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Department of Civil Engineering Middle East Technical University Northern Cyprus Campus

CVE 372 Hydromechanics 1/20

Overview

2.1 General Characteristics of Flow in Closed Conduits

2.1.1 Definition of Laminar and Turbulent Flows 2.1.2 Entrance Region and Fully Developed Flow 2.1.3 Head Losses in Pipes

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The governing equations for mass, momentum and energy transfer are developed in CVE 371 Fluid Mechanics. Now, we will apply them to viscous, incompressible fluids in pipes or ducts

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We assume that pipe is fully filled with the fluid. Main driving force is likely to be a pressure gradient along the pipe. If the pipe is not full, it is not possible to maintain this pressure difference, p1-p2.

CVE 372 Hydromechanics

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2.1.1. Definition of Laminar and Turbulent Flow

Osborne Reynold (1842-1912), a British scientists and mathematician was the first to distinguish the difference. Re 2100 Laminar In pipe flow: Va D 2100 < Re < 4000 Transition Re = Re 4000 Turbulent

Small Re

Intermediate Re

Large Re

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2.1.1. Definition of Laminar and Turbulent Flow

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2.1.1. Definition of Laminar and Turbulent Flow

u(t): instantaneous velocity in the x-direction u(t): fluctuating part of u(t)

u (t ) = u + u (t )

1 u= u dt T

The time-averaged, , and fluctuating, u', description of a parameter for tubular flow.

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2.1.1. Definition of Laminar and Turbulent Flow Example 1:

Water at a temperature of 10C flows through a pipe of diameter D=1.85 cm. a) Determine the minimum time taken to fill a 355 cm3 glass with water if the flow in the pipe is to be laminar. b) Determine the maximum time taken to fill the same glass if the flow is to be turbulent. Repeat the calculation if the water temperature is 60C.

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Example 2:

Water is flowing through capillary tubes A and B into tube C. If QA=2x10-3 lt/s in tube A, what is the largest QB allowable in tube B for laminar flow in tube C? If the water has a temperature of 40C with the calculated QB, what kind of flow exists in tubes A and B? (DA= 5 mm, DB= 4 mm, and DC= 6 mm)

A B

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2.1.2. Entrance Region and Fully Developed Flow

u(r), du/dr, and are fixed

accelerated

decelerated

Entrance length

le = 0.06 Re D

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Entrance length

CVE 372 Hydromechanics

le = 4.4(Re)1/ 6 D

2.1.2. Entrance Region and Fully Developed Flow Pressure and Shear Stress

If viscosity was zero, pressure would not vary along x direction. The physical properties of the shear stress are quite different for laminar flow then for turbulent flow.

laminar =

du dy du dy

turbulent = ( + t )

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2.1.3. Head Losses in Pipes

We need to determine the head loss. For convenience, we will consider two types of energy losses; minor and major loss Total head loss, hL

hL = hf + hm

hf : Friction (viscous, major) loss hm :Local (minor) loss Note that major and minor do not necessarily reflect the magnitude of the energy losses

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2.1.3. Head Losses in Pipes

Darcy Weisbach Equation for friction loss

L V2 hf = f D 2g

L 16Q 2 D 5 2 2g

if

V =

Q2 A

2

D /4

Q2

2

16Q 2

2D 4

hf = f

where

= KQ 2

K=

CVE 372 Hydromechanics

8fL g 2 D 5

f: Darcy-Weisbach friction factor L: pipe length (m) D: Pipe diameter (m) V: average velocity (m/s) Q: Discharge (flow rate) (m3/s)

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2.1.3. Head Losses in Pipes

Hazen Williams Equation for friction loss

hf =

6 .8 C 1.85 D

V 1.85 1.165

or

hf =

10.6 C 1.85 D

Q1.85 4.87

C: Hazen-Williams coefficient of roughness (unitless) L: pipe length (m) D: Pipe diameter (m) V: average velocity (m/s) Q: Discharge (flow rate) (m3/s)

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2.1.3. Head Losses in Pipes

Major losses are due to energy loss in long straight sections of pipe which can be calculated by use of the friction factor. However, most pipe systems are not straight and have valves, bends, etc. which result in additional losses. These energy losses are collectively called minor losses. Typically, minor losses are evaluated from

V2 hm = K m 2g

where KL is the loss coefficient which depends on both the geometry of the system and the Reynolds number. For large Re, it simply becomes a function of the geometry.

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2.1.3. Head Losses in Pipes

Local (minor) Loss Empirical equation (except for sudden enlargement)

V2 hm = K m 2g

K: constant V: average velocity (m/s)

Entrance flow conditions and loss coefficient. (a) Reentrant, Km = 0.8, (b) Sharp-edged, Km = 0.5, (c) Slightly rounded, Km = 0.2, (d) Well-rounded, Km = 0.04

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2.1.3. Head Losses in Pipes

Local (minor) Loss

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2.1.3. Head Losses in Pipes

Local (minor) Loss

A1 2 K L = (1 ) A2

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2.1.3. Head Losses in Pipes

Local (minor) Loss

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