w coldnsss,hardness,turning,pulling,elc. Focus step by step mindlulnss walking downlhe hall.

43

WALKING SCHEDULEFOB INTENSIVE PRACTICE

F I R S TD A Y : Right footgoes Leftfoot goes S E C O N DD A Y : and Lifting placing THIRD DAY: and Litting, moving placing FOURTH DAY: placing Heelup,lifling, moving, FIFTH DAY; placing moving, lowering, Heelup,Iifting, SIXTH DAY: placing, pressing Heelup,lifling, moving, lowering,

NON.INTENSIVE RACTICE P praclice,meditators may xpsriment locusing by Duringnon-inlensiv ol lhat mindfulness thefirsl,second thirdstages walking, is,whichever on or stageis clear.

44

Whatareyou doing? Walking(noving). What is walking? Body (fom) is walking. Whatknows walking? Mind knows walking. Timefor walkingmindfulness usually is balanced withsiningmeditalion on abdominal breathing mindfulness ihe breath. or ol

45

Thid part: Mindtully note "moving." lf the nind is inattentive, nole "wanderingmind," etc. and return to the movement. lt is not necessaryto stop walking. lf you lift your eyes, note "seeing."

Mindfully lower loat to the floor.

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Sixth part: Mindfully note "pressing." Continue walkingmindfulnessuntilyou reachthe end of the walking path. Note "intenlionto stop." Place feet together. Note ,,stopping," "standing., Focus on standing about 30 seconds.

48

As you approach the end ol the walkingpath,try to notethe "intention to "stopping."Note placingthe feet togetherand "standing." stop,'and then You may rest mindfullyfor aboul 30-60 secondsbeforeturningin th opposiledirection. Focuson "standing." d N o t e " i n t e n t i o ln t u r n . ' P i v o ts l o w l yo n o n e t o o t ,i n e i t h e r i r e c t i o n , o you lace the opposite makinglitllelurns, unlil direclion.

" F e f o c u sy o u r e y e s , a n d n o t e ' s e e i n g , " s t a n d i n g("f o r a b o u t3 0 s e c o n d sa n d n o t e i n l e n t i o t o w a l k . W a l k ,m i n d l u l l y n t h s o p p o s i l e ) n i, direction.

49

P I N T R O D U C T I OT O T H E F E C L I N I N G O S T U R E N

down training should avoid lying Unless weakor ill,newcomers Insight to time. lf you artiredand except sleepat the appropriate to unnecessarily, mindfulnsss. wishto restlor short periods, lo kepcontinuous lry ths Take a position whichwill not inducsslesp. In reclining body, mindfully lowerth bodyto the surface,notingcontact. Slowlylilt the legs, movmenl, one at a lime. Mindtully nots"rising" "lalling'ofabdominal and 'touchiog.point. "lying" Finda clear touching and the try mindtulness il As a beginner, you do lall asleep, to sstablish you on to focus try moment awake.Whenawake, to notthe intention rise; with eachandevery movemenl connction rising. in

50

Whatareyou doing ? Reclining. What is rcclining? Body (form) is teclining. What knows reclining? Mind knows rcclining.

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RHYTHMIC PBACTICE -- HANO.BY.HAND MINOFULNESS

We do not know where or whn Vioassana meditation teachers developed the Rhythmictrainingin mindlulness.Prhapsthis practicswas devised over a hundred years ago and handgd down lrom tachr to student. Up to lhe presenttime, a numberof mditation mastsrsin Thailand and Burma teach this techniqueto further cultivats moment lo moment givsmindfulnss mindfulness. The increased numberof movemnts mors 'work,"that is, additional opportunities ariss for the momentary locusingon objectsin theirrisingand falling stages. The premisefor this instruction basedon ths Commentary the "Four is to Foundalionsol Mindfulness" discourse(Maha Satipatthana Sulta). h is practicelo mindfulness a complemenlary focusedon abdominal movement and the walkingpractlce. As with the slow walkingmovemenl, this praciice will soon become familiar. The beginner need not be concerngdabout lorgetiingany sleps. Jusl focus "forgelting," and rssume the sequence. Rhythmicpracticeis appropriate both solitaryand group praclice. lt can b for usedby the meditator who is fatigued ill. or The speedof the movemeots varieswith experiencs.Maks a rssolution practice 10-15minutes. to perlormrhythmic for

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Note intention to move right hand. MindfullyGise hand and note stopping. Bring hand to abdomen, but stop belore touching: touch abdomen.

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Mindlully taise left hand; stop. Bring to abdomen, but stop belore touching. Touchabdomen. Bring EACH hand back to the knees, step by step.

54

MINDFULNESST MEALTIME A

Sinceall mentaland physlcal objectsare of equal value in mindfulnss training, lhe meditator can incorporate trainingvery sasily into msaltime ths periods. Taks your lime at meals and eat leisurely. lt's part ol your practbs, On enteringthe dining room, tor example,look at and placethe hand mindfully lhe back of the chair. lf usingtwo hands,focus on on hand. on Withdraw il slowly, and note moving. Focus awarnesson bending and lowering body and touching ths lhe surlaceof the chair. Step by stp mindfulnss can be maintained if you follow lhe remmmendations below. h's rallyquitesasy. M I ND F UL L Y : '1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Look at tood, elc. Note ii there is a leelingol hunger. Acknowledge intention movs the handwhich is placedon the knee. to Turnone hand unlilit restson its edoe. Raise it straightup. Lowerth hand until it touchesthe utensil. Nole louchingthe utensil. Acknowledge hardness, its etc. Graspths utensil. Lilt the utensil.

10. Move utensilforward. '1 1. Movs utensildown to food. 12. Spear,spoonor cul lood, adaplingas necessary.tf you nsed ths use of both hands,locus on only one hand. '13. Liftthe utensiland food. 14. Bringto lhe lips;stop. 15. Acknowledge touchingths lips

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16. Noteopening mouth. the 17. Placefood in moulh. 18. Close lips19. Bring utnsil back lable. lo 20. Lowerulensil. 21. Stopbelorelowering ulnsil table. to go etc. 22. Sst ulensildownand nols ltting of fork, spoon, it 23. Bringhandbackto knee,lowering mindfully. 24. Chswtood by locusingon ths aclionof lhe jaw. You may closeyour eyes, il you wish. Notetoxlure,heal,cold, elc. Whentaslingllavor, food. and top che$/ing focuson lasl. Swallow 25. focus on knowing ihat mouthis emptyot food. in 26. Noticsif{hsrs is a leolingof lullness the slomach. Bepeatslops duringlhe meal. Meallimeis a new experiencs.Many details regarding oating gradually will arisein clnsciousness.

56

GENERALMINDFULNESS

practiceis likean electric Mindfulness duringintensive lightturnedon in the dark,sharplyrevealing every object. Generalmindfulness, however, is actually awaronessmixedwith delusionand is similarto our everyday mind. Like an lectriclightswitchd in daylighl, brightness diffusd the on the is by sun. So a beginnr who only praclicss general awarensss scatters mindlulness. Duringtraining in an inlensivecourse with other mditators, howevr, ther ar certain activitisswhich, for practicalreasons,cannol be greally slowed down, such as during bathing. During such tims, general mindfulness allows one to locus on the predomlnant objectin consciousness, resuming stsp-by-slep (object-by-objecl) mindfulnessas soon as possible. A meditator trainingshould avold any complicaled in actlvitywhich is likely to cause loss of mindlulnss. For this reason it is best to simplify periodof training. aclivities much as possible as when snteringan intensive

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C O N C L U D I N GN T E N S I V E R A C T I C E I P TRANSFER F MERITOF WHOLESOME EEDS O D

The performingol meritoriousdeeds of body, spech and mind as wholesome endeavors karma)have a numbrof interpretive (or levels. The practiceof Vipassanameditation, which ncapsulates the entir Noble EightloldPath, is merit ot the highestordr. Dedicating morit of lhs on's practiceto all sentientbeings is an ancienttraditionin Buddhism. lt expressesthe aspirationthat other beings rejoics in deeds of merit. By rejoicingin anotheas good deeds and expressingsympatheticjoy, one realizes pure and uniliedmind. a In sharing meril, the meditalor remembersone's tachers,parents, family, frlends, indilferentpersons, enemies,stc., sxtendingthe range of meritequally and imparlially all beings. to Afterconcluding periodof intensive a training, meditator released the is lrom the observance the EightPrecepts.Buddhists ol may then observethe Five Preceptsfor laily. The medita+or may consult the teacher for guidelinesin bringingthe practice Insight of meditation dailylile. inlo

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M CORRECTING EDITATION PROBLEMS

HOW TO HANDLEPHYSICAL PAIN IN TRAINING

When pain arisesin any of lhe postures (occurring mostlyin sitting), note It and returnto th "anchor" objciof abdominal broathing, exampls. ll it for inlensilies and you ned to shift posilion,first acknowldge intenlion the lo move, and slowly adiust the body, observing gach and evary movement and any emolionalstates which may aris in conneclionwith sining. DO NOT use ego force lo maintain any posture. Suffering,which h a p p e n s b y i t s e l f ,f o r c e s t h e b o d y t o c h a n g e . S i t t i n g t h r o u g h p a i n (sspscially for th beginner) causss d6filments to aris. Only ths experienced Insight worker can sometimes separate the image of pain lrom hurt. It is Wrong Viw thal self can control pain. Som medilatorsforce themselves sit throughpain in ordrto see mors sulfsring, that mrsly to but creates intentionalpain which is artiliciallyinduced. Please rsmember that Vipassana meditalion is solely a mental t r aI nI n g . When mindfulnss and concentrationhavs suflicientlydevlopsd, cerlainnew aspects painwill mergs. of

HOW TO COBRECT LEEPINESSND DULLNESS A S

Beginners invariably will expsrlsnce sleepiness dullness early and in phass praclic. of Nolethesemsntal states whentheytouch mind. ths To counteract thessstates, keeplhe eyesopsn,sland, walk,or wash ths face. Useskilllul mans awaken mind. to the A dull,sinkingmindoccurswhnan excss CONCENTRATION of aDDears consciousnsss. in MINDFULNESSlhntooweakto observe is the flux ol mental oblocts. Sleepinss dullness an indication and ar6 lhat the medilator has regrssed practicing to concntratlon medilation. I t l s l m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e I n s l g h t m e d l t a t o r u n d e r s t a n dt h a t only MOMENTARYCONCENTRATION needed tor Vipassana ls medllatlon.

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HOW TO WORK WITH SEVEREEMOTIONAL PAIN IN EARLY TRAINING

Mental sulferingconnsctedwith past (or luture) svents occurs only in t h e p r e s d n i m o m e n l . l l i s l h e p r e s e n tm o m e n t ,w i t h i t s a s s o c i a t e d e m o t i o n a ls t a t e s , w h i c h t o u c h e s l h e m i n d , c a u s i n g a s h i f t i n m e n t a l equilibrium. The origin and terminating points of stress, conflict and frustrationactually have the same point of conlact. The eradicationof mental paintakes plac when dslusionis no longerpresentand mindtulness arises in consciousness, lf a new meditator suddenlyxperiences risingof severesutfering, the mindfulness may bs too fragilelo dominatesuch strong emotion. In fact, mindlulness may be entirely at thattime. lost T o r e m e d y l h e s i t u a t i o n ,a c o r r e c t i v s w i t c h t o c o n c e n t r a l l o n technlques will help to weaken intenseemotion,while still conservinga measureof mindlulness lhat practice so can continue. Whenthe emotional

state is mads managsabls,then thg concentration techniqueis gradually r e l e a s e d p e r m i t t i n g i n d f u l n e s so o n c e a g a i n r e t u r n . B y s u c h s e l f m t correction, insightpractice beginsto strengthen and mature. At this time, a medilationteacher's close and skillful supervisionis invaluable. Later,when mindfulness matures, the meditator be ableto focuson will the rising-andjallingol strong emotion and "cut olf" these slates on a momentarv basis.

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M A H O W T O H A N D L ER E C U B B I N G E M O B I E S N D I OVERACTIVEMAGINATION

meditation concerned is only withthe present The practice Vipassana of past eventsor projections into momentof reality.Tho mentalstatesdetailing "imagining" "planning." or the future are simply noted as "remembering," in They are not considered"pure" objectsof mindfulness thal thy are not presentreality, etc. such as seeing,hearing, When these mgntal states arise, note them and returnto tho "anchor" object ol abdominalbrealhingor the movementof walking,elc. ll the repersists and causesan excessloss ol appearance memoriesor imagination acknowledgs mind." of mindfulness, "wandering ll the novice msditator cannol observe thsse statss arising-anddisappearing, lhen simply change lhs object, e.9., open lhs eyes, walk mindfully insteadot sitting, etc. are Vivid memoriesor tlightsof the imagination mentalobjectsthat ars lo simplytoo potentlor lragilemindfulness observewithclarity.Onlythe wellof Insightworker can releasetheir developedmindfulness an experienced return. oersistent

1E

About The Author

A C H A NS O B I N NAI\4TO S.
Born in Thailand in 1931, Achan Sobin spent 32 years as a Buddhist monk and instructor in Vipassana (lnsight) and Concentiation meditation. In Thailand and Laos, Achan (m eaningteacher) taught Insight meditation, Dharma ( Buddhist teachings),Abhidharma philosophy and the Pali language. For several years, he lived as a wandering forest monk and entered long pedods of intensive soLitarypractice. Achan had many teachers. His prijlcipal teacher was Chao Khun Bhavanabhirama Thera who introdrced him to a meticulous itep by step method for developing mindfulness. At age 24, Achan Sobin becume a recognizedteacher of Vipassana meditation and Abhidharma and taught for many yeals at Wat Maha Dhatu monastery ancl other centem in Thailand. He is also the founder of a Abhidharma and Vipassanacente.

in southerrl Thailand (Phuket ProYince) where he offers Westerners a winter training cou$e for tfuee months,beginning 1990. in ln l9'72, the Thai Sangha Council appointed him the Abbot of the first Thai temple in Los Angeles, America. He is alsothe Founder-Abbotof the Vipassana temple, Wat Buddha Wararamof Denver, Colorado. Achan's studentshave published his teachings in INSIGHT MEDITATION: Practical Stepsto Utimste Truth, A lay instructor since 1980, Achan Sobin now teaches the at mountain retreat center of the Vipassana Dhura Meditation Soclety in Southern CaUfomia, and in other centersin the United Statesand Canada wherehe hopes to further contribute his skills and energies towalds the establ-ishment of Insight meditation n the West.

T h e l o g o o f t h e V i p a s s a n aD h u r a M e d i t a t i o n S o c i e t y (AMT) representshe AMATA DHARMA, or the Deathless t Realm. Amata Dharma is the lmmortai Truth proclaiming ct i n o d e a t h ,n o b i r t h , n o c a u s e - a n d - e f f ea n d n o r e v o l v i n g n t h e W h e e l o f B i r t h - a n d - D e a t h . T h e o u t e r c i r c l e r e p r e s e n t sh e t p r a c t i c eb a s e d n t h e 3 2 p a r t s o f t h e b o d y a n d t h e meditation o F o u r E l e m e n t so f L i f e r e p r e s e n t e d y t h e a i r , e a r t h f i r e a n d b water. VIPASSANADHURA MEDITATION SOCIETY E s t a b l i s h e di n 1 9 8 6 , r h e V i p a s s a n aD h u r a M e d i t a t i o n S o c i e t yi s a m o u n t a i n r e t r e a tc e n t e r i n S o u t h e r nC a l i f o r n i ao n , B i g B e a rM o u n t a i n ,o n e h o u r f r o m S a n B e r n a r d i o n . The Society is a non-profitorganization eekingo assist s t a n y o n e w h o i s s e a r c h i n go r t h e p a t h l e a d i n gt o t h e d e v e l o p f mentof Mindfulnesand Wisdom. s O T H E P U R P O S E F T H E S O C I E T YI S T O o t t s h a r e h e t h e o r y a n d p r a c t i c e f t h e B u d d h a ' se a c h i n g , ( t e a c hV i p a s s a n al n s i g h t )m e d i t a t i o na n d c o n c e n t r a t i o n t e c hn i qu e s , c o o r d i n a t e f f o r t s w i t h o t h e r B u d d h i s ta n d l a y o r g a n i z a t i o n s e s h a r i n gh e s a m eo r s i m i l a rg o a l s . t