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AUTHOR1: SIRISHA. A B.TECH 3RD YR, ECE MIST, HYDERABAD sweetsiri_0509@yahoo.

in

AUTHOR2: LAVANYA. V B.TECH 3RD YR, ECE MIST, HYDERABAD vlavanya14@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
While many industries are making cutbacks, healthcare is one industry that promises resilience and strength. In particular, mobile devices promise a world of new applications for patients and medical providers alike, especially when it comes to medical compliance and the treatment of long-term medical conditions including diabetes, heart disease, hypertension and obesity. Medical providers and patients alike can use wireless technology to better manage healthcare treatment programs and costs as well as improve the overall well being of the nation. Recently most of the researches are going on embedding microchips in medications to create "smart pill" technology. "Smart pills" senses what's happening in the body and deliver that information to the patient's doctor. In the following papers we have tried to present a small overview of latest innovations in medical field that includes the concept of continuous monitoring of human body and detecting the vital signs of crucial diseases in advance called BODY 2.0. For this purpose in this paper we are presenting The chip-on-a-pill, developed by Proteus Biomedical, will transmit data from the body to doctors, helping them to track med intake and tweak dosage and the Smart pill embedded with microchips developed by Novartis.

INTRODUCTION
In the midst of the data and gadget revolutions, a new, crossbreed movement is emerging: around-the-clock health information tracking devices. With healthcare growing more and more expensive, people are turning to alternative ways to take care of themselves and monitor their health. And with nifty little gadgets getting less expensive and more sophisticated by the day, health information tracking devices are part of the key to answering our healthcare needs. We seem to be moving towards something we like to call Body 2.0: the networked body, the new wave of constantly tracked, databased health information. What if we could monitor our bodys reaction to our medications in real time? What if my pacemaker could also manage my diabetes??... What if we could better coordinate our care with doctors?? What if my nokia was also my personal health companion??? What if we could take control of our diseases and live longer???.. Now TECHNOLOGY+COMMUNICATON+HE ALTHCARE made this possible. If we once take the usage of technology in medicine we will find: 2001- wireless ingestible camera approved used to diagnose gastro-intestinal disorders, 2004- first internet-based remote monitoring of pacemakers, 2005- first totally implantable cochlear implant, 2006millions of people used handheld or on-body wireless health & wellness devices, 2008microchip enabled pharmaceuticals in clinical trials, 2010- 4 billion people carry mobile phones. Now intelligent medicine is an emerging field of personalized therapies incorporating electronics and wireless communications. The medicine cabinet of the future could help make sure patients take their medications on time via a myriad of smart technologies. There are already pill bottles that wirelessly report to a computer when a cap has been opened, and devices for automatically dispensing medicine at the right time, and Now researchers at the University of Florida have engineered a smart pill with a tiny antenna and microchip that could signal when it has made it into a patient's stomach--reporting to a cell phone or computer that she has taken her medicine. Their design is the latest of several high-tech pill-reporting efforts to improve patient adherence and provide accurate reporting. r reminding patients to take their meds

The medical monitoring, device, and implant space is absolutely enormous, so there is no way we can do justice to the

myriad of companies and research projects that are out there. The development of smart pill was motivated by the fact that so many medical problems stem from drug compliance problems. According to Savage, 40 percent of hospital readmissions for heart failure happen because patients fail to take their medications properly. The use of technology improves patient compliance. With tuberculosis or mental illness, where you want to make sure they're taking the meds, this system would make sure people are taking their meds, and potentially cut down on nursing time.

BODY 2.0- THE CONTINOUS MONITORING OF BODY


Did you ever stop to think how silly and also how dangerous it is to live our lives with absolutely no monitoring of our bodys medical status? Years from now people will look back and find it unbelievable that heart attacks, strokes, hormone imbalances, sugar levels, and hundreds of other bodily vital signs and malfunctions were not being continuously anticipated and monitored by medical implants. We can call this concept body 2.0, or the networked body, and we need it now! to a heart attack hours or days ahead of time. With body 2.0, medicine dosages could be tailored precisely to your body chemistry and metabolism. Real-time monitoring of chemical concentrations in your blood could allow for increasing or decreasing dosages accordingly. The huge amounts of data that would be accumulated from hundreds of thousands of continuously monitored people would be nothing short of a revolution for medical research and analysis. This data could be harvested to understand the minute by minute changes in body chemistry that occur in response to medication, stress, infection, and so on. As an example, the daily fluctuations in hormone levels of hundreds of thousands of individuals could be tracked and charted 24/7 to determine a baseline from which abnormalities and patterns could be extracted. The possibilities are enormous. Given the advantages, we must wonder why body monitoring is not already more successful and widespread. The answer is that most of the interesting body monitoring we desire requires direct access to the blood stream and other bodily fluids, and this is not an easy problem to overcome. A straightforward technique is to prick the skin periodically to extract and analyze blood, yet this only works for periodic monitoring. It does not provide continuous access to bodily fluids. Sensors implanted permanently into the blood stream are what is needed, but the difficulty is that moisture, enzymes, and the immune system quickly

The trio of biomedicine, technology, and wireless communication are in the midst of a merger that will easily bring continuous, 247 monitoring of several crucial bodily functions in the years ahead. Unfortunately, as is often the case with medical products, the needed innovations are either already developed or will be soon, but some of the best commercial products wont make it to the market until years of testing have proven their safety. In the future your doctor might call you before you have a heart attack, responding to an alarm sent out by monitoring systems in your body that have detected the precursors

wreak havoc on mechanical devices and destroy them. Implants also pose several opportunities for life threatening infection to take hold, and this must be addressed.

PROTEUS PILL EMBEDDED WITH MICROCHIP


ingests their medicine The Raisin is made from ingredients all found in the food chain, Thompson assured the audience. He also noted that the technology could be embedded into any pill out there and since its rollout is imminent, it is especially welltimed considering the number of drug patents set to expire in the next few years.

SMART PILL
The medicine cabinet of the future could help make sure patients take their medications on time via a myriad of smart technologies. There are already pill bottles that wirelessly report to a computer when a cap has been opened, and devices for automatically dispensing medicine at the right time, and for reminding patients to take their meds. Now researchers at the University of Florida have engineered a smart pill with a tiny antenna and microchip that could signal when it has made it into a patient's stomach--reporting to a cell phone or computer that she has taken her medicine. Their design is the latest of several high-tech pill-reporting efforts to improve patient adherence and provide accurate reporting

Proteus Biomedical is one of the biggest companies which specialize in creating a digestible, ingestible microchip called the Raisin that can be put into medicines. The chip-on-a-pill, developed by Proteus Biomedical, will transmit data from the body to doctors, helping them to track med intake and tweak dosage. The chip is activated by stomach acids and can transmit to an external receiver from within the body. Now, the Proteus system is about to be tested in two clinical trials in the UK, a big leap that, if successful, could bring this technology to consumers in a mere matter of years. Edible underwear, yes, but edible microchips? Now that is cool. Raisin is made up of: Proteus Biomedicals edible microchip, called Raisin. The pill, called Raisin, releases a sand grain sized microchip into the body in addition to releasing the prescription. The microchip, which can monitor whether a person actually

consists of a sand-grain-size microchip with a thin-film battery that is activated on ingestion, as it is exposed to water. The battery, Proteus says, is nontoxic because it is made from materials similar to those in a vitamin pill. Once swallowed, the IEM sends through the body's tissues a highfrequency electrical current that's modulated in such a way that it provides a unique marker of the pill. It's not an RFID technology: it uses the conductive tissues of the body to conduct the signal, rather than a radio, and the signal is confined within the body. Mark Zdeblick, the company's CTO, says that the IEMs could cost less than a penny each when manufactured in volume.

COMPOSITION OF SMARTPILL
The prototype pill is composed of a standard pill capsule, wrapped in a thin label etched in silver nano-ink, comprising an antenna. The team also outfitted the label with a tiny microchip, which can be loaded with sensors to detect measurements like body temperature or pH levels. Both the antenna and microchip communicate with an external transmitter, which researchers say could be fashioned into a wearable device such as a wristband. The transmitter sends low frequency pulses into the body; the pill's antenna tunes into the transmitter's specific frequency, and sends pulses back, along with data collected from the microchip, potentially including the time when the patient ingested the pill, and the type of pill taken.

The electrical current is picked up and logged by a receiver on a patch placed on the patient's chest or abdomen, or placed underneath the skin as a subcutaneous insert. The receiver also contains sensors that monitor physiological parameters such as heart rate, respiration, and bodily movement. Heart rate is monitored by detecting the electrical activity of the heart; respiration is monitored by detecting changes in the impedance of the electrodes as the chest expands and contracts; activity is monitored with a miniature accelerometer, similar to the ones in iPhones. Combining the parameters can reveal behavioral measures such as sleep patterns

FUNCTIONING OF PILL: In the


Raisin system, each pill contains an "ingestible event marker" (IEM). The IEM

The pill is capable of transmitting data continuously for up to 72 hours, including pressure, pH and temperature.

HOW LONG THE MICROCHIP LASTS IN THE BODY????


There is no word yet as to how long the microchip lasts within the body. It is created from fully digestible food products and is powered by stomach acid, so it is likely that it would only last slightly longer than the medication with which it is packaged. That is the key difference between todays technology and that of body 2.0. With body 2.0, there would be no need to continually ingest the microchip. It would be permanently implanted, allowing for constant monitoring for years, not hours.

The system could also pass along important biometrics, like temperature and heart rate. Novartis has exclusive rights to the technology, which it plans to package first with existing medication that mitigates dangers of organ transplant. Following a transplant, patients require immunosuppressive drugs to reduce the risk of organ rejection; but this kind of therapy can increase the chances of infection. These dual dangers make dosage an important metric for doctors to monitor, and a good application of the microchip technology.

The Smart Pill only stays in the body for a three day maximum at a time (it depends on the patients evacuation time), which is great for a routine check-up at the doctors office, but what about a chronic patient who needs constant monitoring? Perhaps taking a pill every few days is not much of a chore, but it would be significantly better to have realtime data all the time that can be analyzed automatically and warn a patient as necessary.

ADVANTAGES

The use of technology to improve patient compliance. "With

tuberculosis or mental illness, where you want to make sure they're taking the meds, this system would make sure people are taking their meds,

and potentially cut down on nursing time, Doctors can monitor physiological parameters such as heart rate before, during, and after taking the medication to better understand the impact of the medication on the patient Currently, the main way companies can keep track of whether subjects take a given drug or placebo is through patient diaries, which can be easily doctored to skew a drug trial's results. To counter this, companies test the drug on very large populations of subjects in order to get statistically relevant results, which can get expensive. Smart pills could also help pharmaceutical companies test new drugs. says pills that report back when ingested could significantly improve a drug trial's accuracy, and potentially cut costs

signal that elicited a response from the pill's antenna within a few milliseconds. This provides real, individualized, tailored drug therapy.

Employer drug scanners:


Employers who are interviewing potential job candidates might be able to buy (or make) simple drug scanning devices that detect the presence of a pharmaceutical microchip broadcast signal. With employers right now drowning in health insurance costs, this could provide a simple, easy way for corporations to avoid taking on anyone who might create a cost burden on their health insurance plans This might be very useful for employers medications. Who don't want to hire people taking They invite you in for an interview and quietly scan for drug broadcast data. A red light tells them you're broadcasting medication data, and they calmly tell you the interview is over and "we'll get back to you."

The microchip is able to transmit the patients vital signs (heart rate and such) in realtime. Doctors will then be able to tell exactly what physiological changes occurred with medication and change dosages as needed for an optimal patient response.
One big advantage of the smart pill is that it doesn't require an onboard battery. Instead, the pill's antenna picks up the transmitter's low frequency energy. The researchers have so far tested the smart pill in models that simulate the electrical properties of a human body. They were able to find a low frequency

POLICE DRUG SCANNERS: Cops, too,


could use a similar scanning device to determine if a driver at the scene of an accident might be medication impaired. Now this is a use I actually do agree with. Today's roadways are filled with mentally impaired drivers who are doped up on medications. The problem is actually far worse than drunk drivers, by the way, and yet virtually nothing is being

done to combat this problem of "medicated drivers." And because the signal doesn't go beyond the skin, the pills in one person's stomach wouldn't trigger the receiver in another person's body. Proteus says that even if two users came into physical contact, the conduction of electricity from one person's skin to the others would be too weak for inadvertent data exchange to happen. The system would also eliminate the need for direct observed therapy, he suggests, in which patients with contagious illnesses such as tuberculosis are required to be observed by a health-care provider as they take each dose of their medication. The Raisin system would achieve the same goal with less intrusion

such as automated reminders from cell phones that could momentarily turn on the external transmitter to search for the presence of a pill.

A microchip that transmits data obviously must have a power source, meaning it needs to have a very small battery or capacitor of some sort. The materials used in capacitors and batteries, to my knowledge, are toxic to the human body and should never be eaten. Microchips are not food, and to swallow them seems risky to your health, especially if you're swallowing several microchips per day.

Data privacy

CONSTRAINTS

Another huge concern with microchips that transmit data is data privacy. If these microchips are broadcasting information, then obviously that information can be picked up by anything nearby, including potentially unscrupulous individuals or organizations who might put it to a nefarious use. For example, suppose a local pharmacy store installs a microchip signal detector in their main door entrance in order to track people who are broadcasting medication data. They could then theoretically decode that data and use it to determine what health condition that customer might be suffering and then push competing generic pharmaceuticals as a replacement. Government agents could carry "pharma microchip scanners" that determine what pills you're taking right now. This could be used to violate your privacy by sharing that data with other government agencies or it

The design employ relatively passive external receivers.. In contrast, the University of Florida's design relies more on the external transmitter to send signals, searching for the presence of a pill.

"The question is, how much energy you can store in that wristwatch to be sufficient. If they resolve that issue, the advantage would be the simplicity and small size of the pill." As a power solution, the system could be paired with other technologies,

could even be sold off to third-party marketing companies. I very much doubt the data being broadcast by the microchips in these pills will be encrypted because encryption requires real

processing power, and there isn't room for much of a CPU or power source inside these tiny microchips. Most likely, they are going to broadcast raw signal data that can be detected and decoded quite easily.

CONCLUSION

The for

potentials

meld of man and machine? Either way, humanity will be closer to that utopian goal than it ever has before. Body 2.0 is certainly in the near future and, when that revolution happens, early detection of diseases and constant monitoring of disorders will lead to a better survival rate and better quality of life for those who suffer. The clinical trials are set to begin within this year, with participating patients receiving medication for birth control, post-op management, psychiatric help and elderly care. The tracking that the Raisin system is capable of performing gives patients similar feedback as the care that they would receive in the hospital, but keeps beds free and costs down. This new type of commonplace monitoring technology is beneficial to both doctors and patients, allowing for detailed care while the patient is free to go about normal activities. Although the road to continuous body monitoring poses challenges, these challenges are certainly within our means to overcome, and exciting progress is being made all over the world

personalized medicine are tremendous. Weve talked about the promises of body 2.0. As the chip technology is improved, it could be used to watch individual drug uptake and action; treatments could be fully customizable in real-time. That could mean patients wouldnt need to wait weeks to determine if a drug was compatible, or have to switch medication several times. If you were in the 2% who will experience a particular side effect, your doctor could know before it kicked in. The promise for customizable treatments is a powerful one, and its already a driving force in biotech. Of course there are far less benign examples, but the question of privacy is tightly wrapped up in this kind of biotech. As per the clich, new advents in technology make new things possible some we want, and some we dont. Microchipped medication will be here soon. We should start discussing what to do once it arrives. Body 2.0 has not yet arrived, but medical breakthroughs like the Smart Pill are slowly building the practice of medicine up to that point. Will diseases be eradicated and people live forever due to this magic

REFERENCES

www.singularityhub.com Reuters www.proteusbiomedical.com Naturalnews Google search engine Wikipedia