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2011

The Spatial Configuration as a Strategic Agent in the Growth of Urban


Areas: the Case of a Small City in Sri Lanka
Planning Strategy for Sustainability

Jagath Munasinghe1 and Aruna Bandara 2


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1.0
INTRODUCTION
Sustainability has throughout been rhetoric in urban planning around the world for more than three
decades by now despite many ambiguities associated with the term. Further, strategic planning is often
discussed both in planning literature and practice as a pre-empt model towards sustainable development.
Yet, how sustainable and strategic are the urban planning interventions over the past few decades is a
question that emerges in ones mind when the state of affairs related to the physical developments in our
cities are viewed in retrospect. Noticeably, the development trends in most of the South Asian cities
more often than not are unprecedented and quite contradictory to what was envisaged by their
development plans. The main reason behind this situation may be the gaps in the understanding among
planners on the means of strategic interventions, which need to deal with a whole range of complex
elements starting from socio-cultural and political relationships to the sensitive natural systems of the
environment. In order to deal with all of these elements, planners need to comprehend the spatial extent,
which cuts across all of them and formulate the ground for their existence in the urban environments.
Space, is an inevitable, all encompassing factor in all social and temporal relations in human
geographies, be it urban or otherwise (Soja,1989). Space is the machine of configuration of the urban
affairs (Hillier, 1989) and it thus, is the inexplicit substance of urban planning. For this reason alone it
has been an area of interest to many studies in planning, but still demands more and more efforts to be
explored for better understanding. Less of strategies to intervene with spatial dynamics can be quoted as
a valid reason, among many others, for some obvious questions on sustainability of urban projects in the
recent past. The case from a small city in Sri Lanka, presented in this paper is one such example where
the implied objective of planning was to achieve a sustainable city development by redirecting its future
growth through strategic action projects, but failed to accomplish the said objective.
The planning approaches adopted by Sri Lanka and most of the other South Asian states still show
allegiance to the core values of the early twentieth century British planning systems. They have
throughout been ineffective to address the complexities in South Asian urbanities to the extent problem
solving, not in a metaphorical sense, but in a pragmatic sense of finding way out of a problem or some
problems was the intended purpose of planning (Refer Higgins & Morgan, 2000). This is more than a
comment and equally true for both small towns and bigger cities in the region. In Sri Lanka, most of the
early planning attempts in smaller cities were projects driven by these values that promoted escapism
1
2

Senior Lecturer, Department of City and Country Planning, University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka.
Graduate Student, Department of Urban Engineering, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

rather than adaptation as the underlying philosophy. Hence, evading the city from flood disasters,
vehicular traffic congestions and threats to cultural heritage sites were the main reasons for planning.
The case of the small city of Rathanapura, presented in the forthcoming sections, is one of them where
evacuation of city activities into a safer site away from floods was the aim of its first modern planning
project.
Rathnapura is located in a lower plateau among south west hilly areas of the central Sri Lanka and
affected by the spillover of the Kaluganga river that flows through the plateau. In order to avoid the
further growth of the city in the areas prone to floods, the planning authorities in 1970s have adopted the
New Town concept gifted by British planning ideologies of that time. The approach was a strategic
relocation of all administrative activities into a highland away from the plateau with the development of
roads and other physical infrastructure in the new town, expecting the existing commercial and other
activities in the city to follow suit. Although it was not stated in planning proposals, it is clear that the
city activities existed in the flood prone areas were expected to decline and the new areas at the
highlands within a close proximity to the new town were expected to thrive as the emerging city of
Rathnapura. Today, after about three decades from the implementation of the project, the old
Rathnapura is still thriving as the city, irrespective of the damage caused by occasional floods, and the
new town remains as the area exclusive for administrative activities. This study attempts to explore this
development, which is contrary to what was envisaged in the plan, as a function of spatial configuration
that is decisive in directing the growth of a city. The citys spatial structure both at pre-plan stage and
post-plan stage are analyzed in space syntax method and demonstrate that the planned new city had
strengthened the urban agglomeration potentials of the old city, instead of reducing it, and thus enabled
its further growth avoiding the expected growth towards the new town. The question of how strategic
the planning intervention to achieve the stated objective of the plan is discussed at this point.
2.0
STRATEGIC PLANNING AND ATTEMPTS TO COMPREHEND URBAN SPACE
Strategic planning is a concept that said to have its origin in the military notion of strategy or the
activity of leading or organizing an army as a general in order to win a fight and a war (Needham,
2000). One of its first appearances is found in urban renewal projects in San Francisco in early 1900s
and urban regeneration projects in London docklands. There the strategic planning seems to have
indicated strategic partnerships, which were crucial for the implementation of the projects. Strategic
interventions in urban renewal refer more to community participation and stakeholder involvement than
anything else. However, in the urban planning literature, strategic planning is mostly discussed as a
methodical approach that replaced preceding planning approaches such as urban design planning,
rational comprehensive planning and framework planning (eg: Rydlin1993). Its methodological
contents can be more fully understood with the principles of: design urban areas with dynamic and
sustainable long term perspective, dealing with daily policy, trouble shooting and process-supporting
actions with a decision making process involving all possible actors, and empowering people to better
their living conditions and to participate in society (e.g. Patsy Healey, 1997).
Albrechts (2006) presented a few cases from European cities that adopted a shift from the conventional
spatial planning programmes to the identification and implementation of strategic projects, those have
the potential to further the development scenarios envisaged by the planning agencies. Strategic
planning accordingly is: focused upon limited number of strategic key issues and takes a critical view of
the environment in terms of determining strengths and weaknesses in the context of opportunities and
threats caused by the external trends and forces. It identifies and gathers major stakeholder (public and
private) and allows for a broad (multi-level governance) and diverse involvement during the planning
process, design plan-making structure and developing content, image and decision making frameworks
for influencing and managing spatial change. Further, it is concerned with new ideas and the processes
that can propagate them, thus generating ways of understanding, ways of building agreements and ways
of organizing and mobilizing for the purpose of external influence in different areas, in long and short
term, it is focused on decisions, actions, results and monitoring, feedback and revision (Albrechts,
2009). What is important among all these for spatial dynamics is the formulation of urban trajectories
rather than attempting to engrave conventional land use based master plans. Yet, not many scholarly
attempts have been found on the strategic intervention in urban spatial dynamics. Apart from the

voluminous body of literature that contained descriptive theories on urban space, its form and
organization and its change, only a few studies are found that directly addresses the question of strategic
intervention in space.
Out of the voluminous body of literature, studies that dealt with the urban space as a phenomenon in
change can be divided into a few categories. The first category of literature viewed the changing urban
space relating to the figures and the events of history, presented by the forces of culture and politics. For
example, Morris (1979), Mumford (1964), Kostof (1990), and Rossi(1984) argued that the change and
the evolution was primarily a historic process of shaping the physical environment to accommodate the
decisions of both the rulers and the ruled. In the second category, Burgesss (1925) mapping of
Concentric Zones of Chicago, Homer Hoyts (1939) observations on sector growth phenomenon of US
cities and Harris and Ulmanns (1945) model of Multiple Nuclei cities, demonstrated a social ecology in
the urban space. These studies presupposed an inevitable expansion of activities akin to the forces of
urban growth. Thus, they explained the change and the evolution of urban areas primarily as a
continuous transformation of spaces, based either on the growing demand for space by competing urban
activities and the resident location preferences of different social groups, or contesting perceptions of
different inhabitant groups and their reflections on space. The third group studied the evolutionary
process of urban areas, mainly cities, as a responsive dialect between the economic forces and the social
organizations. Literature of this category takes the view that the growth of contemporary cities is a
process characterized by the inevitable invasion of traditional quarters and agricultural suburbs by
modern urban functions. (eg: Friedman, 1966). Studies, inspired by Lefebvre (1984) and the later,
focused upon the coerced, contested and negotiated, propositional and oppositional interests on space
between the capital and the labour, colonial and the colonized, rulers and the ruled, and the foreigners
and natives (eg: Harvey, 1973; Castells, 1983, Yeoh, 2003; Perera, 2002, Hosagrahar,1999). These
streams of literature have contributed valuble insights towards the better understanding of space in
terms of the politics underlying the production, multiple authorships and the parallel processes of
making and remaking of urban spaces. Yet, they are more explanatory of socio-spatial dynamics and
less demonstrative of possible methods of dealing with space in planning.
Hanson & Hilliers (1986) work on social logic and movement economy of space enabled to another
stream of research, that centered the methodology termed Space Syntax. It has given way to a large
number of subsequent research work, presented through thematic conferences and publications by
Hillier (1996, 1999) himself and many others. In his early work Hillier(1996) used space syntax method
to analyze urban spaces of the city of London and showed that the spatial configuration of a city
results in varied levels of integration to urban spaces. In this varied configuration, the most integrated
spaces attracted the most competitive urban activities, pedestrians and thus, the life of the city. Spatial
configuration is the overall composition, in which the streets and other public access ways are
organized, enabling the movements between different spatial units within the city. Spatial integration
of a space is the interactive relationship that spatial unit maintains with all other units of the city in
terms of connectivity. The competition therefore, is between different segments of the city, and their
unequal levels of integration lead some urban spaces to be more competent than the others and hence,
become highly attractive for urban activities. As the city grows, the new elements such as the new
roads, lanes, connecters introduced to the citys spatial structure change the overall spatial configuration
of the city, changing the spatial integration of all individual spatial units. This change in turn, changes
their attractions leading to a change of activity locations in the city. An understanding of this process
provides the planners with an opportunity to intervene with urban spatial dynamics with some level of
certainty. Space syntax is gaining popularity in the area of planning and urban design, mainly due to this
urban space modeling possibilities it has demonstrated.
In a subsequent work Hillier (1999) studied the formulation of central spaces, in which all employment
and higher order economic activities are concentrated, as a continuous process in cities. The
displacement of centrality of spaces along with the main activities from the historic quarters towards
once an edge, as the city expands or contracts is explained as a function of changing spatial
configuration. Da Costa Bagra (2007) supported the main idea by showing the continuation of the
centrality of historic quarters of Rio de Janeiro for three centuries as a result of the consistent spatial

configuration. These works suggest that urban areas are in a process of change throughout, and the
change in the order of their activities, reorganization pattern and the growth can be better understood
and guided by planners by observing the power of the internal force: the Spatial Configuration. But
conventional planning approaches usually understand urban spaces as neutral, static end states that can
be realized through deterministic manipulations. Hence, they rarely account for the dynamic
relationship between the organization of space and the location order of activities, and the spatial
strategies proposed by plans often bear no value in the process.
3.0
THE STUDY AND THE METHOD
As stated earlier, the case presented in this paper is an attempt to explain the unexpected development
pattern of urban activities in Rathnapura city as a function of the changing configuration of its urban
spaces. Space Syntax application is chosen as appropriate for the purpose. According to Space Syntax
theory the spatial units of an urban area; that are streets, squares, etc.; when represented by axial lines in
the technique, show an unequal values of integration in their overall configuration. The spatial units that
show a higher level of integration into the other spatial segments in the overall configuration show more
potential to attract people and thus, become spaces with higher demand for more competitive urban
activities. In the competition for space, the activities that could bid high, succeed and the others get
shifted into spaces with lower level of integration. In the process of growth or planned expansion, the
overall spatial configuration gets changed and the demand pattern for space too changes with that. This
study therefore, examines the state of change in the overall spatial configuration with the introduction of
the new town area to Rathnapura city.
The method of study consisted of three main steps. In the first step, the activity locations of the city are
mapped. For the clarity of the analysis, the activities are categorized into two main groups and under
which, six sub groups, based on their generally implied competitiveness in urban locations and the
nature of the activity (table 3.1). For example, commercial banks, insurance companies, other financial
organizations, showrooms for luxury goods, etc, which are highly competitive in bidding for urban
spaces, are considered as the first sub-group of the commercial activities. The general services
(commercial) such as hair dressers, laundries, tailors, etc.., those compete moderately, are grouped as
the second sub-group of commercial activities. All the retail trading activities are considered as the third
category commercial activities while the wholesale businesses, warehouses, factories and heavy duty
workshops, etc, are identified as fourth sub-group of commercial activities. The residential and
agricultural activities, which are weak in bidding for urban spaces, are identified as sub-groups in the
second main group. These six types of activities act in urban space in different ways, but collectively
they form the overall urban setting. However, due to the absence of recorded information on detail
activity locations at the pre-planned stage of the city, no activity analysis was done for that stage.
In the second step the configurations of the streets and public movement paths of the Ratnapura city is
analyzed both at the pre-planning stage and post-planning stage. Syntactic analysis of the Space
Syntax method is used for this purpose. The fundamental unit of consideration of Space Syntax method
is the axial connectivity that makes the shortest possible path from one end to another end of the public
space (street, square, alley, etc). Thus, the first task in this step is to reduce the composition of streets,
alleys and all other public spaces in an urban area into a composition of axial lines that incident either
on one another or many others. The number of minimum axial line connections (shortest possible path)
that a person has to pass through to get into a space from another space decides the level of connectivity
of the first in relation to the second. In this manner, the connectivity of a space into all other spaces in
the urban area can be evaluated by accounting for overall spatial configuration of the area. The level of
connectivity is an indication of the degree to which each space is integrated into the urban area. In order
to apply the method the streets and other public movement paths of the two situations are reduced to
axial-line diagrams, and these diagrams in turn, are analyzed using depth map, which is the
commonly used software for Space Syntax studies. It analyses the level of integration of each axial line
(which represent a spatial unit) at a given radius of consideration. The method emphasizes two levels of
integration of an urban space: local and global (Hillier, 1996). Local integration is indicative of the
structural composition of the public spaces at the locality level and its analysis enables to identify the
locations that are most and least attractive within the immediate context. Hence, when an urban area is
analyzed at the local level, the local centres emerge as the most integrated spaces and more competitive

land uses are usually concentrated into them. Global integration is the indicator of the attractiveness of
different public spaces at the overall spatial configuration of the city. Only the global integration is
taken into account in this study, as it deals with a change that has happened at the city scale.
Table 3.1: Categorization of the urban activities

Category

Activities (Categorized based on the level of the competitiveness for the space)

Commercial Category 1 High end commercial activities: Commercial Banks, Financial institutions, Showrooms for luxury
goods, etc
Commercial Category 2 Commercial services: Hair dressers, Tailors, Laundries, etc
Commercial Category 3 All types of retail activities (excluding the activities in category 1): Groceries, Book shops, Food
boutiques, etc
Commercial Category 4 Space consuming heavy activities: Factories, Heavy workshops, Warehouses, etc
Residential

Individual dwellings (with gardens), Collective dwellings, etc

Agricultural

All types of agricultural activities

In the third step, the sensitivity of each activity category to the level of spatial integration of the postplanning stage of the city is examined. The level of the sensitivity is determined by the average and
standard deviation of the dataset (the integration values of all activities) of each category. The
integration value of the axial line, closest to each activity location is taken as the level of spatial
integration of that location. The outcome of this analysis is compared with the level of integration of the
same spatial units at the pre-planning stage and the conclusions are derived out of this comparison.
4.0
THE SMALL CITY OF RATHNAPURA
The name; Ratnapura implies the City of Gems and the entire region of Ratnapura is well known for
gem mining. Ratnapura has been the administrative centre of Sabaragomuwa Province of Sri Lanka
from 1850s, the times of British colonial rule in the island. The city has grown outward from a nuclei
formed at the intersection of a few major highways of the country. Thus, it has a concentric form and
elongated along main highways (figure 4.1). Located at a plateau in the bank of Kaluganga river, which
carries the runoff from the areas of highest precipitation of the island, and situated at a lower elevation,
the city is also known also for experiencing major floods almost every year. In certain years extensive
property and human loses were reported due to floods and the entire routine functions of the city gets
held up for a few days during floods. Having considered the severity of the damages caused by the
floods, the government of Sri Lanka in 1970s decided to plan a New Town, in line with the popularly
adopted problem solving methods of the time. The project was commissioned 1977 to the Town &
Country Planning Department, which was the apex physical planning body of the state. The land
selected for the new town was about two kilometers towards the North West of the existing town and at
a higher elevation that never got affected by floods. In planning the new town, the conventional land use
zoning based master plan approach was adopted and major administrative functions were the priority
elements that were given space at higher elevations. The roads and other physical infrastructure
adequate for the growth predicted for next twenty years were in place and the lands in the immediate
vicinity were reserved for future developments. New housing schemes were developed to attract people
and a gradual movement of commercial and other urban activities was expected. The expectation was to
redirect the future development of the urban activities of the existing town towards the new town. This
is a strategic approach as the entire town was not built, but only the main administrative activities and
infrastructure was provided expecting the other activities to follow up. The first stages of the New Town
were built in early 1980s. However, to a contrary, the old city has not shifted in the expected direction
and instead it has been growing at a considerable rate centering the old city. The new city does not have
the life of a city as most of the lands are vacant still and becomes dead, after working hours of the
government offices (figure 4.2). At present, all city activities, except a few administration institutions,
are located in the old city, even amidst flood situations. A few major highways that connect Ratnapura
to other regions, public amenities such as the bus terminals, play grounds, etc, and some of the high
level trade and commercial facilities are inundated and inaccessible during the periods of heavy rains,
yet comfortably settled in the old city centre.

Figure 4.1: Locations of the key urban activities in


Ratnapura before 1980s

Figure 4.2: Locations of the key urban activities in


Ratnapura after 1980s

[
NEW CITY
Administrative Activities

OLD CITY
Bus Terminal, Railway
Station, Administrative and
Major Commercial activities

OLD CITY
Bus Terminal, Railway
Station and Major
Commercial activities

1
Kilometers

Kilometers

5.0
ANALYSIS AND OBSERVATION
In the first step of the study, the locations of urban activities those could be found in the area were
recorded. The overall distribution of the urban activities and built form of the city takes a mono-centric
pattern. All the prominent urban activities are concentrated to the center, which is located near
Kaluganga river. According to the classification discussed earlier, the main two types of activities, ie:
commercial and non-commercial activities were mapped (figure 5.1). The distribution patterns of each
of these types show a significant difference.
Next, the distribution of activities were studied under the detailed categories; Commercial Category
1(figure 5.2), Commercial Category 2 (figure 5.3), Commercial Category 3 (figure 5.4),
Commercial Category 4 (figure 5.5), Residential (figure 5.6) and Agricultural (figure 5.7). The
activities under four Commercial categories are concentrated towards the center, but their densities and
distribution pattern varies from each other. On the other hand, the Non-Commercial categories;
Residential and Agricultural, are distributed over the area with a less concentration towards the center.
Figure 5.1: Distribution of commercial and Non-commercial activities
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Activity Type

Roads

Commercial

River

Non-commercial

Figure 5.2: Distribution of Commercial Category 1 activities


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Figure 5.3: Distribution of Commercial Category 2 activities

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Figure 5.4: Distribution of Commercial Category 3 activities


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Figure 5.5: Distribution of Commercial Category 4 activities

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Figure 5.6: Distribution of Residential activities


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In the second step, the spatial configuration of the area was analyzed with the Space Syntax method at
both pre-planning and post planning stages. (figure 5.8a and b). The spatial configuration is dictated by
the spatial integration of the public spaces in the city and it illustrates the typical form of a
small/medium mono-centric settlement.
Figure 5.8 a: Spatial Integration at Pre-Planning stage (1985)
1
KM

Figure 5.8 b: Spatial Integration at Post-Planning stage


(2010)
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0.044 - 0.051

0.142 - 0.147

0.039203 - 0.046426

0.113285 - 0.116570

0.052 - 0.057

0.148 - 0.154

0.046427 - 0.053076

0.116571 - 0.119671

0.058 - 0.064

0.155 - 0.160

0.053077 - 0.060715

0.119672 - 0.122756

0.065 - 0.070

0.161 - 0.167

0.060716 - 0.068101

0.122757 - 0.125849

0.071 - 0.076

0.168 - 0.173

0.068102 - 0.074081

0.125850 - 0.129094

0.077 - 0.083

0.174 - 0.180

0.074082 - 0.079066

0.129095 - 0.132537

0.084 - 0.089

0.181 - 0.186

0.079067 - 0.083876

0.132538 - 0.135925

0.090 - 0.096

0.187 - 0.193

0.083877 - 0.088232

0.135926 - 0.139434

0.097 - 0.102

0.194 - 0.199

0.088233 - 0.092348

0.139435 - 0.143172

0.103 - 0.109

0.200 - 0.205

0.092349 - 0.096193

0.143173 - 0.147077

0.110 - 0.115

0.206 - 0.212

0.096194 - 0.099711

0.147078 - 0.151342

0.116 - 0.122

0.213 - 0.218

0.099712 - 0.103167

0.151343 - 0.156322

0.123 - 0.128

0.219 - 0.225

0.103168 - 0.106524

0.156323 - 0.162382

0.129 - 0.134

0.226 - 0.231

0.106525 - 0.109870

0.162383 - 0.169309

0.135 - 0.141

0.232 - 0.238

0.109871 - 0.113284

0.169310 - 0.178515

The highest levels of integration at the pre-plan stage were observed at the core areas of the city. The
comparison leads to the observation that the level of spatial integration in the core areas got increased at
the post-planning stage. This indicates that the spatial units added to the periphery of the city in the form
of a new town along with the other developments around the city has increased the urban agglomeration
potentials of the existing city centre.
In the final step, the distribution of activities in each category was analyzed relating to the spatial
integration of their respective locations (spaces). In this analysis, the range of the integration, within
which a particular category of activities were found, the mean value of the integration of that range and
standard deviation of that were found. This exercise revealed different ranges of spatial integrations of
the locations where those different categories of activities were located, and their sensitivity to the
spatial integration.

Under the general categorization, the Commercial activities and the Non-Commercial activities were
analyzed. The analysis revealed that the commercial activities were located within a limited range of
integration and maintain a low standard deviation with having a relatively higher average value (Min:
0.128049, Max: 0.178515, Ave: 0.1713, SD: 0.0084) (figure 5.9), than the non-commercial category
(Min: 0.039203, Max: 0.178515, Ave: 0.123, SD: 0.0256) (figure 5.10).
Figure 5.9: Commercial Activities - Sensitivity
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Minimum
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0.15

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Maximum
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Average
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Standard Deviation
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Figure 5.10: Non-Commercial Activities - Sensitivity

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Minimum
0.039203

Maximum
0.178515

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Average
0.123

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0.0256

The analysis of the detailed categories highlighted varied responses from different activity categories to
the spatial integration. The activities in the Commercial Category 1(figure 5.11) showed a very high
sensitivity to the spatial integration with the highest average integration value among all categories. The
Commercial Category 3 and 4 (figures 5.13 and 5.14) indicated the second and third highest averages
respectively with lower standard deviations. The Commercial Category 2 (figure 5.12) was in the
fourth place with relatively higher average, but with a moderate standard deviation. The Residential and
Agricultural categories (figure 5.15 and 5.16) stand in fifth and sixth places with a wide range of
distribution, very low average integration value and a very high standard deviation.
Recalling the content of each activity category, it can be assumed that the high end commercial
activities such as banks, other financial institutions, retail trading etc are very sensitive to the level of
spatial integration of their locations. The mid level activities such as wholesale trading, warehousing,
heavy machinery and industrial activities were located in areas with moderate spatial integration, but the
spatial distribution of those activities were confined to a limited area, but still highly sensitive to the
spatial integration. The bottom end activities such as residential followed by the agricultural activities,

spread over a wide area, which had a very low sensitivity to the changes in the spatial integration. These
findings are in line with the findings of previous Space Syntax studies (done at London and Santiago:
Hiller, 1996), that show a clear effect of spatial configuration of a city on the location decisions of
different activities in it.
Figure 5.11: Commercial Category 1 Activities - Sensitivity
1
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Minimum
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Maximum
0.17806

Average
0.1749

Standard Deviation
0.0031

Figure 5.12: Commercial Category 2 Activities - Sensitivity


1
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Maximum
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Average
0.1687

Standard Deviation
0.0102

Figure 5.13: Commercial Category 3 Activities - Sensitivity


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Figure 5.14: Commercial Category 4 Activities - Sensitivity


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Figure 5.15: Residential Activities - Sensitivity


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Minimum
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Maximum
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Figure 5.16: Agricultural Activities - Sensitivity


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6.0
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
Ratnapura city has been experiencing an annual flood for hundreds of years. In order to address this
issue, and to facilitate a sustainable future development to the city the planning authority implemented
the New Town development project in 1970s. The intention was to redirect the citys growth towards
higher terrains. The main strategy of the new plan was to relocate all the government administration
activities to the new location and providing the necessary infrastructure. The expected scenario was a
self relocation of the other activities following the administrative activities. Instead of following the
order expected by the plan, the old town is still growing even amidst regular floods. This phenomenon
of reinforcing the existing pattern even amidst strategic planned intervention was the area of interest to
this paper.
Looking at it from an external vantage point it can be studied that there is a push factor, which causes
peoples lives and property losses while there is a pull factor, which provides good accessibility and
mutually supportive activities at close proximity. In a free market oriented economy, the business
decisions are taken to maximize their profits. The location decision plays a vital role in this process and
naturally, the private investors compete to acquire the most advantageous space, which obviously is the
space with highest accessibility.
The comparison of the integration maps at two stages show that the level of spatial integration of the
spatial units in the core area of the old city got increased by the planned intervention. According to
Space Syntax logic, the spaces with higher integration have the potential to be more competitive than
the others in attracting people and activities in an urban area. The activity categories studied in this
paper showed a strong allegiance of different activity types into locations with varied levels of spatial
integration. The urban activities such as banks, financial institutions, etc those are considered to be the
highest competitors in urban spaces, were located in most integrated locations in the city. Their
locations indicate the highest average integration values with low standard deviation, which explains
their high sensitivity to the locations highly integrated in the overall composition. At the same time,
activities such as farms and residences are located where there is a low average integration and a very
high standard deviation. This explains their weak sensitivity to the spatial integration in making location
decision. In between these two ends, other urban activities such as retail trading, commercial services,
industrial warehouses, etc form a hierarchy in terms of their competitiveness to the advantageous urban
spaces, which is indicated by the average integration and standard deviation values.
In this context, the scenario provided in the development plan may not necessarily be the advantageous
to the urban activities to find best locations. The New town however, has strengthened the potential of
the core area of the old town by increasing the level of its integration to the other parts of the city. In
this case study itself, it clearly illustrates the differences in spatial integration between old city and new
city areas. The spatial integration of the new city area is not par with the average integration level
indicated by the locations with high and medium urban activities. What is questioned here is the
strategic validity of the planning decisions in terms of choosing appropriate spatial scenarios.
Relocation and New Town planning are not invalid as strategies in urban planning, but, in formulating
their applications the planners have to be more sensitive towards the spatial dynamics of urban
activities, which are not simply amenable to planners control.
7.0

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