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DESIGN OF BOMBER AIRCRAFT


BY A. SURESH ANAND M. SURESH S. THILAK KUMAR B. VIGNESH 12308101052 12308101054 12308101055 12308101056

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF Mr.VIVEK B.E. LECTURER

DEPARTMENT OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING GOJAN SCHOOL OF BUSINESS AND TECHNOLOGY


A report submitted to the department of aeronautical

engineering in partial fulfillment of the requirement of the requirement for the degree of BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING GOJAN SCHOOL OF BUSINESS AND TECHNOLOGY

ANNA UNIVERSITY, CHENNAI

GOJAN SCHOOL BUSINESS AND TECHNOLOGY


( Approved by AICTE and Affialiated to Anna University )

EDAPALAYAM,REDHILLS,CHENNAI-600052

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE
NAME : DEPARTMENT : ROLL NO :

REGISTER NO :

certified that this is the bonafide record of work done by the above student in the .. laboratory during the year 20 - 20

Head of the department

lab-in-charge

Submitted for the practical examination held on ..

Internal Examiner

External Examiner

CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION COMPARITIVE DATASHEET COMPARITIVE GRAPHS WEIGHT ESTIMATION AIRFOIL SELECTION AND WING DESIGN DRAG ESTIMATION POWERPLANT SELECTION THREE VIEW DIAGRAM PERFORMANCE AND STABILITY CALCULATION

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION

A beautiful aircraft is the expression of the genius of a great engineer who is also a great artist. When you look at aircraft, it is easy to observe that they have a number of common features: wings, a tail with vertical and horizontal wing sections, engines to propel them through the air, and a fuselage to carry passengers or cargo. If, however, you take a more critical look beyond the gross features, you also can see subtle, and sometimes not so subtle, differences. What are the reasons for these differences? What was on the mind(S) of the designers that caused them to configure the aircraft in this way? Airplane design is both an art and a science. In that respect it is difficult to learn by reading a book; rather, it must be experienced and practiced. However, we can offer the following definition and then attempt to explain it. Airplane design is the intellectual engineering process of creating on paper (or on a computer screen) a flying machine to (1) meet certain specifications and requirements established by potential users (or as perceived by the manufacturer) and/or (2) pioneer innovative, new ideas and technology. An example of the former is the design of most commercial transports, starting at least with the Douglas DC-1 in 1932, which was designed to meet or exceed various specifications by an airplane company. (The airline was TWA, named Transcontinental and Western Air at that time.) An example of the latter is the design of the rocket-powered Bell X-1, the first airplane to exceed the speed of sound in level or climbing flight (October 14, 1947). The design process is indeed an intellectual activity, but a rather special one that is tempered by good intuition developed via experience, by attention paid to successful airplane designs that have been used in the past, and by (generally proprietary) design procedures and databases (handbooks, etc.,) that are a part of every airplane manufacturer.

LIST OF SYMBOLS USED IN THE DESIGN a - Velocity of Sound, m/s aw - Slope of wing curve at - Slope of tail curve
A.R - Aspect Ratio

b - Wing span ,m CL(or)CL - Lift Coefficient CL av - Available Lift Coefficient CL cruise - Cruise Lift Coefficient CDo wing-Drag Coefficient of the
Altitude D - Drag h - Altitude,kms M - Mach Number

cmean(or)cmean - Mean chord ,m CL req - Required Lift


Coefficient Coefficient

CL max - Maximum Lift CD(or)CD - Drag Coefficient F - Thrust Produced at some


N Wing F - Thrust Produced,N k - (1 / eA.R)

MCR - Critical Mach Number


Re - Reynolds Number SFC - Specific Fuel Consumption To - Atmospheric Temperature.K V - Velocity of the aircraft,m/s

Mcruise - Cruise mach Number


S - Wing Area,m2 (N-hr)/N T - Temperature,K

t/c - ThickNess to Chord Ratio - Coefficient of Viscosity at a


given Altitude,kg/m-s

A) PHASES OF AIRCRAFT DESIGN


Conceptual design Preliminary design Detailed design

CONCEPTUAL DESIGN
This article deals with the steps involved in the conceptual design of an aircraft .It is broken down in to several elements, which are followed in order. These consist of, 1. Literature survey 2. Preliminary data acquisition 3. Estimation of aircraft weight a. Maximum take-off weight b. Empty weight of the aircraft c. Weight of the fuel

4.

5. 6. 7. 8.

d. Fuel tank capacity Estimation of critical performance parameters a. Wing area b. Lift and drag coefficients c. Wing loading d. Power loading e. Thrust to weight ratio Engine selection Performance curves V-n diagram 3-view diagram

The development of these elements is illustrated in the upcoming studies that consist of long range high speed subsonic business jet defined in the preceding design proposal. The mission requirements of this design are relatively difficult to achieve; therefore, it is a good example in which compromise is needed

PRELIMINARY DESIGN
The primary design drivers are light weight, high L/D and less fuel consumption. The secondary design considerations include moderate take-off and landing distances which are comparable to existing high speed subsonic business jets. An important note is that most of the control systems should be of basic type (like split flap etc.) in order to make the aircraft available at a cheap rate but at a reliable condition. The preliminary design is a fine tuning of the conceptual design made through parametric wind tunnel tests of scale aircraft models of the design. Some of the more difficult aspects to predict are tested in this phase. This includes the (1) engine inlet interaction with the fuselage and wing and (2) wing interaction on control surfaces. The preliminary design also involves a more detailed analysis of the aerodynamic loads and component weights. Based on this, the structural design is further refined. Aero elastic motion, fatigue and flutter are considered at this stage. Additional confirmation of estimates may require building and testing some of the proposed structural

components. At the completion of this stage, the manufacturing of the aircraft is given serious consideration and the cost estimates are further refined. At the end of this step, the decision is made whether to build the aircraft. With the decision to build the aircraft, the design is frozen.

DETAILED DESIGN
The detailed design involves generating the detailed structural design of the aircraft. This involves every detail needed to build the aircraft. Sometimes component mock-ups are built to aid in the interior layout. However, the present use of computer aided design (CAD) software can substantially minimize the need for mock-ups by providing realistic 3-D views. For detail design, the airplane is now simply a machine to be fabricated. The precise design of each individual rib, spar, and section of skin now takes takes place. the size number and location of fasteners (rivets ,welded joints) are determined. Manufacturing tools and jigs are designed. At this stage flight simulators for the airplane are developed. At the of the phase ,the aircraft is ready to be fabricated.

FLOWCHART OF DESIGN PROCESS

Research, Development and Market Analysis

Mission Requirements

Conceptual Design

No

Requirements satisfied ?

Yes

Preliminary Design Stop Final Evaluation

Go Detailed Design Test Article Fabrication Flight Test

B) PARAMETERS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE ASPECTS


Payload Cruise and max speed Cruise altitude Range Endurance Take off distance Landing

DESIGN

AND

Payload
The payload is what is carried on board and delivered as part of the aircrafts mission. Standard payloads are passengers, cargo or ordnance. The first two are considered non-expendable payload because they are expected to be transported for the complete duration of the flight plan. Military ordnance is expendable payload since at some point in the flight plan it permanently leaves the aircraft. This includes bombs, rockets, missiles and ammunition for on-board guns.

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Cruise and Maximum Speeds


The mission of an aircraft usually dictates its speed range. Propeller-driven aircraft are usually designed to cruise at speeds between 150 to 300 knots. Jet powered aircraft have higher cruise speeds that are normally specified in terms of Mach number. The typical cruise Mach number for business and commercial jet aircraft is from 0.8 to 0.85. This range of cruise speeds is close to optimum for maximizing the combination of payload weight, range and speed. Modern military jet combat and attack aircraft usually have a flight plan that involves efficient cruise at high subsonic Mach numbers. This is usually in the range from Mach 0.85 to 0.90. The maximum speed is usually specified in the context of an intercept portion of the flight plan. This has a Mach number that is typically in the range of 2.0.

Normal Cruise Altitude


The cruise altitude is generally dictated by the cruise speed, propulsion system and cabin pressurization. An aircraft with an unpressurized cabin would cruise no higher than 10,000 feet. With propeller-driven aircraft, turbo-charged piston engines can maintain a constant horsepower up to an altitude of approximately 20,000 feet. Higher altitudes are possible with turboprop aircraft, such as the Piper Cheyenne, which have a maximum ceiling from 35,000 to 41,000 feet. The decrease in air density with higher altitude lowers the drag, so that for these aircraft, the cruise range increases with altitude.At higher subsonic Mach numbers, the turbo-jet engine gives the higher efficiency.

Range
The range is the furthest distance the aircraft can fly without refueling. In a flight plan, range refers to the distance traveled during the cruise phase.The choice of the range is one of the most important decisions because it has a large (exponential) effect on the aircraft takeoff weight.

Endurance

Endurance is the amount of time an aircraft can fly without refueling. With a reconnaissance aircraft, endurance is one of the main design drivers. For a commercial aircraft, a flight plan will include an

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endurance phase to allow for time that night is spent in a holding pattern prior to landing. For operation within the continental United States commercial aircraft are required to be able to hold for 45 minutes at normal cruise fuel consumption. For international operation, the required hold time is 30 minutes

Take-off Distance
The total take-off distance of the length of a runway needed to accelerate, lift off, and climb to prescribe obstacle height. The obstacle height is 50 feet for military and small civil aircraft, and 35 feet for commercial aircraft. The take-off distance that is required to accomplish this depends on different factors in the design such as the thrust to weight ratio, the maximum lift to weight ratio and the surface of the air field that affects the rolling friction of the landing-gear wheels.

Landing Distance

The landing distance consists of the length of the runway needed to descend from a specified height of 50 feet, touchdown and break to a stop. Factors that affect the landing distance are the maximum lift to weight and the surface of the air field, which affects the landing-gear F wheels braking friction coefficient. The lift to weight ratio directly affects the slowest (stall) speed at which the aircraft can fly. The landing touchdown speed is taken to be a small percentage higher than the stall speed.

3. DESIGN PROPOSAL
The B-47 arose from an informal 1943 requirement for a jetpowered reconnaissance bomber, drawn up by the U.S. Army Air Forces (USAAF) to prompt manufacturers to start research into jet bombers. Boeing was among several companies that responded to this request; its initial design, the Model 424, was basically a scaled-down version of the piston-engined Boeing B-29 Superfortress equipped with four jet engines. [2] The next year, this concept evolved into a formal request-for-proposal to design a new bomber with a maximum speed of 550 mph (800 km/h), a cruise speed of 450 mph (725 km/h), a range of 3,500 mi (5,600 km) and a service ceiling of 45,000 ft (13,700 m)

D)MISSION PROFILE DETAILED SPECIFICATION

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Boeing Model 450 B-47 Stratojet was a long-range, six-engined, jet-powered medium bomber built to fly at high subsonic speeds and at high altitudes. It was primarily designed to drop nuclear bombs on the Soviet Union. With its engines carried in pods under the swept wing, the B-47 was a major innovation in post-World War II combat jet design, and helped lead to modern jet airliners. The B-47 entered service with the United States Air Force's Strategic Air Command (SAC) in 1951. It never saw combat as a bomber, but was a mainstay of SAC's bomber strength during the 1950s and early 1960s, and remained in use as a bomber until 1965. It was also adapted to a number of other missions, including photo reconnaissance, electronic intelligence and weather reconnaissance, remaining in service as a reconnaissance platform until 1969 and as a testbed until 1977.

Description:
Phase 1 : Engine start and warm-up

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Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Phase 5 Phase 6 Phase 7 Phase 8 Phase 9

: Taxiing : Take-off : climb and accelerate to cruise speed : Cruise : Loiter : Flying to alternate field : Descent : Landing, taxiing & shut-down

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS
Crew: 3 Length: 107 ft 1 in (32.65 m) Wingspan: 116 ft 0 in (35.37 m) Height: 28 ft 0 in (8.54 m) Wing area: 1,428 ft (132.7 m) Airfoil: NACA 64A(0.225)12 mod root and tip Empty weight: 79,074 lb (35,867 kg) Loaded weight: 133,030 lb (60,340 kg) Max takeoff weight: 230,000 lb (100,000 kg) Powerplant: 6 General Electric J47-GE-25 turbojets, 7,200 lbf (32 kN) Zero-lift drag coefficient: 0.0148 (estimated) Drag area: 21.13 ft (1.96 m) Aspect ratio: 9.42

PERFORMANCE
Maximum speed: 607 mph (528 kn, 977 km/h) Cruise speed: 557 mph (484 kn, 896 km/h) Combat radius: 2,013 mi (1,749 nmi, 3,240 km) with 20,000 lb (9,000 kg) bombload Ferry range: 4,647 mi (4,037 nmi, 6,494 km)

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Service ceiling: 33,100 ft (10,100 m) Rate of climb: 4,660 ft/min (23.7 m/s) Wing loading: 93.16 lb/ft (454.8 kg/m) Thrust/weight: 0.22 Lift-to-drag ratio: 20.0 (estimated)

ARMAMENT
Guns: 2 20 mm (0.787 in) M24A1 autocannons in a remote controlled tail turret with AN/APG-39 Gun-laying radar[29] Bombs: 25,000 lb (11,000 kg) of ordnance, including: 2 Mk15 nuclear bombs, or 28 500 lb (230 kg) conventional bombs

Thus the introduction of the aircraft is studied.

CHAPTER 2

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COMPARATIVE CONFIGURATION OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF AIRCRAFT

To study the comparative configuration of different types of aircraft.

SPECIFICATION
MEASUREMENT B-47 STRATOJET
crew Zero-lift drag coefficient Length Wingspan 3 0.0148 32.65 m 35.37 m

B-24 B-36 LIBERATOR Peace maker


7-10 0.0406 20.6 m 33.5 m 13 0.0203 49.42 m 70.12 m

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Wing area Wing sweepback Tail height Lift-to-drag ratio Combat radius Rate of climb Operating empty weight Maximum takeoff weight Drag area Cruising speed Maximum speed Maximum range Wing loading Thrust/weight Service ceiling Engine

132.7 m2 32 8.54 m 20.0 3,240 km 23.7 m/s 35867 kg 100000 kg 1.96 m 896 km/h 977 km/h 6494 km 454.8 kg/m 0.22 10,100 m

97.4 m2 35 5.5 m 12.9 415 km 5.2 m/s 16590 kg 29500 kg 3.95 m 346 km/h 470 km/h 3400 km 256 kg/m 0.24 8,500 m

443.5 m2 34.5 14.25 m 15.4 6,415 km 10.1m/s 75530 kg 186000 kg 2.55 m 370 km/h 672 km/h 16000 km 656 kg/m 0.22 13,300 m

6 General 4 Pratt & Electric J47-GE- Whitney R-1830 4 General 25 turbojets turbosupercharged Electric J47 radial engines turbojets, 6 Pratt & Whitney R-

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4360-53 Thrust 500 kN 340 kN 232 kN

Thus the study of the comparitive configuration of different types of aircraft is studied and verified.

CHAPTER 3

COMPARITIVE

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GRAPHS

To draw the various graphs to estimate the performance parameters of the aircraft that is being designed.

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Thus, the performance parameters graph for various aircraft is drawn is verified.

CHAPTER 4

WEIGHT ESTIMATION

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Preliminary Estimation of Takeoff Weight (WTo):


To estimate the final takeoff weight, surplus weight, fuel weight and empty weight of the aircraft in the designing process through various numerical steps.Weight estimation is the first step in the design of an aircraft. The total weight of the aircraft is the combination of the weight of structure, payload, fuel, power plant, crew members, and other fixed equipments. The aircrafts weight is maximum during its Take off. In the first weight estimation, each constituent is given an approximate fractional value and the approximate weight of the aircraft is estimated which is W1. Wi/Wf =WTo/Wempty ENGINE START UP AND TAKE OFF PHASE: 0.97 Wf/Wi 0.975 Wf/Wi = 0.975
CLIMB AND ACCELERATE TO CRUISE CONDITION

PHASE: For M=1.24, Wf/Wi = 0.95 CRUISE OUT TO DESTINATION PHASE:

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R = V/C L/D ln(Wi/Wf) Wf/Wi = 0.88 COMBAT PHASE: Wi Wf = CmaxTmax tcombat Wi Wf = 1800 RETURN CRUISE: Wf/Wi = 0.84

Loitre Phase:
E = 1/C L/D ln( Wi/Wf) Wf/Wi =0.71

LANDING PHASE:

0.975 Wi/Wi 0.975 Wf/Wi =0.975 Structural coefficient (S) = 0.9750.950.880.840.710.975 S = WTo/Wempty = 0.4

CALCULATION:
From graph WTo Vs S, Estimated weight (Wi) = 35867 kg Phase 1 => Wf/Wi = 0.975 Wf = 34970.32 kg Phase 2 =>

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Wf/Wi = 0.96 Wf = 33221.80 kg Phase 3 => Wf/Wi = 0.87 Wf = 29235.19kg Phase 4 => Wf/Wi = 0.84 Wf = 24557.56 kg Phase 5 => Wf/Wi = 0 Wf = 22757.56 kg Phase 6 => Wf/Wi = 0.71 Wf = 16157.87 kg Phase 7 => Wf/Wi =0.975 Wf = 15753.92 kg Difference = Estimated weight landing weight Wf = 20113.07838 kg Fuel weight(Wf) => [ Estimated wt landing wt + 6% initial wt ] Wf = 21319.86 kg Payload= 4500 kg Available weight = [ Estimated weight fuel weight payload ]

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Wf = 10047.13 kg Required weight = S * estimated weight Wf =14346.8 kg Surplus weight = Required weight available weight Wf =4299.6630 kg Final weight = Required weight + fuel weight +4000 Wf =40166.66 kg

SPREADSHEET CALCULATION
MISSION REQUIREMEN T MAX.MACH CRUISE MACH ENGINE:TS FC MIN ENGINE:TS FC MAX ASPECT RATIO ENGINE:TH RUST(kN) COMBACT TIME(min) COMBACT ALT(ft) LOITER:TIM E (min) STRUCTUR AL FACTOR PAYLOAD:N ONEXP(Kg) CRUISE 2.21 1.24 0.64 2.15 9.42 32 45 45000 15 0.4 4500 3320 4500 4500 4500

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ALT(ft) ESTIMATED

(WTo)
STARTUP CLIMB TO CRUISE CRUISE TO DESINATIO N LOITER LANDING WT DIFFERENC E (EST WT -LAND WT) FUEL WT PAYLOAD AVAILABLE WT REQUIRED WT SURPLUS WT FINAL (WTo) ESTIMATED WT FINAL (WTo) SURPLUS WT ITERATION

35867 34970.325 33221.80875 29235.1917 24557.56103 22757.56103

40166. 66 39162. 5 37204. 37 32739. 85 27501. 47 25701. 47 18248. 04 17791. 84 22374. 82 23717. 31 11949. 35 16066. 67 4117.3 11 44283. 97 40166. 66 44283. 97 4117.3 11 2

137248 133816. 8 127125. 9 111870. 8 93971.5 92171.5 65441.7 6 63805.7 2 73442.2 6 77848.8 54899.1 8 54899.1 9 0.00971 137248 137248 137248 0.00971 301

137248 133816. 8 127125. 9 111870. 8 93971.5 92171.5 65441.7 7 63805.7 2 73442.2 7 77848.8 54899.1 9 54899.2 0.00929 8 137248 137248 137248 0.00929 8 302

16157.86833 15753.92162 20113.07838 21319.86308 10047.13692 14346.8 4299.663081 40166.66308 35867 40166.66308 4299.663081 1

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Thus the final take off weight (WTo) is found as 137248 kg.

CHAPTER 5

AIRFOIL SELECTION AND

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WING DESIGN

To determine the airfoil selection and wing design of the given aircraft.

Maximum thickness to chord ratio (t/c) max


M cruise=0.82 (t/c)max=12.8 %=0.12 Maximum lift coefficient (Cl max), from graph (t/c)max vs Cl max Cl(max)=1.56

TAPER RATIO SELECTION


The ratio of wing tip to wing root. The selection of taper ratio is to minimize the amount of lift induced drag. From lifting line theory for an unswept , untwisted wing and elliptical wing plan form gives the minimum drag .but these wing gives an elliptical spanwise variation in the lift. This is reason for more simply constructed trapezoidal wing with taper ratio 0.2. the trapezoidal wing with taper ratio 0.2 gives the minimum lift induced drag. Taper ratio=0.2

SWEEP ANGLE SELECTION


The sweep angle refers to the quarter chord position on the wing. from graph sweep angle vs taper ratio. Sweep angle=30 o There are different types series 5 airfoil they are as follows NACA 23012

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NACA 23013 NACA 23212 NACA 24012 Among these NACA 23012- is selected due to the following reasons.

NACA 23012 - 5 DIGIT series


Maximum camber =0.02c Design Cl =0.30 Position of maximum camber =0.15c Thickness to chord ratio =0.12 From these types of aircraft, NACA 23012 series 5 airfoil is selected with respect to thickness to chord ratio. Because the generally exhibit good performance at both subsonic and supersonic Mach number.

Thus the determination of airfoil selection and wing design of the given aircraft is found is verified.

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CHAPTER 6

DRAG ESTIMATION

ESTIMATION OF DRAG:

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Drag is a force which acts opposite to the force produced by the engine i.e.., Thrust .The airplane generally produces drag due to different extended surfaces such as power plant, control surfaces, fuselage frontal area and landing gears. The frontal area of these extended surfaces are calculated and from that the drag produced is estimated and 5% of interference drag is also added. The drag produced at cruising flight and take off are not the same because during the cruising flight the landing gear will be in retracted position and there will be no flap extension. Therefore, these drag components will be absent. The drag estimation is done for different conditions(cruising, take off and landing) and Drag polar is plotted D=1/2V2SCD

Coefficient of drag:
CD = CDO + kCL2

Where, CDO Drag coefficient due to zero lift CL Lift coefficient

k= 1/Ae
= 1/3.14 9.42 0.8

k = 0.0423 (t/c)max =0.12 , CL=1.56

CDO = Cf FQ Swetted / S S =planform area = 127.4 m2


Cf = skin friction coeff F = form factor Q = interference factor

Wetted surface area (Swetted):


Since, (t/c)max 0.05 So,

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Swetted S [1.977+0.52(t/c)max]

Swetted

262.37 m2

Form factor (F):

F = [1+0.6/(x/c) (t/c) +100(t/c)max][1.34M0.18(cos)0.28] = [1+0.6/0.30(0.128)+100(0.128)4] [1.34(1.24)0.18 (cos 32)0.28]

F = 1.6768

Skin friction coefficient (Cf):


Re= VC /

From data book, = 0.863 kg/m3 = 22.5510-6 Ns/m2 chord length (C)= 3.75 m Re = 0.863 *388.88 *3.75/22.55* 10-6 Aspect ratio = b2/s A.R =b/c 9.4 = 35.37/C C=3.75m

Re = 15.76 *107
Since, here Re 1000 (It is turbulent flow) Then,

Cf = 0.455 / [log Re]2.58 [1+0.144M2]0.65 Cf = 0.01998

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Sub in CDO ,

s = 127.4 m2

CDO = Cf FQ Swetted / S

CDO = 0.00918
Therefore, CD = CDO + kCL2 = 0.00918 + ( 0.04231.56 2 )

CD = 0.189
Drag , D = V2 S CD = 0.863 (388.882) 35.37 0.189

D = 436 kN

Thus the total drag is estimated as 436 kN

CHAPTER 7

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POWERPLANT SELECTION

To determine the powerplant selection of the aircraft. The sealing engines to provide the thrust necessary to overcome the drag based on the different mission requirements.the engines are selected on the basis of drag at the cruise mach no and altitude. The total drag calculated is 436 kN

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Sl.No

Engine

Thrust (kN) Per engine


75 43.8 500 62.3 309

Engine weight (kN) per engine


5.26 5.35 10.35 4.23 3.59

SFC lb / hr

1 2 3 4 5

Lyulka AL-21F-3A Turbo union RB199-34R MK 6 General Electric J47-GE-25 turbojets F414-GE-400 Pratt & Whitney F119-PW-100

2.56 3.35 2.4 3.2 0.5

The engine found to be suitable for the aircraft is 6 General Electric J47-GE-25 turbojets. Specifications for the engine are given as follow.

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Number of engine = 6 Thrust at cruising altitude TH = 500 kN

Thus the powerplant selection is found and verified.

CHAPTER 8

THREE VIEW DIAGRAM

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To draw the 3-view diagram of the aircraft which has been designed.

DIAGRAM

Top View

Side view

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Front view

37

Thus the 3-view diagram of the aircraft that has been designed to meet the proposed requirements is drawn.

CHAPTER 9

PERFORMANCE AND STABILITY CALCULATION

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PERFORMANCE CALCULATION
The performance of the airplane depends on the engine horse power (as the altitude increases the altitude increases the available thrust horse power decreases), Rate of climb and drag produced at the flying altitude. Thus for different altitude the performance calculation is done and the maximum velocity Vmax at different altitudes is found out.

At Sea level Altitude:


i.WT.O = 198871.811 N ii. = 20H/20+H = 1 H = 0 Km 1.2 iii.THPavailable = SHP x P = SHPS/L x x P 1.2 = 2970 x 1 x P ( P = Efficiency of Propellar ) iv = x = 1.226 Kg/m3 = 1.226 Kg/m3 v. Vs = (2(W/S)/ . CLmax)^0.5 vi. CL = 2(W/S)/ .

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R/C=(T HPavaTHPreqd D= V S.No m/s 236. 1 7 167. 2 4 136. 3 6 118. 4 3 105. 5 8 0.5 0.0403 16029.7 2274.2 0.4 0.3 0.0337 22339.9 0.0361 4 17968.7 2850.1 4091.9 0.85 5049 215.4 0.2 0.0321 31918.9 7160.4 0.1 CL CD total 0.0311 2 61888.9 CD/CL x W THPreqd 19634. 4
P

) THPav
a

x746x6 0/W

0.83

4930. 2 4870. 8 4811. 4

468.2

0.82

584.4

96.6

0.6

0.0468 15512.0

2009.1

0.81

630.7

89.5

0.7

0.0533 15142.7

1815.7

0.80

4752

660.8

83.7

0.8

0.0583 14492.9

1625.5

0.73

4336. 2 4276.

610.1

78.9

0.9

0.0658 14539.7

1537.6

0.72

8 4098.

616.5

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At 2 Km Altitude:

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i.WT.O = 198871.811 N ii. = 20H/20+H = 0.818 H=2Km iii.THPavailable = SHP x P = SHPS/L x 1.2 x = 2970 x 0.8181.2 x P ( P = Efficiency of Propellar ) iv = x = 1.003 Kg/m3 = 1.226 Kg/m3 v. Vs = (2(W/S)/ . CLmax)^0.5 vi. CL = 2(W/S)/ . V2

R/C =(T HPav


a

THP
reqd

D= S.N o 1 2 3 4 5 6 V m/s 261.6 4 185.0 1 151.0 1 130.8 117.0 1 106.8 CL 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 CD total 0.0311 2 0.0321 0.0337 0.0361 0.0403 0.0468 CD/CL x W 61888.9 31918.9 22339.9 17968.7 16029.7 15512.0 THPreqd 21705.9 7915.9 4523.6 3150.43 2514.15 2220.75 0.84 0.83 0.82 0.81 7 8 98.8 92.5 0.7 0.8 0.0533 0.0583 15142.7 14492.9 2005.48 1797.02 0.80
P

x746 THPa
va

x60/ W

3920 .75 3875 .07 3827 .39 3780 .7 3734 .05

173. 4 306. 1 361. 6 399. 5 435. 9

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9 10 11 12

87.21 82.73 78.8 75.53

0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2

0.0658 0.0735 0.0843 0.0963

14539.7 14617.1 15240.8 15959.5

1699.74 1621.06 1609.88 1615.84

0.79 0.75 0.70 0.68

3687 .37 3500 .67 3267 .29 3173 .94

447. 4 423. 04 373 350

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At 4 Km Altitude:
i.WT.O ii. iii.THPavailable = 198871.811 N = 20H/20+H =0.667 = SHP x P = SHPS/L x 1.2 = 2970 x 0.667 x P ( P = Efficiency of Propellar ) =
1.2

H = 4 Km x
P

iv = 1.226 Kg/m3 v. Vs vi. CL

= 0.8173Kg/m3

= (2(W/S)/ . CLmax)^0.5 = 2(W/S)/ . V2

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R/C= (THP
ava

THPr
eqd

D= V S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 m/s 289.86 204.96 167.35 144.93 129.63 118.33 CL 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 CD total 0.0311 2 0.0321 0.0337 0.0361 4 0.0403 0.0468 CD/CL x W 61888.9 31918.9 22339.9 17968.7 16029.7 15512.0 THPreqd 24047.1 8769.6 5011.5 3490.8 2785.3 2460.5 0.88 0.86 0.84 7 8 9 10 11 12 109.55 102.55 96.62 91.66 87.39 83.67 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 0.0533 0.0583 0.0658 0.0735 0.0843 0.0963 15142.7 14492.9 14539.7 14617.1 15240.8 15959.5 2223.69 1992.3 1883.2 1795.98 1785.38 1789.98 0.82 0.80 0.78 0.74 0.72
P

x746 THP
ava

x60/ W 96.7 153. 4 190. 3 225. 9 234. 03 239. 5 206. 7 189. 1

321 5.3 314 2.2 306 9.14 299 6.1 292 2.9 284 9.9 270 3.8 263 0

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At 6 Km Altitude:
Km i.WT.O ii.

= 198871.811 N = 20H/20+H = 0.538 H=6 = SHP x P = SHPS/L x 1.2 x P = 2970 x 0.5381.2 x P ( P = Efficiency of Propellar ) = x = 0.66 Kg/m3 = (2(W/S)/ . CLmax)^0.5 vi. CL THPreqd = THP R/C=
ava

iii.THPavailable iv = 1.226 Kg/m3 v. Vs 2(W/S)/ . V2 S.N o V m/s

CL

CD total

D = CD/CL xW

(THP
ava

S.No
1. 2.

ALTITUDE (Km)
SEA LEVEL 2 4 0.1 6 0.2 0.0311 2 0.0321

(R/C)max m/min
660 445 243 61888.9 75 31918.9 9758.8 26760.3

1/(R/C)max min/m
1.5 x10
-3

THPr
eqd

x746 x60/ W -

2.2 x10-3
-3 4.1 - x10 -

13. 322. 4. 2 6 228. 1 186. 3 23 161. 4 5 3 144. 3 131. 6 7

1 x10-3 -

0.3 0.0337 0.0361 0.4 0.5 4 0.0403 17968.7 16029.7 3884.6 3099.5 22339.9 5576.9 -

2512 .5 -

0.89 0.6 0.0468 15512.0 2738.1

-50.8

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The graph it is found that as the altitude increases the rate of climb decreases. The service ceiling and the absolute ceiling is calculated. Absolute ceiling is the altitude where the maximum rate of climb of the airplane is zero. service ceiling is the altitude where the maximum rate of climb of an airplane is 30m/min Service ceiling = 6 Km Absolute ceiling = 6.3Km

The area below the curve is calculated which gives the time taken to climb at cruising altitude. Time = 22 x 1 x 10 x 10-3 = 22min

STABILITY CALCULATION
The airplane must be stable in order to come back to its equilibrium position after any deviation from its flight path. Stability of an airplane is desirable. If the airplane is over stable then powerful control is required to take the airplane from one equilibrium to another equilibrium.

LONGITUDINAL STABILITY

47

This longitudinal stability calculation gives the horizontal tail angle it. The airplane is stabilized by the horizontal tail. Therefore this angle to the horizontal tail will stabilize the airplane and gives the longitudinal stability to the airplane.

xc.g = 0.3 cmean xa.c = 0.26 cmean (From aerofoil data book) CL cruise = 0.45 Cm fus, = ) CL
= 0.03 0.45 = 0.0135 Cm a.c = 0.03 t = 0.9 w = 6 iw =4 (From aerofoil data book) ( At cruise CL)

= = 0.4 6 = 2.4 =

= (6.95/57.92)(6.69/2.29) = 0.3616

To find aw:

The slope of the Aerofoil(NACA663-218) for wing is found out from the aerofoil data book Tan =y/x =0.34/4.2 =0.081 1/aw = 1/a+57.3/(AR) CL =1/0.081+57.3/(11)0.45 aw =0.0076

To Find at: dA.R/CL = d /CL+


18.24/AR

48

The slope the aerofoil (NACA 0009)for the horizontal tail is found out from the aerofoil data book. Tan = y/x = 0.2/2.4 = 0.09 1/at = 1/a + (18.26 / A.R) 1/at = 1/0.09 + (18.26 / 11) at = 0.08/deg When Cmc.g = 0 the value of it is found. CL ((xc.g xa.c) / cmean) Cma.c + Cmfus,nac atvt(w iw + it) = 0 0.45 ((0.3 0.26)cmean / cmean) 0.03 + 0.0135 ((0.08 0.36160.9) (6 4 2.4+ it)) = 0 it = 0.46 = + vt(1c.g = (0.3 0.26) + 0.03 (0.08/0.081)0.36160.9 (1-0.4)
c.g c.g

= -0.093

Since is

c.g

negative it is inferred that the airplane is stabilizing

TO FIND NEURAL POINT (STICK FIXED) :


c.g

=(

- No)

No = 0.3 + 0.093 = 0.393 Therefore Neutral point is located at 0.393


c.g

c.g

vt(1-

)(1-Ch/Ch)
=((0.3-0.26)cmean/ cmean)+0.03-(0.08/0.081)0.36160.9(1-0.4)(1(1.20.5))
c.g

= -0.0065

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TO FIND NEUTRAL POINT :(STICK FIXED)


=( - No) No =0.3+0.0044 = 0.344
c.g

Therefore Neutral point is located at 0.344

ONE ENGINE INOPERATION CONDITION:


S.H.P(one engine) = 2970 x 103 W le = distance between the fuselage centre axis and the powerpla. = 2.5m p = 0.89, cruise = 0.66 Kg/m3,Sw = 57.92m2 b = 25.24 m Yawing Moment Coefficient = S.H.P x p x 746 x le/ (0.5 x cruise x Sw x V3 x b) = 2970x 103 x 0.89 x 2.5/ (0.5 x 0.66 x 57.92 x V3 x 25.24) Cn = 13.698 / V

By substituting different values of V we get Cn.These values have been tabulated and graph is plotted between V vs Cn.

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S.N o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

V m/s 0 11.1 8.814 7.70 6.99 6.49 6.11 5.8 5.55 5.34 5.154

Cn 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 1.0

ESTIMATION OF ELEVATOR ANGLE FOR DIFFERENT CL & at SAME c.g POSITION:


We know the equation,

Cmc.g = CL ((xc.g xa.c) / cmean) Cma.c + Cmfus,nac atvt(w iw + it + e) = 0.


At cruising CL(0.45), e = 0o a.) For, CL = 0.1 ; w = 1.6

Cmc.g = CL ((xc.g xa.c) / cmean) Cma.c + Cmfus,nac atvt(w iw + it + e) = 0


0.1(0.3 0.26) 0.03+ 0.003 ((0.08 0.3616 0.9)(1.6 4 (0.41.6) +0.46+ (0.5e) = 0 e = 3.4o b.) For, CL = 0.2 ; w = 3 ; = (0.4 3) = 1. e = 2.33o c.) For, CL = 0.6 ; w = 7.6 ; = (0.47.6) = 3.04 e= -1.15o d.) For, CL = 0.8 ; w = 9.8; = (0.4 9.8) = 3.92 e= -2.69o

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Thus the performance and stability calculation was found is verified.