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Product Name WiMAX RNP Product Version

Confidentiality INTERNAL

Total pages: 43 1.3

WiMAX RF Tuning Guide


(For Internal Use Only)

Prepared by Reviewed by Reviewed by Approved by

Zhang Chao, Zhang Mao

Date Date Date Date

2008-11-20

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd


All rights reserved

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Revision Record
Date Version Description Reviewed by Author

2008-11-14

1.00

First Version.

Hong Weifeng, Zhang Chao, Wang Hui, Wang Zhang Mao Yibing

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Contents
1 Overview ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ....8 2 Work Flow of RF Optimization ................................ ................................ ................................ ..8 3 Test Preparations ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 10 About This Chapter ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 10 3.1 Setting the Objectives ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 10 3.2 Dividing Clusters ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 11 3.3 Determining the Test Route................................ ................................ ............................. 12 3.4 Preparing Tools and Documents ................................ ................................ ..................... 12 3.4.1 Preparing Software ................................ ................................ ............................... 12 3.4.2 Preparing Hardware ................................ ................................ .............................. 13 3.4.3 Preparing for Documents ................................ ................................ ...................... 13 4 Data Collection ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 14 About This Chapter ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 14 4.1 Collecting the Data ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 14 4.2 Checking the GW Configuration Data ................................ ................................ .............. 15 4.3 DT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 15 4.4 CQT and Indoor Test ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 17 4.4.1 CQT ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 17 4.4.2 Indoor Test ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 18 5 Coverage Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 19 About This Chapter ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 19 5.1 Coverage Problems and Common Measures ................................ ................................ .. 20 5.1.1 Poor coverage ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 20 5.1.2 Intra-Frequency Interference Caused by Cross-Cell Coverage .............................. 20 5.1.3 Unbalance of Uplink and Downlink ................................ ................................ ........ 25 5.2 Coverage Analysis Flow ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 26 5.2.1 Downlink Coverage Analysis ................................ ................................ ................. 26 5.2.2 Intra-Frequency Interference Between Sites................................ .......................... 29 6 Interference Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 33 About This Chapter ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 33 6.1 Definition and Effect of Interference ................................ ................................ ................. 33 6.2 Internal Interference ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 35 6.2.1 Interference Caused by the Asynchronization................................ ........................ 35 6.3 External Interference ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 37 6.3.1 Effects and Analysis method ................................ ................................ ................. 37 6.3.2 Solution ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 39 7 Handover Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 40 About This Chapter ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 40
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7.1 Optimization of Neighbor cell List ................................ ................................ .................... 40 7.1.1 Deletion of Redundant Neighbor cells ................................ ................................ ... 40 7.2 Settings of Handover Threshold ................................ ................................ ...................... 41 7.3 Optimization of Handover Delay ................................ ................................ ...................... 41 8 Adjustment ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 42 9 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ . 43 10 Attachment ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 43

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List of Tables
Table 3-1 List of WiMAX RF optimization objectives ................................ ................................ .. 10 Table 3-2 List of recommended software for RF optimization................................ ..................... 12 Table 3-3 List of recommended hardware for RF optimization ................................ ................... 13 Table 3-4 Documents need to be collected before optimization ................................ ................. 13 Table 4-1 Items of configuration parameter check ................................ ................................ ..... 15

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List of Figures
Figure 2-1 Flow of RF optimization ................................ ................................ ............................. 9 Figure 3-1 Division of clusters in a project ................................ ................................ ................ 11 Figure 4-1 Traced signaling collected on the LMT................................ ................................ ..... 17 Figure 4-2 Distribution of indoor test points ................................ ................................ ............... 19 Figure 5-1 Scanning result of intra-frequency interfering sectors by the scanner ....................... 23 Figure 5-2 Interference caused by improper settings of antenna downtilt angle......................... 24 Figure 5-3 Location of the interference point in Monument Park................................ ................ 30 Figure 5-4 Terminals of the interfered area in Monument Park and result of frequency scanning by the scanner ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 30 Figure 5-5 RSSI coverage in Monument Park................................ ................................ ........... 31 Figure 5-6 INR distribution of the interfered area when only Sector 77 is enabled ..................... 31 Figure 5-7 CINR distribution of the interfered area when only Sector 76 is enabled................... 32 Figure 5-8 CINR distribution of the interfered area when Sectors 76 and 77 are enabled .......... 32 Figure 5-9 CINR distribution of the interfered area after the optimization ................................ ... 33 Figure 6-1 Components of interfering and interfered communication systems........................... 34 Figure 6-2 Spectrum diagram for the analyzed data collected from the RRU of an interfered sector ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 39 Figure 7-1 Synchronization checking of the site clock through scanner................................ ..... 42

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WiMAX RF Optimization Guideline


Keywords WiMAX, network optimization, RF optimization Abstract This document describes how to perform RF optimization. It includes the objectives, flow, steps, and input and output of RF optimization, as well as the precautions in RF optimization. List of acronyms Acronym and Abbreviation CINR DT KPI MS BS RF GW RTWP RSSI VIP BBU MIMO RRU AAS AMC ANT Full Spelling Carrier-to-Interference-and-Noise Ratio Drive Test Key Performance Indicator Mobile Station Base Station Radio Frequency Gate Way Received Total Wideband Power receive signal strength indicator Very Important People Base Band Unit multiple input multiple output Radio Remote Unit Adaptive Antenna System adaptive modulation and coding Antenna

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1 Overview
With the number of users increasing, the system performance has deteriorated. RF optimization is necessary, which covers the following main tasks:


Optimizing the signal coverage: 1) 2) Reduce the poor coverage area to ensure that signals can cover the area continuously. Control the coverage of each cell and overlap area.

Removing interference: There are two kinds of interference, internal interference and external interference. Internal interference is caused by asynchronous clock or some other reasons of the system. External interference is inter-system interference, which is caused by misuse of frequencies. Interference will lead the degradation of CINR, hard to access network and decrease the network capacity. Optimizing the handover process: 1) 2) Check all parameter of the cell are setting correctly. Optimize engineering parameters to control the handover area.

The organization of this document is: Chapter 1 describes the objectives and scope of work of RF optimization Chapter 2 describes the work flow and the process of RF optimization. Chapter 38 describes the test preparations, data collection, analysis, and measurement method according to the RF optimization flow. Chapter 9 summarizes the document. Chapter 10 describes some outstanding problems as example.

2 Work Flow of RF Optimization


After all sites are installed and verified, RF optimization could start. The purpose of the RF optimization is to control the interference and the handover. Once the KPI requirements have been satisfied, RF optimization is completed. The work flow of RF Optimization is shown in Figure 2-1. The data collection, problem analysis, and adjustment should be repeated until the network quality meets the KPI requirements.

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RF o ti ization starts

l Estaectiis est e o ti ization o ide ei ter clusterstest at e Pre areine t tools and for docu ents

Test re arations

Y RF o ti ization ends

Figure 2-1 Flow of RF o ti ization Test re arations: i ide t e clusters reasona l . eter ine t e dri e test route wit custo ers. Pre are for t e tools and docu ents to guarantee t e RF test can e done ro erl . ata collection: Collect t e data T, C T (including indoor test), and signaling trace, w ic is used for ro le anal sis. ata anal sis: C eck t e co erage, interference and ando er data anal sis, and ro ose t e ad ust ent suggestion to custo ers. Wit custo er er ission, t e suggestion is a lied. T en, t e a o e o will e re eated circularl until all PI re uire ents are satisfied. o e ro le s suc as downlink interference, access failure, and network disconnection are caused weak signal strengt , interference, or issing neig or.

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After RF o ti ization, out ut t e list of u dated engineering ara eters.

ara eters and cell

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Pro le anal sis Co erage anal sis Interference anal sis Hando er anal sis

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3 Test Preparations
About This Chapter
Section 3.1 3.2 3.3 Setting the objectives Dividing Clusters Determining the Test route Describes The objectives of RF optimization. The rules for division of clusters. The rules for selecting the drive test route. The tools and documents required for RF optimization.

3.4 Preparing Tools and Documents

3.1 Setting the Objectives


RF optimization focuses on solving the problems of coverage hole, interference, and handover failure. While different operations have different KPI requirements, KPI definitions. The purpose of RF optimization is to meet the KPI requirements defined in the contract. In general, the network should meet the KPI requirements listed in Table 3-1 after RF optimization. This KPI list is used only a reference for RF optimization goals. The KPI should be defined according to the contract, which is an agreement with operators . Note: The values of CINR and RSSI vary with terminal model. Pls confirm with the customer about the terminal model for acceptance test. Table 3-1 List of WiMAX RF optimization objectives Acceptance Item Reference Value Urban area 95% CINR 10 dB Remarks

The network should be 0 loading. In the planned coverage area, the test route is Suburban area 90% grid-shaped, and passes through all sectors coverage area. Urban area 95%

The network should be 0 loading. In the planned coverage area, the test route is grid-shaped, and passes through all RSSI 85 dBm sectors coverage area. (If the operator Suburban area 90% wants the test result with the penetration loss, the value of penetration loss should be added to the RSSI.)

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3.2 Dividing Clusters


RF optimization has been done by a group or a cluster of base stations. The intra-frequency interference must be taken into consideration during the optimization. Confirm with the customer about the partition of clusters, and consider the following factors:


  

The number of clusters should be determined according to the actual situation. It is recommended that 1025 sites for a cluster. A cluster should not cross over areas covering different services. The cluster partition of the other system could be a reference. Effect of terrain: Terrain can affect the transmission of signal. A mountain may obstruct the signal transmission. Therefore, a mountain could be as a natural boundary for clusters. Water could make wireless signals to transmit farther. Therefore, If the river is narrow, the sites at both sides could be put one cluster when transportation conditions permit. If the river is broad, the river could be a boundary. In general, it is more typical to divide clusters as a cellular shape than a bar shape. Divide clusters based on administrative regions: When the network covers several administrative regions, the clusters can be divided based on different administrative regions. DT workload: Try to make sure that drive tests of each cluster can be completed in one day. In general, one drive test lasts about four hours.

Figure 3-2 shows an example of dividing clusters in a project. In the following figure, JB03 and JB04 are dense urban areas; JB01 is an expressway area; JB02, JB05, JB06, and JB07 are common urban areas; JB08 is a suburban area. Each cluster contains about 1822 sites.

Figure 3-2 Example of dividing clusters in a project


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3.3 Determining the Test Route


Pls get an agreement with the customer about the DT route before doing drive test. If the customer determines a DT route, the DT route should include it. If it cannot be fully adopted due to some reasons, pls explain it to the customer immediately. The DT acceptance route is the core of the test route of RF optimization. The DT acceptance route is a key route. Subsequent tasks such as parameter optimization and acceptance test are all based on the DT KPI route. The test route selection according to the following rules: (1) The drive test route should cover main streets, important places, and VIP/VIC. (2) The test route should cover all cells; involve at least two tests (preliminary test and final test). Perform tests for all streets in RF planned area if we have time. (3) To observe the performance change, each drive test should follow same route. (4) Consider one-way street, traffic light restriction, and turning restriction. Note that the politics, economy, culture, and living habits of some overseas countries are different from those in China. Therefore, certain regions may be forbidden to access. Therefore, before determining the test route, pls communicate with local drivers, local people and customer.

3.4 Preparing Tools and Documents


Before RF optimization, pls install necessary software (see Table 3-2 in 3.4.1 ), hardware (see Table 3-3 in 3.4.2 ), and documents (see Table 3-4 in 3.4.3 ), which is helpful for test analysis. For details, see the following tables.

3.4.1 Preparing Software


Table 3-2 List of recommended software for RF optimization Number 1 2 Software Genex Probe XCAL-X Functions Drive test Drive test Remarks V2.1 or later; mandatory V3.1.5.30 optional or later;

3 4 5 6

Genex Assistant XCAP-X M2000 Mapinfo/ Google Earth

DT data analysis, V2.1 or later; mandatory neighbor cell check DT data analysis Performance analysis Optional Mandatory

Map display and route Mandatory selection

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See the matching between DT software and terminals in the attachment.

3.4.2 Preparing Hardware


Table 3-3 List of recommended hardware for RF optimization Number Device Item Remarks Frequency scanning and interference analysis; optional Mandatory

SCANNER

Test terminals GCT, CPE, and so on and data cable Laptop GPS Car-carried power inverter Software license PM1.7G/1G/20G/USB/C OM/PRN GPS

3 4 5

Mandatory Mandatory

DC to AC, higher than Mandatory 300 W License of PROBE and Mandatory ASSISTANT Dongle of XCAP-X and Optional XCAL-X Used to find external interference; optional Optional Optional

Hardware dongle Spectrum analyzer Compass Camera

8 9 10

3.4.3 Preparing for Documents


Table 3-4 Documents need to be collected before optimization Number 1 2 3 4 Documents Engineering parameter table Map KPI requirement Network configuration parameters Whether Is Necessary Yes Yes Yes Yes Mapinfo or paper map Remarks

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Number 5 6 7

Documents Survey report

Whether Is Necessary No

Remarks

Checklist of verification at a single No site Plan of the floor to be tested Yes For indoor test

4 Data Collection
About This Chapter
Section 4.1 Collecting the Data Describes Certain methods of data collection and test orders in RF optimization. The effect of collecting the GW configuration data on RF optimization. The contents, methods, and precautions of DT. The methods and precautions for data collection during the CQT and indoor test.

4.2 Checking the GW Configuration Data 4.3 4.4 DT CQT and Indoor Test

4.1 Collecting the Data


RF optimization focuses on the strength of wireless signals on the network. Test methods mainly include DT test and CQT (including indoor test). Before the test, pls get the test devices and determine the test route. In addition, cooperate with other engineers to check the gateway, BS work properly. If any alarm is reported, clear the alarm before performing the test. Make record during the test, and record reported alarms, which helps judge whether problems found in the test (if any) are related to alarms. After all preparations are completed, we do DT test and CQT (including indoor test). Collect the wireless signal data received by scanner or terminal through the DT test. Analyze the test data for outdoor signal coverage, handover, and interference. In the GCW network, CQT test actually means the call quality test. In the WiMAX network, data services are the major services. Therefore, the CQT test for the WiMAX
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network is different from that of the GCW network. CQT focuses on the service quality for fixed points. Discovering, analyzing, and solving RF problems could be done by CQT. Indoor test focuses on indoor coverage (such as building, shopping mall, and metro), hot area (stadium and governmental organ), and tested areas required by the operator (such as VIC and VIP). Indoor test can also be used to optimize the handover between indoor places, and between indoor and outdoor.

4.2 Checking the GW Configuration Data


During RF optimization, collect the data of neighbors and the parameters configured in the GW database. Check the configuration currently is consistent with that (planning data) before or not. Check the alarm information. When checking the configuration, the incorrect data, parameters or any alarm are reported product support engineers. RF engineers do DT, CQT, or indoor coverage test after the problem is solved When checking the configuration data, pls focus on handover parameters and power control parameters. For details, see Table 4-5. For handover parameters, mainly check the neighbor cell list. Table 4-5 Items of configuration parameter checking Class Item The function of LST NBS for neighbor cells is implemented on WASN LMT. (For the 2.1 and 3.2 versions, this item can be queried directly on the base station.) Whether the function of display carrier-basic-info is enabled. Query the information at a single site in telnet mode. (This operation is required in the 2.1 version. In the 3.2 version, this item can be queried directly on the LMT.) Whether the function of display carrier-status is enabled in a cell. Query the information at a single site in telnet mode. (This operation is required in the 2.1 version. In the 3.2 version, this item can be queried directly on the LMT.)

Handover

Power setting

Cell Configuration

After checking, output the updated Wireless Parameter Configuration Data Table and the parameter modification record, which are used for problem analysis and subsequent optimization. For operations on WASN LMT and BTS LMT, pls see the operation guideline in the WiMAX O&M center Operation Guideline.

4.3 DT
DT includes:
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Test for network access status through MSs without loading. This test focuses on the network access successful rate and the coverage area. Test FTP download or upload by MSs: This test focuses on the access success rate, and the average download and upload rate of the FTP server. Test http webpage open during network access by MSs: This test focuses on the setup successful rate and the setup delay of the http protocol. Test ping operation during network access through MSs: This test focuses on the delay and packet loss rate of the ping operation.

After determining the test route, checking the data configured on the GW and the alarms, perform the tests for corresponding tasks. Pay attention to the following points: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Whether all devices are ready before departure. Whether the computer power is sufficient. Whether the cigarette lighter in car can provide power properly. Whether the car-carried power inverter functions properly. Whether the GPS has sufficient power, and is configured correctly. Whether all software is installed on the computer, and the licenses are in trial period.

Confirm that all preparations are correct before departure. Perform corresponding tests according to the work plans, and record the names of different test files according to different test contents. In this way, the problem can be easily located and analyzed. When finding a problem during the test, create a log file to save it. Perform several tests for problematic areas, and collect the data as much as possible. For detailed test methods and settings, pls refer to the drive test guide. (Optional) Enable the signaling trace function during the DT. Analyze the drive test data with the traced message to locate the problem. Log in to the LMT and enable the signaling trace function by either of the following methods: (7) Log in to the LMT remotely through a terminal, and trace the signaling. (8) Trace the signaling on the LMT of the GW or within a site with the help of customer service engineers.

The traced signaling should correspond to the name of the DT data. In this way, the corresponding traced signaling can be located easily without searching for it in a large quantity of traced data. For example, if the log file is named Pedestrian Street 20080101 during the DT, the file should also be named Pedestrian Street 20080101 during the signaling trace.

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During the signaling trace, collect the following data:


 

R1, R6, and R3 trace signaling messages of a single subscriber Real-time feature monitoring records (measured values of RSSI and CINR)

Figure 4-3 Traced signaling data collected on the LMT Analyze the signaling data accordingly after it is collected. For details on traced data and collection methods, see the LMT operation guide.

4.4 CQT and Indoor Test


4.4.1 CQT
CQT means the call quality test, that is, the pointing test. The test items for the WiMAX network are different from traditional voice services because of the features of the WiMAX network. For the WiMAX network, the test focuses on data services even though it also involves voice test for VOIP-enabled areas. Select certain important locations and places for testing. The information about test locations should be recorded in detail. For example, the longitude and latitude of the test locations, as well as CINR and RSSI values of the test locations. In the case of special areas, record the information about their surrounding, or take photos for the areas. Test items are as follows:


Test for network access through MS: Perform 100 access tests (the number of tests may be different, depending on local requirements), and measure the

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number of successful tests. This test can be performed through the autocall function of probe. Test for FTP upload and download through MS: Perform 10 tests (the number of tests may be different, depending on local requirements), and measure the peak value and average value of the throughput, as well as the number of failed tests. This test can be performed through the autocall function of probe. Test for http webpage open through MS: Perform 20 tests (the number of tests may be different, depending on local requirements), and measure the time taken to open a webpage, and the number of failed tests. This test can be performed through the autocall function of probe. Test for ping operation through MS: Perform 20 times (the number of tests may be different, depending on local requirements), and measure the maximum delay and average delay, as well as the number of failed tests. This test can be performed through the autocall function of probe.

For detailed test methods, see the methods in the WiMAX-DT&CQT Test Guide.

CQT must be performed at some typical places (test points), with the security taken into full consideration. When performing the CQT overseas, pay special attention to the security of CQT test points. Be sure to communicate with local employees about various local taboos and insecure areas.

4.4.2 Indoor Test


There are several drive test tools. Take the XCAL-X tool as an example to introduce the methods of indoor test, as shown below. For detailed operation methods and settings, see specific tool guides. When performing an indoor test, add test points manually on the map to display the moving route because GPS signals cannot be received during the indoor test. To open the indoor test map, choose File > Inbuilding, or click the Inbuilding icon in the toolbar. Perform the test according to the following steps:


key. If no plan is First, import the plan of the building to be tested through the available, add test points on the grid map directly. Then, add test points on the grid map through the key. Add totally eight test points, as shown in the following figure. The length of the test route is displayed at the upper right corner of the window.

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Figure 4-4 Distribution of indoor test points Finally, click the key at test point 1, and then move to test point 2. When key. In this way, the tool can record the reaching test point 2, click the tested data automatically, and associate the data with the moving route. The information about the tested data and the moving route can be displayed in the subsequent analysis and playback. Repeat the previous step until the entire route containing all test points is tested. Save the log data.

For detailed test methods, see the corresponding test guide.

Like CQT, pay more attention to the security when performing the indoor test.

5 Coverage Analysis
About This Chapter
Section Describes

Common problems and related solutions for poor 5.1 Coverage Problems and coverage, cross-cell coverage, and unbalance of Common Measures uplink and downlink. 5.2 Coverage Analysis Flow The flow and methods of coverage analysis, and detailed cases.

Coverage analysis is the major task of RF optimization. Coverage analysis focuses on signal distribution. Poor coverage, cross-cell coverage, and unbalance of uplink and downlink are the objects of coverage analysis.
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5.1 Coverage Problems and Common Measures


5.1.1 Poor coverage
I. Definition and Effect of Poor coverage
Poor coverage means the RSSI of signals in covered areas is less than 85 dBm, and the CINR of signals is less than 10 dB. At present, manufacturers have no unified standards for producing terminals. Thus, the values of RSSI and CINR measured by various terminals are different. To claim a poor coverage area, identify the type of terminals used locally, perform feasibility tests on site, and compare the signal strength in the tested area with the baseline value. Valley, back of mountains, elevator well, tunnel, underground garage, basement, and inside of tall buildings are often areas with poor coverage. In these areas, the values of RSSI and CINR are very low. That is, RSSI < 85 dBm, and CINR < 10 dB. Too low CINR cannot meet the minimum requirement for network access. Thus, the successful rate of network access in these areas is low, or network disconnection occurs immediately after successful access.

II. Optimization Measures for Poor coverage


In general, the following measures are taken to optimize the poor coverage:


 

Optimize the coverage by increasing the carrier frequency power, adjusting antenna azimuth, downtilt angle, or height, or using the antenna with a higher gain. Adjust the antenna at terminal side, move the terminal closer to the window, or use the terminal with directional and high gain antenna. Replace the indoor type terminal with the outdoor type one, and adjust the antenna to ensure the quality of received signals. Install the RRU on the tower so that the loss generated by feeders is less and strong coverage is achieved. Adjust the times of repeated coding. Build new base stations in the case the poor coverage is caused by discontinuous coverage. In this case, build an overlapped coverage area that is large enough. In addition, pay attention to the interference resulted from wider coverage areas. Build new base stations in the areas with poor coverage that is caused by valley and back of mountains so that the signals can cover wider areas.

5.1.2 Intra-Frequency Interference Caused by Cross -Cell Coverage


I. Analysis on Possible Causes
In the ideal situation, the signals of each cell should be controlled strictly and should not cover the area outside the designed range. The wireless environment, however, is complicated. For example, the terrain, building distribution, street distribution, and water area can affect wireless signals. Therefore, wireless signals cannot be
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controlled easily, and the ideal situation cannot be achieved. In this case, cross-cell coverage occurs. Only a few frequency resources can be used for the WiMAX network because of the features of the WiMAX network. To improve the spectrum utilization rate, the spectrum is reused frequently, which causes intra-frequency interference between sites easily. Intra-frequency interference between sites is mainly caused by the interaction of multiple sites. Therefore, intra-frequency interference between sites mainly occurs in the urban areas where sites are installed densely, and the areas where the terrain is complicated. In normal cases, intra-frequency interference between sites happens in urban areas: tall building, broad street, high tower, crossroad, and water area. Hilly area and mountain area are the places where the interference occurs easily because of the terrain. Other causes for intra-frequency interference between sites are as follows: (1) Antenna azimuths are irregular In a network with multiple sites, antenna azimuths should be regular in the entire network. However, antenna azimuths are irregular because of the signal coverage, traffic distribution, and restriction on installation locations, which is out of control. In addition, interference caused by intra-frequency sectors occurs in certain areas. Therefore, coverage of intra-frequency sectors in one area should be reduced. (2) The base station or antenna is located at a high place If the base station is located in a high altitude, most surrounding areas are in the line-of-sight range. In this case, signals can be transmitted in a large area. The overlap area cannot be controlled easily, and intra-frequency interference is out of control. (3) The antenna downtilt is set improperly The antenna downtilt is determined according to the height, the coverage area, and the antenna model. If the antenna downtilt is set improperly, strong signals overshoot, which causes interference to other areas. Thus, intra-frequency interference increases, which will make network disconnection and difficult to access network. (4) Antenna performance are not good The WiMAX network has not been developed for a long time. The performance of antennae provided by some manufacturers has not been approved. Therefore, some antenna performance cannot meet the engineering requirement, for example, the signal strength of both side lobe and back lobe is strong, which can increase intra-frequency interference to other sites.

II. Analysis on Effect of Intra-Frequency Interference Between Sites


Intra-frequency interference between sites may cause the following network problems:

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(1) Degradation of CINR (some signals are not covered) Intra-frequency interference will degrade CINR, and decrease the network throughput. (2) Difficult access to network When strong interference exists, the terminal may not access the dominate sector, or cannot access the network at all. (3) Reduction of capacity The coding mode is adjusted for the demodulation threshold of AMC according to the measured value of CINR, and the interference reduces the value of CINR. Therefore, the coding mode and the capacity are reduced, which causes lower average throughput of sectors, and affects the user experience directly.

III. Analysis Methods and Symptom Description of Intra-Frequency Interference Between Sites
(1) By terminals In general, if RSSI < 70 dBm during the test, the absolute value of the sum of CINR and RSSI is approximately equal to the absolute value of base station sensitivity. This rule is only applicable to some terminals. Since the measured values of CINR for some terminals are too high, the judgment should depend on the actual situation. If the absolute value of the sum of CINR and RSSI is far less than the absolute value of base station sensitivity (for example, the difference is more than 10 dB), unacceptable intra-frequency is between sites. In other words, if RSSI is in normal value range, but CINR is too low, there is intra-frequency interference probably. Simple method to locate the interference source: Disable the sector to which the terminal belongs, and then do tests using the same frequency. Locate the source interfering site according to received signals. In addition, observe whether RSSI and CINR are normal during the test. If RSSI and CINR are abnormal, disable the active sector, and find other interfering sites. During commercial application, the active sector cannot be disabled. Therefore, test engineers should judge the situation on site. This method is not practical, and could be used only before delivery. (2) By scanner A scanner can scan the downlink signals for more than 10 intra -frequency sectors at the same time; record the values of RSSI and CINR for each intra-frequency sector, and save the scanning result and GPS data for analy sis. To use this method, the requirements for RF engineer are not high. Therefore, it is recommended that a scanner be used to check intra-frequency interference. Scan the areas with possible intra-frequency interference, and then analyze the scanning result to determine the interference source in the area. As shown in Figure 5-5, two intra-frequency signals with preamble values of 67 and 68 are the interference signals in this area. At present, the function of the scanner is not good enough. RF engineers should propose requirements for scanner after the trial.
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Figure 5-5 Scanning result of intra-frequency interfering sectors by a scanner

IV. Optimization Methods of Intra-Frequency Interference Between Sites


(1) Adjust antenna configuration. We can change each sector coverage to reduce intra-frequency interference by adjusting the azimuth and the downtilt. The dominate sector signal strength is increased, which can reduce the intra-frequency. To strengthen the signals, engineers can adjust the antenna azimuth so that the antenna faces to the area directly. To decrease the signals coverage, antenna azimuth could move from the covered area. The adjustment of antenna downtilt is similar to that of antenna azimuth. Reduce the antenna downtilt to increase the coverage, and vice versa. The adjustment of antenna downtilt should follow certain rules. If the downtilt is set too small, the cell coverage can be increased, but interference may occur. If the downtilt is set too large, the cell coverage can be reduced, but the directional diagram of the antenna may be distorted. In general, the downtilt should not be more than 6. If the downtilt is more than 6, it is recommended that Electric antenna should be selected. As shown in Figure 5-6, the interfered area circled by black lines is caused by unreasonable settings of antenna azimuth and downtilt for Woodlands 2 sector. The antenna azimuth of Woodlands 2 sector is 310, and the downtilt is 2. The antenna faces directly to the GolfClub site, and covers a large area, which causes interference directly to the areas near the Golfclub 2 sector. Change the antenna downtilt of Woodlands 2nd sector from 2 to 7, and change the antenna azimuth of Woodlands 2nd sector from 310 to 250. Thus, the overshoot coverage of Cell 360 is reduced, and the interference is reduced.
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The interference in some areas may hard to be reduced only by antenna configuration adjustment. In this case, replace the antenna model, add reflecting device or blocking device, relocate the antenna, or relocate the site if possible.

Figure 5-6 Interference caused by improper settings of antenna downtilt angle (2) Adjust the transmit power Although adjusting the antenna azimuth can reduce the interference in some areas, hotspot areas may not be covered, or new interference comes in other areas. When the antenna downtilt is increased to a certain degree, the directional diagram of the antenna may be distorted if the antenna downtilt continues to increase. Therefore, to reduce the coverage range of some interfered sectors, reduce the transmit power of this sector. When the antenna downtilt is reduced to a certain degree, increase the transmit power to increase the coverage range of the sector. At present, the maximum transmit power of the site is 40 dBm or 37 dBm. If the transmit power increases beyond the maximum value, the RRU may be burned out. Therefore, do not increase the transmit power beyond the maximum value. Power adjustment can be used together with antenna adjustment. Note: It is recommended that the transmit power should not be adjusted in RF optimization. In general, the transmit power is adjusted only when the antenna system is difficult to adjust. (3) Adjust the networking mode At present, the WiMAX16e network adopts three networking modes: PUSC 1/3, PUSC with all SC 1X3X3, and FFR. The spectrum utilization rates of PUSC 1/3 and PUSC with all SC 1X3X3 are nearly the same. The spectrum utilization rate of FFR is the highest among the three, but its interference is the strongest. At present, Huawei provides a networking mode of inter-frequency FFR (for details, see the related document). This networking mode is an improvement of PUSC with all SC 1X3X3. That is, the networking mode of PUSC with all SC is used in the cell center, and the networking mode of inter-frequency FFR is used in the cell boundary. In this way, the CINR distribution of interfered areas can be improved effectively.
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If the intra-frequency interference cannot be reduced, try to change the networking mode. The networking mode can be changed in the following order: FFR -> PUSC 1/3 or PUSC with all SC 1X3X3 -> Inter-frequency FFR. The change of networking mode, however, requires supports from both the terminal and the site.

5.1.3 Unbalance of Uplink and Downlink


I. Unbalance of Uplink and Downlink and the Effect
Unbalance of uplink and downlink means that the distance for downlink (uplink) signals to be identified is more than the transmission distance for uplink (downlink) signals to be identified. That is, the coverage range is determined by the weakest signals. In general, the uplink signals of the WiMAX network are restricted. Therefore, this section only describes the restriction of uplink signals. In the case of unbalance of uplink and downlink, the terminal can receive signals but cannot process the services. The terminal can demodulate the signals of the site but cannot access the network. The rate of network disconnection increases. After the services are established, the packet error rate increases, and the services jitter frequently. This can affect the traffic measurement index and user satisfactory level. Unbalance of uplink and downlink is caused by the following factors: (1) Different maximum transmit power for the site and the terminal The transmit power of the RRU ranges from 30 dBm to 40 dBm, depending on the site type. The transmit power of WiMAX terminals ranges from 23 dBm to 27 dBm because of the radiation, dimension, and battery capacity. (2) Different sensitivities for the site and the terminal In general, the receiver sensitivity of the site is higher than that of the terminal, which can partially offset the restriction of uplink signals. (3) Disabling of power control or improper setting of power control parameters When the link losses of the terminal and the site are changed, if the power control of the site is disabled, the power of the terminal cannot be adjusted according to channels, which can cause the unbalance of uplink and downlink. If the power control parameters are set improperly, the power control cannot be enabled timely, which can also cause the unbalance of uplink and downlink.

II. Solution to the Unbalance of Uplink and Downlink


   

Use terminals with high power. Increase the transmit power of terminals. Replace omni-directional antennae with directional high gain antennae. Enable the power control, and set the parameters properly. For detailed parameter values, perform feasibility tests according to the actual situation. Improve the receiver sensitivity of the site.

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5.2 Coverage Analysis Flow


In the actual test, drive test can be used to measure downlink signals only. To measure uplink signals, perform signal trace on the LMT. In this way, the test point map cannot be provided in real time, and signals cannot be observed easily. Therefore, only downlink coverage is analyzed in this document.

5.2.1 Downlink Coverage Analysis


Downlink coverage analysis refers to the analysis of RSSI and CINR measured in the DT test. RSSI simply indicates the strength of front-end signals of the receiver. If the strength of received signals is higher than the threshold, links are in normal state. RSSI can be estimated and calculated easily, and the received sampling signals are not processed and demodulated. The received signals contain useful signals, noise, and interference. Therefore, strong received signals do not mean high channel quality, and only indicate that the channel contains strong signals. The quality standard of RSSI should be used together with the optimization standard. Suppose the optimization standard of RSSI is as follows: RSSI 85 dBm 95% Measurement result outdoor, no load of the terminal,

The quality standard of RSSI should be defined as follows: Good: RSSI 75 dBm Fair: 85 dBm RSSI < 75 dBm Poor: RSSI < 85 dBm The values of CINR range from 10 dB to 40 dB, depending on terminals. The quality standard of CINR should be defined as follows: Good: CINR 20 dB Fair: 10 dB CINR < 20 dB Poor: CINR < 10 dB Determine the poor coverage according to the measured values of RSSI for downlink signals. First, identify the areas with fair coverage and poor coverage for further analysis. Then, perform analysis for the identified downlink coverage hole areas in comparison with the measured result of CINR. If CINR is also poor in the same area, the area is a poor coverage area. Optimize areas with poor coverage by using different adjustment measures based on different cases. Perform tests again after the adjustment is completed, and check the optimization result. If the result meets the requirements, the optimization is completed. If the result does not meet the requirements, continue to perform the optimization, test, and analysis, until the problem is solved.

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If RSSI is good but CINR is poor, judge whether signals of other sites cross over this area, which thus causes poor coverage. Disable the sectors of adjacent sites, and measure the values of RSSI and CINR. If the values are improved, the intra-frequency interference is caused by cross-cell coverage. If the values are not improved, take into consideration other interference (for details, see Chapter 6). If the poor coverage is caused by cross-cell coverage, perform optimization according to optimization measures for cross-cell coverage. Perform tests after the optimization is completed, and analyze the test result after optimization. If obvious cross-cell coverage persists, continue to perform optimization, adjustment, test, and analysis, until the problem is solved.

I. Poor coverage Case Caused by Intra-Frequency Interference due to Cross-Cell Coverage


Below are analysis and solving processes for the poor coverage case caused by intra-frequency interference due to cross-cell coverage. In the project of country P, Huawei adopts the networking mode of 133 three frequencies. Four 3-sector sites in a small urban area cover the network continuously. Perform tests for two subscribers under a same sector of a same site. Trace the two subscribers on the LMT. Discontinuous error codes are found for uplink signals. Downlink CINR is fluctuated greatly. Two terminals are disconnected from the network easily. After network disconnection, the two terminals enter adjacent sectors sometimes, but return to the original sector easily because of poorer signals. Problem analysis on the site: (1) Intra-frequency interference causes poor downlink CINR, and po downlink or CINR thus causes a high error rate for uplink signals. The uplink signals, however, are good and poor alternately. This is abnormal because the intra-frequency interference should be continuous from the viewpoint of time. (2) The threshold of repeated coding is set too low so that repeated coding cannot be enabled when signals are poor, which thus causes high error code rate. (3) External interference causes the fluctuation of uplink and downlink signals. The signals of another test terminal under the same sector, however, are stable. (4) The threshold of terminal switching and scanning is set too high. Scanning of ZyXEL terminals can cause high error code rate for uplink signals easily. (5) Terminal hardware is faulty so that uplink and downlink signals are not stable. (6) The output power of the site is fluctuated so that the downlink CINR of the terminal is fluctuated. The signals of another test terminal, however, are stable. Final solving process: (7) Remove intra-frequency interference by disabling adjacent intra-frequency sectors one by one through remote background maintenance platform. After adjacent intra-frequency sectors are disabled, observe the values of downlink CINR of two terminals through the LMT. The values are not improved much. Therefore, a high error code rate for two subscribers is not caused by intra-frequency interference from the same network.
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(8) Change the threshold of repeated coding for uplink signals from 7 dB to 10 dB. The error code rate is not improved much. (9) Perform frequency scanning through spectrum analyzer. No external interference is found. (10) Disable the terminal scanning function of either subscriber so that the subscriber cannot initiate scanning (scanning can cause high error code rate for uplink signals). The problem persists. (11) Replace the terminal with a ZyXEL terminal for the subscriber. The problem persists. (12) Perform tests with ZyXEL terminal and Huawei terminal for three hours at the near end of the site. The signals of two terminals are stable. Therefore, the output power of the site is correct. (13) Perform tests with two terminals near the location of either subscriber. Discontinuous error codes are found for uplink signals, and downlink CINR is fluctuated greatly. Disable intra-frequency sectors of adjacent sites to check whether the problem is caused by intra-frequency interference from the same network. After that, uplink and downlink signals are stable, and high error code rate and network disconnection are not found again. Why the signals are good and poor alternately in intra-frequency interfering sectors To answer this question, perform tests in the interfering sectors, and find that the standing wave ratio of the antenna system is fluctuated from 1.4 to 2. Thus, the cause for the problem is that the change of the standing wave ratio causes the strong fluctuation of transmitting signals of the interfering sectors, which increases the interference to the interfered sectors accordingly. Why the cause is not located by removing intra-frequency interference of the networking mode in step 1 Because intra-frequency interfering sectors are disabled for a very short period, during which time the interference is weak. The error code rate is low for interfering subscribers just before and after intra-frequency interfering sectors are disabled. Therefore, the problem is not caused by intra-frequency interference from the same network. (14) Final solution: First, remake feeder connectors for the interfering sectors, and keep the standing wave ratio in 1.4 stably. Then, reduce the power of interfering sectors by 3 dB. After that, downlink CINRs of the two subscribers are improved greatly, but still do not match the RSSIs (RSSI is 60 dBm, and CINR is about 10 dB). The interference is still strong. Finally, add a baffle to the back of the antenna in interfering sector, which can reduce the intra-frequency interference caused to other sectors by the back lobe of antenna in the interfering cell. In this way, the problem is solved. The downlink CINRs of the two subscribers are stable, and the high-order modulation can be used properly. High error code rate is not found for uplink signals any more.

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5.2.2 Intra-Frequency Interference Between Sites


I. Analysis Flow of Intra-Frequency Interference Between Sites
(1) When performing tests, analyze the values of CINR and RSSI collected through terminals, and select the area with high RSSI and low CINR as a candidate area that may involve interference. Or judge the interfered areas according to the result provided by the scanner. (2) Judge which adjacent intra-frequency sectors cause the interference in interfered areas. (3) Analyze the distribution of RSSI and CINR of related interfered areas, and the causes for interference according to the actual environment. Provide solutions for interference according to specific causes. When optimizing the process of removing interference in an area, take into consideration the effect on other areas in the network. Removing interference in an area may cause new interference or coverage hole to other areas. (4) Perform tests again after the optimization, and analyze the values of RSSI and CINR for drive test data. If the analysis result cannot meet the KPI requirements, select new major areas for further optimization until the KPI requirements are met. Note that in the new major areas, the cells adjusted in the previous optimization should not be adjusted again.

II. Example of Optimization for Removing Interference


Take the optimization for removing interference in an office as an example to introduce the process of interference analysis. (1) Find interference points Find the interfering area. This area is designed to be covered by Sector 77, and is only 400 meters from Sector 77, as shown in Figure 5-7. The drive test shows that the CINR of the area is very low, and the RSSI is very high. Figure 5-8 shows the result of frequency scanning by the scanner.

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Figure 5-7 Location of the interference point in Monument Park

Figure 5-8 Terminals of the interfered area in Monument Park and result of frequency scanning by the scanner (2) Analyze the signal distribution of the cells near the interference point

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Figure 5-9 RSSI coverage in Monument Park As shown in Figure 5-9, the average RSSI of this area is about 60 dBm, which is considered as good coverage.

Figure 5-10 CINR distribution of the interfered area when only Sector 77 is enabled

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Figure 5-11 CINR distribution of the interfered area when only Sector 76 is enabled

Figure 5-12 CINR distribution of the interfered area when Sectors 76 and 77 are enabled As shown in Figure 5-10 to Figure 5-12, since Sector 77 is designed to cover the area, the CINR of signals in the area is more than 20 dB when only Sector 77 is enabled. After Sector 76 is enabled, Sector 77 is interfered greatly by Sector 76 so that the average CINR is reduced to 10 dB or less. (3) Analysis of data after optimization The analysis on drive test data and on-site scenarios shows that Sector 76 is located at a higher place, which thus covers a wider area. Change the downtilt of Sector 76 to 9, and the antenna azimuth to 330 so that the interference caused by Sector 76 to Sector 77 is reduced, as shown in Figure 5-13.

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Figure 5-13 CINR distribution of the interfered area after the optimization The drive test data collected after the optimization shows that the interference near the interfered area is reduced to a certain degree, and the value of CINR increases by about 10 dB or more.

6 Interference Analysis
About This Chapter
Section 6.1 Definition and Effect of The definition, Interference interference. 6.2 Internal Interference Describes classification, and effect of

Two types of internal interference, effects, and optimization solutions. The effect and interference. related solution of external

6.3

External Interference

6.1 Definition and Effect of Interference


Radio interference refers to interference that is generated during the radio communication, and can reduce the strength of useful signals, damage useful signals, or block the normal communication. Radio interference signal refers to electromagnetic energy that enters the channels or systems of receiving device
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through direct or indirect coupling. Radio interference signal can affect the receiving of signals required for radio communication so that the performance is lowered, the quality is degraded, the information is erroneous or lost, and the communication is blocked. Therefore, the fact that useless radio signals cause lower quality or damage of received useful radio signals is called interference. Figure 6-14 shows the components of typical interfering and interfered communication systems. Transmit filter

Receive filter Receiving unit Receiver Sending unit A B C D Interfering system Interfered system Transmitting antenna Receiving antenna Figure 6-14 Components of interfering and interfered communication systems According to interference source, interference can be divided into internal interference and external interference. According to the direction of signal transmission links, interference can be divided into uplink interference and downlink interference. Uplink interference refers to the effect of received signals due to the site. Downlink interference refers to the effect of received signals due to the terminal. According to the frequency band of signals, interference can be divided into inband interference and outband interference. Inband interference refers to the interference that is distributed within the receiver bandwidth, and generally can affect the receiver and the normal running of the system. Outband interference refers to the interference that is affected by the guard bandwidth, the performance indexes of the receiver filter, and the outband suppression of the receiver. The following sections describe the effects caused by the interference to the WiMAX system, and the solutions/suggestions.

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6.2 Internal Interference


The WiMAX 16e system is a TDD broadband communication system that is based on the OFDMA technology, which features changeable bandwidth and high spectrum utilization rate. The advantages of the TDD technology are that the spectrum is not necessarily used in pairs, and the proportion of uplink and do wnlink subframes is changeable. The advantages are also the major risks for complicated interference of the WiMAX 16e system. The WiMAX 16e system focuses on the spectrum utilization rate, therefore, the system has strict requirements for networking mode, which are different from the GSM system and the CDMA system. The GSM system has 20 pairs of frequencies, and can prevent interference effectively through the frequency reuse technology. The CDMA system has orthogonal spreading codes, and can suppress interference through the orthogonality of spreading codes when the spectrum multiplexing level is 1. At present, the technology for removing inter-cell interference in the OFDMA system is immature. For example, the Interleave-Division Multiple Access (IDMA) technology is still not applied currently in the WiMAX 16e system because of the complexity of its algorithm. Therefore, no mature technology for preventing inter-cell interference can be applied in the WiMAX 16e system currently. At present, the major problem facing the WiMAX 16e system is internal interference. Internal interference can be divided into uplink and downlink interference caused by the asynchronization between sites, and downlink interference caused by intra-frequency sectors between synchronous sites.

6.2.1 Interference Caused by the Asynchronization


I. Causes and Effects
The WiMAX 16e system is a TDD system, which requires strict synchronization between uplink and downlink. The reason for the interference caused by the asynchronization between sites is that the GPS of some sites is unlocked, which causes asynchronization of signal sending and receiving between sites, and thus causes serious interference between sites. Asynchronization includes the case where the time is synchronous with different proportion of uplink and downlink subframes, and the case where the time is asynchronous. In the case where the time is asynchronous, BS-BS, SS-SS, BS-SS, and SS-BS interference exists. BS-BS and BS-SS interference is the strongest. This document describes the BS-BS and BS-SS interference in the case of asynchronous sites. For the BS-BS interference, since the site has high transmit power, high receiver sensitivity, and is located at a higher place, if the GPS of a site is unlocked, which causes interference between sites, the interference may affect the sites a dozen of kilometers far from the interfering site. In this case, the uplink RSSI increases, CINR is degraded, RTWP increases, and service rate is reduced, which can cause failure to access the network or failure to process services after network access. For the BS-SS interference, since the CINR of the terminal is currently measured through preambles. If sites are asynchronous, the preambles of different sites can be sent in
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different periods. Therefore, the CINR measured on the terminal is not reduced, but may be increased. In general, asynchronization between sites does not affect downlink signals greatly. No such affect is found in the actual test as long as the terminal can access the network. For the SS-SS interference, since the terminal has low transmit power, and is used at a lower place, the downlink interference caused by the terminal to other terminals cannot be measured easily.

II. Symptom Description


In general, in the case of interference caused by the asynchronization between sites, a subscriber first cannot access to the network easily. On the terminal side, the downlink CINR is good, but the ranging operation fails, or the network can be accessed but no uplink service can be processed. On the LMT s of the site, the ide uplink RSSI is high but the uplink CINR is low (often from 5 dB to 10 dB), and the packet error rate of uplink signals is high (kept above 50%). Query the RTWP with no load received by the RRU through the LMT or RTWP remote query tool (for details on query methods, see the related guide). The three sectors of the site have high RTWPs with no load, which are more than 80 dBm on average.

III. Problem confirmation


At present, the interference is located through the RTWP with no load. If the RTWP with no load of a site is much higher than the normal value, and there are no online active subscribers, the interference may be caused by the asynchronization between sites. Here, the normal value means the normal RTWP with no load. Normal values vary with versions, which range from 90 dBm to 95 dBm in some offices, and from 100 dBm to 105 dBm in South Africa currently. Why the normal value means the normal RTWP with no load Because if a sector has active subscribers, the RTWP of the sector increases, but generally cannot be more than 85 dBm. To check whether the interference is caused by the asynchronization between sites, disable the active sectors of adjacent sites (including the active sectors of this site), and then measure the RTWP of any remaining enabled sector to judge whether the RTWP is in normal value range. Note: At present, scanners produced by Recommend can help observe whether active sectors are synchronous visually. Therefore, scanners produced by Recommend are recommended.

IV. Solution
Query the GPS status information and the system clock information (for details on query methods, see the related guide). If the GPS status information is abnormal (lacking of time, longitude, and latitude, or having less than four satellites), or the system clock information is always in the tracking state, check the physical connection of the GPS, including soft jumper, 1/2 feeder, conversion connector, and GPS antenna. If any connector is loosened, plug it again tightly. After checking, if the GPS status is still abnormal, check whether the GPS antenna system is damaged. Try to replace the GPS antenna, jumper, feeder, and so on. After that, if the GPS
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status remains unchanged, try to restart the BBU. Perform rests again to verify the RTWP after the GPS is in normal state. In general, the process from the restart to GPS locking consumes 10 minutes.

6.3 External Interference


The frequencies used currently by the WiMAX 16e system are within 2.5G frequency band and 3.5G frequency band. In principle, the frequencies are seldom interfered by external factors or other systems. In practice, certain nonstandard systems may occupy these frequencies, thus causing serious interference to the WiMAX 16e system. External interference can be divided into inband interference a nd outband interference. Outband interference is caused by insufficient guard bandwidth or less outband suppression of the receiver.

6.3.1 Effects and Analysis method


External interference can increase the noise floor of the receiver, and thus reduce the CINR, which at worst can cause the amplifier saturation of the receiver and generate blocking interference. In this case, the throughput of sectors decreases, the coverage shrinks, and the network is difficult to access. Frequency scanning is an effective method to prevent external interference. During the early stage of network construction, perform frequency scanning in the areas where sites are to be deployed. Check whether other systems can cause interference to the frequencies used in the WiMAX 16e system. If yes, request the customer to clear the interference. This is the best method. At present, the frequency scanning service in the network planning provided by Huawei is charged. Most carriers do not want to purchase this service. They believe no external interference occurs to their networks. In addition, to perform frequency scanning, a special spectrum analyzer is required. At present, certain carriers do not have a special spectrum analyzer or find it difficult to share the device (for example, Vodacom in South Africa has only one spectrum analyzer currently). In addition, this method can only remove the external interference in the early stage of network construction, rather than that occurs in the period of network running. During the running of the WiMAX 16e system, the most direct method to judge external interference is to query the RTWP with no load of the site. Monitor the RTWP of each site on a daily basis through RF commissioning station (the V2.1 version only) or RTWP query tool. In this way, the interference status of each site can be found at any time. If the RTWP of a sector in a site is high, first check whether the RTWP increase is caused by active subscribers, and then check whether the RTWP increase is caused by internal interference resulting from the asynchronization between sites (for detailed methods, see 6.2.1 Interference Caused by the Asynchronization). If the problem is not caused by internal interference, it is probably caused by external interference.

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In the site with external interference, the RTWP generally has the following features: (1) The RTWP value is high, but not too high. It generally ranges from 90 dBm to 75 dBm. (2) The interference involves direction attribute, that is, only one or two sectors out of the three have high RTWP values. (3) The interference involves frequency difference, that is, if a same sector uses different frequencies, especially uses the f1 and f3 frequencies out of the three, RTWP values are different. (4) The interference involves fluctuation attribute, that is, the RTWP values queried by the RF commissioning station are fluctuated with the time. (5) The interference involves area attribute, that is, if high RTWP values are found in the same direction and the same frequency of the sites adjacent to the possible interfered site, external interference probably occurs. In this case, the direction and frequency range of the interference source can be judged through the azimuth and frequency of the interfered sector. High RTWP values caused possibly by interference can be excluded by the following methods: (6) If the main and diversity RTWP values of a same sector are different, and either of both is normal, external interference is excluded because interference signals generally do not have the polarization feature. An exception is that high RTWP values in the form of single polarization occur to a batch of sites. (7) Try to change the frequencies of the sector where high RTWP values are found. After many frequencies are changed, if the RTWP values are nearly the same, external interference is excluded. Another method to judge external interference is to collect the data of the RF receiving channel of the RRU in the possible interfered sector, and then submit the collected data to the headquarters for analysis and simulation. Figure 6-15 shows the spectrum diagram for the analyzed data collected from the RRU of an interfered sector in South Africa. As shown in the figure, the sector involves the narrowband interference caused by inband and outband.

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Figure 6-15 Spectrum diagram for the analyzed data collected from the RRU of an interfered sector

6.3.2 Solution
If external interference probably occurs, request the customer to perform frequency scanning. Pay attention to the following points during the frequency scanning. WiMAX is a TDD system. Common scanners cannot obtain synchronous signals from sites but test the received uplink frames. Therefore, all WiMAX sites adjacent to the interfered site should be disabled to ensure that the increase of noise floor is not caused by internal signals. The interference generally involves direction attribute. Therefore, when performing frequency scanning, first use an omni-directional antenna to judge whether interference exists, and then use a directional antenna to determine the direction of the interference source (if any). When performing frequency scanning, check the power spectrum of the local frequency band and adjacent frequency bands. In general, first use broader scanning bandwidth to find interference easily, and then reduce the scanning bandwidth to locate the bandwidth and strength of the interference. If the interference source is located through frequency scanning, report the frequency band, bandwidth, system duplex mode (TDD system or FDD system), and possibility of clearance to the customer in a timely manner. In addition, provide an analysis report on the effect of the interference to the WiMAX system performance, and then request the customer to clear the interference.

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7 Handover Analysis
About This Chapter
Section 7.1 Optimization of Neighbor cell 7.2 Settings of Handover Threshold 7.3 Optimization of Handover Delay Describes Common methods of neighbor cell optimization. The effect of handover threshold on handover, and the optimization methods. The optimization methods for handover delay.

During RF optimization, main handover problems are related to the neighbor cell optimization and control of handover success rate in the drive test. The size and location of handover areas can be controlled by adjusting the RF parameters. In this way, the network disconnection caused by sudden changes of signals can be reduced, and the handover success rate can increase At present, the . handover function in the WiMAX system is immature. Huawei products support hard handover only. In addition, feasibility tests for the handover function are seldom performed in each office. Therefore, the information about this problem will be added in the future after the handover function is mature.

7.1 Optimization of Neighbor cell List


Neighbor cell optimization includes neighbor cell adding and neighbor cell deletion. In the case of missing neighbor cells, the cells with strong signals cannot be added, which causes increase of interference, and network disconnection. In this case, necessary cells should be added. In the case of redundant neighbor cells, neighbor cells have a large quantity of messages, which increase unnecessary signaling overhead. In addition, necessary cells cannot be added when the neighbor cell list is full. In this case, redundant neighbor cells should be deleted.

7.1.1 Deletion of Redundant Neighbor cells


In the V2.1 version, the WiMAX system has at most six neighbor cells. If the neighbor cells reach or exceed six, the necessary missing neighbor cells found during the optimization cannot be added. In this case, certain redundant neighbor cells should be deleted. In the V3.2 version, the WiMAX system has at most 32 neighbor cells. In this version, the preceding method is also applicable.

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Take care when deleting redundant neighbor cells. If a necessary neighbor cell is deleted by mistake, serious results such as network disconnection may occur. Therefore, the following rules should be followed: (1) Before deleting an neighbor cell, check the modification history of the neighbor cell, and ensure that the neighbor cell to be deleted is redundant. (2) After deleting a redundant neighbor cell, perform all-around tests, including the drive test and important indoor pointing test. Ensure that no exception occurs. Otherwise, restore the original data configuration. During RF optimization, a neighbor cell should be deleted in the following cases: The neighbor cell with cross-cell coverage should be deleted. The premise is that problems about cross-cell coverage are solved, and no poor coverage area arises. A neighbor cell should be deleted according to the network topology and experiences. This rule is applicable to the case where the original neighbor cell list is full, and a new neighbor cell needs to be added. Perform tests after deletion, and ensure that the deleted neighbor cell does not cause bigger problems. Otherwise, reselect the neighbor cell to be deleted. During the later running stage, an neighbor cell can be deleted according to the traffic measurement data.

7.2 Settings of Handover Threshold


Whether the handover threshold is set properly can affect the handover success rate directly. When the CINR is less than the scanning threshold, the terminal initiates the scanning. When the CINR reaches the handover threshold, the terminal initiates the handover. If the scanning threshold is set too low, the terminal is disconnected from the network easily. If the scanning threshold is set too high, the terminal initiates the scanning frequently, which wastes air interface resources. If the handover threshold is set too high, the terminal cannot initiate the handover easily. If the handover threshold is set too low, ping-pong handover occurs. Since the CINR values measured for various terminals are different currently, no unified handover threshold can be set for various terminals. The handover threshold of the GCT USB dongle is 10 dB, which is calculated based on the feasibility tests in South Africa. The handover thresholds of other terminals should be determined through feasibility tests on site.

7.3 Optimization of Handover Delay


The handover delay of terminals is related to the clock synchronization of the system. If the system has too long handover delay, or the handover success rate is found too low, try to check whether any problem about synchronization occurs to various sites of the system. A scanner can help locate the problems about clock synchronization for different sectors easily. As shown in Figure 7-16, if the clock difference of two sectors under handover is too large, the site clock should be synchronized.

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Figure 7-16 Synchronization checking of the site clock through scanner

8 Adjustment
Besides the neighbor cell list, engineering parameters can also be adjusted in RF optimization to solve the problem. Most problems about coverage and interference can be solved through the following methods:
          

Adjust the antenna downtilt angle. Adjust the antenna azimuth. Adjust the antenna height. Relocate the antenna. Change the antenna type. Add the antenna baffle or install the antenna against the wall. Relocate the site. Add a site or RRU. Relocate the terminal. Use the terminal with high gain antenna. Use outdoor type terminal.

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9 Summary
(1) No mature standard and method are available for the use of scanner and terminal together. This section should be provided at any time in the future development. (2) At present, the definition of handover area does not follow a unified standard. How to define the handover area is an outstanding problem. Since not too much experience can be referred from the legacy network, the definition of handover area should be added to the RF Optimization Guide in the future when the concept and application of handover area are mature. (3) The KPIs and other data in this guide are for reference only. Different offices may have different test results. Therefore, KPIs and other data should be defined according to the baseline document. In addition, the measured values are different from various terminals provided by different manufacturers. Therefore, KPIs and other data should be defined by engineers after performing feasibility tests on site. (4) The indoor test function of the probe has not been developed. This guide describes only the indoor test method of the couwei. The indoor test method of the probe can be added to this guide only after this function is implemented for the probe. (5) Because of the version limitations, this guide does not describe the problems about location update and idle status of terminals, which should be added in later versions.

10 Attachment

Matching Between DT Software and T

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